WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatially nonuniform phase

  1. Phase transitions in local equation-of-state approximation and anomalies of spatial charge profiles in non-uniform plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Zorina, I. G.; Noginova, L. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    Impressive appearance of discontinuities in equilibrium spatial charge profiles in non-uniform Coulomb systems is under discussions in wide number of thermoelectrostatics problems. Such discontinuities are considered as peculiar micro-level manifestation of phase transitions and intrinsic macro-level non-ideality effects in local equation of state (EOS), which should be used for description of non-ideal ionic subsystem in frames of local-density (or “pseudofluid”, or “jellium” etc) approximation. Such discontinuities were discussed already by the authors for electronic subsystems. Special emphasis is made in present paper on the mentioned above non-ideality effects in non-uniform ionic subsystems, such as micro-ions profile within screening “cloud” around macro-ion in complex (dusty, colloid etc) plasmas, equilibrium charge profile in ionic traps or (and) in the neighborhood vicinity of “charged wall” etc). Multiphase EOS for simplified ionic model of classical charged hard spheres on uniformly compressible electrostatic compensating background was constructed and several illustrative examples of discussed discontinuous ionic profiles were calculated.

  2. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced

  3. Fluxon dynamics in long Josephson junctions in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1997-01-01

    Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...

  4. To the problem of spatial focusing of ultracold neutrons by nonuniform magnetic field. Eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T

    2002-01-01

    Motion of the ultracold neutrons in the nonuniform magnetic field with a square nonuniformity by two coordinates is considered. The Schroedinger equation is solved with application of the quasi-classical (eikonal) approach. The theoretical possibility of the neutrons spatial focusing with formation of the point focus and also the neutrons bunches is shown

  5. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Correlation diagnostics of random spatially nonuniform optical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel'skii, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    This review examines some questions concerning the capabilities of interference and polarization-interference correlation diagnostics of the amplitude-phase characteristics of random optical fields for the purpose of identifying these fields and then studying the corresponding objects. The diagnostics of random phase objects is discussed separately in the case in which the phase dispersion of the inhomogeneities is less than and greater than one. The outlook is promising for the use of the correlation dimensionality of chaos in a field as a diagnostic parameter. It is also shown that the use of interference principles for a parallel processing of large data files can substantially increase the speed of processing systems. 32 refs., 8 figs

  7. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  8. Non-uniformity of phase structure in immiscible polymer blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Lapčíková, Monika; Lednický, František; Starý, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2008), s. 564-571 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729; GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * melt mixing * non-uniform morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.245, year: 2008

  9. Effects of Warmness and Spatial Nonuniformity of the Plasma Waveguide on Periodic Absolute Parametric Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )

  10. Effects of warmness and spatial nonuniformity of plasma waveguide on periodic absolute parametric instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)

  11. Analyzing algorithms for nonlinear and spatially nonuniform phase shifts in the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, N.

    1999-03-01

    Phase-shifting interferometry has many advantages, and the phase shifting nature of the Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) promises to provide significant improvement over other current OMEGA wavefront sensors. However, while phase-shifting capabilities improve its accuracy as an interferometer, phase-shifting itself introduces errors. Phase-shifting algorithms are designed to eliminate certain types of phase-shift errors, and it is important to chose an algorithm that is best suited for use with the LCPDI. Using polarization microscopy, the authors have observed a correlation between LC alignment around the microsphere and fringe behavior. After designing a procedure to compare phase-shifting algorithms, they were able to predict the accuracy of two particular algorithms through computer modeling of device-specific phase shift-errors

  12. Non-uniform chiral phase in effective chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadzikowski, M.; Broniowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the phase diagram in effective chiral quark models (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the σ-model with quarks) and show that at the mean-field level a phase with a periodically-modulated chiral fields separates the usual phases with broken and restored chiral symmetry. A possible signal of such a phase is the production of multipion jets travelling in opposite directions, with individual pions having momenta of the order of several hundred MeV. This signal can be interpreted in terms of disoriented chiral condensates. (author)

  13. Nonuniformity correction of infrared cameras by reading radiance temperatures with a spatially nonhomogeneous radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method of nonuniformity correction (NUC) of infrared cameras and focal plane arrays (FPA) in a wide optical spectral range by reading radiance temperatures and by applying a radiation source with an unknown and spatially nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution. The benefit of this novel method is that it works with the display and the calculation of radiance temperatures, it can be applied to radiation sources of arbitrary spatial radiance temperature distribution, and it only requires sufficient temporal stability of this distribution during the measurement process. In contrast to this method, an initially presented method described the calculation of NUC correction with the reading of monitored radiance values. Both methods are based on the recording of several (at least three) images of a radiation source and a purposeful row- and line-shift of these sequent images in relation to the first primary image. The mathematical procedure is explained in detail. Its numerical verification with a source of a predefined nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution and a thermal imager of a predefined nonuniform FPA responsivity is presented. (paper)

  14. Phase transition in nonuniform Josephson arrays: Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovik, Yu. E.; Pomirchy, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Disordered 2D system with Josephson interactions is considered. Disordered XY-model describes the granular films, Josephson arrays etc. Two types of disorder are analyzed: (1) randomly diluted system: Josephson coupling constants J ij are equal to J with probability p or zero (bond percolation problem); (2) coupling constants J ij are positive and distributed randomly and uniformly in some interval either including the vicinity of zero or apart from it. These systems are simulated by Monte Carlo method. Behaviour of potential energy, specific heat, phase correlation function and helicity modulus are analyzed. The phase diagram of the diluted system in T c-p plane is obtained.

  15. Spatial model of the gecko foot hair: functional significance of highly specialized non-uniform geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-06

    One of the important problems appearing in experimental realizations of artificial adhesives inspired by gecko foot hair is so-called clusterization. If an artificially produced structure is flexible enough to allow efficient contact with natural rough surfaces, after a few attachment-detachment cycles, the fibres of the structure tend to adhere one to another and form clusters. Normally, such clusters are much larger than original fibres and, because they are less flexible, form much worse adhesive contacts especially with the rough surfaces. Main problem here is that the forces responsible for the clusterization are the same intermolecular forces which attract fibres to fractal surface of the substrate. However, arrays of real gecko setae are much less susceptible to this problem. One of the possible reasons for this is that ends of the seta have more sophisticated non-uniformly distributed three-dimensional structure than that of existing artificial systems. In this paper, we simulated three-dimensional spatial geometry of non-uniformly distributed branches of nanofibres of the setal tip numerically, studied its attachment-detachment dynamics and discussed its advantages versus uniformly distributed geometry.

  16. Control of phase transition dynamics in media with nanoscale nonuniformities by coherence loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Anatol M

    2010-01-01

    The optical nondestructive characterization of chemical transformation dynamics and diffusion kinetics, including phase transitions, in heterogeneous media with a random distribution of nanoparticles (nano-nonuniformities), is of great theoretical and practical importance. Such characterization, with the help of coherence loss spectroscopy, considered in this paper can be applied for the control of a number of industrial processes dynamics, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics and therapy. As a specific example, the growth of crystal nuclei (embrions) as a result of the diffusion to them of a substance from the surrounding supersaturated solution is considered

  17. Suppression of Specular Reflections by Metasurface with Engineered Nonuniform Distribution of Reflection Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We make preliminary investigations on a new approach to reducing radar cross section (RCS of conducting objects. This approach employs novel planar metasurfaces characterizing nonuniform distribution of reflection phase. The operation principle of this approach and the design rule of the associated metasurfaces are explained using a simplified theoretical model. We then present a design example of such metasurfaces, in which three-layer stacked square patches with variable sizes are utilized as the reflecting elements. The proposed RCS-reduction approach is verified by both numerical simulations and measurements on the example, under the assumption of normal plane wave incidence. It is observed that, in a fairly wide frequency band (from 3.6 to 5.5 GHz, the presented example is capable of suppressing the specular reflections of conducting plates significantly (by more than 7 dB for two orthogonal incident polarizations.

  18. Optimal threshold of error decision related to non-uniform phase distribution QAM signals generated from MZM based on OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xifeng; Zhou, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Optical vector radio-frequency (RF) signal generation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) in one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can realize frequency-doubling. In order to match the phase or amplitude of the recovered quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, phase or amplitude pre-coding is necessary in the transmitter side. The detected QAM signals usually have one non-uniform phase distribution after square-law detection at the photodiode because of the imperfect characteristics of the optical and electrical devices. We propose to use optimal threshold of error decision for non-uniform phase contribution to reduce the bit error rate (BER). By employing this scheme, the BER of 16 Gbaud (32 Gbit/s) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) millimeter wave signal at 36 GHz is improved from 1 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-4 at - 4 . 6 dBm input power into the photodiode.

  19. Developing semi-analytical solution for multiple-zone transient storage model with spatially non-uniform storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Baoqing; Si, Yinbing; Wang, Jia

    2017-12-01

    Transient storages may vary along the stream due to stream hydraulic conditions and the characteristics of storage. Analytical solutions of transient storage models in literature didn't cover the spatially non-uniform storage. A novel integral transform strategy is presented that simultaneously performs integral transforms to the concentrations in the stream and in storage zones by using the single set of eigenfunctions derived from the advection-diffusion equation of the stream. The semi-analytical solution of the multiple-zone transient storage model with the spatially non-uniform storage is obtained by applying the generalized integral transform technique to all partial differential equations in the multiple-zone transient storage model. The derived semi-analytical solution is validated against the field data in literature. Good agreement between the computed data and the field data is obtained. Some illustrative examples are formulated to demonstrate the applications of the present solution. It is shown that solute transport can be greatly affected by the variation of mass exchange coefficient and the ratio of cross-sectional areas. When the ratio of cross-sectional areas is big or the mass exchange coefficient is small, more reaches are recommended to calibrate the parameter.

  20. The "Forgotten" Pseudomomenta and Gauge Changes in Generalized Landau Level Problems: Spatially Nonuniform Magnetic and Temporally Varying Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Georgios; Moulopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-05-01

    By perceiving gauge invariance as an analytical tool in order to get insight into the states of the "generalized Landau problem" (a charged quantum particle moving inside a magnetic, and possibly electric field), and motivated by an early article that correctly warns against a naive use of gauge transformation procedures in the usual Landau problem (i.e. with the magnetic field being static and uniform), we first show how to bypass the complications pointed out in that article by solving the problem in full generality through gauge transformation techniques in a more appropriate manner. Our solution provides in simple and closed analytical forms all Landau Level-wavefunctions without the need to specify a particular vector potential. This we do by proper handling of the so-called pseudomomentum ěc {{K}} (or of a quantity that we term pseudo-angular momentum L z ), a method that is crucially different from the old warning argument, but also from standard treatments in textbooks and in research literature (where the usual Landau-wavefunctions are employed - labeled with canonical momenta quantum numbers). Most importantly, we go further by showing that a similar procedure can be followed in the more difficult case of spatially-nonuniform magnetic fields: in such case we define ěc {{K}} and L z as plausible generalizations of the previous ordinary case, namely as appropriate line integrals of the inhomogeneous magnetic field - our method providing closed analytical expressions for all stationary state wavefunctions in an easy manner and in a broad set of geometries and gauges. It can thus be viewed as complementary to the few existing works on inhomogeneous magnetic fields, that have so far mostly focused on determining the energy eigenvalues rather than the corresponding eigenkets (on which they have claimed that, even in the simplest cases, it is not possible to obtain in closed form the associated wavefunctions). The analytical forms derived here for these

  1. Canceling the momentum in a phase-shifting algorithm to eliminate spatially uniform errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Kenichi; Kim, Yangjin

    2016-08-10

    In phase-shifting interferometry, phase modulation nonlinearity causes both spatially uniform and nonuniform errors in the measured phase. Conventional linear-detuning error-compensating algorithms only eliminate the spatially variable error component. The uniform error is proportional to the inertial momentum of the data-sampling weight of a phase-shifting algorithm. This paper proposes a design approach to cancel the momentum by using characteristic polynomials in the Z-transform space and shows that an arbitrary M-frame algorithm can be modified to a new (M+2)-frame algorithm that acquires new symmetry to eliminate the uniform error.

  2. Theoretical investigations on two-phase flow instability in parallel channels under axial non-uniform heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingwei; Zhou, Linglan; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a model based on homogeneous flow model to analyze two-phase flow instability in parallel channels. • The influence of axial non-uniform heating on the system stability has been investigated. • Influences of various factors on system instability under cosine heat flux have been studied. • The system under top-peaked heat flux is the most stable system. - Abstract: Two-phase flow instability in parallel channels heated by axial non-uniform heat flux has been theoretically studied in this paper. The system control equations of parallel channels were established based on the homogeneous flow model in two-phase region. Semi-implicit finite-difference scheme and staggered mesh method were used to discretize the equations, and the difference equations were solved by chasing method. Cosine, bottom-peaked and top-peaked heat fluxes were used to study the influence of non-uniform heating on two-phase flow instability of the parallel channels system. The marginal stability boundaries (MSB) of parallel channels and three-dimensional instability spaces (or instability reefs) under different heat flux conditions have been obtained. Compared with axial uniform heating, axial non-uniform heating will affect the system stability. Cosine and bottom-peaked heat fluxes can destabilize the system stability in high inlet subcooling region, while the opposite effect can be found in low inlet subcooling region. However, top-peaked heat flux can enhance the system stability in the whole region. In addition, for cosine heat flux, increasing the system pressure or inlet resistance coefficient can strengthen the system stability, and increasing the heating power will destabilize the system stability. The influence of inlet subcooling number on the system stability is multi-valued under cosine heat flux

  3. Spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm by pre-recomposing the interference fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Bingbo; Zhong, Liyun; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-07-24

    In the case that the phase distribution of interferogram is nonuniform and the background/modulation amplitude change rapidly, the current self-calibration algorithms with better performance like principal components analysis (PCA) and advanced iterative algorithm (AIA) cannot work well. In this study, from three or more phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase-shifts, we propose a spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm with high accuracy through using the spatial orthogonal property of interference fringe, in which a new sequence of fringe patterns with uniform phase distribution can be constructed by pre-recomposing original interferograms to determine their corresponding optimum combination coefficients, which are directly related with the phase shifts. Both simulation and experimental results show that using the proposed SDO algorithm, we can achieve accurate phase from the phase-shifting interferograms with nonuniform phase distribution, non-constant background and arbitrary phase shifts. Specially, it is found that the accuracy of phase retrieval with the proposed SDO algorithm is insensitive to the variation of fringe pattern, and this will supply a guarantee for high accuracy phase measurement and application.

  4. Beam pattern improvement by compensating array nonuniformities in a guided wave phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Lee, Seung-Seok; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple data processing algorithm which can improve the performance of a uniform circular array based on guided wave transducers. The algorithm, being intended to be used with the delay-and-sum beamformer, effectively eliminates the effects of nonuniformities that can significantly degrade the beam pattern. Nonuniformities can arise intrinsically from the array geometry when the circular array is transformed to a linear array for beam steering and extrinsically from unequal conditions of transducers such as element-to-element variations of sensitivity and directivity. The effects of nonuniformities are compensated by appropriately imposing weight factors on the elements in the projected linear array. Different cases are simulated, where the improvements of the beam pattern, especially the level of the highest sidelobe, are clearly seen, and related issues are discussed. An experiment is performed which uses A0 mode Lamb waves in a steel plate, to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The discrepancy between theoretical and experimental beam patterns is explained by accounting for near-field effects. (paper)

  5. An unstaggered central scheme on nonuniform grids for the simulation of a compressible two-phase flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touma, Rony [Department of Computer Science & Mathematics, Lebanese American University, Beirut (Lebanon); Zeidan, Dia [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper we extend a central finite volume method on nonuniform grids to the case of drift-flux two-phase flow problems. The numerical base scheme is an unstaggered, non oscillatory, second-order accurate finite volume scheme that evolves a piecewise linear numerical solution on a single grid and uses dual cells intermediately while updating the numerical solution to avoid the resolution of the Riemann problems arising at the cell interfaces. We then apply the numerical scheme and solve a classical drift-flux problem. The obtained results are in good agreement with corresponding ones appearing in the recent literature, thus confirming the potential of the proposed scheme.

  6. Intrinsic and spatially nonuniform ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, L. T.; Suter, A.; Wang, Y. R.; Xiang, F. X.; Bian, P.; Ding, X.; Tseng, A.; Hu, H. L.; Fan, H. M.; Zheng, R. K.; Wang, X. L.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suzuki, K.; Liu, R.; Li, S.; Morenzoni, E.; Yi, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    Co doped ZnO films have been deposited by a laser-molecular beam epitaxy system. X-ray diffraction and UV spectra analysis show that Co effectively substitutes the Zn site. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are no clusters. Co dopants are uniformly distributed in ZnO film. Ferromagnetic ordering is observed in all samples deposited under an oxygen partial pressure, PO2=10-3 , 10-5, and 10-7 torr, respectively. However, the magnetization of PO2=10-3 and 10-5 is very small at room temperature. At low temperature, the ferromagnetic ordering is enhanced. Muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements confirm the ferromagnetism in all samples, and the results are consistent with magnetization measurements. From μ SR and TEM analysis, the film deposited under PO2=10-7 torr shows intrinsic ferromagnetism. However, the volume fraction of the ferromagnetism phase is approximately 70%, suggesting that the ferromagnetism is not carrier mediated. Resistivity versus temperature measurements indicate Efros variable range hopping dominates the conductivity. From the above results, we can confirm that a bound magnetic polaron is the origin of the ferromagnetism.

  7. Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Xu, Nan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-10

    This paper presents a simple spatial phase shift shearography based on the Michelson interferometer. The Michelson interferometer based shearographic system has been widely utilized in industry as a practical nondestructive test tool. In the system, the Michelson interferometer is used as a shearing device to generate a shearing distance by tilting a small angle in one of the two mirrors. In fact, tilting the mirror in the Michelson interferometer also generates spatial frequency shift. Based on this feature, we introduce a simple Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography. The Fourier transform (FT) method is applied to separate the spectrum on the spatial frequency domain. The phase change due to the loading can be evaluated using a properly selected windowed inverse-FT. This system can generate a phase map of shearography by using only a single image. The effects of shearing angle, spatial resolution of couple charge device camera, and filter methods are discussed in detail. The theory and the experimental results are presented.

  8. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  9. Spatial correlations and probability density function of the phase difference in a developed speckle-field: numerical and natural experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B

    2015-01-01

    Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. SPHARA--a generalized spatial Fourier analysis for multi-sensor systems with non-uniformly arranged sensors: application to EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graichen, Uwe; Eichardt, Roland; Fiedler, Patrique; Strohmeier, Daniel; Zanow, Frank; Haueisen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Important requirements for the analysis of multichannel EEG data are efficient techniques for signal enhancement, signal decomposition, feature extraction, and dimensionality reduction. We propose a new approach for spatial harmonic analysis (SPHARA) that extends the classical spatial Fourier analysis to EEG sensors positioned non-uniformly on the surface of the head. The proposed method is based on the eigenanalysis of the discrete Laplace-Beltrami operator defined on a triangular mesh. We present several ways to discretize the continuous Laplace-Beltrami operator and compare the properties of the resulting basis functions computed using these discretization methods. We apply SPHARA to somatosensory evoked potential data from eleven volunteers and demonstrate the ability of the method for spatial data decomposition, dimensionality reduction and noise suppression. When employing SPHARA for dimensionality reduction, a significantly more compact representation can be achieved using the FEM approach, compared to the other discretization methods. Using FEM, to recover 95% and 99% of the total energy of the EEG data, on average only 35% and 58% of the coefficients are necessary. The capability of SPHARA for noise suppression is shown using artificial data. We conclude that SPHARA can be used for spatial harmonic analysis of multi-sensor data at arbitrary positions and can be utilized in a variety of other applications.

  11. Effect of spatial nonuniformity of heating on compression and burning of a thermonuclear target under direct multibeam irradiation by a megajoule laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel’kov, S. A.; Bondarenko, S. V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Vergunova, G. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Garanin, S. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Doskoch, I. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Kuchugov, P. A., E-mail: pkuchugov@gmail.com; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Direct-drive fusion targets are considered at present as an alternative to targets of indirect compression at a laser energy level of about 2 MJ. In this approach, the symmetry of compression and ignition of thermonuclear fuel play the major role. We report on the results of theoretical investigation of compression and burning of spherical direct-drive targets in the conditions of spatial nonuniformity of heating associated with a shift of the target from the beam center of focusing and possible laser radiation energy disbalance in the beams. The investigation involves numerous calculations based on a complex of 1D and 2D codes RAPID, SEND (for determining the target illumination and the dynamics of absorption), DIANA, and NUT (1D and multidimensional hydrodynamics of compression and burning of targets). The target under investigation had the form of a two-layer shell (ablator made of inertial material CH and DT ice) filled with DT gas. We have determined the range of admissible variation of compression and combustion parameters of the target depending on the variation of the spatial nonuniformity of its heating by a multibeam laser system. It has been shown that low-mode (long-wavelength) perturbations deteriorate the characteristics of the central region due to less effective conversion of the kinetic energy of the target shell into the internal energy of the center. Local initiation of burning is also observed in off-center regions of the target in the case of substantial asymmetry of irradiation. In this case, burning is not spread over the entire volume of the DT fuel as a rule, which considerably reduces the thermonuclear yield as compared to that in the case of spherical symmetry and central ignition.

  12. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  13. Spatial-frequency spectrum of patterns changes the visibility of spatial-phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that spatial-frequency components over a 4-octave range affected the visibility of spatial-phase differences. Contrast thresholds were measured for discrimination between two (+45- and -45-deg) spatial phases of a sinusoidal test grating added to a background grating. The background could contain one or several sinusoidal components, all in 0-deg phase. Phase differences between the test and the background were visible at lower contrasts when test and background frequencies were harmonically related than when they were not, when test and background frequencies were within 1 octave than when they were farther apart, when the fundamental frequency of the background was low than when it was high, and for some discriminations more than for others, after practice. The visibility of phase differences was not affected by additional components in the background if the fundamental and difference frequencies of the background remained unchanged. Observers' reports of their strategies gave information about the types of attentive processing that were used to discriminate phase differences. Attentive processing facilitated phase discrimination for multifrequency gratings spanning a much wider range of spatial frequencies than would be possible by using only local preattentive processing. These results were consistent with the visibility of phase differences being processed by some combination of even- and odd-symmetric simple cells tuned to a wide range of different spatial frequencies.

  14. Random noise attenuation of non-uniformly sampled 3D seismic data along two spatial coordinates using non-equispaced curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yang, Hui; Li, Hongxing; Huang, Guangnan; Ding, Zheyi

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of random noise is important for improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, the precondition for most conventional denoising methods is that the noisy data must be sampled on a uniform grid, making the conventional methods unsuitable for non-uniformly sampled data. In this paper, a denoising method capable of regularizing the noisy data from a non-uniform grid to a specified uniform grid is proposed. Firstly, the denoising method is performed for every time slice extracted from the 3D noisy data along the source and receiver directions, then the 2D non-equispaced fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is introduced in the conventional fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT). The non-equispaced fast discrete curvelet transform (NFDCT) can be achieved based on the regularized inversion of an operator that links the uniformly sampled curvelet coefficients to the non-uniformly sampled noisy data. The uniform curvelet coefficients can be calculated by using the inversion algorithm of the spectral projected-gradient for ℓ1-norm problems. Then local threshold factors are chosen for the uniform curvelet coefficients for each decomposition scale, and effective curvelet coefficients are obtained respectively for each scale. Finally, the conventional inverse FDCT is applied to the effective curvelet coefficients. This completes the proposed 3D denoising method using the non-equispaced curvelet transform in the source-receiver domain. The examples for synthetic data and real data reveal the effectiveness of the proposed approach in applications to noise attenuation for non-uniformly sampled data compared with the conventional FDCT method and wavelet transformation.

  15. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion, and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gladilin, Evgeny; Eils, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with a...

  16. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny eGladilin; Roland eEils; Roland eEils

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with a...

  17. [Study on phase correction method of spatial heterodyne spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Song; Zhang, Li-Juan; Xiong, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Phase distortion exists in collected interferogram because of a variety of measure reasons when spatial heterodyne spectrometers are used in practice. So an improved phase correction method is presented. The phase curve of interferogram was obtained through Fourier inverse transform to extract single side transform spectrum, based on which, the phase distortions were attained by fitting phase slope, so were the phase correction functions, and the convolution was processed between transform spectrum and phase correction function to implement spectrum phase correction. The method was applied to phase correction of actually measured monochromatic spectrum and emulational water vapor spectrum. Experimental results show that the low-frequency false signals in monochromatic spectrum fringe would be eliminated effectively to increase the periodicity and the symmetry of interferogram, in addition when the continuous spectrum imposed phase error was corrected, the standard deviation between it and the original spectrum would be reduced form 0.47 to 0.20, and thus the accuracy of spectrum could be improved.

  18. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  19. Spatial heterogeneity in liquid–liquid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yun-Rui; Li Tao; Wu Wei-Kang; Li Jie; Zhou Xu-Yan; Liu Si-Da; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the liquid–liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the spatial heterogeneity in Al–Pb monotectic alloys. The results reveal that homogeneous liquid Al–Pb alloy undergoes an LLPT, separating into Al-rich and Pb-rich domains, which is quite different from the isocompositional liquid water with a transition between low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). With spatial heterogeneity becoming large, LLPT takes place correspondingly. The relationship between the cooling rate, relaxation temperature and percentage of Al and the spatial heterogeneity is also reported. This study may throw light on the relationship between the structure heterogeneity and LLPT, which provides novel strategies to control the microstructures in the fabrication of the material with high performance. (paper)

  20. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladilin, Evgeny; Eils, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with analysis of the role of spatial phase in computational and biological vision, emergence of visual illusions and pattern recognition. We hypothesize that fundamental importance of phase information for invariant retrieval of structural image features and motion detection promoted development of phase-based mechanisms of neural image processing in course of evolution of biological vision. Using an extension of Fourier phase correlation technique, we show that the core functions of visual system such as motion detection and pattern recognition can be facilitated by the same basic mechanism. Our analysis suggests that emergence of visual illusions can be attributed to presence of coherently phase-shifted repetitive patterns as well as the effects of acuity compensation by saccadic eye movements. We speculate that biological vision relies on perceptual mechanisms effectively similar to phase correlation, and predict neural features of visual pattern (dis)similarity that can be used for experimental validation of our hypothesis of "cognition by phase correlation."

  1. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny eGladilin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with analysis of the role of spatial phase in computational and biological vision, emergence of visual illusions and pattern recognition. We hypothesize that fundamental importance of phase information for invariant retrieval of structural image features and motion detection promoted development of phase-based mechanisms of neural image processing in course of evolution of biological vision. Using an extension of Fourier phase correlation technique, we show that the core functions of visual system such as motion detection and pattern recognition can be facilitated by the same basic mechanism. Our analysis suggests that emergence of visual illusions can be attributed to presence of coherently phase-shifted repetitive patterns as well as the effects of acuity compensation by saccadic eye movements. We speculate that biological vision relies on perceptual mechanisms effectively similar to phase correlation, and predict neural features of visual pattern (dissimilarity that can be used for experimental validation of our hypothesis of 'cognition by phase correlation'.

  2. Phase separation in fluids exposed to spatially periodic external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, R L C; Archer, A J

    2012-03-01

    When a fluid is confined within a spatially periodic external field, the liquid-vapor transition is replaced by a different transition called laser-induced condensation (LIC) [Götze et al., Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. In d=3 dimensions, the periodic field induces an additional phase, characterized by large density modulations along the field direction. At the triple point, all three phases (modulated, vapor, and liquid) coexist. At temperatures slightly above the triple point and for low (high) values of the chemical potential, two-phase coexistence between the modulated phase and the vapor (liquid) is observed; by increasing the temperature further, both coexistence regions terminate in critical points. In this paper, we reconsider LIC using the Ising model to resolve a number of open issues. To be specific, we (1) determine the universality class of the LIC critical points and elucidate the nature of the correlations along the field direction, (2) present a mean-field analysis to show how the LIC phase diagram changes as a function of the field wavelength and amplitude, (3) develop a simulation method by which the extremely low tension of the interface between modulated and vapor or liquid phase can be measured, (4) present a finite-size scaling analysis to accurately extract the LIC triple point from finite-size simulation data, and (5) consider the fate of LIC in d=2 dimensions.

  3. Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)

  4. EBSD spatial resolution for detecting sigma phase in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordín, S. Fernandez; Limandri, S. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Ranalli, J.M. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castellano, G. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    The spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction signal is explored by Monte Carlo simulation for the sigma phase in steel at a typical instrumental set-up. In order to estimate the active volume corresponding to the diffracted electrons, the fraction of the backscattered electrons contributing to the diffraction signal was inferred by extrapolating the Kikuchi pattern contrast measured by other authors, as a function of the diffracted electron energy. In the resulting estimation, the contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size and the software capability to deconvolve patterns were included. A strong influence of the beam size on the lateral resolution was observed, resulting in 20 nm for the aperture considered. For longitudinal and depth directions the resolutions obtained were 75 nm and 16 nm, respectively. The reliability of this last result is discussed in terms of the survey of the last large-angle deflection undergone by the backscattered electrons involved in the diffraction process. Bearing in mind the mean transversal resolution found, it was possible to detect small area grains of sigma phase by EBSD measurements, for a stabilized austenitic AISI 347 stainless steel under heat treatments, simulating post welding (40 h at 600 °C) and aging (284 h at 484 °C) effects—as usually occurring in nuclear reactor pressure vessels. - Highlights: • EBSD spatial resolution is studied by Monte Carlo simulation for σ-phase in steel. • The contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size was included. • A stabilized austenitic stainless steel under heat treatments was measured by EBSD. • With the transversal resolution found, small area σ-phase grains could be identified.

  5. Energy spectrum of surface electrons over a {sup 3}He – {sup 4}He solution with a spatially non-uniform distribution of the light isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezsmolnyy, Ya.Yu.; Sokolova, E.S.; Sokolov, S.S. [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Prospekt Nauky, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Studart, Nelson [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados, 5001, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, via Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 Säo Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    The energy gap between the ground and first excited energy levels of surface electrons deposited over a dilute {sup 3}He - {sup 4}He solution is evaluated. Two spatial distributions of {sup 3}He atoms near the free surface solution are considered. One consists of a thin though macroscopic {sup 3}He film and in the other the {sup 3}He concentration varies continuously from the surface inside the liquid. The energy gap is calculated as a function of the parameters of the {sup 3}He spatial distribution for these distributions. It is shown that the energy gap dependence on the distribution parameters allows using measurements of intersubband transitions of the surface electrons to determine the {sup 3}He concentration distribution and, in principle, the nature of the spatial distribution of the light isotope near the surface of the solution.

  6. Experimental study of coherence vortices: Local properties of phase singularities in a spatial coherence function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Duan, Z.H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2006-01-01

    By controlling the irradiance of an extended quasimonochromatic, spatially incoherent source, an optical field is generated that exhibits spatial coherence with phase singularities, called coherence vortices. A simple optical geometry for direct visualization of coherence vortices is proposed, an...

  7. A 3D numerical simulation of mixed convection of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field in a vertical tube using two phase mixture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminfar, Habib, E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpourfard, Mousa, E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz, P.O. Box 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narmani Kahnamouei, Yousef, E-mail: Narmani87@ms.tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, results of applying a non-uniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid (kerosene and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) flow in a vertical tube have been reported. The hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of the flow are investigated numerically using the two phase mixture model and the control volume technique. Two positive and negative magnetic field gradients have been examined. Based on the obtained results the Nusselt number can be controlled externally using the magnetic field with different intensity and gradients. It is concluded that the magnetic field with negative gradient acts similar to Buoyancy force and augments the Nusselt number, while the magnetic field with positive gradient decreases it. Also with the negative gradient of the magnetic field, pumping power increases and vice versa for the positive gradient case. - Highlights: We model hydrothermal behavior of a ferrofluid flow using two phase mixture model. Various external non-uniform magnetic fields were implemented in a vertical tube. Nusselt number can be controlled using the magnetic field with different gradients. The magnetic field is more effective in low Reynolds numbers. Heat transfer enhancement using the magnetic field needs high pumping power.

  8. Vortices in nonuniform upper-hybrid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, T.A.; Vranjes, J.

    1992-01-01

    The equations describing the interaction of an upper-hybrid pump wave with small low-frequency density perturbations are discussed under assumption that the pump is spatially nonuniform. The conditions for the modulational instability are investigated. Instead of a dispersion relation, describing the growth of perturbations in the case of an uniform pump, in our case of nonuniform pump a differential equation is obtained and from its eigenvalues are found the instability criteria. Taking into account the slow-frequency self-interaction terms some localized solutions similar to dipole vortices are found, but described by analytic functions in all space. It is shown that their characteristic size and speed are determined by the pump intensity and its spatial structure. (au)

  9. Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Czaran, Tamas

    2001-01-01

    Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P c above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model

  10. [Measures of occupational exposure to time-varying low frequency magnetic fields of non-uniform spatial distribution in the light of international guidelines and electrodynamic exposure effects in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Zradziński, Patryk; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze by computer simulations the electrodynamic effects of magnetic field (MF) on workers, to harmonize the principles of occupational hazards assessment with international guidelines. Simulations involved 50 Hz MF of various spatial distributions, representing workers' exposure in enterprises. Homogeneous models of sigma = 0.2 S/m conductivity and dimensions of body parts - palm, head and trunk - were located at 50 cm ("hand-distance") or 5 cm (adjacent) from the source (circle conductor of 20 cm or 200 cm in diameter). Parameters of magnetic flux density (B(i)) affecting the models were the exposure measures, and the induced electric field strength (E(in)) was the measure of MF exposure effects. The ratio E(in)/B(i) in the analyzed cases ranged from 2.59 to 479 (V/m)/T. The strongest correlation (p assessing the effects of non-uniform fields exposure, resulting from a strong dependence of the E(in)/B(i) ratio on the conditions of exposure and its applied measures, requires special caution when defining the permissible MF levels and the principles of exposure assessment at workplace.

  11. Linear q-nonuniform difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    2010-01-01

    We introduce basic concepts of q-nonuniform differentiation and integration and study linear q-nonuniform difference equations and systems, as well as their application in q-nonuniform difference linear control systems. (author)

  12. Spatial Solitons and Induced Kerr Effects in Quasi-Phase-Matched Quadratic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yu.S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the evolution of the average intensity of cw beams in a quasi-phase-matched quadratic (or chi((2))) medium is strongly influenced by induced Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation. We prove the existence of rapidly oscillating solitary waves (a spatial analog of the g......We show that the evolution of the average intensity of cw beams in a quasi-phase-matched quadratic (or chi((2))) medium is strongly influenced by induced Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation. We prove the existence of rapidly oscillating solitary waves (a spatial analog...

  13. Measurement of in-plane strain with dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Chen, Xu; Li, Junrui; Yang, Lianxiang; Wang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Full-field in-plane strain measurement under dynamic loading by digital shearography remains a big challenge in practice. A phase measurement for in-plane strain information within one time frame has to be achieved to solve this problem. This paper presents a dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography system with the capacity to measure phase distribution corresponding to in-plane strain information within a single time frame. Two laser beams with different wavelengths are symmetrically arranged to illuminate the object under test, and two cameras with corresponding filters, which enable simultaneous recording of two shearograms, are utilized for data acquisition. The phase information from the recorded shearograms, which corresponds to the in-plane strain, is evaluated by the spatial phase-shift method. The spatial phase-shift shearography system realizes a measurement of the in-plane strain through the introduction of the spatial phase-shift technique, using one frame after the loading and one frame before loading. This paper presents the theory of the spatial phase-shift digital shearography for in-plane strain measurement and its derivation, experimental results, and the technique’s potential. (paper)

  14. Scalable multi-segment phase mask for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-segment Phase Mask (MSPM) designs for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing are verified through simulation and experiments. Coupler insertion loss and mode dependent loss are calculated. A spatial light modulator is used to emulate the proposed MSPMs.

  15. Nonuniform quantum turbulence in superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskii, Sergey K.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of quantum turbulence in a channel with an inhomogeneous counterflow of superfluid turbulent helium is studied. The counterflow velocity Vns x(y ) along the channel is supposed to have a parabolic profile in the transverse direction y . Such statement corresponds to the recent numerical simulation by Khomenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 180504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.180504]. The authors reported about a sophisticated behavior of the vortex-line density (VLD) L (r ,t ) , different from L ∝Vns x(y) 2 , which follows from the straightforward application of the conventional Vinen theory. It is clear that Vinen theory should be refined by taking into account transverse effects, and the way it ought to be done is the subject of active discussion in the literature. In this work, we discuss several possible mechanisms of the transverse flux of VLD L (r ,t ) which should be incorporated in the standard Vinen equation to describe adequately the inhomogeneous quantum turbulence. It is shown that the most effective among these mechanisms is the one that is related to the phase-slippage phenomenon. The use of this flux in the modernized Vinen equation corrects the situation with an unusual distribution of the vortex-line density, and satisfactorily describes the behavior L (r ,t ) both in stationary and nonstationary situations. The general problem of the phenomenological Vinen theory in the case of nonuniform and nonstationary quantum turbulence is thoroughly discussed.

  16. A spatial assessment of ecosystem services in Europe - Phase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, Joachim; Hauck, Jennifer; Paracchini,, Maria Luisa

    forests several times per year and they expressed their willingness to pay to continue doing so. The visitor statistics that were used in this study confirmed the usefulness of the ROS approach (Recreation Opportunity Spectrum) to identify areas in terms of their accessibility and potential to provide......, mapping and valuation. Linking the maps of ecosystem service supply to monetary valuation allowed an analysis of the expected impact of policy measures on benefits derived from ecosystem services. The recreation case, which Marianne participated in, presents evidence that millions of people visited...... recreation services. In addition, PRESS-2 presents a spatial analysis of city population density and green urban areas....

  17. Nonuniform sampling by quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, D. Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Rovnyak, Virginia G.; Rovnyak, David

    2018-03-01

    A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license.

  18. Global spectroscopic survey of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Kahn, Brian H.; Green, Robert O.; Chien, Steve A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Tran, Daniel Q.

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of ice, liquid, and mixed phase clouds is important for Earth's planetary radiation budget, impacting cloud optical properties, evolution, and solar reflectivity. Most remote orbital thermodynamic phase measurements observe kilometer scales and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes with outsize radiative forcing impact, such as spatial partitioning in mixed phase clouds. To date, the fine spatial structure of cloud phase has not been measured at global scales. Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from 1.4 to 1.8 µm can address this gap: it directly measures ice and water absorption, a robust indicator of cloud top thermodynamic phase, with spatial resolution of tens to hundreds of meters. We report the first such global high spatial resolution survey based on data from 2005 to 2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. Seasonal and latitudinal distributions corroborate observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For extratropical cloud systems, just 25 % of variance observed at GCM grid scales of 100 km was related to irreducible measurement error, while 75 % was explained by spatial correlations possible at finer resolutions.

  19. A Global Survey of Cloud Thermodynamic Phase using High Spatial Resolution VSWIR Spectroscopy, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Kahn, B. H.; Green, R. O.; Chien, S.; Middleton, E.; Tran, D. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds' variable ice and liquid content significantly influences their optical properties, evolution, and radiative forcing potential (Tan and Storelvmo, J. Atmos. Sci, 73, 2016). However, most remote measurements of thermodynamic phase have spatial resolutions of 1 km or more and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes, such as spatial partitioning within mixed phase clouds, that carry outsize radiative forcing impacts. These uncertainties could shift Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future warming by over 1 degree Celsius (Tan et al., Science 352:6282, 2016). Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from the 1.4 - 1.8 μm shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral range can address this observational gap. These observations can distinguish ice and water absorption, providing a robust and sensitive measurement of cloud top thermodynamic phase including mixed phases. Imaging spectrometers can resolve variations at scales of tens to hundreds of meters (Thompson et al., JGR-Atmospheres 121, 2016). We report the first such global high spatial resolution (30 m) survey, based on data from 2005-2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's EO-1 spacecraft (Pearlman et al., Proc. SPIE 4135, 2001). Estimated seasonal and latitudinal distributions of cloud thermodynamic phase generally agree with observations made by other satellites such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Variogram analyses reveal variability at different spatial scales. Our results corroborate previously observed zonal distributions, while adding insight into the spatial scales of processes governing cloud top thermodynamic phase. Figure: Thermodynamic phase retrievals. Top: Example of a cloud top thermodynamic phase map from the EO-1/Hyperion. Bottom: Latitudinal distributions of pure and mixed phase clouds, 2005-2015, showing Liquid Thickness Fraction (LTF). LTF=0 corresponds to pure ice absorption, while LTF=1 is pure liquid. The

  20. Phase-and-amplitude recovery from a single phase-contrast image using partially spatially coherent x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Mario A.; Paganin, David M.; Pelliccia, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    A simple method of phase-and-amplitude extraction is derived that corrects for image blurring induced by partially spatially coherent incident illumination using only a single intensity image as input. The method is based on Fresnel diffraction theory for the case of high Fresnel number, merged with the space-frequency description formalism used to quantify partially coherent fields and assumes the object under study is composed of a single-material. A priori knowledge of the object’s complex refractive index and information obtained by characterizing the spatial coherence of the source is required. The algorithm was applied to propagation-based phase-contrast data measured with a laboratory-based micro-focus x-ray source. The blurring due to the finite spatial extent of the source is embedded within the algorithm as a simple correction term to the so-called Paganin algorithm and is also numerically stable in the presence of noise.

  1. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  2. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  3. High-order nonuniformly correlated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2018-02-01

    We have introduced a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations named high-order nonuniformly correlated (HNUC) beams, as an extension of conventional nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams. Such beams bring a new parameter (mode order) which is used to tailor the spatial coherence properties. The behavior of the spectral density of the HNUC beams on propagation has been investigated through numerical examples with the help of discrete model decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Our results reveal that by selecting the mode order appropriately, the more sharpened intensity maxima can be achieved at a certain propagation distance compared to that of the NUC beams, and the lateral shift of the intensity maxima on propagation is closed related to the mode order. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the r.m.s width and the propagation factor of the HNUC beams on free-space propagation are derived by means of Wigner distribution function. The influence of initial beam parameters on the evolution of the r.m.s width and the propagation factor, and the relation between the r.m.s width and the occurring of the sharpened intensity maxima on propagation have been studied and discussed in detail.

  4. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  5. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  6. Theory of coherent quantum phase slips in Josephson junction chains with periodic spatial modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.

  7. Identification of two-phase flow pattern by using specific spatial frequency of differential pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong

    1992-11-01

    It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given

  8. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  9. Electrically and spatially controllable PDLC phase gratings for diffraction and modulation of laser beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B., E-mail: georgibh@issp.bas.bg [Laboratory of Optics and Spectroscopy, Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G. [Laboratory of Biomolecular Layers, Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria (Bulgaria)

    2016-03-25

    We present a study on electrically- and spatially-controllable laser beam diffraction, electrooptic (EO) phase modulation, as well as amplitude-frequency EO modulation by single-layer microscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) phase gratings (PDLC SLPGs) of interest for device applications. PDLC SLPGs were produced from nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 in photo-curable NOA65 polymer. The wedge-formed PDLC SLPGs have a continuously variable thickness (2–25 µm). They contain LC droplets of diameters twice as the layer thickness, with a linear-gradient size distribution along the wedge. By applying alternating-current (AC) electric field, the PDLC SLPGs produce efficient: (i) diffraction splitting of transmitted laser beams; (ii) spatial redistribution of diffracted light intensity; (iii) optical phase modulation; (iv) amplitude-frequency modulation, all controllable by the driven AC field and the droplet size gradient.

  10. A Correlational Study of Seven Projective Spatial Structures with Regard to the Phases of the MOON^

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen Linette

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between projective spatial structures and the ability to construct a scientific model. In addition, gender-related performance and the influence of prior astronomy experience on task success were evaluated. Sixty-one college science undergraduates were individually administered Piagetian tasks to assess for projective spatial structures and the ability to set up a phases of the moon model. The spatial tasks included: (a) Mountains task (coordination of perspectives); (b) Railroad task (size and intervals of objects with increasing distance); (c) Telephone Poles task (masking and ordering objects); and (d) Shadows task (spatial relationships between an object and its shadow, dependent upon the object's orientation). Cramer coefficient analyses indicated that significant relationships existed between Moon task and spatial task success. In particular, the Shadows task, requiring subjects to draw shadows of objects in different orientations, proved most difficult and was most strongly associated with with a subject's understanding of lunar phases. Chi-square tests for two independent samples were used to analyze gender performance differences on each of the Ave tasks. Males performed significantly better at a.05 significance level in regard to the Shadows task and the Moon task. Chi-square tests for two independent samples showed no significant difference in Moon task performance between subjects with astronomy or Earth science coursework, and those without such science classroom experience. Overall, only six subjects passed all seven projective spatial structure tasks. Piaget (1967) contends that concrete -operational spatial structures must be established before an individual is able to develop formal-operational patterns of thinking. The results of this study indicate that 90% of the interviewed science majors are still operating at the concrete-operational level. Several educational implications were drawn from this study

  11. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes

  12. Measurement of reactivity effect caused by nonuniform fuel distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Nishina, Kojiro; Shiroya, Seiji

    1991-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem in a reprocessing plant. To estimate this reactivity effect theoretically, the ''Goertzel's necessary condition, and th Fuel Importance'' theory have been proposed. In order to verify these theories, we have performed systematic measurements of reactivity effect due to the nonuniformity in the fuel distribution within the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. Neutron flux distribution and Fuel Importance distribution were also determined. A nonuniform assembly whose fuel concentration in the center region was 40% higher than the uniform one was found to have an excess reactivity of 0.3%Δk/k, with the same total uranium mass for which the uniform assembly was just critical. Moreover, its spatial distribution of thermal neutron flux and of Fuel Importance were more flat than those of the uniform assembly, as expected by the Goertzel's condition and the Fuel Importance theory. (Author)

  13. Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, A; Fort, H

    2009-01-01

    Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water

  14. Ultrafast Dynamics in Vanadium Dioxide: Separating Spatially Segregated Mixed Phase Dynamics in the Time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, David

    2011-10-01

    In correlated electronic systems, observed electronic and structural behavior results from the complex interplay between multiple, sometimes competing degrees-of- freedom. One such material used to study insulator-to-metal transitions is vanadium dioxide, which undergoes a phase transition from a monoclinic-insulating phase to a rutile-metallic phase when the sample is heated to 340 K. The major open question with this material is the relative influence of this structural phase transition (Peirels transition) and the effects of electronic correlations (Mott transition) on the observed insulator-to-metal transition. Answers to these major questions are complicated by vanadium dioxide's sensitivity to perturbations in the chemical structure in VO2. For example, related VxOy oxides with nearly a 2:1 ratio do not demonstrate the insulator-to- metal transition, while recent work has demonstrated that W:VO2 has demonstrated a tunable transition temperature controllable with tungsten doping. All of these preexisting results suggest that the observed electronic properties are exquisitely sensitive to the sample disorder. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, it is now possible to impulsively excite this transition and investigate the photoinduced counterpart to this thermal phase transition in a strongly nonequilibrium regime. I will discuss our recent results studying the terahertz-frequency conductivity dynamics of this photoinduced phase transition in the poorly understood near threshold temperature range. We find a dramatic softening of the transition near the critical temperature, which results primarily from the mixed phase coexistence near the transition temperature. To directly study this mixed phase behavior, we directly study the nucleation and growth rates of the metallic phase in the parent insulator using non-degenerate optical pump-probe spectroscopy. These experiments measure, in the time- domain, the coexistent phase separation in VO2 (spatially

  15. 采用非均匀细分网格提高电阻抗成象图象精度的方法%Improve Spatial Resolution of Electrical Impedance Tomography Image Based on Non-uniformity Fine Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟民; 莫玉龙

    2000-01-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT) an approximation for the internal resistivity distribution is computed based on the knowledge of the injected currents and measured voltages on the surface of the body. Several difficulties have been identified in EIT, where the main problem is the low spatial resolution. This paper presents a fining mesh method based on finite element method (FEM), by fining the sensitive element, the most actual signal is obtained in certain electrode number. Newton-Raphson reconstruction algorithm improves the spatial solution of image. The advantages of this method are the improvement of spatial resolution and ease of implementation.

  16. Charged particle and photon acceleration by wakefield plasma waves in non-uniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.; Pegoraro, F.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the acceleration of charged particles and the upshift of the frequency of short wave packets of laser radiation. The acceleration and the upshift are caused by wake plasma waves excited by a strong laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma. We show that unlimited acceleration of charged particles is possible for specific spatial dependencies of the plasma density. In this unlimited acceleration regime, particles have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the plasma wave, while their energy increases with time. When the wave breaking limit is approached and surpassed, the efficiency of the acceleration of the charged particles and of the frequency upshift of the photons can be increased significantly. (author) 3 refs

  17. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  18. Emergence of Distinct Spatial Patterns in Cellular Automata with Inertia: A Phase Transition-Like Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kramer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Cellular Automata (CA model in which three ubiquitous and relevant processes in nature are present, namely, spatial competition, distinction between dynamically stronger and weaker agents and the existence of an inner resistance to changes in the actual state S n (=−1,0,+1 of each CA lattice cell n (which we call inertia. Considering ensembles of initial lattices, we study the average properties of the CA final stationary configuration structures resulting from the system time evolution. Assuming the inertia a (proper control parameter, we identify qualitative changes in the CA spatial patterns resembling usual phase transitions. Interestingly, some of the observed features may be associated with continuous transitions (critical phenomena. However, certain quantities seem to present jumps, typical of discontinuous transitions. We argue that these apparent contradictory findings can be attributed to the inertia parameter’s discrete character. Along the work, we also briefly discuss a few potential applications for the present CA formulation.

  19. A comparison of temporal, spatial and parallel phase shifting algorithms for digital image plane holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M P; Lobera, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of several phase shifting (PS) techniques when using digital image plane holography (DIPH) as a fluid velocimetry technique. The main focus is on increasing the recording system aperture in order to overcome the limitation on the little light available in fluid applications. Some experiments with small rotations of a fluid-like solid object have been used to test the ability of PS-DIPH to faithfully reconstruct the object complex amplitude. Holograms for several apertures and for different defocusing distances have been recorded using spatial phase shifting (SPS) or temporal phase shifting (TPS) techniques. The parallel phase shifted holograms (H PPS ) have been generated from the TPS holograms (H TPS ). The data obtained from TPS-DIPH have been taken as the true object complex amplitude, which is used to benchmark that recovered using the other techniques. The findings of this work show that SPS and PPS are very similar indeed, and suggest that both can work for bigger apertures yet retain phase information

  20. PHASE QUANTIZATION STUDY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR FOR EXTREME HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing, E-mail: jpdou@niaot.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangpeidou@gmail.com [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10{sup -10}. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10{sup -10} in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  1. Nanoscale nuclear architecture for cancer diagnosis by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Bista, Rajan K.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Qiu, Wei; Staton, Kevin D.; Zhang, Lin; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in nuclear architecture are the hallmark diagnostic characteristic of cancer cells. In this work, we show that the nuclear architectural characteristics quantified by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), is more sensitive for the identification of cancer cells than conventional cytopathology. We demonstrated the importance of nuclear architectural characteristics in both an animal model of intestinal carcinogenesis - APC/Min mouse model and human cytology specimens with colorectal cancer by identifying cancer from cytologically noncancerous appearing cells. The determination of nanoscale nuclear architecture using this simple and practical optical instrument is a significant advance towards cancer diagnosis.

  2. Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called “pasta”. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.

  3. Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotani, Hajime [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called 'pasta'. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.

  4. Normal modes and possibility of spatially inhomogeneous phases for a 2D ferromagnet with biquadratic and magnetoelastic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Matyunin, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of the magnetodipolar interaction on the phase states of a 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnet is investigated. It is shown that in the system considered both the homogeneous states (ferromagnetic or quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous ones can be realized. At this the spatial inhomogeneity is related with the distribution of the quadrupolar order parameters

  5. Scanning moiré and spatial-offset phase-stepping for surface inspection of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S.; Morimoto, Y.; Fujigaki, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2005-06-01

    In order to develop a high-speed and accurate surface inspection system of structures such as tunnels, a new surface profile measurement method using linear array sensors is studied. The sinusoidal grating is projected on a structure surface. Then, the deformed grating is scanned by linear array sensors that move together with the grating projector. The phase of the grating is analyzed by a spatial offset phase-stepping method to perform accurate measurement. The surface profile measurements of the wall with bricks and the concrete surface of a structure are demonstrated using the proposed method. The change of geometry or fabric of structures and the defects on structure surfaces can be detected by the proposed method. It is expected that the surface profile inspection system of tunnels measuring from a running train can be constructed based on the proposed method.

  6. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-08-15

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.

  7. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane

  8. Development of Michelson interferometer based spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin

    Digital shearography is a non-contact, full field, optical measurement method, which has the capability of directly measuring the gradient of deformation. For high measurement sensitivity, phase evaluation method has to be introduced into digital shearography by phase-shift technique. Catalog by phase-shift method, digital phase-shift shearography can be divided into Temporal Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (TPS-DS) and Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (SPS-DS). TPS-DS is the most widely used phase-shift shearography system, due to its simple algorithm, easy operation and good phase-map quality. However, the application of TPS-DS is only limited in static/step-by-step loading measurement situation, due to its multi-step shifting process. In order to measure the strain under dynamic/continuous loading situation, a SPS-DS system has to be developed. This dissertation aims to develop a series of Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS measurement methods to achieve the strain measurement by using only a single pair of speckle pattern images. The Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS systems utilize special designed optical setup to introduce extra carrier frequency into the laser wavefront. The phase information corresponds to the strain field can be separated on the Fourier domain using a Fourier Transform and can further be evaluated with a Windowed Inverse Fourier Transform. With different optical setups and carrier frequency arrangements, the Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS method is capable to achieve a variety of measurement tasks using only single pair of speckle pattern images. Catalog by the aimed measurand, these capable measurement tasks can be divided into five categories: 1) measurement of out-of-plane strain field with small shearing amount; 2) measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field with big shearing amount; 3) simultaneous measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field and deformation gradient field by using multiple

  9. Physical Limitations To Nonuniformity Correction In IR Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, D. A.; Kruer, M. R.; Gridley, J. C.; Sarkady, K.

    1988-05-01

    Simple nonuniformity correction algorithms currently in use can be severely limited by nonlinear response characteristics of the individual pixels in an IR focal plane array. Although more complicated multi-point algorithms improve the correction process they too can be limited by nonlinearities. Furthermore, analysis of single pixel noise power spectrums usually show some level of 1 /f noise. This in turn causes pixel outputs to drift independent of each other thus causing the spatial noise (often called fixed pattern noise) of the array to increase as a function of time since the last calibration. Measurements are presented for two arrays (a HgCdTe hybrid and a Pt:Si CCD) describing pixel nonlinearities, 1/f noise, and residual spatial noise (after nonuniforming correction). Of particular emphasis is spatial noise as a function of the lapsed time since the last calibration and the calibration process selected. The resulting spatial noise is examined in terms of its effect on the NEAT performance of each array tested and comparisons are made. Finally, a discussion of implications for array developers is given.

  10. Weighted backprojection implemented with a non-uniform attenuation map for improved SPECT quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed to improve quantitation in SPECT imaging by using an attenuation compensation method which includes the correct non-uniform attenuation spatial distribution (''map''). The method is based on the technique of weighted back projection, previously developed for uniform attenuation. The method is tested by imaging a non-uniform phantom, reconstructing with the known attenuation map, and quantitatively comparing the resultant image with the known activity distribution. Reconstructed image profiles are dramatically improved in comparison to reconstructions without compensation or with an assumed uniform attenuation map. Contrast measurements further quantify the improvement. Line spread function distortions seen previously in non-uniform geometries are essentially eliminated by the method. Therefore, the method appears to be appropriate for these geometries, if the non-uniform map can be determined. Some additional image distortions introduced by the compensation method are noted and will require further study

  11. Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Gergely; Kun, Ádám; Scheuring, István; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant

  12. Spatially-resolved studies of charge-density-wave phase slip and dynamics in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemay, S.G.; Adelman, T.L.; Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V.; Thorne, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We review our spatially and temporally resolved studies of charge-density-wave (CDW) phase slip and dynamics in NbSe 3 . Measurements of the steady-state CDW current, phase slip and strain profiles and their transient evolutions in response to a change in current direction provide a detailed picture of the interplay between elastic deformations and plasticity in this material. (orig.)

  13. Utilization of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator in a gray scale detour phase method for Fourier holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Ghaith; El-Daher, Moustafa Sayem; Al-Shufi, Kanj

    2012-11-10

    This paper introduces a new modification for the well-known binary detour phase method, which is largely used to represent Fourier holograms; the modification utilizes gray scale level control provided by a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to improve the traditional binary detour phase. Results are shown by both simulation and experiment.

  14. Protostellar formation in rotating interstellar clouds. VI. Nonuniform initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The collapse and fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds is explored, starting from nonuniform density and nonuniform rotation initial conditions. Whether binary fragmentation occurs during the first dynamic collapse phase depends strongly on the initial density profile. Exponential clouds are only somewhat more resistant to fragmentation than uniform-density clouds, but power-law clouds do not undergo fragmentation for likely values of a relevant parameter. Because binary fragments start from profiles intermediate between uniform density and exponential clouds, minimum protostellar mass for population I stars should be increased to approximately 0.02 solar mass. The axisymmetric Terey et al. (1984) model should be stable with respect to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. Considering the observed binary frequency, collapse from power-law initial conditions appears to be less common than collapse from more uniform initial conditions. 34 references

  15. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  16. The effect of non-uniform mass loading on the linear, temporal development of particle-laden shear layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatore, Giacomo [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Universita di Pisa, Pisa 56122 (Italy); Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@mail.sdsu.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, San Diego State University, San Diego, 92182 California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The effect of non-uniformity in bulk particle mass loading on the linear development of a particle-laden shear layer is analyzed by means of a stochastic Eulerian-Eulerian model. From the set of governing equations of the two-fluid model, a modified Rayleigh equation is derived that governs the linear growth of a spatially periodic disturbance. Eigenvalues for this Rayleigh equation are determined numerically using proper conditions at the co-flowing gas and particle interface locations. For the first time, it is shown that non-uniform loading of small-inertia particles (Stokes number (St) <0.2) may destabilize the inviscid mixing layer development as compared to the pure-gas flow. The destabilization is triggered by an energy transfer rate that globally flows from the particle phase to the gas phase. For intermediate St (1 < St < 10), a maximum stabilizing effect is computed, while at larger St, two unstable modes may coexist. The growth rate computations from linear stability analysis are verified numerically through simulations based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) model based on the inviscid Euler equations and a point particle model. The growth rates found in numerical experiments using the EL method are in very good agreement with growth rates from the linear stability analysis and validate the destabilizing effect induced by the presence of particles with low St.

  17. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  18. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  19. Use of phase-locking value in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface: zero-phase coupling and effects of spatial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenjuan; Chen, Minyou; McFarland, Dennis J

    2017-11-01

    Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering. Both amplitude and PLV feature were extracted in the frequency band of 10-15 Hz by classical methods using archival EEG data of 18 subjects trained on a two-target BCI task. The results show that with right ear-referenced data, there is meaningful long-range zero-phase synchronization likely involving the primary motor area and the supplementary motor area that cannot be explained by volume conduction. Another novel finding is that the large Laplacian spatial filter enhances the amplitude feature but eliminates most of the phase information seen in ear-referenced data. A bipolar channel using phase-coupled areas also includes both phase and amplitude information and has a significant practical advantage since fewer channels required.

  20. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  1. Role of cerebellar nodulus and uvula on the vestibular quick phase spatial constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S; Errico, P; Barmack, N H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the orientation of quick phases (QPs) of vestibularly-induced eye movements in rabbits in response to "off-vertical" sinusoidal vestibular stimulation. We also examined the possible role of the cerebellar nodulus and ventral uvula in controlling QP spatial orientation and modification. During "off-vertical" vestibular stimulation QPs remained aligned with the earth's horizontal plane, while the slow phases (SPs) were aligned with the plane of vestibular stimulation. This suggests that QPs are coded in gravito-inertial coordinates and SPs in head coordinates. When rabbits were oscillated in the light (20 degrees peak-to-peak; 0.2 Hz) about an "off-vertical" axis for 2 h, the QPs changed their trajectory, abandoning the earth's horizontal plane to approach the plane of the stimulus. By contrast, in the absence of conjunctive optokinetic stimulation, QPs remained fixed in the earth's horizontal plane even after 2 h of "off-vertical" stimulation. The conjunctive combination of optokinetic and vestibular stimulation caused QPs to change their plane of rotation. After lesion of the nodulus-uvula the ability of rabbits to reorient QPs during conjoint vestibular-optokinetic stimulation was maintained. We conclude that the space orientation and adaptation of QPs do not require cerebellar control.

  2. Traffic jams induce dynamical phase transition in spatial rock-paper-scissors game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Ichinose, Genki; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Spatial and temporal behaviors of the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game is key to understanding not only biodiversity but also a variety of cyclic systems. It has been demonstrated that, in the stochastic cellular automaton of RPS game, three species cannot survive on one-dimensional (1-d) lattice; only a single species survives. Previous studies have shown that three species are able to coexist if the migration of species is considered. However, their definitions of migration are the swapping of two species or the random walk of species, which rarely occurs in nature. Here, we investigate the effect of migration by using the 1-d lattice traffic model in which species can move rightward if the site ahead is empty. Computer simulations reveal that three species can survive at the same time within the wide range of parameter values. At low densities, all species can coexist. In contrast, the extinction of two species occurs if the density exceeds the critical limit of the jamming transition. This dynamical phase transition between the coexistence and single (non-coexistence) phase clearly separates due to the self-organized pattern: condensation and rarefaction in the stripe-pattern of three species.

  3. Simulation study of spatial resolution in phase-contrast X-ray imaging with Takagi-Taupin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Ichiro; Momose, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate attainable spatial resolution of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an LLL X-ray interferometer with a thin crystal wafer, a computer simulation study with Takagi-Taupin equation was performed. Modulation transfer function of the wafer for X-ray phase was evaluated. For a polyester film whose thickness is 0.1 mm, it was concluded that the spatial resolution can be improved up to 3 μm by thinning the wafer, under our experimental condition

  4. Automated high resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography for quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neeru; Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We developed an automated high-resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography (FF-SCT) microscope for quantitative phase imaging that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The Red and Green color laser light was used for finding the quantitative phase images of unstained human red blood cells (RBCs). This study uses morphological parameters of unstained RBCs phase images to distinguish between normal and infected cells. We recorded the single interferogram by a FF-SCT microscope for red and green color wavelength and average the two phase images to further reduced the noise artifacts. In order to characterize anemia infected from normal cells different morphological features were extracted and these features were used to train machine learning ensemble model to classify RBCs with high accuracy.

  5. Atmospheric mechanisms governing the spatial and temporal variability of phenological phases in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Menzel, Annette; Koch, Elisabeth; Peter, Christian; Ahas, Rein

    2002-11-01

    A data set of 17 phenological phases from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia spanning the time period from 1951 to 1998 has been made available for analysis together with a gridded temperature data set (1° × 1° grid) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index time series. The disturbances of the westerlies constitute the main atmospheric source for the temporal variability of phenological events in Europe. The trend, the standard deviation and the discontinuity of the phenological time series at the end of the 1980s can, to a great extent, be explained by the NAO. A number of factors modulate the influence of the NAO in time and space. The seasonal northward shift of the westerlies overlaps with the sequence of phenological spring phases, thereby gradually reducing its influence on the temporal variability of phenological events with progression of spring (temporal loss of influence). This temporal process is reflected by a pronounced decrease in trend and standard deviation values and common variability with the NAO with increasing year-day. The reduced influence of the NAO with increasing distance from the Atlantic coast is not only apparent in studies based on the data set of the International Phenological Gardens, but also in the data set of this study with a smaller spatial extent (large-scale loss of influence). The common variance between phenological and NAO time series displays a discontinuous drop from the European Atlantic coast towards the Alps. On a local and regional scale, mountainous terrain reduces the influence of the large-scale atmospheric flow from the Atlantic via a proposed decoupling mechanism. Valleys in mountainous terrain have the inclination to harbour temperature inversions over extended periods of time during the cold season, which isolate the valley climate from the large-scale atmospheric flow at higher altitudes. Most phenological stations reside at valley bottoms and are thus largely decoupled in their temporal

  6. Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.

    1996-11-01

    The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations

  7. Linear kinetic enlightenment of a slab of nonuniform plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenchuk, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenon of linear kinetic regeneration of a harmonic electric-field perturbation beyond the nonuniform opacity barrier due to electrons trapped by a potential well is investigated. Such electrons are reflected by the well walls without loss of phase memory about the external perturbation, which is rehabilitated on the other side of the barrier. The incidence of the electromagnetic wave polarized in the plane of incidence on a plasma slab. Analytic expressions for the regenerated electric field and regeneration coefficient are obtained in the ballistic approximation. The dependence of the regeneration coefficient on shape of the electrostatic potential confining the wave barrier is discussed

  8. Compensation for the phase-type spatial periodic modulation of the near-field beam at 1053 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaru; Liu, Dean; Yang, Aihua; Tang, Ruyu; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2017-10-01

    A phase-only spatial light modulator is used to provide and compensate for the spatial periodic modulation (SPM) of the near-field beam at the near infrared at 1053nm wavelength with an improved iterative weight-based method. The transmission characteristics of the incident beam has been changed by a spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the spatial intensity of the output beam. The propagation and reverse propagation of the light in free space are two important processes in the iterative process. The based theory is the beam angular spectrum transmit formula (ASTF) and the principle of the iterative weight-based method. We have made two improvements to the originally proposed iterative weight-based method. We select the appropriate parameter by choosing the minimum value of the output beam contrast degree and use the MATLAB built-in angle function to acquire the corresponding phase of the light wave function. The required phase that compensates for the intensity distribution of the incident SPM beam is iterated by this algorithm, which can decrease the magnitude of the SPM of the intensity on the observation plane. The experimental results show that the phase-type SPM of the near-field beam is subject to a certain restriction. We have also analyzed some factors that make the results imperfect. The experiment results verifies the possible applicability of this iterative weight-based method to compensate for the SPM of the near-field beam.

  9. Spatial-phase code-division multiple-access system with multiplexed Fourier holography switching for reconfigurable optical interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, Kazuya; Takekawa, Makoto; Shirakawa, Atsushi; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2000-05-01

    A new, to our knowledge, space-variant optical interconnection system based on a spatial-phase code-division multiple-access technique with multiplexed Fourier holography is described. In this technique a signal beam is spread over wide spatial frequencies by an M -sequence pseudorandom phase code. At a receiver side a selected signal beam is properly decoded, and at the same time its spatial pattern is shaped with a Fourier hologram, which is recorded by light that is encoded with the same M -sequence phase mask as the desired signal beam and by light whose spatial beam pattern is shaped to a signal routing pattern. Using the multiplexed holography, we can simultaneously route multisignal flows into individually specified receiver elements. The routing pattern can also be varied by means of switching the encoding phase code or replacing the hologram. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment with a doubly multiplexed hologram that enables simultaneous routing of two signal beams. Using a numerical model, we showed that the proposed scheme can manage more than 250 routing patterns for one signal flow with one multiplexed hologram at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.

  10. Effect of higher spatial harmonics on properties of six-phase induction machine fed by unbalanced voltages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2015), s. 155-164 ISSN 0948-7921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-35370S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : six-phase induction machine * symmetrical components * spatial harmonics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.662, year: 2015

  11. Phase conversion for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.; Castle, W.; Sampat, N.; Skupsky, S.; Smith, D.; Swales, S.

    1988-01-01

    An essential requirement for direct drive laser fusion is the uniform irradiation of spherical targets that are located in the quasi-far field of a laser system. A major impediment to irradiation uniformity with high-power solid-state laser systems is the presence of a hot-spot structure at the target plane. The hot-spot intensity nonuniformities are caused by spatial variations in the near-field phase front of each laser beam. Although for many tabletop applications diffraction-limited laser performance can be obtained through static phase correction, adaptive optics, or phase conjugation, such approaches are either excessively expensive, difficult to implement, or not yet available for large-aperture, high-peak-power laser beams. An alternative to phase correcting a wavefront involves modifying the laser beam's coherence properties thereby changing its focusing characteristics. The method of induced spatial incoherence (ISI) involves a reduction in both spatial and temporal coherence. Other methods are based on modifications of only the spatial coherence of a laser beam. A phase conversion technology which incorporates a distribution of near-field phases to either perform static phase correction or induce spatial incoherence offers a route toward increasingly higher levels of irradiation uniformity

  12. Spatially resolved micro-Raman observation on the phase separation of effloresced sea salt droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han-Shuang; Dong, Jin-Ling; Wang, Liang-Yu; Zhao, Li-Jun; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2008-12-01

    We report on the investigation of the phase separation of individual seawater droplets in the efflorescence processes with the spatially resolved Raman system. Upon decreasing the relative humidity (RH), CaSO4.0.5H2O separated out foremost fromthe droplet atan unexpectedly high RH of approcimately 90%. Occasionally, CaSO4.2H2O substituted for CaSO4.O.5H2O crystallizing first at approximately 78% RH. Relatively large NaCI solids followed to crystallize at approximately 55% RH and led to the great loss of the solution. Then, the KMgCl3.6H2O crystallites separated out from the residual solutions, adjacentto NaCl at approximately 44% RH. Moreover, a shell structure of dried sea salt particle was found to form at low RHs, with the NaCl crystals in the core and minor supersaturated solutions covered with MgSO4 gel coating on the surface. Ultimately, the shielded solution partly effloresced into MgSO4 hydrates at very dry state (<5% RH).

  13. Spatial energy distribution around energetic ions in condensed phases. Study by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montret-Brugerolle, M.

    1980-01-01

    One describes a model that allows the calculation of the spatial energy distribution around a heavy ion trajectory within the physical step of the phenomena involved (10 -13 s). Experimental data are collected in order to chek the model in the condensed phase. The experimental procedure is thermoluminescence (TL). LiF : Mg, Ti, CaF 2 : Dy and CaF 2 : Mn crystals are irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays and with heavy ions: He, Ne, Cu, Kr of various incident energies. An extensive study of the TL light induced by heavy ions bombardment is carried out as a function of the energy and density of the impinging ions. It is shown that the different response observed with respect to γ-irradiation is due neither to TL traps destruction nor to the recombination of a larger amount of charge-carriers. Experimental data and those obtained from the distribution of energy density are compared, and the agreement is satisfactory. Hence, it is thought that the model may be extended to condensed media [fr

  14. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, S.L.; D'Angelo, N.; Merlino, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f> or approx. =f/sub c/i, where f/sub c/i is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism

  15. Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)

  16. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  17. Amplitude and Phase Characteristics of Signals at the Output of Spatially Separated Antennas for Paths with Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Conditional statistical characteristics of the phase difference are considered depending on the ratio of instantaneous output signal amplitudes of spatially separated weakly directional antennas for the normal field model for paths with radio-wave scattering. The dependences obtained are related to the physical processes on the radio-wave propagation path. The normal model parameters are established at which the statistical characteristics of the phase difference depend on the ratio of the instantaneous amplitudes and hence can be used to measure the phase difference. Using Shannon's formula, the amount of information on the phase difference of signals contained in the ratio of their amplitudes is calculated depending on the parameters of the normal field model. Approaches are suggested to reduce the shift of phase difference measured for paths with radio-wave scattering. A comparison with results of computer simulation by the Monte Carlo method is performed.

  18. Derivation of nonlinear wave equations for ultrasound beam in nonuniform bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Yano, Takeru; Kawahara, Junya; Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Masao; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    Weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted ultrasound beams in a nonuniform bubbly liquid is theoretically studied based on the method of multiple scales with the set of scaling relations of some physical parameters. It is assumed that the spatial distribution of the number density of bubbles in an initial state at rest is a slowly varying function of space coordinates and the amplitude of its variation is small compared with a mean number density. As a result, a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation with dispersion and nonuniform effects for a low frequency case and a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for a high frequency case, are derived from the basic equations of bubbly flows.

  19. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  20. Casimir energy of a nonuniform string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, L.; Lambiase, G.; Nesterenko, V. V.

    2000-07-01

    The Casimir energy of a nonuniform string built up from two pieces with different speeds of sound is calculated. A standard procedure of subtracting the energy of an infinite uniform string is applied, the subtraction being interpreted as the renormalization of the string tension. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous string this method is completely equivalent to zeta renormalization.

  1. Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the

  2. Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration

  3. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  4. Potential coherent structures in nonuniform streaming dusty magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, Jovo [Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Shukla, Padma Kant [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Bochum (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we study linear and nonlinear behaviour of modified convective cells and vortices in nonuniform dusty magnetoplasmas with perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field plasma flows, and in basically two different physical systems, with stationary (corresponding to the case of ShuklaVarma mode) and nonstationary (i.e. taking part in perturbations) dust particles. For the case of stationary dust, by choosing some specific profiles for the sheared plasma flow and the dust density, we analyze the eigenvalue equation in order to deduce the growth rate. A threshold is also obtained for the wavenumber separating spatially damped and convective modes (growing in space) due to its interaction with the sheared plasma flow. In the nonlinear regime, for both stationary and nonstationary dust particles, and in the presence of various plasma flows perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field lines, a variety of possible nonlinear solutions, driven by the nonuniform shear flow and dust density is presented, i.e., single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, and tripolar and global vortices. (author)

  5. Stable and efficient retrospective 4D-MRI using non-uniformly distributed quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Kathrin; Meyer, Cord B.; Breuer, Felix A.; Richter, Anne; Exner, Florian; Weng, Andreas M.; Ströhle, Serge; Polat, Bülent; Jakob, Peter M.; Sauer, Otto A.; Flentje, Michael; Weick, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective 4D abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (k y –k z ) lines was incorporated into 3D Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space. Respiratory self-gating in combination with SPIRiT-reconstruction is used for the reconstruction of abdominal data sets in different respiratory phases (4D-MRI). Six volunteers and three patients were examined at 1.5 T during free breathing. Additionally, data sets with conventional two-dimensional (2D) linear and 2D quasi random phase encoding order were acquired for the volunteers for comparison. A quantitative evaluation of image quality versus scan times (from 70 s to 626 s) for the given sampling schemes was obtained by calculating the normalized mutual information (NMI) for all volunteers. Motion estimation was accomplished by calculating the maximum derivative of a signal intensity profile of a transition (e.g. tumor or diaphragm). The 2D non-uniform quasi-random distribution of phase encoding lines in Cartesian 3D MRI yields more efficient undersampling patterns for parallel imaging compared to conventional uniform quasi-random and linear sampling. Median NMI values of NU-QR sampling are the highest for all scan times. Therefore, within the same scan time 4D imaging could be performed with improved image quality. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of motion artifact reduced 4D data sets with isotropic spatial resolution of 2.1  ×  2.1  ×  2.1 mm3 in a short scan time, e.g. 10 respiratory phases in only 3 min. Cranio-caudal tumor displacements between 23 and 46 mm could be observed. NU-QR sampling enables for stable 4D

  6. Simplified methods for spatial sampling: application to first-phase data of Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullotta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approaches able to integrate data from sample plots with cartographic processes are widely applied. Based on mathematic-statistical techniques, the spatial analysis allows the exploration and spatialization of geographic data. Starting from the punctual information on land use types obtained from the dataset of the first phase of the ongoing new Italian NFI (INFC, a spatialization of land cover classes was carried out using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method. In order to validate the obtained results, an overlay with other vectorial land use data was carried out. In particular, the overlay compared data at different scales, evaluating differences in terms of degree of correspondence between the interpolated and reference land cover.

  7. Influence of Spatial Resolution in Three-dimensional Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Accuracy of Hemodynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Atsushi; Isoda, Haruo; Morita, Kento; Mori, Marika; Watanabe, Tomoya; Ishiguro, Kenta; Komori, Yoshiaki; Kosugi, Takafumi

    2017-10-10

    We aim to elucidate the effect of spatial resolution of three-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (3D cine PC MR) imaging on the accuracy of the blood flow analysis, and examine the optimal setting for spatial resolution using flow phantoms. The flow phantom has five types of acrylic pipes that represent human blood vessels (inner diameters: 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 mm). The pipes were fixed with 1% agarose containing 0.025 mol/L gadolinium contrast agent. A blood-mimicking fluid with human blood property values was circulated through the pipes at a steady flow. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (three-directional phase images with speed information and magnitude images for information of shape) were acquired using the 3-Tesla MR system and receiving coil. Temporal changes in spatially-averaged velocity and maximum velocity were calculated using hemodynamic analysis software. We calculated the error rates of the flow velocities based on the volume flow rates measured with a flowmeter and examined measurement accuracy. When the acrylic pipe was the size of the thoracicoabdominal or cervical artery and the ratio of pixel size for the pipe was set at 30% or lower, spatially-averaged velocity measurements were highly accurate. When the pixel size ratio was set at 10% or lower, maximum velocity could be measured with high accuracy. It was difficult to accurately measure maximum velocity of the 3-mm pipe, which was the size of an intracranial major artery, but the error for spatially-averaged velocity was 20% or less. Flow velocity measurement accuracy of 3D cine PC MR imaging for pipes with inner sizes equivalent to vessels in the cervical and thoracicoabdominal arteries is good. The flow velocity accuracy for the pipe with a 3-mm-diameter that is equivalent to major intracranial arteries is poor for maximum velocity, but it is relatively good for spatially-averaged velocity.

  8. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision....../D scrambling, thus making them suitable for HX applications. By combining the classic bottom-up HX-MS workflow with gas-phase fragmentation by ETD, detailed information on protein HX can be obtained....

  9. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  10. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H; Mazzeo, N; Scheffer, M; Nes, E van

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  11. Apparatus and method for optimal phase balancing using dynamic programming with spatial consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.; Skiena, Steven; Wang, Kai

    2017-08-08

    Provided are an apparatus and method for load-balancing of a three-phase electric power distribution system having a multi-phase feeder, including obtaining topology information of the feeder identifying supply points for customer loads and feeder sections between the supply points, obtaining customer information that includes peak customer load at each of the points between each of the feeder sections, performing a phase balancing analysis, and recommending phase assignment at the customer load supply points.

  12. An improved non-uniformity correction algorithm and its GPU parallel implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuanhong; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Zhao, Dong; Qian, Kun; Rong, Shenghui

    2018-05-01

    The performance of SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction algorithm is seriously affected by the result of SLP filter, which always leads to image blurring and ghosting artifacts. To address this problem, an improved SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction method with curvature constraint was proposed. Here we put forward a new way to estimate spatial low frequency component. First, the details and contours of input image were obtained respectively by minimizing local Gaussian curvature and mean curvature of image surface. Then, the guided filter was utilized to combine these two parts together to get the estimate of spatial low frequency component. Finally, we brought this SLP component into SLP-THP method to achieve non-uniformity correction. The performance of proposed algorithm was verified by several real and simulated infrared image sequences. The experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm can reduce the non-uniformity without detail losing. After that, a GPU based parallel implementation that runs 150 times faster than CPU was presented, which showed the proposed algorithm has great potential for real time application.

  13. Instruction sequence based non-uniform complexity classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to non-uniform complexity in which single-pass instruction sequences play a key part, and answer various questions that arise from this approach. We introduce several kinds of non-uniform complexity classes. One kind includes a counterpart of the well-known non-uniform

  14. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  15. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  16. Effective electrodiffusion equation for non-uniform nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Melchionna, Simone; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2013-06-28

    We derive a one-dimensional formulation of the Planck-Nernst-Poisson equation to describe the dynamics of a symmetric binary electrolyte in channels whose section is nanometric and varies along the axial direction. The approach is in the spirit of the Fick-Jacobs diffusion equation and leads to a system of coupled equations for the partial densities which depends on the charge sitting at the walls in a non-trivial fashion. We consider two kinds of non-uniformities, those due to the spatial variation of charge distribution and those due to the shape variation of the pore and report one- and three-dimensional solutions of the electrokinetic equations.

  17. Nonuniform transformation field analysis of multiphase elasto viscoplastic materials: application to MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussette, S.

    2005-05-01

    The description of the overall behavior of nonlinear materials with nonlinear dissipative phases requires an infinity of internal variables. An approximate model involving only a finite number of internal variables, Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis, is obtained by considering a decomposition of these variables on a finite set of nonuniform transformation fields, called plastic modes. The method is initially developed for incompressible elasto viscoplastic materials. Karhunen-Loeve expansion is proposed to optimize the plastic modes. Then the method is extended to porous elasto viscoplastic materials. Finally the transformation field analysis, developed by Dvorak, is applied to nuclear fuels MOX. This method enables to make sensitivity studies to determine the role of some microstructural parameters on the fuel behaviour. Moreover the adequacy of the nonuniform method for fuels MOX is shown, the final objective being to be able to apply the model to the MOX in 3D. (author)

  18. SU-F-I-54: Spatial Resolution Studies in Proton CT Using a Phase-II Prototype Head Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plautz, Tia E.; Johnson, R. P.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W. [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Piersimoni, P. [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Giacometti, V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the pre-clinical (phase II) head scanner developed for proton computed tomography (pCT) by the pCT collaboration. To evaluate the spatial resolution achievable by this system. Methods: Our phase II proton CT scanner prototype consists of two silicon telescopes that track individual protons upstream and downstream from a phantom, and a 5-stage scintillation detector that measures a combination of the residual energy and range of the proton. Residual energy is converted to water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the protons in the scanned object. The set of WEPL values and associated paths of protons passing through the object over a 360° angular scan is processed by an iterative parallelizable reconstruction algorithm that runs on GP-GPU hardware. A custom edge phantom composed of water-equivalent polymer and tissue-equivalent material inserts was constructed. The phantom was first simulated in Geant4 and then built to perform experimental beam tests with 200 MeV protons at the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center. The oversampling method was used to construct radial and azimuthal edge spread functions and modulation transfer functions. The spatial resolution was defined by the 10% point of the modulation transfer function in units of lp/cm. Results: The spatial resolution of the image was found to be strongly correlated with the radial position of the insert but independent of the relative stopping power of the insert. The spatial resolution varies between roughly 4 and 6 lp/cm in both the the radial and azimuthal directions depending on the radial displacement of the edge. Conclusion: The amount of image degradation due to our detector system is small compared with the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering, pixelation of the image and the reconstruction algorithm. Improvements in reconstruction will be made in order to achieve the theoretical limits of spatial resolution.

  19. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....

  20. Allowance for influence of gravity field nonuniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsysar, A. P.

    1987-03-01

    The constants of a quartz-metal pendulum used in higher-order gravimetric networks have been determined and a formula has been derived for the total correction for gravity field nonuniformity measurements made with the pendulum. Nomograms were constructed on the basis of these formulas and are used in introducing corrections into pendulum measurements. A table was prepared giving the components of the correction for some values of the derivatives of gravity potential from surrounding masses. Errors can be caused by building walls, the pedestal on which the instrument sits and other factors, and these must be taken into account since they increase the normal gravity gradient. After introducing these correction components for the nonuniform gravity field, the gravity field at the measurement point is related to the instrument point coinciding with the middle of the pendulum knife blade.

  1. Performance analysis of wavelength/spatial coding system with fixed in-phase code matrices in OCDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Liang, Tsair-Chun

    2011-12-01

    This paper proposes a wavelength/spatial (W/S) coding system with fixed in-phase code (FIPC) matrix in the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network. A scheme is presented to form the FIPC matrix which is applied to construct the W/S OCDMA network. The encoder/decoder in the W/S OCDMA network is fully able to eliminate the multiple-access-interference (MAI) at the balanced photo-detectors (PD), according to fixed in-phase cross correlation. The phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) related to the power square is markedly suppressed in the receiver by spreading the received power into each PD while the net signal power is kept the same. Simulation results show that the W/S OCDMA network based on the FIPC matrices cannot only completely remove the MAI but effectively suppress the PIIN to upgrade the network performance.

  2. Propagation profile of ablation front driven by a nonuniform UV laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Kasai, T.; Yano, M.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial profile of ablation front is observed under the irradiation of spatially modulated 0.27-μm laser beam. Propagation depth of the ablation front is derived by means of various methods which detect x-ray radiation from aluminum substrates overcoated with polyethylene layers of different thicknesses. A higher mass ablation rate is observed for the UV laser than the longer wavelength lasers. However, observation with an x-ray television camera shows that the spatial nonuniformity in the laser beam is projected on the ablation front surface without substantial smoothing

  3. Surface magnetic canting in a nonuniform film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.; Pappas, D.P.; Anisimov, A.V.; Popov, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The zero temperature equilibrium configuration of a nonuniform system made of a ferromagnetic (FM) monolayer on top of a semi-infinite FM film is calculated using a nonlinear mapping formulation of mean-field theory, where the surface is taken into account via an appropriate boundary condition. The analytical criterion for the existence of surface magnetic canting, previously obtained by Popov and Pappas, is also recovered

  4. Statistical evaluation of unobserved nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1988-07-01

    Tests designed to promote nonuniform corrosion have been conducted at PNL on A216 steel. In all of the tests performed to date, there have been no manifestations of significant nonuniform corrosion. Although this may suggest that nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel may not be a significant problem in the nuclear waste repository, a question arises as to whether enough tests have been conducted for a sufficient length of time to rule out nonuniform corrosion of A216 steel. In this report, a method for determining the required number of tests is examined for two of the mechanisms of nonuniform corrosion: pitting and crevice corrosion

  5. Subrandom methods for multidimensional nonuniform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Methods of nonuniform sampling that utilize pseudorandom number sequences to select points from a weighted Nyquist grid are commonplace in biomolecular NMR studies, due to the beneficial incoherence introduced by pseudorandom sampling. However, these methods require the specification of a non-arbitrary seed number in order to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. Because the performance of pseudorandom sampling schedules can substantially vary based on seed number, this can complicate the task of routine data collection. Approaches such as jittered sampling and stochastic gap sampling are effective at reducing random seed dependence of nonuniform sampling schedules, but still require the specification of a seed number. This work formalizes the use of subrandom number sequences in nonuniform sampling as a means of seed-independent sampling, and compares the performance of three subrandom methods to their pseudorandom counterparts using commonly applied schedule performance metrics. Reconstruction results using experimental datasets are also provided to validate claims made using these performance metrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case

  7. Spatially resolved modelling of inhomogeneous materials with a first order magnetic phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian; Smith, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of regions each having a uniform and defined through a Voronoi-map. We show that demagnetising effects, caused by a finite sample size, and spatial variation in can account for the previously experimentally observed 'virgin' effects in the adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change...

  8. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method in two-phase flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using high-resolution spatial scheme in solving two-phase flow problems. • Fully implicit time integrations scheme. • Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method. • Analytical solution for two-phase water faucet problem. - Abstract: The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermal–hydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists

  9. Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.

    1992-01-01

    We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)

  10. Impact of Martensite Spatial Distribution on Quasi-Static and Dynamic Deformation Behavior of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Das, Anindya; Venugopalan, T.; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Walunj, Mahesh; Nanda, Tarun; Kumar, B. Ravi

    2018-02-01

    The effects of microstructure parameters of dual-phase steels on tensile high strain dynamic deformation characteristic were examined in this study. Cold-rolled steel sheets were annealed using three different annealing process parameters to obtain three different dual-phase microstructures of varied ferrite and martensite phase fraction. The volume fraction of martensite obtained in two of the steels was near identical ( 19 pct) with a subtle difference in its spatial distribution. In the first microstructure variant, martensite was mostly found to be situated at ferrite grain boundaries and in the second variant, in addition to at grain boundaries, in-grain martensite was also observed. The third microstructure was very different from the above two with respect to martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) and its morphology. In this case, martensite packets were surrounded by a three-dimensional ferrite network giving an appearance of core and shell type microstructure. All the three steels were tensile deformed at strain rates ranging from 2.7 × 10-4 (quasi-static) to 650 s-1 (dynamic range). Field-emission scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the starting as well as post-tensile deformed microstructures. Dual-phase steel consisting of small martensite volume fraction ( 19 pct), irrespective of its spatial distribution, demonstrated high strain rate sensitivity and on the other hand, steel with large martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) displayed a very little strain rate sensitivity. Interestingly, total elongation was found to increase with increasing strain rate in the dynamic regime for steel with core-shell type of microstructure containing large martensite volume fraction. The observed enhancement in plasticity in dynamic regime was attributed to adiabatic heating of specimen. To understand the evolving damage mechanism, the fracture surface and the vicinity of fracture ends were studied in all the three dual-phase steels.

  11. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valevich, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  12. A tuning method for nonuniform traveling-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Cunkui; Zheng Shuxin; Shao Jiahang; Jia Xiaoyu; Chen Huaibi

    2013-01-01

    The tuning method of uniform traveling-wave structures based on non-resonant perturbation field distribution measurement has been widely used in tuning both constant-impedance and constant-gradient structures. In this paper, the method of tuning nonuniform structures is proposed on the basis of the above theory. The internal reflection coefficient of each cell is obtained from analyzing the normalized voltage distribution. A numerical simulation of tuning process according to the coupled cavity chain theory has been done and the result shows each cell is in right phase advance after tuning. The method will be used in the tuning of a disk-loaded traveling-wave structure being developed at the Accelerator Laboratory, Tsinghua University. (authors)

  13. Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of TA15 titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pengfei; Zhan, Mei, E-mail: zhanmei@nwpu.edu.cn; Fan, Xiaoguang; Lei, Zhenni; Cai, Yang

    2017-03-24

    The flow behavior and microstructure evolution of a near α titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure during hot deformation were studied by isothermal compression test and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It is found that the nonuniform microstructure prior to deformation consists of equiaxed α, lamellar α in the colony form and β phase, and the α colony keeps the Burgers orientation relationship with β phase. The flow stress of nonuniform microstructure exhibits significant flow softening after reaching the peak stress at a low strain, which is similar to the lamellar microstructure. Nevertheless, the existence of equiaxed α in nonuniform microstructure makes its flow stress and softening rate be lower than the lamellar microstructure. During deformation, the lamellar α undertakes most of the deformation and turns to be rotated, bended and globularized. Moreover, these phenomena exhibit significant heterogeneity due to the orientation dependence of the deformation of lamellar α. The continuous dynamic recrystallization and bending of lamellar α lead to the “fragmentation” during globularization of lamellar α. The bending of lamellar α is speculated as a form of plastic buckling, because the bending of lamellar α almost proceed in the manner of “rigid rotation” and presents opposite bending directions for the adjacent colonies.

  14. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  15. Data set: 31 years of spatially distributed air temperature, humidity, precipitation amount and precipitation phase from a mountain catchment in the rain-snow transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty one years of spatially distributed air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, precipitation amount, and precipitation phase data are presented for the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. The data are spatially distributed over a 10m Lidar-derived digital elevation model at ...

  16. Below-threshold harmonic generation from strong non-uniform fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, I.

    2017-10-01

    Strong-field photoemission below the ionization threshold is a rich/complex region where atomic emission and harmonic generation may coexist. We studied the mechanism of below-threshold harmonics (BTH) from spatially non-uniform local fields near the metallic nanostructures. Discrete harmonics are generated due to the broken inversion symmetry, suggesting enriched coherent emission in the vuv frequency range. Through the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we investigate wavelength and intensity dependence of BTH. Wavelength dependence identifies counter-regular resonances; individual contributions from the multi-photon emission and channel-closing effects due to quantum path interferences. In order to understand the underlying mechanism of BTH, we devised a generalized semi-classical model, including the influence of Coulomb and non-uniform field interactions. As in uniform fields, Coulomb potential in non-uniform fields is the determinant of BTH; we observed that the generation of BTH are due to returning trajectories with negative energies. Due to large distance effectiveness of the non-uniformity, only long trajectories are noticeably affected.

  17. Temporal-spatial characteristics of phase-amplitude coupling in electrocorticogram for human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ren, Ye; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Na; Li, Xiaoli; Cong, Fengyu; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Wang, YuPing

    2017-09-01

    Neural activity of the epileptic human brain contains low- and high-frequency oscillations in different frequency bands, some of which have been used as reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain areas. However, the relationship between the low- and high-frequency oscillations in different cortical areas during the period from pre-seizure to post-seizure has not been completely clarified. We recorded electrocorticogram data from the temporal lobe and hippocampus of seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The modulation index based on the Kullback-Leibler distance and the phase-amplitude coupling co-modulogram were adopted to quantify the coupling strength between the phase of low-frequency oscillations (0.2-10Hz) and the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations (11-400Hz) in different seizure epochs. The time-varying phase-amplitude modulogram was used to analyze the phase-amplitude coupling pattern during the entire period from pre-seizure to post-seizure in both the left and right temporal lobe and hippocampus. Channels with strong modulation index were compared with the seizure onset channels identified by the neurosurgeons and the resection channels in the clinical surgery. The phase-amplitude coupling strength (modulation index) increased significantly in the mid-seizure epoch and decrease significantly in seizure termination and post-seizure epochs (ptemporal cortex and hippocampus. The "fall-max" phase-amplitude modulation pattern, i.e., high-frequency amplitudes were largest in the low-frequency phase range [-π, 0], which corresponded to the falling edges of low-frequency oscillations, appeared in the middle period of the seizures at epileptic focus channels. Channels with strong modulation index appeared on the corresponding left or right temporal cortex of surgical resection and overlapped with the clinical resection zones in all patients. The "fall-max" pattern between the phase of low-frequency oscillation and amplitude of high

  18. Analyte preconcentration in nanofluidic channels with nonuniform zeta potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, A.; McCallum, C.; Storey, B. D.; Pennathur, S.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that charged analytes in the presence of nonuniform electric fields concentrate at locations where the relevant driving forces balance, and a wide range of ionic stacking and focusing methods are commonly employed to leverage these physical mechanisms in order to improve signal levels in biosensing applications. In particular, nanofluidic channels with spatially varying conductivity distributions have been shown to provide increased preconcentration of charged analytes due to the existence of a finite electric double layer (EDL), in which electrostatic attraction and repulsion from charged surfaces produce nonuniform transverse ion distributions. In this work, we use numerical simulations to show that one can achieve greater levels of sample accumulation by using field-effect control via wall-embedded electrodes to tailor the surface potential heterogeneity in a nanochannel with overlapped EDLs. In addition to previously demonstrated stacking and focusing mechanisms, we find that the coupling between two-dimensional ion distributions and the axial electric field under overlapped EDL conditions can generate an ion concentration polarization interface in the middle of the channel. Under an applied electric field, this interface can be used to concentrate sample ions between two stationary regions of different surface potential and charge density. Our numerical model uses the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations coupled with the Stokes equation to demonstrate the phenomenon, and we discuss in detail the driving forces behind the predicted sample enhancement. The numerical velocity and salt concentration profiles exhibit good agreement with analytical results from a simplified one-dimensional area-averaged model for several limiting cases, and we show predicted amplification ratios of up to 105.

  19. Simulating atmospheric turbulence using a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available is zero and the outer scale is infinity. These assumptions lead to a well-defined distribution for the randomness in the refractive index of the atmosphere, which can be applied in the laboratory, giving a good approximation for a real atmosphere.1.... There are two basic aims: first, to expound on the steps required to actually simulate atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory, and second, to point out some of the limitations in using spatial light modula- Research Articles South African Journal of Science...

  20. Non-Interferometric Tomography of Phase Objects Using Spatial Light Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative 3D phase retrieval techniques are based on either interferometric techniques such as holography or noninterferometric intensity-based techniques such as the transport of intensity equation (TIE. Interferometric techniques are vibration-sensitive and often use a reference beam requiring complicated optical alignment. In this work we develop a simple, fast, and noninterferometric tomographic 3D phase retrieval technique based on the TIE which does not suffer from such drawbacks. The optical setup is a modified 4f TIE system which uses an SLM to replace the slow translation of the CCD required to record several diffraction patterns in a traditional TIE system. This novel TIE setup is suitable for dynamical events such as imaging biological processes. A rotating mechanical stage is constructed to obtain tomographic phase images of the object. The tomographic reconstruction algorithm is based on the Fourier slice theorem (backprojection algorithm which applies to objects with a small refractive index span. Simulation and experimental results are shown as part of this work. A graphical user interface is developed to perform the TIE tomographic reconstruction algorithm and to synchronize the captured intensities by the CCD, the phase patterns displayed on the SLM, and the Arduino controlled rotating stage assembly.

  1. Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Burnell, Josh J.; Byrnes, Emi J.; Copeland, Cathy; Desta, Tsega; Fischer, Shanna R.; Goldy, Jeff; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Kidney, Jolene M.; Lemon, Tracy; Orta, Geralyn J.; Parry, Sheana E.; Pathak, Sayan D.; Pearson, Owen C.; Reding, Melissa; Shapouri, Sheila; Smith, Kimberly A.; Soden, Chad; Solan, Beth M.; Weller, John; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding variations in gene sequence and expression level associated with phenotype, yet how genetic diversity translates into complex phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the relationship between genetic background and spatial patterns of gene expression across seven strains of mice, providing the most extensive cellular-resolution comparative analysis of gene expression in the mammalian brain to date. Using comprehensive brainwide anatomic coverage (more than 200 brain regions), we applied in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial expression patterns of 49 genes encoding well-known pharmaceutical drug targets. Remarkably, over 50% of the genes examined showed interstrain expression variation. In addition, the variability was nonuniformly distributed across strain and neuroanatomic region, suggesting certain organizing principles. First, the degree of expression variance among strains mirrors genealogic relationships. Second, expression pattern differences were concentrated in higher-order brain regions such as the cortex and hippocampus. Divergence in gene expression patterns across the brain could contribute significantly to variations in behavior and responses to neuroactive drugs in laboratory mouse strains and may help to explain individual differences in human responsiveness to neuroactive drugs. PMID:20956311

  2. Descriptive statistics and spatial distributions of geochemical variables associated with manganese oxide-rich phases in the northern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Joseph Moses; Evenden, Gerald Ian

    1989-01-01

    Tables, graphs, and maps are used to portray the frequency characteristics and spatial distribution of manganese oxide-rich phase geochemical data, to characterize the northern Pacific in terms of publicly available nodule geochemical data, and to develop data portrayal methods that will facilitate data analysis. Source data are a subset of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Sediment Data Bank. The study area is bounded by 0° N., 40° N., 120° E., and 100° W. and is arbitrarily subdivided into 14-20°x20° geographic subregions. Frequency distributions of trace metals characterized in the original raw data are graphed as ogives, and salient parameters are tabulated. All variables are transformed to enrichment values relative to median concentration within their host subregions. Scatter plots of all pairs of original variables and their enrichment transforms are provided as an aid to the interpretation of correlations between variables. Gridded spatial distributions of all variables are portrayed as gray-scale maps. The use of tables and graphs to portray frequency statistics and gray-scale maps to portray spatial distributions is an effective way to prepare for and facilitate multivariate data analysis.

  3. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5conflict raised in a previous work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  4. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Ottinger, P. F. [Engility Corporation, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  5. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Gustafsson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  6. A stability criterion for HNFDE with non-uniform delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingwen; Zhong Shouming; Zhang Fengli

    2005-01-01

    Stability of functional differential equations (FDE) is an increasingly important problem in both science and engineering. Delays, whether uniform or non-uniform, play an important role in the dynamics of a system. Since non-uniform delay is more general and less focused than uniform delay, this paper concentrates on the stability of high-order neutral functional differential equations (HNFDE) with non-uniform delay, and proposes a sufficient condition for it. This result may be widely helpful, thanks to the frequent emergence of a HNFDE with non-uniform delay in various fields. Its effectiveness is illustrated by some examples

  7. Complex sparse spatial filter for decoding mixed frequency and phase coded steady-state visually evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Islam, Md Rabiul

    2018-07-01

    Mixed frequency and phase coding (FPC) can achieve the significant increase of the number of commands in steady-state visual evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). However, the inconsistent phases of the SSVEP over channels in a trial and the existence of non-contributing channels due to noise effects can decrease accurate detection of stimulus frequency. We propose a novel command detection method based on a complex sparse spatial filter (CSSF) by solving ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization problems for a mixed-coded SSVEP-BCI. In particular, ℓ 2,1 -regularization (aka group sparsification) can lead to the rejection of electrodes that are not contributing to the SSVEP detection. A calibration data based canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and CSSF with ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization cases were demonstrated for a 16-target stimuli with eleven subjects. The results of statistical test suggest that the proposed method with ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization significantly achieved the highest ITR. The proposed approaches do not need any reference signals, automatically select prominent channels, and reduce the computational cost compared to the other mixed frequency-phase coding (FPC)-based BCIs. The experimental results suggested that the proposed method can be usable implementing BCI effectively with reduce visual fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Matching time and spatial scales of rapid solidification: dynamic TEM experiments coupled to CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu-Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid-liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu-Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ˜0.1 to ˜0.6 m s-1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid-liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid-liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).

  9. Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

    2013-07-09

    An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

  10. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  11. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  12. Effects of a nonuniform open magnetic field on the plasma presheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a nonuniform magnetic field on the plasma presheath is numerically investigated using the plasma equation for a collisionless plasma with a finite-temperature particle source. The present calculation confirms that analytical solutions previously published by the authors are available over a wide range of mirror ratio. Potential drop in the presheath, which considerably depends on both the magnetic strength profile and the spatial distribution of the particle source, is remarkably increased by applying an expanding magnetic field when plasma particles are generated in the inner part of the plasma. An effect of a nonuniform magnetic field on sheath formation is also discussed by using the calculated ion distribution function. If the plasma equation has no singularity at the sheath edge, its solution satisfies the generalized Bohm criterion with the inequality sign in the expanding magnetic field. (author)

  13. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  14. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  15. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  16. Flexible RF filter using a nonuniform SCISSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-03-15

    This work presents a flexible radiofrequency (RF) filter using an integrated microwave photonic circuit that comprises a nonuniform side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (N-SCISSOR). The filter passband can be reconfigured by varying the N-SCISSOR parameters. When employing a dual-parallel Mach-Zechnder modulator, the filter is also able to perform frequency down-conversion. In the experiment, various filter response shapes are shown, ranging from a flat-top band-pass filter to a total opposite high-rejection (>40  dB) notch filter, with a frequency coverage of greater than two octaves. The frequency down-conversion function is also demonstrated.

  17. High-efficiency and flexible generation of vector vortex optical fields by a reflective phase-only spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng-Qiang; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Kun; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2017-08-01

    The scheme for generating vector optical fields should have not only high efficiency but also flexibility for satisfying the requirements of various applications. However, in general, high efficiency and flexibility are not compatible. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a solution to directly, flexibly, and efficiently generate vector vortex optical fields (VVOFs) with a reflective phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) based on optical birefringence of liquid crystal molecules. To generate the VVOFs, this approach needs in principle only a half-wave plate, an LC-SLM, and a quarter-wave plate. This approach has some advantages, including a simple experimental setup, good flexibility, and high efficiency, making the approach very promising in some applications when higher power is need. This approach has a generation efficiency of 44.0%, which is much higher than the 1.1% of the common path interferometric approach.

  18. Electronic origin of spatial self-phase modulation: Evidenced by comparing graphite with C{sub 60} and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. L.; Zhu, L. L. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Q.; Sun, F.; Wei, J. K.; Tian, Y. C.; Wang, W. L.; Bai, X. D.; Zhao, Jimin, E-mail: jmzhao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xzuonku@outlook.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zuo, Xu, E-mail: jmzhao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xzuonku@outlook.com [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-06-13

    We report unambiguous observation of spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) in a dispersive suspension of graphite flakes. This coherent nonlinear optical effect in bulk graphite is found to be broadband and large, with a third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of 2.2 × 10{sup −9} esu (i.e., 3.1 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} in SI units) at 532 nm excitation. Comparison with other carbon allotropes shows that this value is 5 × 10{sup 7} times higher than that of C{sub 60} but ∼50 times lower than that of graphene, fully exhibiting the electronic origin of SSPM.

  19. Spatial divergence of living standards during the economic growth phase in the periphery: A case study of North Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Lehtonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advisability of an urban-centred growth strategy in sparsely populated parts of Europe has not been much analysed at micro-levels such as that of the postcode area. This paper investigates how regional disparities in living standards continued to increase during the technology-driven growth phase of 1993−2003, as exemplified by the case of North Karelia in Finland. Urban sprawl conveyed the spread effects of the rise in incomes, and the upsurge of living standards was concentrated in the neighbourhood of the provincial centre, Joensuu. Living standards faced a process of double divergence: between the central district of Joensuu and its commuter belt, and between the provincial core area and its hinterland, the latter consisting of rural areas and small towns dependent largely on natural resources. The spatial outcome of this socio-economic reorganization is a three-zone core-periphery pattern. As the economy grew, geographical shifts in wealth were consequences of the growth and mobility of certain social groups and strata. A wave of high living standards towards the outskirts of the provincial centre was generated by an expansion in commuting. The relative decline in living standards in the periphery was due to long-term rural decline and involved spatial restructuring.

  20. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D

    2014-01-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)

  1. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences

  2. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern based on image texture spectrum descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Guo; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Zhang, Wen-Yin

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic image information of typical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in vertical upward pipe is captured by a highspeed dynamic camera. The texture spectrum descriptor is used to describe the texture characteristics of the processed images whose content is represented in the form of texture spectrum histogram, and four time-varying characteristic parameter indexes which represent image texture structure of different flow patterns are extracted. The study results show that the amplitude fluctuation of texture characteristic parameter indexes of bubble flow is lowest and shows very random complex dynamic behavior; the amplitude fluctuation of slug flow is higher and shows intermittent motion behavior between gas slug and liquid slug, and the amplitude fluctuation of churn flow is the highest and shows better periodicity; the amplitude fluctuation of bubble-slug flow is from low to high and oscillating frequence is higher than that of slug flow, and includes the features of both slug flow and bubble flow; the slug-churn flow loses the periodicity of slug flow and churn flow, and the amplitude fluctuation is high. The results indicate that the image texture characteristic parameter indexes of different flow pattern can reflect the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which provides a new approach to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of flow pattern dynamics.

  3. Spatial interpolation of hourly precipitation and dew point temperature for the identification of precipitation phase and hydrologic response in a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garen, D. C.; Kahl, A.; Marks, D. G.; Winstral, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    In mountainous catchments, it is well known that meteorological inputs, such as precipitation, air temperature, humidity, etc. vary greatly with elevation, spatial location, and time. Understanding and monitoring catchment inputs is necessary in characterizing and predicting hydrologic response to these inputs. This is true all of the time, but it is the most dramatically critical during large storms, when the input to the stream system due to rain and snowmelt creates the potential for flooding. Besides such crisis events, however, proper estimation of catchment inputs and their spatial distribution is also needed in more prosaic but no less important water and related resource management activities. The first objective of this study is to apply a geostatistical spatial interpolation technique (elevationally detrended kriging) to precipitation and dew point temperature on an hourly basis and explore its characteristics, accuracy, and other issues. The second objective is to use these spatial fields to determine precipitation phase (rain or snow) during a large, dynamic winter storm. The catchment studied is the data-rich Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed near Boise, Idaho. As part of this analysis, precipitation-elevation lapse rates are examined for spatial and temporal consistency. A clear dependence of lapse rate on precipitation amount exists. Certain stations, however, are outliers from these relationships, showing that significant local effects can be present and raising the question of whether such stations should be used for spatial interpolation. Experiments with selecting subsets of stations demonstrate the importance of elevation range and spatial placement on the interpolated fields. Hourly spatial fields of precipitation and dew point temperature are used to distinguish precipitation phase during a large rain-on-snow storm in December 2005. This application demonstrates the feasibility of producing hourly spatial fields and the importance of doing

  4. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers - The radially symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Traditionally, pumping-test-analysis methodology has been limited to applications involving aquifers whose properties are assumed uniform in space. This work attempts to assess the applicability of analytical methodology to a broader class of units with spatially varying properties. An examination of flow behavior in a simple configuration consisting of pumping from the center of a circular disk embedded in a matrix of differing properties is the basis for this investigation. A solution describing flow in this configuration is obtained through Laplace-transform techniques using analytical and numerical inversion schemes. Approaches for the calculation of flow properties in conditions that can be roughly represented by this simple configuration are proposed. Possible applications include a wide variety of geologic structures, as well as the case of a well skin resulting from drilling or development. Of more importance than the specifics of these techniques for analysis of water-level responses is the insight into flow behavior during a pumping test that is provided by the large-time form of the derived solution. The solution reveals that drawdown during a pumping test can be considered to consist of two components that are dependent and independent of near-well properties, respectively. Such an interpretation of pumping-test drawdown allows some general conclusions to be drawn concerning the relationship between parameters calculated using analytical approaches based on curve-matching and those calculated using approaches based on the slope of a semilog straight line plot. The infinite-series truncation that underlies the semilog analytical approaches is shown to remove further contributions of near-well material to total drawdown. In addition, the semilog distance-drawdown approach is shown to yield an expression that is equivalent to the Thiem equation. These results allow some general recommendations to be made concerning observation-well placement for pumping

  5. Two types of nonlinear wave equations for diffractive beams in bubbly liquids with nonuniform bubble number density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    This paper theoretically treats the weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted sound beams in nonuniform bubbly liquids. The spatial distribution of the number density of the bubbles, initially in a quiescent state, is assumed to be a slowly varying function of the spatial coordinates; the amplitude of variation is assumed to be small compared to the mean number density. A previous derivation method of nonlinear wave equations for plane progressive waves in uniform bubbly liquids [Kanagawa, Yano, Watanabe, and Fujikawa (2010). J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 5(3), 351-369] is extended to handle quasi-plane beams in weakly nonuniform bubbly liquids. The diffraction effect is incorporated by adding a relation that scales the circular sound source diameter to the wavelength into the original set of scaling relations composed of nondimensional physical parameters. A set of basic equations for bubbly flows is composed of the averaged equations of mass and momentum, the Keller equation for bubble wall, and supplementary equations. As a result, two types of evolution equations, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for high-frequency short-wavelength case, and a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation including dispersion and nonuniform effects for low-frequency long-wavelength case, are derived from the basic set.

  6. Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shiqi

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a bridge density functional approximation (BDFA) (J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8079 (2000)) for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa (HCRY) fluid. It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid. A new bridge functional approximation is proposed, which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid. With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input, the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields, and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data. The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase, and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid, which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  7. A new purely growing instability in a strongly magnetized nonuniform pair plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a strongly magnetized nonuniform electron-positron (hereafter referred to as e-p or pair) plasma is unstable against low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) electrostatic oscillations. For this purpose, a dispersion relation is derived by using the Poisson equation as well as the electron and positron continuity equations with the guiding center drifts for the electron and positron fluids. The dispersion relation admits a purely growing instability in the presence of the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities. Physically, instability arises because of the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced differential electron and positron density fluctuations, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the charge separation in our nonuniform pair plasmas

  8. Spatial and temporal observation of phase-shift nano-emulsions assisted cavitation and ablation during focused ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Zong, Yujin; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-09-01

    Phase-shift nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at the target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The threshold of droplet vaporization and influence of acoustic parameters have always been research hotspots in order to spatially control the potential of bioeffects and optimize experimental conditions. However, when the pressure is much higher than PSNEs' vaporization threshold, there were little reports on their cavitation and thermal effects. In this study, PSNEs induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure were investigated, including the spatial and temporal information and the influence of acoustic parameters. Two kinds of tissue-mimicking phantoms with uniform PSNEs were prepared because of their optical transparency. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation activities. And the ablation process was observed as the heat deposition could produce white lesion. Precisely controlled HIFU cavitation and ablation can be realized at a relatively low input power. But when the input power was high, PSNEs can accelerate cavitation and ablation in pre-focal region. The cavitation happened layer by layer advancing the transducer. While the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts, one in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly, the other in focal region grew much more slowly. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. Longer pulse off time would cause heat transfer to the surrounding media, and generate smaller lesion. On the other hand, this would give outer layer bubbles enough time to dissolve, and inner bubbles can undergo violent collapse and emit bright light. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of fuel importance distribution in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Izima, Kazunori; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem for nuclear criticality safety in a reprocessing plant. As a theory estimating this reactivity effect, the Goertzel and fuel importance theories are well known. It has been shown that the Goertzel's theory is valid in the range of our experiments based on measurements of reactivity effect and thermal neutron flux in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems. On the other hand, there have been no reports concerning systematic experimental studies on the flatness of fuel importance which is a more general index than the Goertzel's theory. It is derived from the perturbation theory that the fuel importance is proportional to the reactivity change resulting from a change of small amount of fuel mass. Using a uniform and three kinds of nonuniform fuel systems consisting of 93.2% enriched uranium plates and polyethylene plates, the fuel importance distributions were measured. As a result, it was found experimentally that the fuel importance distribution became flat, as its reactivity effect became large. Therefore it was concluded that the flatness of fuel importance distribution is the useful index for estimating reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel system. (author)

  10. Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.

  11. Flexural Free Vibrations of Multistep Nonuniform Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojin Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exact approach to investigate the flexural free vibrations of multistep nonuniform beams. Firstly, one-step beam with moment of inertia and mass per unit length varying as I(x=α11+βxr+4 and m(x=α21+βxr was studied. By using appropriate transformations, the differential equation for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section is reduced to a four-order differential equation with constant coefficients. According to different types of roots for the characteristic equation of four-order differential equation with constant coefficients, two kinds of modal shape functions are obtained, and the general solutions for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section are presented. An exact approach to solve the natural frequencies and modal shapes of multistep beam with variable cross section is presented by using transfer matrix method, the exact general solutions of one-step beam, and iterative method. Numerical examples reveal that the calculated frequencies and modal shapes are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates the solutions of present method are exact ones.

  12. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  13. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  14. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  15. In vitro parameter optimization for spatial control of focused ultrasound ablation when using low boiling point phase-change nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Connor; Phillips, Linsey C; Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNEs) provide cavitation sites when the perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanodroplets (ND) are vaporized to microbubbles by acoustic energy. Their presence lowers the power required to ablate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), potentially making it a safer option for a broader range of treatment sites. However, spatial control over the ablation region can be problematic when cavitation is used to enhance heating. This study explored relationships between vaporization, ablation, and the PSNE concentration in vitro to optimize the acoustic intensity and insonation time required for spatially controlled ablation enhancement using a PSNE that included a volatile PFC component. HIFU (continuous wave at 1 MHz; insonation times of 5, 10, 15, and 20 s; cool-down times of 2, 4, and 6 s; peak negative pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa) was applied to albumin-acrylamide gels containing PFC agents (1:1 mix of volatile decafluorobutane and more stable dodecafluoropentane at 10(5) to 10(8) PFC ND per milliliter) or agent-free controls. Vaporization fields (microbubble clouds) were imaged by conventional ultrasound, and ablation lesions were measured directly by calipers. Controlled ablation was defined as the production of 'cigar'-shaped lesions corresponding with the acoustic focal zone. This control was considered to be lost when ablation occurred in prefocal vaporization fields having a predominantly 'tadpole' or oblong shape. Changes in the vaporization field shape and location occurred on a continuum with increasing PSNE concentration and acoustic intensity. Working with the maximum concentration-intensity combinations resulting in controlled ablation demonstrated a dose-responsive relationship between insonation time and volumes of both the vaporization fields (approximately 20 to 240 mm(3)) and the ablation lesions (1 to 135 mm(3)) within them. HIFU ablation was enhanced by this PSNE and could be achieved using intensities ≤650 W/cm(2

  16. Desynchronization boost by non-uniform coordinated reset stimulation in ensembles of pulse-coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134

  17. Coronal heating by Alfven waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi

    1996-01-01

    The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin

  18. Spatially distributed patterns of oscillatory coupling between high-frequency amplitudes and low-frequency phases in human iEEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, Eric; van Vugt, Marieke; Kahana, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spatially distributed coherent oscillations provide temporal windows of excitability that allow for interactions between distinct neuronal groups. It has been hypothesized that this mechanism for neuronal communication is realized by bursts of high-frequency oscillations that are phase-coupled to a

  19. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pei Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  20. Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation on nonuniform substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Wen Ze; Zou Xian Wu; Jin Zhun Zhi

    2003-01-01

    Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on nonuniform substrate was investigated by computer simulations. The nonuniform substrates are represented by Leath percolations with the probability p. p stands for the degree of nonuniformity and takes values in the range p sub c<=p<=1, where p sub c is the threshold of percolation. The DLA cluster grows up on the Leath percolation substrate. The patterns of the DLA clusters appear asymmetrical and nonuniform, and the branches are relative few for the case p is close to p sub c. In addition, the pattern depends on the shape of substrate. As p increases from p sub c to 1, cluster changes to pure DLA gradually. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension increases from 1.46 to 1.68. Also, the random walks on Leath percolations through the range p sub c<=p<=1 were examined. Our simulations show the Honda-Toyoki-Matsushita relation is still reasonable for fractional dimensional systems.

  1. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  2. Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use

  3. Potential distribution of a nonuniformly charged ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Aoki, J.; Soga, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient formula is obtained for fast calculation of the three-dimensional potential distribution associated with a spatially varying charge-density distribution by reconstructing it as a superposed set of nested spheroidal shells. It is useful for experimental analyses of near-equilibrium states of non-neutral plasmas and for quick evaluation of the gravity field associated with stellar mass distributions

  4. Predicting phase shift of elastic waves in pipes due to fluid flow and imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas; Fuglede, Niels

    2009-01-01

    . This is relevant for understanding wave propagation in elastic media in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of a fluid-conveying pipe......Flexural vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe is investigated, with special consideration to the spatial shift in phase caused by fluid flow and various imperfections, e.g., non-ideal supports, non-uniform stiffness or mass, non-proportional damping, weak nonlinearity, and flow pulsation...

  5. Light extraction in planar light-emitting diode with nonuniform current injection: model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmyrova, Irina; Watanabe, Norikazu; Kholopova, Julia; Kovalchuk, Anatoly; Shapoval, Sergei

    2014-07-20

    We develop an analytical and numerical model for performing simulation of light extraction through the planar output interface of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with nonuniform current injection. Spatial nonuniformity of injected current is a peculiar feature of the LEDs in which top metal electrode is patterned as a mesh in order to enhance the output power of light extracted through the top surface. Basic features of the model are the bi-plane computation domain, related to other areas of numerical grid (NG) cells in these two planes, representation of light-generating layer by an ensemble of point light sources, numerical "collection" of light photons from the area limited by acceptance circle and adjustment of NG-cell areas in the computation procedure by the angle-tuned aperture function. The developed model and procedure are used to simulate spatial distributions of the output optical power as well as the total output power at different mesh pitches. The proposed model and simulation strategy can be very efficient in evaluation of the output optical performance of LEDs with periodical or symmetrical configuration of the electrodes.

  6. Investigation of the Periodic Absolute Parametric Instability in a Nonuniform Cylindrical Warm Plasma Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on periodic Absolute Parametric Instability (API) of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pump warm plasma is investigated in a cylindrical geometry. An API plays a crucial role in the processes of the energy transfer from the electromagnetic radiation to the plasma and may have an important consequences for experiments on RF plasma heating in a magnetic traps and for a laser-fusion system. In conclusion; it is found that: A) allowance for the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma density leads to A.I) localization of an unstable wave in a finite region of a plasma volume, A.2) increasing the threshold value of the pump wave amplitude above which parametric amplification occurs and A.3) decreasing the value of the growth rate of unstable waves, B) more growth rate of periodic API is decreased due to electrons warmness in comparison with the case of cold plasma, and C) Independent of the geometry of the problem ( plane or cylinder), the results of the API in a warm plasma waveguide are still valid

  7. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Hao, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II) carb ) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II) AVS ), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox1 ), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox2 ), (4) magnetite (Fe mag ), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (Fe PRS ), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fe py ), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (Fe U ). Total Fe (Fe T ) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the Fe T with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of Fe PRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by Fe U , Fe ox2 , Fe mag , Fe(II) AVS+carb , Fe ox1 and Fe py . The large Fe PRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II) AVS+carb and Fe py pools is believed to be the result of low SO 4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Fe ox1 , Fe ox2 and Fe PRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(Fe HR ) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of Fe HR /Fe T , Fe PR /Fe T and Fe U /Fe T in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to

  8. Spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations in a hierarchical cognitive map formed by theta phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2009-06-01

    The human cognitive map is known to be hierarchically organized consisting of a set of perceptually clustered landmarks. Patient studies have demonstrated that these cognitive maps are maintained by the hippocampus, while the neural dynamics are still poorly understood. The authors have shown that the neural dynamic "theta phase precession" observed in the rodent hippocampus may be capable of forming hierarchical cognitive maps in humans. In the model, a visual input sequence consisting of object and scene features in the central and peripheral visual fields, respectively, results in the formation of a hierarchical cognitive map for object-place associations. Surprisingly, it is possible for such a complex memory structure to be formed in a few seconds. In this paper, we evaluate the memory retrieval of object-place associations in the hierarchical network formed by theta phase precession. The results show that multiple object-place associations can be retrieved with the initial cue of a scene input. Importantly, according to the wide-to-narrow unidirectional connections among scene units, the spatial area for object-place retrieval can be controlled by the spatial area of the initial cue input. These results indicate that the hierarchical cognitive maps have computational advantages on a spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations. Theta phase precession dynamics is suggested as a fundamental neural mechanism of the human cognitive map.

  9. LDPC Code Design for Nonuniform Power-Line Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaei Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate low-density parity-check code design for discrete multitone channels over power lines. Discrete multitone channels are well modeled as nonuniform channels, that is, different bits experience various channel parameters. We propose a coding system for discrete multitone channels that allows for using a single code over a nonuniform channel. The number of code parameters for the proposed system is much greater than the number of code parameters in conventional channel. Therefore, search-based optimization methods are impractical. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the rate of an irregular low-density parity-check code, with guaranteed convergence over a general nonuniform channel, as an iterative linear programming which is significantly more efficient than search-based methods. Then we use this technique for a typical power-line channel. The methodology of this paper is directly applicable to all decoding algorithms for which a density evolution analysis is possible.

  10. Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)

  11. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Liquid jets injected into non-uniform crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Samir

    An experimental study has been conducted with liquid jets injected transversely into a crossflow to study the effect of non-uniformities in the crossflow velocity distribution to the jet behavior. Two different non-uniform crossflows were created during this work, a shear-laden crossflow and a swirling crossflow. The shear-laden crossflow was generated by merging two independent, co-directional, parallel airstreams creating a shear mixing layer at the interface between them. The crossflow exhibited a quasi-linear velocity gradient across the height of the test chamber. By varying the velocities of the two airstreams, the sense and the slope of the crossflow velocity gradient could be changed. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to characterize the crossflow. The parameter, UR, is defined as the ratio of the velocities of the two streams and governs the velocity gradient. A positive velocity gradient was observed for UR > 1 and a negative velocity gradient for UR Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) studies were conducted to study the penetration and atomization of 0.5 mm diameter water jets injected into this crossflow. The crossflow velocity gradient was observed to have a significant effect on jet penetration as well as the post breakup spray. For high UR (> 1), jet penetration increased and the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution became more uniform. For low UR (Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the crossflow velocities. The axial (Ux) and the tangential (Utheta) components of the crossflow velocity were observed to decrease with increasing radial distance away from the centerbody. The flow angle of the crossflow was smaller than the vane exit angle, with the difference increasing with the vane exit angle. Water jets were injected from a 0.5 mm diameter orifice located on a cylindrical centerbody. Multi-plane PIV measurements were conducted to study the penetration and droplet velocity distribution of the jets. The jets were

  13. Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied

  14. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  15. Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  17. Study of response nonuniformity for the LHCb calorimeter module and the prototype of the CBM calorimeter module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0.5 mm thick. The nonuniformity of the response of the inner LHCb modules to 50-GeV electrons is also measured. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter. A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data.

  18. Nonimaging optics for nonuniform brightness distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David G.; Winston, Roland

    1995-08-01

    We present a general design method of nonimaging optics that obtains the highest possible concentration for a given absorber shape. This technique, which uses a complimentary edge ray to simplify the geometrical formulism, recovers familiar designs for flat phase space distributions, such as trumpets, and (theta) 1-(theta) 2 concentrators. This method is easy to use and handles diverse boundary conditions, such as reflection, satisfying total internal reflection or design within a material of graded index. Presented is a novel two-stage 2D solar collector with a fixed circular primary mirror and nonimaging secondary. This newly developed secondary gives a 25% improvement over conventional nonimaging concentrators.

  19. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  20. Shape Preserving Interpolatory Subdivision Schemes for Nonuniform Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, F.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with a class of shape preserving four-point subdivision schemes which are stationary and which interpolate nonuniform univariate data {(xi, fi)}. These data are functional data, i.e., xi≠xj if i≠j. Subdivision for the strictly monotone x-values is performed by a subdivision

  1. Field nonuniformity correction for quantitative analysis of digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    Several factors, including the heel effect, variation in distance from the x-ray source to points in the image and path obliquity contribute to the signal nonuniformity of mammograms. To best use digitized mammograms for quantitative image analysis, these field non-uniformities must be corrected. An empirically based correction method, which uses a bowl-shaped calibration phantom, has been developed. Due to the annular spherical shape of the phantom, its attenuation is constant over the entire image. Remaining nonuniformities are due only to the heel and inverse square effects as well as the variable path through the beam filter, compression plate and image receptor. In logarithmic space, a normalized image of the phantom can be added to mammograms to correct for these effects. Then, an analytical correction for path obliquity in the breast can be applied to the images. It was found that the correction causes the errors associated with field nonuniformity to be reduced from 14% to 2% for a 4 cm block of material corresponding to a combination of 50% fibroglandular and 50% fatty breast tissue. A repeatability study has been conducted to show that in regions as far as 20 cm away from the chest wall, variations due to imaging conditions and phantom alignment contribute to <2% of overall corrected signal

  2. Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...

  3. Instruction sequences and non-uniform complexity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop theory concerning non-uniform complexity in a setting in which the notion of single-pass instruction sequence considered in program algebra is the central notion. We define counterparts of the complexity classes P/poly and NP/poly and formulate a counterpart of the complexity theoretic

  4. Near-field observation of spatial phase shifts associated with Goos-Hänschen and surface plasmon resonance effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    We report the near-field observation of the phase shifts associated with total internal reflection on a glass-air interface and surface plasmon resonance on a glass-gold-air system. The phase of the evanescent waves on glass and gold surfaces, as a function of incident angle, is measured using a

  5. Localization in nonuniform media: Exponential decay of the late-time Ginzburg-Landau impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1998-01-01

    Instanton methods have been used, in the context of a classical Ginzburg-Landau field theory, to compute the averaged density of states and probability Green close-quote s function for electrons scattered by statistically uniform site energy perturbations. At tree level, all states below some critical energy appear localized, and all states above extended. The same methods are applied here to macroscopically nonuniform systems, for which it is shown that localized and extended states can be coupled through a tunneling barrier created by the instanton background. Both electronic and acoustic systems are considered. An incoherent exponential decay is predicted for the late-time impulse response in both cases, valid for long-wavelength nonuniformity, and scaling relations are derived for the decay time constant as a function of energy or frequency and spatial dimension. The acoustic results are found to lie within a range of scaling relations obtained empirically from measurements of seismic coda, suggesting a connection between the universal properties of localization and the robustness of the observed scaling. The relation of instantons to the acoustic coherent-potential approximation is demonstrated in the recovery of the uniform limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  6. Evaluation on Impact Interaction between Abutment and Steel Girder Subjected to Nonuniform Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.

  7. Simultaneous reconstruction of 3D refractive index, temperature, and intensity distribution of combustion flame by double computed tomography technologies based on spatial phase-shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyan; Song, Yang; Yuan, Qun; Wulan, Tuya; Chen, Lei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a transient multi-parameter three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction method is proposed to diagnose and visualize a combustion flow field. Emission and transmission tomography based on spatial phase-shifted technology are combined to reconstruct, simultaneously, the various physical parameter distributions of a propane flame. Two cameras triggered by the internal trigger mode capture the projection information of the emission and moiré tomography, respectively. A two-step spatial phase-shifting method is applied to extract the phase distribution in the moiré fringes. By using the filtered back-projection algorithm, we reconstruct the 3D refractive-index distribution of the combustion flow field. Finally, the 3D temperature distribution of the flame is obtained from the refractive index distribution using the Gladstone-Dale equation. Meanwhile, the 3D intensity distribution is reconstructed based on the radiation projections from the emission tomography. Therefore, the structure and edge information of the propane flame are well visualized.

  8. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Wolf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array’s temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.

  9. Imaging the Spatial Distribution of Transport Currents and the Phenomenon of Nanoscale Phase Separation Phenomenon in CMR Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banerjee, Satyajit

    2007-01-01

    ... by transport currents sent through materials. Based on the above objective it was planned to apply this technique to investigate fundamental issues like magnetic phase separation in colossal magneto resistive materials as well as to investigate...

  10. Analysis of the unmodulated diffraction beam of the phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a method for reducing its influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Yue; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li; Xia, Mingliang

    2012-01-01

    As a wavefront corrector, the phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator has been widely using in adaptive optics systems. However, the unmodulated diffracted beam of the modulator will affect the light spot centroid detection accuracy of a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and decrease the image quality after correction. In this paper, we have diminished the effect by introducing a modified weight algorithm in our closed-loop adaptive optics system. The Strehl ratio of the image is higher than 0.8 after correction, even when the wavefront aberration is larger than 3 μm. The correction precision and image quality are both improved significantly. (paper)

  11. Simulation of Non-Uniform Electron Beams in the Gyrotron Electron-Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louksha, O. I.; Trofimov, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    New calculated data on the effect of emission inhomogeneities on the quality of the electron beam, which is formed in an electron-optical system of a gyrotron, have been obtained. The calculations were based on emission current density distributions, which were measured for the different cathodes in the gyrotron of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. A satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated data on the influence of emission nonuniformities on the velocity spread of electrons has been shown. The necessity of considering the real distribution of the emission current density over the cathode surface to determine the main parameters of the electron beam—the velocity and energy spreads of the electrons, spatial structure of the beam, and coefficient of reflection of electrons from the magnetic mirror—has been demonstrated. The maximum level of emission inhomogeneities, which are permissible for effective work of gyrotrons, has been discussed.

  12. Electrical field excitation in non-uniform plasma by a modulated electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Borisov, O.A.

    2000-01-01

    Excitation of electric fields due to a modulated electron beam in a warm non-uniform plasma is treated for weak beams in warm plasma. It is shown that the maximum electric field magnitude that is reached near the local plasma resonance point depends significantly on the direction of the electron stream motion. In collisional plasma the magnitude of the Langmuir wave that propagates to the subcritical plasma also depends on the direction of the electron stream motion. The motion of the modulated electron stream front results in beatings between oscillations on the modulation frequency and on the local electron plasma frequencies at the initial moment. Later these beatings damp in the supercritical plasma, whereas in the subcritical plasma they are transformed into spatial beatings between the field of the modulated electron stream and the excited Langmuir wave. (orig.)

  13. Observation of non-uniform erosion and deposition phenomena on graphite after plasma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Schneider, W.; Wienhold, P.; Seggern, J. von

    1999-01-01

    The modifications of fine grain isotropic graphite surfaces after plasma exposure have been investigated using surface analysis techniques with high spatial resolution in area and depth. The samples are graphite target tiles of ASDEX-upgrade and coated graphite collector samples exposed for special erosion/deposition experiments in the divertor plasma of ASDEX-upgrade or in the scrape-off plasma of TEXTOR-94. In addition, a graphite sample was exposed to a low temperature, clean deuterium plasma to study the modifications of the surface morphology during plasma exposure. The results give clear indications of non-uniform erosion and deposition processes. The change of the surface morphology during these processes is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Harrison, M. G.; Hesse, M.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.

  15. Probing Photocurrent Nonuniformities in the Subcells of Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhaoning

    2016-11-23

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with high power conversion efficiencies have the potential to become a commercially viable photovoltaic option in the near future. However, device design and optimization is challenging because conventional characterization methods do not give clear feedback on the localized chemical and physical factors that limit performance within individual subcells, especially when stability and degradation is a concern. In this study, we use light beam induced current (LBIC) to probe photocurrent collection nonuniformities in the individual subcells of perovskite/silicon tandems. The choices of lasers and light biasing conditions allow efficiency-limiting effects relating to processing defects, optical interference within the individual cells, and the evolution of water-induced device degradation to be spatially resolved. The results reveal several types of microscopic defects and demonstrate that eliminating these and managing the optical properties within the multilayer structures will be important for future optimization of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.

  16. Energy Cascade from Internal Modes in Non-uniformly Stratified Fluid through Excitation of Superharmonic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, B. R.

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that two-dimensional internal plane waves and modes in uniformly stratified fluid efficiently transfer energy to smaller scale waves and ultimately turbulent mixing through parametric subharmonic instability (PSI). The numerical simulations of MacKinnon & Winters (GRL 2005) predicted PSI should act efficiently to disrupt the internal tide. However, while in situ observations showed the presence of PSI, it was not found to be appreciable. One reason for the discrepancy between simulations and observations is that the former examined an internal mode in uniformly stratified fluid whereas, in reality, the internal tide exists in non-uniform stratification and is manifest as sinusoidal oscillations of the thermocline. Through theory supported by numerical simulations, it is shown that internal modes in non-uniform stratification immediately excite superharmonics, not subharmonic disturbances. These have double the horizontal wavenumber and double the frequency of the parent mode and hence move with the same horizontal phase speed of the parent mode. As the disturbances grow in amplitude, however, they interact with the parent mode generating small-scale vertically propagating internal waves within the strongly stratified layer. The occurrence of PSI over very long times can occur, as in the simulations of Hazewinkel and Winters (JPO 2011). However, a comprehensive understanding of the energy cascade from the internal tide to small scales must consider the evolution of excited superharmonic disturbances.

  17. Influence Of Nonuniformity On Infrared Focal Plane Array Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, A. F.; Barone, F. R.; Kruer, M. R.

    1985-08-01

    It is well known that detector response nonuniformity results in pattern noise with staring sensors that is a severe problem in the infrared due to the low intrinsic contrast of IR imagery. The pattern noise can be corrected by electronic processing; however, the ability to correct for pattern noise is limited by the interaction of interscene and intrascene variability with the dynamic range of the processor (number of bits) and, depending upon the algorithm used, by nonlinearities in the detector response. This paper quantifies these limitations and describes the interaction of detector gain nonuniformity and detector nonlinearities. Probabilistic models are developed to determine the maximum sensitivity that can be obtained using a two-point algorithm to correct a nonlinear response curve over a wide temperature range. Curves that permit a prediction of the noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) under varying circumstances are presented. A piecewise linear approach to dealing with severe detector response nonlinearities is presented and analyzed for its effectiveness.

  18. POSSOL, 2-D Poisson Equation Solver for Nonuniform Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: POSSOL is a two-dimensional Poisson equation solver for problems with arbitrary non-uniform gridding in Cartesian coordinates. It is an adaptation of the uniform grid PWSCRT routine developed by Schwarztrauber and Sweet at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). 2 - Method of solution: POSSOL will solve the Helmholtz equation on an arbitrary, non-uniform grid on a rectangular domain allowing only one type of boundary condition on any one side. It can also be used to handle more than one type of boundary condition on a side by means of a capacitance matrix technique. There are three types of boundary conditions that can be applied: fixed, derivative, or periodic

  19. Numerical simulation of effect of laser nonuniformity in interior interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaojin; Wu Junfeng; Ye Wenhua

    2007-01-01

    Using the LARED-S code and referring to the NIF direct-drive DT ignition target, the effect of laser nonuniformity on the interior interface in direct-drive spherical implosion with high convergence ratio was numerically studied. The two-dimensional results show that the implosion with high convergence ratio is sensitive to the nonuniformity of driving laser, and the growth of hydrodynamic instability on interior interface destroys the symmetric-drive and reduces the volume of central hot spot observably. Taking the limit that perturbation amplitude is equal to 1/3 radius of central hot spot, the simulation also gives that the requirements for the laser uniformity for different mode number(less than 12) on simple physical model are between 2.5% -0.25%, and the modes between 8-10 have the most rigorous requirement which is about 0.25%. (authors)

  20. Computation of nonuniform transmission lines using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, G.C.; Paulino, J.O.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). School of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Calculation of lightning overvoltages on transmission lines has been described. Lightning induced overvoltages are of great significance under certain conditions because of the main characteristics of the phenomena. The lightning channel model is one of the most important parameters essential to obtaining the generated electromagnetic fields. In this study, nonuniform transmission line equations were solved using the finite difference method and the leap-frog scheme, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The subroutine was interfaced with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Two models were used to represent the characteristic impedance of the nonuniform lines used to model the transmission line towers and the lightning main channel. The advantages of the FDTD method was the much smaller code and faster processing time. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Non-uniformity measurements of PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depasse, P.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Ille, B.; Martin, F.; Rosset, C.; Zach, F.

    1998-11-01

    Two independent methods have been used to measure the longitudinal non-uniformity scintillation response of 3 different (23-cm long) PbWO 4 crystals. The first one is the classical 60 Co source method. The source is collimated along the crystal, each 1,5-cm, and the scintillation signal is measured with a photomultiplier (a hybrid photomultiplier in our case). The second one is the use of cosmic particles (Minimum Ionizing Particles). A cosmic bench allows reconstructing the track of the MIP's and thus the energy deposit with the help of a full GEANT simulation of the setup. Variations of E along the crystal artificially cut in 1,5-cm divisions, leads to determine the non-uniformity. The conclusion is that both methods agree quite well. Furthermore, a good estimation of crystal light yield can be obtained. (author)

  2. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation of the light, i.e., in amplitude and phase. We outline the theoretical concept, and then illustrate its use with the example of the laser beam shaping of Gaussian beams into flat-top beams. We quantify the performance of this approach...

  3. Leptin attenuates the detrimental effects of β-amyloid on spatial memory and hippocampal later-phase long term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Hao, Ming; Yang, Ju; Han, Yu-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Hui; Wu, Mei-Na; Liu, Qing-Song; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2015-07-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) is the main component of amyloid plaques developed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The increasing burden of Aβ in the cortex and hippocampus is closely correlated with memory loss and cognition deficits in AD. Recently, leptin, a 16kD peptide derived mainly from white adipocyte tissue, has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function, although less is known about the effects of leptin on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of leptin against Aβ-induced deficits in spatial memory and in vivo hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in rats. Y maze spontaneous alternation was used to assess short term working memory, and the Morris water maze task was used to assess long term reference memory. Hippocampal field potential recordings were performed to observe changes in L-LTP. We found that chronically intracerebroventricular injection of leptin (1μg) effectively alleviated Aβ1-42 (20μg)-induced spatial memory impairments of Y maze spontaneous alternation and Morris water maze. In addition, chronic administration of leptin also reversed Aβ1-42-induced suppression of in vivo hippocampal L-LTP in rats. Together, these results suggest that chronic leptin treatments reversed Aβ-induced deficits in learning and memory and the maintenance of L-LTP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An in situ spatially resolved analytical technique to simultaneously probe gas phase reactions and temperature within the packed bed of a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Jamal; Burch, Robbie; Hardacre, Christopher; McManus, Colin; Morgan, Kevin; Sá, Jacinto; Goguet, Alexandre

    2013-05-21

    This paper reports the detailed description and validation of a fully automated, computer controlled analytical method to spatially probe the gas composition and thermal characteristics in packed bed systems. As an exemplar, we have examined a heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reaction within the bed of a powdered oxide supported metal catalyst. The design of the gas sampling and the temperature recording systems are disclosed. A stationary capillary with holes drilled in its wall and a moveable reactor coupled with a mass spectrometer are used to enable sampling and analysis. This method has been designed to limit the invasiveness of the probe on the reactor by using the smallest combination of thermocouple and capillary which can be employed practically. An 80 μm (O.D.) thermocouple has been inserted in a 250 μm (O.D.) capillary. The thermocouple is aligned with the sampling holes to enable both the gas composition and temperature profiles to be simultaneously measured at equivalent spatially resolved positions. This analysis technique has been validated by studying CO oxidation over a 1% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and the spatial resolution profiles of chemical species concentrations and temperature as a function of the axial position within the catalyst bed are reported.

  5. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  6. Linearization of Nonautonomous Impulsive System with Nonuniform Exponential Dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a version of Hartman-Grobman theorem for the impulsive differential equations. We assume that the linear impulsive system has a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. Under some suitable conditions, we proved that the nonlinear impulsive system is topologically conjugated to its linear system. Indeed, we do construct the topologically equivalent function (the transformation. Moreover, the method to prove the topological conjugacy is quite different from those in previous works (e.g., see Barreira and Valls, 2006.

  7. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  8. Modelling of HVDC wall bushing flashover in nonuniform rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, F.A.M.; Kamel, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first mathematical model to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for flashover of an HVDC wall bushing under nonuniform rain. The suggested mechanism is initiated by streamer bridging of the dry zone enhanced by nonuniform voltage distribution along the bushing and within the dry zone. Fast voltage collapse across the dry zone die to energy stored in the bushing stray capacitance to ground leads to impulsive stressing of the wet part of the bushing. The nonuniform distribution of the impulse stress and the process of streamer bridging, fast voltage collapse as well as subsequent recharging of the bushing capacitances can lead to continued discharge propagation and flashover of the complete bushing. The findings of the model have been satisfactorily compared with previous experiments and field observations and can, for the first time, account for the following aspects of the flashover mechanism: critical dry zone length, polarity effect, specific leakage path, wet layer conductance per unit leakage length as well as the DC system voltage

  9. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  10. Synchronization in a non-uniform network of excitatory spiking neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    Spontaneous synchronization of pulse coupled elements is ubiquitous in nature and seems to be of vital importance for life. Networks of pacemaker cells in the heart, extended populations of southeast asian fireflies, and neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, are examples of this. In the present work, a rich repertoire of dynamical states with different degrees of synchronization are found in a network of excitatory-only spiking neurons connected in a non-uniform fashion. In particular, uncorrelated and partially correlated states are found without the need for inhibitory neurons or external currents. The phase transitions between these states, as well the robustness, stability, and response of the network to external stimulus are studied.

  11. Shape and fission instabilities of ferrofluids in non-uniform magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieu, Thibault; Walter, Clément

    2018-04-01

    We study static distributions of ferrofluid submitted to non-uniform magnetic fields. We show how the normal-field instability is modified in the presence of a weak magnetic field gradient. Then we consider a ferrofluid droplet and show how the gradient affects its shape. A rich phase transitions phenomenology is found. We also investigate the creation of droplets by successive splits when a magnet is vertically approached from below and derive theoretical expressions which are solved numerically to obtain the number of droplets and their aspect ratio as function of the field configuration. A quantitative comparison is performed with previous experimental results, as well as with our own experiments, and yields good agreement with the theoretical modeling.

  12. Nonuniform distribution of gas-liquid system in gas-distributing collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimov, R.Sh.; Abdullayev, E.A.; Eyubov, A.A.; Khudobakhshiyev, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    In the example of studying GS-1 of the field Shatlyk, the effect of nonuniform distribution of the liquid phase is examined (hydrocarbon condensate, water) on production lines of the unit of low temperature separation on the process of field preparation of gas. In particular, the unequal efficiency of single-type equipment operating under comparable conditions is noted: differences in the magnitude of under recuperation of coal of the recuperation heat exchangers, in the values of the integrated effect of Joule-Thomson, the coefficients of removal of low-temperature separators, etc. A consequence of this situation is deterioration in the quality of gas fed to the main pipe line. It is suggested that efforts be concentrated on developing technical designs which guarantee uniform supply of liquid from the field collector to the production lines of the unit for low temperature separation.

  13. Non-uniform interhemispheric temperature trends over the past 550 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Richard P. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Lincoln University, Bio-Protection Research Centre, PO Box 84, Lincoln (New Zealand); Fenwick, Pavla; Palmer, Jonathan G. [Gondwana Tree-ring Laboratory, PO Box 14, Canterbury (New Zealand); McGlone, Matt S. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Turney, Chris S.M. [University of Exeter, School of Geography, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The warming trend over the last century in the northern hemisphere (NH) was interrupted by cooling from ad 1940 to 1975, a period during which the southern hemisphere experienced pronounced warming. The cause of these departures from steady warming at multidecadal timescales are unclear; the prevailing explanation is that they are driven by non-uniformity in external forcings but recent models suggest internal climate drivers may play a key role. Paleoclimate datasets can help provide a long-term perspective. Here we use tree-rings to reconstruct New Zealand mean annual temperature over the last 550 years and demonstrate that this has frequently cycled out-of-phase with NH mean annual temperature at a periodicity of around 30-60 years. Hence, observed multidecadal fluctuations around the recent warming trend have precedents in the past, strongly implicating natural climate variation as their cause. We consider the implications of these changes in understanding and modelling future climate change. (orig.)

  14. Effect of nonuniform radial density distribution on the space charge dominated beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Beam dynamics of a space charge dominated beam during the bunch compression is studied self consistently for the case of fixed shape non-uniform bell shape and hollow shape density distributions in the transverse direction. We have used thick slices at different parts of the beam to account for variation in the beam radius in the study of the transverse dynamics. The longitudinal dynamics has been studied using the disc model. The axial variation of the radius of the slices and emittance growth arising from the phase dependence of the transverse rf forces are also included in the simulation. We have modified the beam envelope equation to take into account the longitudinal space charge effect on the transverse motion which arises due to the finite bunch size. To demonstrate the application of the theoretical formulations developed, we have studied a sinusoidal beam bunching system and presented detailed numerical results.

  15. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.

  16. Impact of the spectral and spatial properties of natural light on indoor gas-phase chemistry: Experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquet, M; Guo, F; Mendez, M; Ward, M; Coudert, S; Batut, S; Hecquet, C; Blond, N; Fittschen, C; Schoemaecker, C

    2018-05-01

    The characteristics of indoor light (intensity, spectral, spatial distribution) originating from outdoors have been studied using experimental and modeling tools. They are influenced by many parameters such as building location, meteorological conditions, and the type of window. They have a direct impact on indoor air quality through a change in chemical processes by varying the photolysis rates of indoor pollutants. Transmittances of different windows have been measured and exhibit different wavelength cutoffs, thus influencing the potential of different species to be photolysed. The spectral distribution of light entering indoors through the windows was measured under different conditions and was found to be weakly dependent on the time of day for indirect cloudy, direct sunshine, partly cloudy conditions contrary to the light intensity, in agreement with calculations of the transmittance as a function of the zenithal angle and the calculated outdoor spectral distribution. The same conclusion can be drawn concerning the position within the room. The impact of these light characteristics on the indoor chemistry has been studied using the INCA-Indoor model by considering the variation in the photolysis rates of key indoor species. Depending on the conditions, photolysis processes can lead to a significant production of radicals and secondary species. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A method for real time detecting of non-uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The principle of measuring magnetic signatures for observing diverse objects is widely used in Near Surface work (unexploded ordnance (UXO); engineering & environmental; archaeology) and security and vehicle detection systems as well. As a rule, the magnitude of the signals to be measured is much lower than that of the quasi-uniform Earth magnetic field. Usually magnetometers for these purposes contain two or more spatially separated sensors to estimate the full tensor gradient of the magnetic field or, more frequently, only partial gradient components. The both types (scalar and vector) of magnetic sensors could be used. The identity of the scale factors and proper alignment of the sensitivity axes of the vector sensors are very important for deep suppression of the ambient field and detection of weak target signals. As a rule, the periodical calibration procedure is used to keep matching sensors' parameters as close as possible. In the present report we propose the technique for detection magnetic anomalies, which is almost insensitive to imperfect matching of the sensors. This method based on the idea that the difference signals between two sensors are considerably different when the instrument is rotated or moved in uniform and non-uniform fields. Due to the misfit of calibration parameters the difference signal observed at the rotation in the uniform field is similar to the total signal - the sum of the signals of both sensors. Zero change of the difference and total signals is expected, if the instrument moves in the uniform field along a straight line. In contrast, the same move in the non-uniform field produces some response of each of the sensors. In case one measures dB/dx and moves along x direction, the sensors signals is shifted in time with the lag proportional to the distance between sensors and the speed of move. It means that the difference signal looks like derivative of the total signal at move in the non-uniform field. So, using quite simple

  18. Improved Phase Corrections for Transoceanic Tsunami Data in Spatial and Temporal Source Estimation: Application to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tung-Cheng; Satake, Kenji; Watada, Shingo

    2017-12-01

    Systemic travel time delays of up to 15 min relative to the linear long waves for transoceanic tsunamis have been reported. A phase correction method, which converts the linear long waves into dispersive waves, was previously proposed to consider seawater compressibility, the elasticity of the Earth, and gravitational potential change associated with tsunami motion. In the present study, we improved this method by incorporating the effects of ocean density stratification, actual tsunami raypath, and actual bathymetry. The previously considered effects amounted to approximately 74% for correction of the travel time delay, while the ocean density stratification, actual raypath, and actual bathymetry, contributed to approximately 13%, 4%, and 9% on average, respectively. The improved phase correction method accounted for almost all the travel time delay at far-field stations. We performed single and multiple time window inversions for the 2011 Tohoku tsunami using the far-field data (>3 h travel time) to investigate the initial sea surface displacement. The inversion result from only far-field data was similar to but smoother than that from near-field data and all stations, including a large sea surface rise increasing toward the trench followed by a migration northward along the trench. For the forward simulation, our results showed good agreement between the observed and computed waveforms at both near-field and far-field tsunami gauges, as well as with satellite altimeter data. The present study demonstrates that the improved method provides a more accurate estimate for the waveform inversion and forward prediction of far-field data.

  19. Modulations of eye movement patterns by spatial filtering during the learning and testing phases of an old/new face recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Chantal L; Collin, Charles A; Nelson, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effects of varying the spatial frequency (SF) content of face images on eye movements during the learning and testing phases of an old/new recognition task. At both learning and testing, participants were presented with face stimuli band-pass filtered to 11 different SF bands, as well as an unfiltered baseline condition. We found that eye movements varied significantly as a function of SF. Specifically, the frequency of transitions between facial features showed a band-pass pattern, with more transitions for middle-band faces (≈5-20 cycles/face) than for low-band (≈20 cpf) ones. These findings were similar for the learning and testing phases. The distributions of transitions across facial features were similar for the middle-band, high-band, and unfiltered faces, showing a concentration on the eyes and mouth; conversely, low-band faces elicited mostly transitions involving the nose and nasion. The eye movement patterns elicited by low, middle, and high bands are similar to those previous researchers have suggested reflect holistic, configural, and featural processing, respectively. More generally, our results are compatible with the hypotheses that eye movements are functional, and that the visual system makes flexible use of visuospatial information in face processing. Finally, our finding that only middle spatial frequencies yielded the same number and distribution of fixations as unfiltered faces adds more evidence to the idea that these frequencies are especially important for face recognition, and reveals a possible mediator for the superior performance that they elicit.

  20. Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikin, V.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.

  1. Otolithic and extraocular muscle proprioceptive influences on the spatial organization of the vestibulo- and cervico-ocular quick phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Manni, E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Bortolami, R

    1997-03-01

    The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) was studied alone or in combination with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the rabbit. Step stimulations of the body with respect to the fixed head induced small slow compensatory responses followed by large compensatory quick phases (QP). These responses remained aligned with the horizon at different head pitch angles. The QP reorientation in space was due to the gravity influence on the otolithic receptors. The vestibular induced QPs exhibit a similar pattern. Because of this reorientation, the reduction of the amplitude of the vestibular induced QPs, due to the addition of the COR, was maintained even at different static head positions. The electrolytic lesion of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve deeply affected the space orientation of the COR. In particular, the cervically induced compensatory QPs of the eye ipsilateral to the lesion showed a remarkable variability of their trajectories and they lost space reorientation. These findings suggest that the coordinate system controlling the QPs is influenced by signals originating from both head position in space and eye position in the orbit.

  2. Exploring field-of-view non-uniformities produced by a hand-held spectroradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamir Caras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a spectroradiometer’s field of view (FOV affects the way spectral measurements are acquired. Knowing this property is a prerequisite for the correct use of the spectrometer. If the substrate is heterogeneous, the ability to accurately know what is being measured depends on knowing the FOV location, shape, spectral and spatial sensitivity. The GER1500 is a hand-held spectrometer with a fixed lens light entry slit and has a laser guide that allows control over the target by positioning the entire unit. In the current study, the FOV of the GER1500 was mapped and analysed. The spectral and spatial non-uniformities of the FOV were examined and were found to be spectrally independent. The relationship between the FOV and the built-in laser guide was tested and found to have a linear displacement dependent on the distance to the target. This allows an accurate prediction of the actual FOV position. A correction method to improve the agreement between the expected and measured reflectance over heterogeneous targets was developed and validated. The methods described are applicable and may be of use with other hand-held spectroradiometers.

  3. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  4. Recent advances in IR liquid crystal spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fenglin; Twieg, Robert J.; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-09-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) is an amazing class of electro-optic media; its applications span from visible to infrared, millimeter wave, and terahertz regions. In the visible and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) regions, most LCs are highly transparent. However, to extend the electro-optic application of LCs into MWIR and LWIR, several key technical challenges have to be overcome: (1) low absorption loss, (2) high birefringence, (3) low operation voltage, and (4) fast response time. In the MWIR and LWIR regions, several fundamental molecular vibration bands and overtones exist, which contribute to high absorption loss. The absorbed light turns to heat and then alters the birefringence locally, which in turns causes spatially non-uniform phase modulation. To suppress the optical loss, several approaches have been investigated: (1) Employing thin cell gap by choosing a high birefringence LC mixture; (2) Shifting the absorption bands outside the spectral region of interest by deuteration, fluorination, or chlorination; (3) Reducing the overtone absorption by using a short alkyl chain. In this paper, we report some recently developed chlorinated LC compounds and mixtures with low absorption loss in the SWIR and MWIR regions. To achieve fast response time, we demonstrated a polymer network liquid crystal with 2π phase change at MWIR and response time less than 5 ms. Approaches to extend such a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to long-wavelength infrared will be discussed.

  5. A non-uniform expansion mechanical safety model of the stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Huang, N; Du, Q

    2009-01-01

    Stents have a serial unstable structure that readily leads to non-uniform expansion. Non-uniform expansion in turn creates a stent safety problem. We explain how a stent may be simplified to a serial unstable structure, and present a method to calculate the non-uniform expansion of the stent on the basis of the serial unstable structure. We propose a safety criterion based on the expansion displacement instead of the strain, and explain that the parameter Rd, the ratio of the maximum displacement of the elements to normal displacement, is meaningful to assess the safety level of the stent. We also examine how laser cutting influences non-uniform expansion. The examples illustrate how to calculate the parameter Rd to assess non-uniform expansion of the stent, and demonstrate how the laser cutting offset and strengthening coefficient of the material influence the stent expansion behaviour. The methods are valuable for assessing stent safety due to non-uniform expansion.

  6. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  7. Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)

  8. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  9. Going from microscopic to macroscopic on nonuniform growing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Baker, Ruth E; Erban, Radek; Maini, Philip K

    2012-08-01

    Throughout development, chemical cues are employed to guide the functional specification of underlying tissues while the spatiotemporal distributions of such chemicals can be influenced by the growth of the tissue itself. These chemicals, termed morphogens, are often modeled using partial differential equations (PDEs). The connection between discrete stochastic and deterministic continuum models of particle migration on growing domains was elucidated by Baker, Yates, and Erban [Bull. Math. Biol. 72, 719 (2010)] in which the migration of individual particles was modeled as an on-lattice position-jump process. We build on this work by incorporating a more physically reasonable description of domain growth. Instead of allowing underlying lattice elements to instantaneously double in size and divide, we allow incremental element growth and splitting upon reaching a predefined threshold size. Such a description of domain growth necessitates a nonuniform partition of the domain. We first demonstrate that an individual-based stochastic model for particle diffusion on such a nonuniform domain partition is equivalent to a PDE model of the same phenomenon on a nongrowing domain, providing the transition rates (which we derive) are chosen correctly and we partition the domain in the correct manner. We extend this analysis to the case where the domain is allowed to change in size, altering the transition rates as necessary. Through application of the master equation formalism we derive a PDE for particle density on this growing domain and corroborate our findings with numerical simulations.

  10. Non-Uniform Cathode Emission Studies of a MIG Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, C. D.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present the initial results of the modeling of the effect of emission non-uniformity in 96 kV, 40 A Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) of a 1.5 MW 110 GHz gyrotron using a 3D gun simulation code. The azimuthal emission nonuniformity can lead to increased mode competition and an overall decreased efficiency of the device [1]. The electron beam is modeled from the cathode to a downstream position where the velocity spread saturates using the AMAZE 3D suite of codes. After bench marking the results of the 3D code with 2D codes such as TRAK2D and EGUN, the emitter was modified to simulate asymmetric emission from the cathode to gain an understanding into the effects of inhomogeneous beam current density on the velocity spread and pitch factor of the electron beam. [1] G. S. Nusinovich, A.N. Vlasov, M. Botton, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., S. Cauffman, K. Felch, ``Effect of the azimuthal inhomogeneity of electron emission on gyrotron operation,'' Phys. Plasmas, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3473-3479, 2001

  11. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  12. Laterally excited flexible tanks with nonuniform density liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu

    1996-01-01

    A study of the dynamic responses of flexible tanks containing nonuniform liquid under horizontal base excitations is presented. The system considered is an upright, circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid in which the density increases with the liquid depth. Only the impulsive components of response are considered in this study since the convective components can be computed by considering the tank to be rigid. It is shown in this study that for tanks with height-to-radius ratios between 0.3 and 1.2, the response quantities may be estimated utilizing the rigid tank solutions. Also, it is found that the pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the liquid density, and that the base shear and moments for the tank with nonuniform liquid can be estimated conservatively by assuming that the tank is filled with an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. Finally, a simple equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency of the system is proposed

  13. Identification of the material properties in nonuniform nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Gang; Xu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing two significant challenges arising from quantifying mechanical properties of nanomaterials, namely nonuniformity of the nanomaterial and the high noise level of measurements. For nonuniformity, an explicit solution is derived for the general Euler–Bernoulli equation in terms of the Green function for the Poisson equation. Then, by examining a stochastic source, the systematic error may be removed from measurements, which leads to more accurate estimation of mechanical properties. Based on Itô integral properties, three deterministic Fredholm integral equations can be deduced to extract the stiffness and the structure of the random source from measured data. To overcome ill-posedness and high nonlinearity in solving the Fredholm equations, a Tikhonov regularization method is developed with an a priori strategy of choosing the regularization parameter. Moreover, under a regularity assumption for the stiffness coefficient and structures of the random source, the convergence rate can be obtained in the sense of probability. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the novel model and regularization method. (paper)

  14. Nonuniform code concatenation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikahd, Eesa; Sedighi, Mehdi; Saheb Zamani, Morteza

    2017-09-01

    Using transversal gates is a straightforward and efficient technique for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Since transversal gates alone cannot be computationally universal, they must be combined with other approaches such as magic state distillation, code switching, or code concatenation to achieve universality. In this paper we propose an alternative approach for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing, mainly based on the code concatenation approach proposed in [T. Jochym-O'Connor and R. Laflamme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 010505 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.010505], but in a nonuniform fashion. The proposed approach is described based on nonuniform concatenation of the 7-qubit Steane code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, as well as the 5-qubit code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, which lead to two 49-qubit and 47-qubit codes, respectively. These codes can correct any arbitrary single physical error with the ability to perform a universal set of fault-tolerant gates, without using magic state distillation.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of laser disintegration of amorphous aerosol particles with spatially nonuniform absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoolcraft, Tracy A.; Constable, Gregory S.; Jackson, Bryan; Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to provide qualitative information on the mechanisms of disintegration of aerosol particles as used in aerosol mass spectrometry. Three generic types of aerosol particles are considered: strongly absorbing particles with homogeneous composition, transparent particles with absorbing inclusion, and absorbing particles with transparent inclusion. To study the effect of the mechanical properties of the aerosol material on the disintegration process, the results for crystalline (brittle) and amorphous (ductile) particles are compared. For large laser fluences, nearly complete dissociation of the absorbing material is observed, whereas the nonabsorbing portions remain fairly intact. Because large fluences can cause photofragmentation of constituent molecules, multiple pulses at low laser fluence and/or lasers with different wavelengths are recommended for the best representative sampling of multicomponent aerosol particles in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry

  16. Understanding spatial connectivity of individuals with non-uniform population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta C

    2009-08-28

    We construct a two-dimensional geometric graph connecting individuals placed in space within a given contact distance. The individuals are distributed using a measured country's density of population. We observe that while large clusters (group of individuals connected) emerge within some regions, they are trapped in detached urban areas owing to the low population density of the regions bordering them. To understand the emergence of a giant cluster that connects the entire population, we compare the empirical geometric graph with the one generated by placing the same number of individuals randomly in space. We find that, for small contact distances, the empirical distribution of population dominates the growth of connected components, but no critical percolation transition is observed in contrast to the graph generated by a random distribution of population. Our results show that contact distances from real-world situations as for WIFI and Bluetooth connections drop in a zone where a fully connected cluster is not observed, hinting that human mobility must play a crucial role in contact-based diseases and wireless viruses' large-scale spreading.

  17. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-07-25

    A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical sensitivity in the multiplexed assay format as compared to single-color hybridization assays. The selectivity of the multiplexed hybridization assays was demonstrated by discrimination between a fully-complementary sequence and a 3 base pair sequence at a contrast ratio of 8 to 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. P-phase precipitation and its effect on martensitic transformation in (Ni,Pt)Ti shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y.; Zhou, N.; Yang, F.; Cui, Y.; Kovarik, L.; Hatcher, N.; Noebe, R.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A new precipitate phase named P-phase has recently been identified in (Ni,Pt)Ti high temperature shape memory alloys. In order to understand the roles played by the fine coherent P-phase precipitates in determining the martensitic transformation temperature (M s ), strength of the B2 matrix phase, dimensional stability and shape memory effect of the alloys, a phase field model of P-phase precipitation is developed. Model inputs, including lattice parameters, precipitate–matrix orientation relationship, elastic constants and free energy data, are obtained from experimental characterization, ab initio calculations and thermodynamic databases. Through computer simulations, the shape and spatial distribution of the P-phase precipitates, as well as the compositional and stress fields around them, are quantitatively determined. On this basis, the elastic interaction energy between the P-phase precipitates and a martenstic nucleus is calculated. It is found that both the chemical non-uniformity and stress field associated with the P-phase precipitates are in favor of the martensitic transformation. Their relative contributions to the increase in M s temperature are quantified as a function of aging time and the result seems to agree with the experimental measurements. The shape and spatial distribution of the P-phase precipitates predicted by the simulations also agree well with experimental observations.

  19. Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribner, D.A.; Kruer, M.R.; Sarkady, K.; Gridley, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Problems with nonuniformity correction algorithms due to nonlinear pixel response and 1/f noise have been shown previously to cause spatial noise which can be significantly greater than temporal noise. The residual spatial noise after correction cannot be reduced with time averaging. Because of spatial noise the sensitivity of staring FPA sensors is often less than predicted on the basis of the temporal noise of the individual elements. A review is given of methods for measuring and analyzing spatial noise (after nonuniformity correction) in staring infrared focal plane arrays. Automated measurement techniques are described briefly, including necessary equipment and data reduction procedures. An example of spatial noise measurements is given using a staring InSb Charge Injection Device (CID) array

  20. Temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping and hardware implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.

  1. Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calucci, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum.

  2. Decomposed Photo Response Non-Uniformity for Digital Forensic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Chang-Tsun

    The last few years have seen the applications of Photo Response Non-Uniformity noise (PRNU) - a unique stochastic fingerprint of image sensors, to various types of digital forensic investigations such as source device identification and integrity verification. In this work we proposed a new way of extracting PRNU noise pattern, called Decomposed PRNU (DPRNU), by exploiting the difference between the physical andartificial color components of the photos taken by digital cameras that use a Color Filter Array for interpolating artificial components from physical ones. Experimental results presented in this work have shown the superiority of the proposed DPRNU to the commonly used version. We also proposed a new performance metrics, Corrected Positive Rate (CPR) to evaluate the performance of the common PRNU and the proposed DPRNU.

  3. Gamma camera system with improved means for correcting nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Jeppesen, J.

    1979-01-01

    In a gamma camera system, means are provided for correcting nonuniformity or lack of correspondence between the positions of scintillations and their calculated and displayed by x-y coordinates. In an accumulation mode, pulse counts corresponding with scintillations in various areas of the radiation field are stored in memory locations corresponding with their locations in the radiation field. A uniform radiation source is presented to the detectors during the accumulation is interrupted at which time other locations have fewer counts in them. In the run mode, counts are stored in corresponding locations of a memory and these counts are compared continuously with those stored in the accumulation mode. Means are provided for injecting a number of counts during the run mode proportional to the difference between the counts accumulated during the accumulation mode in a given area increment and the counts that should have been obtained from a uniform source

  4. Non-uniform plastic deformation of micron scale objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Significant increases in apparent flow strength are observed when non-uniform plastic deformation of metals occurs at the scale ranging from roughly one to ten microns. Several basic plane strain problems are analyzed numerically in this paper based on a new formulation of strain gradient...... plasticity. The problems are the tangential and normal loading of a finite rectangular block of material bonded to rigid platens and having traction-free ends, and the normal loading of a half-space by a flat, rigid punch. The solutions illustrate fundamental features of plasticity at the micron scale...... that are not captured by conventional plasticity theory. These include the role of material length parameters in establishing the size dependence of strength and the elevation of resistance to plastic flow resulting from constraint on plastic flow at boundaries. Details of the finite element method employed...

  5. Non-Uniform Heat Transfer in Thermal Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch

    , a numerical model, which simulates a single-blow operation in a parallel-plate regenerator, was developed and used to model the heat transfer under various conditions. In addition to the modeling of the heat transfer, a series of experiments on passive regenerators with non-uniform, but precisely controlled....... Additionally, the experiments gave real comparative results, whereas the model to a certain degree more served to provide insight to the heat transfer processes taking place inside the regenera- tors, something that would be - if not impossible - then highly impractical to do experimentally. It has been found......This thesis presents investigations on the heat transfer in complex heat ex- changers in general and in regenerative heat exchangers (regenerators) in par- ticular. The motivation for this work is a result of inconsistencies obeserved in the results from a series of experiments on active magnetic...

  6. Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calucci, G.

    1995-11-01

    Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum

  7. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF NONUNIFORM CLOUD COVER ON TRANSIT TRANSMISSION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Parmentier, Vivien, E-mail: mrline@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California–Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We model the impact of nonuniform cloud cover on transit transmission spectra. Patchy clouds exist in nearly every solar system atmosphere, brown dwarfs, and transiting exoplanets. Our major findings suggest that fractional cloud coverage can exactly mimic high mean molecular weight atmospheres and vice versa over certain wavelength regions, in particular, over the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) bandpass (1.1–1.7 μm). We also find that patchy cloud coverage exhibits a signature that is different from uniform global clouds. Furthermore, we explain analytically why the “patchy cloud-high mean molecular weight” degeneracy exists. We also explore the degeneracy of nonuniform cloud coverage in atmospheric retrievals on both synthetic and real planets. We find from retrievals on a synthetic solar composition hot Jupiter with patchy clouds and a cloud-free high mean molecular weight warm Neptune that both cloud-free high mean molecular weight atmospheres and partially cloudy atmospheres can explain the data equally well. Another key finding is that the HST WFC3 transit transmission spectra of two well-observed objects, the hot Jupiter HD 189733b and the warm Neptune HAT-P-11b, can be explained well by solar composition atmospheres with patchy clouds without the need to invoke high mean molecular weight or global clouds. The degeneracy between high molecular weight and solar composition partially cloudy atmospheres can be broken by observing the molecular Rayleigh scattering differences between the two. Furthermore, the signature of partially cloudy limbs also appears as a ∼100 ppm residual in the ingress and egress of the transit light curves, provided that the transit timing is known to seconds.

  9. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...

  10. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  11. Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids

  12. Non-uniformity calibration for MWIR polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Zheng; Shi, Ze-Lin; Feng, Bin; Hui, Bin; Zhao, Yao-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Integrating microgrid polarimeters on focal plane array (FPA) of an infrared detector causes non-uniformity of polarization response. In order to reduce the effect of polarization non-uniformity, this paper constructs an experimental setup for capturing raw flat-field images and proposes a procedure for acquiring non-uniform calibration (NUC) matrix and calibrating raw polarization images. The proposed procedure takes the incident radiation as a polarization vector and offers a calibration matrix for each pixel. Both our matrix calibration and two-point calibration are applied to our mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) polarization imaging system with integrated microgrid polarimeters. Compared with two point calibration, our matrix calibration reduces non-uniformity by 30 40% under condition of flat-field data test with polarization. The ourdoor scene observation experiment indicates that our calibration can effectively reduce polarization non-uniformity and improve the image quality of our MWIR polarization imaging system.

  13. Wastewater diffusive dilution and sedimentation of the fine contaminated particles for nonuniform flow in open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniformity factor to the calculation of diffusion dilution of wastewater and prediction of river processes. So the effect of the flow non-uniformity on the diffusion model of pollutants dilution and diffusion coefficient have been investigated. Formulas for the concentration profiles calculating and the average concentration of fine particulate matter in nonuniform gradually varied flow were presented. The deposition length of suspended contaminants were received, based on the hydraulic resistance laws of nonuniform gradually varied flow.

  14. Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)≈ 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

  15. Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully-Steerable Telescope Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the surrounding environment, etc. were computed at 30 min intervals under a cloudless sky on a summer day, i.e., worstcase climate conditions. The transient structural temperatures were then analyzed under a period of several days of sunshine with a rational initial structural temperature distribution until the whole set of structural temperatures converged to the results obtained the day before. The non-uniform temperature field distribution of the entire structure and the main reflector surface RMS were acquired according to changes in pitch and azimuth angle over the observation period. Variations in the solar cooker effect over time and spatial distributions in the secondary reflector were observed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. The results presented here not only provide valuable realtime data for the design, construction, sensor arrangement and thermal deformation control of actuators but also provide a troubleshooting reference for existing actuators.

  16. Proposal for a Domain Wall Nano-Oscillator driven by Non-uniform Spin Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanchar; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Tulapurkar, Ashwin

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new mechanism and a related device concept for a robust, magnetic field tunable radio-frequency (rf) oscillator using the self oscillation of a magnetic domain wall subject to a uniform static magnetic field and a spatially non-uniform vertical dc spin current. The self oscillation of the domain wall is created as it translates periodically between two unstable positions, one being in the region where both the dc spin current and the magnetic field are present, and the other, being where only the magnetic field is present. The vertical dc spin current pushes it away from one unstable position while the magnetic field pushes it away from the other. We show that such oscillations are stable under noise and can exhibit a quality factor of over 1000. A domain wall under dynamic translation, not only being a source for rich physics, is also a promising candidate for advancements in nanoelectronics with the actively researched racetrack memory architecture, digital and analog switching paradigms as candidate examples. Devising a stable rf oscillator using a domain wall is hence another step towards the realization of an all domain wall logic scheme.

  17. Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua

    2016-08-01

    The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this

  18. Measuring the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins at high spatial resolution by mass spectrometry: overcoming gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-10-21

    acidic conditions where the amide hydrogen exchange rate is slowed by many orders of magnitude). The ability to localize the individual deuterated residues (the spatial resolution) is determined by the size (typically ∼7-15 residues) and the number of peptic peptides. These peptides provide a relatively coarse-grained picture of the protein dynamics. A fundamental understanding of the relationship between protein function/dysfunction and conformational dynamics requires in many cases higher resolution and ultimately single-residue resolution. In this Account, we summarize our efforts to achieve single-residue deuterium levels in proteins by electron-based or laser-induced gas-phase fragmentation methods. A crucial analytical requirement for this approach is that the pattern of deuterium labeling from solution is retained in the gas-phase fragment ions. It is therefore essential to control and minimize any occurrence of gas-phase randomization of the solution deuterium label (H/D scrambling) during the MS experiment. For this purpose, we have developed model peptide probes to accurately measure the onset and extent of H/D scrambling. Our analytical procedures to control the occurrence of H/D scrambling are detailed along with the physical parameters that induce it during MS analysis. In light of the growing use of gas-phase dissociation experiments to measure the HDX of proteins in order to obtain a detailed characterization and understanding of the dynamic conformations and interactions of proteins at the molecular level, we discuss the perspectives and challenges of future high-resolution HDX-MS methodology.

  19. Deployment Considerations for Low-cost Air Quality Sensor Networks; Examining Spatial Variability of Gas-Phase Pollutants Around a Building in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Oxandale, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Casey, J. G.; Johnston, J.; Coffey, E.; Thorson, J.

    2017-12-01

    The field of low-cost air quality sensing technologies is growing rapidly through the continual development of new sensors, increased research into sensor performance, and more and more community groups utilizing sensors to investigate local issues. However, as this technology is still in an exploratory phase, there are few `best-practices' available to serve as guidelines for these projects and the standardization of some procedures could benefit the research community as a whole. For example, deployment considerations such as where and how to place a monitor at a given location are often determined by accessibility and safety, power-requirements, and what is an ideal for sampling the target pollutant. Using data from multiple gas-phase sensors, we will examine the importance of siting considerations for low-cost monitoring systems. During a sampling campaign in Los Angeles, a subset of monitors was deployed at one field site to explore the variability in air quality sensor data around a single building. The site is a three story, multi-family housing unit in a primarily residential neighborhood that is near two major roadways and other potential sources of pollution. Five low-cost monitors were co-located prior to and following the field deployment. During the approximately 2.5-month deployment, these monitors were placed at various heights above street level, on different sides of the building, and on the roof. In our analysis, we will examine how monitor placement affects a sensor's ability to detect local verses more regional trends and how this building-scale spatial variability changes over time. Additionally, examining data from VOC sensors (quantified for methane and total non-methane hydrocarbon signals) and O3 sensors will allow us to compare the variability of primary and secondary pollutants. An outcome of this analysis may include guidelines or `best practices' for siting sensors that could aid in ensuring the collection of high quality field data

  20. Further Development of Ko Displacement Theory for Deformed Shape Predictions of Nonuniform Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2009-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory previously formulated for deformed shape predictions of nonuniform beam structures is further developed mathematically. The further-developed displacement equations are expressed explicitly in terms of geometrical parameters of the beam and bending strains at equally spaced strain-sensing stations along the multiplexed fiber-optic sensor line installed on the bottom surface of the beam. The bending strain data can then be input into the displacement equations for calculations of local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles for generating the overall deformed shapes of the nonuniform beam. The further-developed displacement theory can also be applied to the deformed shape predictions of nonuniform two-point supported beams, nonuniform panels, nonuniform aircraft wings and fuselages, and so forth. The high degree of accuracy of the further-developed displacement theory for nonuniform beams is validated by finite-element analysis of various nonuniform beam structures. Such structures include tapered tubular beams, depth-tapered unswept and swept wing boxes, width-tapered wing boxes, and double-tapered wing boxes, all under combined bending and torsional loads. The Ko displacement theory, combined with the fiber-optic strain-sensing system, provide a powerful tool for in-flight deformed shape monitoring of unmanned aerospace vehicles by ground-based pilots to maintain safe flights.

  1. Thermoelastic analysis of non-uniform pressurized functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness using first order shear deformation theory(FSDT) and perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgoftar, M. J.; Mirzaali, M. J.; Rahimi, G. H.

    2015-11-01

    Recently application of functionally graded materials(FGMs) have attracted a great deal of interest. These materials are composed of various materials with different micro-structures which can vary spatially in FGMs. Such composites with varying thickness and non-uniform pressure can be used in the aerospace engineering. Therefore, analysis of such composite is of high importance in engineering problems. Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness under non-uniform pressure is considered. First order shear deformation theory and total potential energy approach is applied to obtain the governing equations of non-homogeneous cylinder. Considering the inner and outer solutions, perturbation series are applied to solve the governing equations. Outer solution for out of boundaries and more sensitive variable in inner solution at the boundaries are considered. Combining of inner and outer solution for near and far points from boundaries leads to high accurate displacement field distribution. The main aim of this paper is to show the capability of matched asymptotic solution for different non-homogeneous cylinders with different shapes and different non-uniform pressures. The results can be used to design the optimum thickness of the cylinder and also some properties such as high temperature residence by applying non-homogeneous material.

  2. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  3. Terrestrial carbon cycle affected by non-uniform climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyang Xia; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Shilong Piao; Ciais, Philippe; Shiqiang Wan

    2014-01-01

    Feedbacks between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate change could affect many ecosystem functions and services, such as food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation. The rate of climate warming varies on diurnal and seasonal timescales. A synthesis of global air temperature data reveals a greater rate of warming in winter than in summer in northern mid and high latitudes, and the inverse pattern in some tropical regions. The data also reveal a decline in the diurnal temperature range over 51% of the global land area and an increase over only 13%, because night-time temperatures in most locations have risen faster than daytime temperatures. Analyses of satellite data, model simulations and in situ observations suggest that the impact of seasonal warming varies between regions. For example, spring warming has largely stimulated ecosystem productivity at latitudes between 30 degrees and 90 degrees N, but suppressed productivity in other regions. Contrasting impacts of day- and night-time warming on plant carbon gain and loss are apparent in many regions. We argue that ascertaining the effects of non-uniform climate warming on terrestrial ecosystems is a key challenge in carbon cycle research. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)

  5. Resource reflecting functor and its application to non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Priyaa Varshinee; Sanders, Barry C.; Cockett, Robin

    In this work, we formulate an abstract approach to translate one resource theory to another. We adopt the notion of resource theories as partitioned symmetric monoidal categories and extend this notion by considering resource-reflecting functors between resource theories. A functor F is a structure preserving map and F is said to be resource-reflecting if F (g) being a free transformation implies that the transformation g is also free. Thus, a resource-reflecting functor demonstrates that the existence of a free transformation between two resources in the domain resource theory can be inferred from the existence of a free transformation in the codomain theory. As an example, we construct one such functor from the resource theory of non-uniformity to a resource theory of majorization. Thus, our work lays a foundation for expressing similarities between resource theories and for applying results achieved in one resource theory to another. An abstract approach to the translation between theories enables common patterns to be identified between resource theories thereby reducing the effort of solving the same problem for different theories. BCS appreciates financial support from Alberta Innovates, NSERC, China's 1000 Talent Plan and the IQIM, which is an NSF Physics Frontiers Centre (NSF Grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF-2644).

  6. The Influence of nonuniform activity distribution on cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naling, Song; Yuan, Tian; Liangan, Zhang; Guangfu, Dai

    2008-01-01

    S value is an important parameter in determination of absorbed dose in nuclear medicine and radiobiology. The distribution of radioactivity shows significant influence on the S value especially in microdosimetry. In present work, a semi Monte Carlo Model is developed to calculate the microdosimetric cellular S value for different micro-distributions of radioactivity, i.e. uniform, linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase, exponential decrease and centroid distribution. Emission of alpha particles is simulated by Monte Carlo model and the energy imparted to the target volume is calculated by the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model and the spline interpolation of range-energy relationship. We calculate tables of S values for 213 Po and 210 Po with various dimensions and most important with various possible micro-distributions of radioactivity, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Then we compare the S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution with the Hamacher's results to test the feasibility of our model. S values of some nonuniform micro-distributions are compared to the corresponding data of the uniform distribution. The possible sources of these differences are theoretical analyzed. (author)

  7. Micromagnetics of thermally activated switching in nonuniformly magnetized nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Moro, E.; Francisco, C. de; Alejos, O.

    2001-01-01

    Patterned magnetic elements are being proposed as media for the future ultrahigh density storage systems. The equilibrium states of different patterned magnetic dots at zero temperature have been studied in numerous micromagnetic works while in the last year some studies have begun to include the effect of temperature in the computations. In this research a stochastic dynamic micromagnetic study is carried out for rectangular magnetic dots with size 10 by 3.1 times the exchange length, patterned in a film with a thickness of 5 times the exchange length. Two kinds of nonuniform magnetized nanodots are studied in detail: those in which the state prior to the switching follows the shape of a 'C' and those following an 'S'. In both cases a field near to the zero-temperature switching field is applied and then the thermally activated switching is observed. The dependence of the switching time on temperature is analyzed. It is observed how for the 'C' configuration an Arrhenius-like behavior is obtained in a large temperature window while this is not the case for the 'S' configuration. The micromagnetic structure of the switching thermally activated modes leading to these behaviors is also studied

  8. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  9. Alternative methods for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasaneh, S.; Rajabi, H.; Hajizadeh, E.

    2005-01-01

    Non-uniformity test is the most essential in daily quality control procedures of nuclear medicine equipment's. However, the calculation of non-uniformity is hindered due to high level of noise in nuclear medicine data. Non-uniformity may be considered as a type of systematic error while noise is certainly a random error. The present methods of uniformity evaluation are not able to distinguish between systematic and random error and therefore produce incorrect results when noise is significant. In the present study, two hypothetical methods have been tested for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: Using the Monte Carlo method, uniform and non-uniform flood images of different matrix sizes and different counts were generated. The uniformity of the images was calculated using the conventional method and proposed methods. The results were compared with the known non-uniformity data of simulated images. Results: It was observed that the value of integral uniformity never went below the recommended values except in small matrix size of high counts (more than 80 millions counts). The differential uniformity was quite insensitive to the degree of non-uniformity in large matrix size. Matrix size of 64*64 was only found to be suitable for the calculation of differential uniformity. It was observed that in uniform images, a small amount of non-uniformity changes the p-value of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and noise amplitude of fast fourier transformation test significantly while the conventional methods failed to detect the nonuniformity. Conclusion: The conventional methods do not distinguish noise, which is always present in the data and occasional non-uniformity at low count density. In a uniform intact flood image, the difference between maximum and minimum pixel count (the value of integral uniformity) is much more than the recommended values for non-uniformity. After filtration of image, this difference decreases, but remains high

  10. Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.; Polyakov, A.Y.; Skowronski, M.; Sanchez, E.K.; Loboda, M.J.; Fanton, M.A.; Bogart, T.; Gamble, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical elemental analysis, temperature-dependent Hall measurements, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and contactless resistivity mapping were performed on undoped semi-insulating (SI) and lightly nitrogen-doped conducting 6H-SiC crystals grown by physical vapor transport (PVT). Resistivity maps of commercial semi-insulating SiC wafers revealed resistivity variations across the wafers between one and two orders of magnitude. Two major types of variations were identified. First is the U-shape distribution with low resistivity in the center and high in the periphery of the wafer. The second type had an inverted U-shape distribution. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry measurements of the distribution of nitrogen concentration along the growth axis and across the wafers sliced from different locations of lightly nitrogen-doped 6H-SiC boules were conducted. The measured nitrogen concentration gradually decreased along the growth direction and from the center to the periphery of the wafers. This change gives rise to the U-like distribution of resistivity in wafers of undoped SI-SiC. The concentrations of deep electron traps exhibited similar dependence. Compensation of nitrogen donors by these traps can result in the inverted U-like distribution of resistivity. Possible reasons for the observed nonuniformities include formation of a (0001) facet in PVT growth coupled with orientation-dependent nitrogen incorporation, systematic changes of the gas phase composition, and increase of the deposition temperature during boule growth

  11. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  12. Gas dynamic improvement of the axial compressor design for reduction of the flow non-uniformity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. N.; Baturin, O. V.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Popov, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Circumferential nonuniformity of gas flow is one of the main problems in the gas turbine engine. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity appears near the annular frame located in the flow passage of the engine. The presence of circumferential nonuniformity leads to the increased dynamic stresses in the blade rows and the blade damage. The goal of this research was to find the ways of the flow non-uniformity reduction, which would not require a fundamental changing of the engine design. A new method for reducing the circumferential nonuniformity of the gas flow was proposed that allows the prediction of the pressure peak values of the rotor blades without computationally expensive CFD calculations.

  13. Mechanism and scaling for convection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale radial advection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas is investigated. The underlying mechanism considered is due to the nonlinear evolution of interchange motions, without any presumption of plasma sheaths. Theoretical arguments supported by numerical simulations...

  14. Reduction of gas flow nonuniformity in gas turbine engines by means of gas-dynamic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V.; Baturin, O.; Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.

    2017-08-01

    Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and as a consequence to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity as the source of dynamic stresses in the rotor blades. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. On the basis of existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.

  15. Analysis of Quantum Effects in Non-Uniformly Doped MOS Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiegna, Claudio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations obtained in one-dimensional non-uniformly doped MOS structures suitable for the fabrication of very short transistors...

  16. The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.

  17. Factorization method for difference equations of hypergeometric type on nonuniform lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Nodarse, R. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Costas-Santos, R.S. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2001-07-13

    We study the factorization of the hypergeometric-type difference equation of Nikiforov and Uvarov on nonuniform lattices. An explicit form of the raising and lowering operators is derived and some relevant examples are given. (author)

  18. Clinical implications of alternative TCP models for nonuniform dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J. O.

    1995-01-01

    Several tumor control probability (TCP) models for nonuniform dose distributions were compared, including: (a) a logistic/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (b) a probit/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (c) a Poisson/radioresistant-strain/identical-patients model, (d) a Poisson/inter-patient-heterogeneity model and (e) a Poisson/intra-tumor- and inter-patient-heterogeneity model. The models were analyzed in terms of the probability of controlling a single tumor voxel (the voxel control probability, or VCP), as a function of voxel volume and dose. Alternatively, the VCP surface can be thought of as the effect of a small cold spot. The models based on the Poisson equation which include inter-patient heterogeneity ((d) and (e)) have VCP surfaces (VCP as a function of dose and volume) which have a threshold 'waterfall' shape: below the waterfall (in dose), VCP is nearly zero. The threshold dose decreases with decreasing voxel volume. However, models (a), (b), and (c) all show a high probability of controlling a voxel (VCP>50%) with very low dose (e.g., 1 Gy) if the voxel is small (smaller than about 10 -3 of the tumor volume). Model (c) does not have the waterfall shape at low volumes due to the assumption of patient uniformity and a neglect of the effect of the clonogens which are more radiosensitive (and more numerous). Models (a) and (b) deviate from the waterfall shape at low volumes due to numerical differences between the functions used and the Poisson function. Hence, the Possion models which include inter-patient heterogeneities ((d) and (e)) are more sensitive to the effects of small cold spots than the other models considered

  19. Variational theory of cyclotron emission from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V.F.; Swanson, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas direct calculations of emission from a source model in both homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous media have been previously executed, there are no previous theories of the source distribution function from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas where mode conversion phenomena must be taken into account. Whenever the emitting layer is localized due to gradients of the external magnetic field, mode conversion leads to the Generalized Kirchhoff's Law (GKL) E 1 /A 1 = E 2 /A 2 = E 3 /A 3 , where A j represents the absorbed fraction on the j-th wave branch and E j is the corresponding emitted energy along j-th branch. Recently integral expressions for A j and E j in terms of arbitrary localized sink and source distributions have been obtained. The GKL relating absorption to emission along each branch of coexisting in the inhomogeneous mode conversion layer affects the shape of source distribution through a functional of the emissivity. Moreover, E j /A j ≡ I bb , where I bb is a black body radiated power. Accordingly, the distributed emission source function should be an extremal of the emissivity functional. The authors have developed the corresponding variational analysis with nontrivial GKL constraints. As a result they have discovered the correct representation of the ratio of source and sink distributions in the form of an expansion in linearly independent adjoint wave solutions of the absorption problem. Finally, unknown coefficients have been found numerically by further maximization taking account of both source boundedness and the GKL constraints. Calculations performed for a broad variety of plasma parameters will be presented

  20. Emittance growth caused by nonuniform charge distribution of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Zhang Zhenhai

    1993-09-01

    The nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac is one of the important reasons that induces the emittance growth because of the conversion of the field energy to kinetic energy. The authors have worked out the internal field energies associated with some nonuniform space change distributions of a bunched beam, such as Gaussian distribution, waterbag distribution and parabolic distribution. And the emittance growths caused by these nonuniformities are obtained

  1. Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.

  2. Modelling the actual behaviour of the MOX fuel by a micromechanical analysis in non-uniform transformation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largenton, R.

    2012-01-01

    This research thesis aimed at developing a model based on scale change to assess more precisely the distribution of local thermo-mechanical fields within a heterogeneous medium as MOX fuel. The analysis method is a non-uniform transformation field analysis (NTFA) which is adapted to the problem of scale change in presence of a coupling between dissipative and elastic effects. More precisely, the author addressed the development of a NTFA model based on specific three-phase and three-dimensional microstructures which are typical of the MOX fuel in an in-service operation. The first part proposes an overview of knowledge and use of MOX. It recalls the context and the industrial problematic associated with this fuel: operating principles for a 900 MWe PWR, fuel fabrication processes, fuel morphologies and structural and microstructural consequences. It addresses local mechanisms within each phase during irradiation, and presents the approach methodology regarding scale change. The second part reports the representation and analysis in complete fields of multiphase particle-based composites (MOX type) in order to determine the representative elementary volume and the local behaviour of each phase. The third part reports the extension of the NTFA approach to 3D aspects, free deformations, ageing and optimization. The last part compares the NTFA approach with the incremental two-phase and three-phase Mori-Tanaka models

  3. The Effects of Nonuniform Illumination on the Electrical Performance of a Single Conventional Photovoltaic Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV concentrators are a promising approach for lowering PV electricity costs in the near future. However, most of the concentrators that are currently used for PV applications yield nonuniform flux profiles on the surface of a PV module which in turn reduces its electrical performance if the cells are serially connected. One way of overcoming this effect is the use of PV modules with isolated cells so that each cell generates current that is proportional to the energy flux absorbed. However, there are some cases where nonuniform illumination also exists in a single cell in an isolated cells PV module. This paper systematically studied the effect of nonuniform illumination on various cell performance parameters of a single monocrystalline standard PV cell at low and medium energy concentration ratios. Furthermore, the effect of orientation, size, and geometrical shapes of nonuniform illumination was also investigated. It was found that the effect of nonuniform illumination on various PV cell performance parameters of a single standard PV cell becomes noticeable at medium energy flux concentration whilst the location, size, and geometrical shape of nonuniform illumination have no effect on the performance parameters of the cell.

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators

  5. Impacts of Traffic Tidal Flow on Pollutant Dispersion in a Non-Uniform Urban Street Canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhen Ming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional geometrical model was established based on a section of street canyons in the 2nd Ring Road of Wuhan, China, and a mathematical model describing the fluid flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon was developed. The effect of traffic tidal flow was investigated based on the measurement results of the passing vehicles as the pollution source of the CFD method and on the spatial distribution of pollutants under various ambient crosswinds. Numerical investigation results indicated that: (i in this three-dimensional asymmetrical shallow street canyon, if the pollution source followed a non-uniform distribution due to the traffic tidal flow and the wind flow was perpendicular to the street, a leeward side source intensity stronger than the windward side intensity would cause an expansion of the pollution space even if the total source in the street is equal. When the ambient wind speed is 3 m/s, the pollutant source intensity near the leeward side that is stronger than that near the windward side (R = 2, R = 3, and R = 5 leads to an increased average concentration of CO at pedestrian breathing height by 26%, 37%, and 41%, respectively. (R is the ratio parameter of the left side pollution source and the right side pollution source; (ii However, this feature will become less significant with increasing wind speeds and changes of wind direction; (iii the pollution source intensity exerted a decisive influence on the pollutant level in the street canyon. With the decrease of the pollution source intensity, the pollutant concentration decreased proportionally.

  6. Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.

  7. Nonlinear evolution of broad-bandwidth, laser-imprinted nonuniformities in planar targets accelerated by 351-nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Oron, D.; Shvarts, D.; Srebro, Y.; Town, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Planar, 20 and 40 μm thick CH targets have been accelerated by 351 nm laser beams of the OMEGA laser system [Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Different beam-smoothing techniques were employed including distributed phase plates, smoothing by spectral dispersion, and distributed polarization rotators. The Rayleigh - Taylor evolution of three-dimensional (3D) broadband planar-target perturbations seeded by laser nonuniformities was measured using x-ray radiography at ∼1.3 keV. Fourier analysis shows that the perturbations evolve to longer wavelengths and the shorter wavelengths saturate. The saturation amplitudes and rates of growth of these features are consistent with the predictions of Haan [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  9. Non-Uniformity Correction Using Nonlinear Characteristic Performance Curves for Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, McKenna Roberts

    Infrared imaging is an expansive field with many applications. Advances in infrared technology have lead to a greater demand from both commercial and military sectors. However, a known problem with infrared imaging is its non-uniformity. This non-uniformity stems from the fact that each pixel in an infrared focal plane array has its own photoresponse. Many factors such as exposure time, temperature, and amplifier choice affect how the pixels respond to incoming illumination and thus impact image uniformity. To improve performance non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration based techniques commonly use a linear model to approximate the nonlinear response. This often leaves unacceptable levels of residual non-uniformity. Calibration techniques often have to be repeated during use to continually correct the image. In this dissertation alternates to linear NUC algorithms are investigated. The goal of this dissertation is to determine and compare nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Ideally the results will provide better NUC performance resulting in less residual non-uniformity as well as reduce the need for recalibration. This dissertation will consider new approaches to nonlinear NUC such as higher order polynomials and exponentials. More specifically, a new gain equalization algorithm has been developed. The various nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms will be compared with common linear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Performance will be compared based on RMS errors, residual non-uniformity, and the impact quantization has on correction. Performance will be improved by identifying and replacing bad pixels prior to correction. Two bad pixel identification and replacement techniques will be investigated and compared. Performance will be presented in the form of simulation results as well as before and after images taken with short wave infrared cameras. The initial results show, using a third order

  10. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  11. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  12. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  13. Effects of NbC additions on the microstructure and properties of non-uniform structure WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yang; Yan, Ming-Yuan, E-mail: 704878879@qq.com; Luo, Bing-Hui, E-mail: luobinghui@csu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Sheng; Chen, Wei; Bai, Zhen-hai; Jing, Hui-bo; Zhang, Wen-Wen

    2017-02-27

    In this work, the effects of NbC additions on microstructure and properties of non-uniform structure WC-7Co cemented carbides were investigated X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), mechanical properties tester and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that WC phase can be partially dissolved into the NbC to form a (Nb,W)C solid solution. According to EPMA analysis, the amount of W atoms, dissolving into the NbC grains, increases with the NbC addition. Moreover, when the content of NbC is beyond 1%, the WC-Co cemented carbides with non-uniform structure are formed with significant reduction of average grain size of WC. With NbC addition increasing from 0 wt% to 2 wt%, the hardness is increased from 1475 MPa to 1570 MPa while the fracture toughness decreased from 12.1 MPa m{sup 1/2} to 10.3 MPa m{sup 1/2}. However, with the further addition of NbC, the hardness slightly decreased. With NbC addition between 0 and 1 wt%, the TRS is gradually decreased from 2982 MPa to 2745 MPa, while, as the NbC content exceeds 1 wt%, the TRS leveled off. Because of the decrease of grain size and the (Nb,W)C phase formation, caused by NbC addition, the crack defection was weakened, which led to the decrease of fracture toughness. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of non-uniform structure WC-Co cemented carbides can be significantly improved by adding NbC to the material due to increased α-Co in binder phase.

  14. Effects of Nonuniform Incident Illumination on the Thermal Performance of a Concentrating Triple Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Amri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical heat transfer model was developed to investigate the temperature of a triple junction solar cell and the thermal characteristics of the airflow in a channel behind the solar cell assembly using nonuniform incident illumination. The effects of nonuniformity parameters, emissivity of the two channel walls, and Reynolds number were studied. The maximum solar cell temperature sharply increased in the presence of nonuniform light profiles, causing a drastic reduction in overall efficiency. This resulted in two possible solutions for solar cells to operate in optimum efficiency level: (i adding new receiver plate with higher surface area or (ii using forced cooling techniques to reduce the solar cell temperature. Thus, surface radiation exchanges inside the duct and Re significantly reduced the maximum solar cell temperature, but a conventional plain channel cooling system was inefficient for cooling the solar cell at medium concentrations when the system was subjected to a nonuniform light distribution. Nonuniformity of the incident light and surface radiation in the duct had negligible effects on the collected thermal energy.

  15. On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanlong; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Wang, Longqi; Peng, Fujun; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.

  16. Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.

  17. On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanlong, E-mail: xuyanlong@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Zhou, Xiaoling [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Longqi [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Peng, Fujun [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Li, Bin [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-09-23

    It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.

  18. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  19. Spatial aspects of combined modality radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodey, Rachel K.; Evans, Phil M.; Flux, Glenn D.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: A combined modality radiotherapy (CMRT) incorporates both external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) components. The spatial aspects of this combination were explored by utilising intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to provide a non-uniform EBT dose distribution. Patients and methods: Three methods of prescribing the required non-uniform distribution of EBT dose are described, based on both physical and biological criteria according to the distribution of TRT uptake. The results and consequences of these prescriptions are explored by application to three examples of patient data. Results: The planning procedure adopted allowed IMRT plans to be produced that met the prescription requirements. However, when the treatment was planned as a CMRT, compared with the use of EBT alone, more satisfactory target doses could be achieved with lower doses to normal tissues. The effects of errors in EBT delivery and in the functional data were found to cause a non-uniform prescription to tend towards the uniform case. Conclusions: The methods and results are relevant for more general biological treatment planning, in which IMRT may be used to produce dose distributions prescribed according to tumour function. The effects of delivery and dose calculation errors can have a significant impact on how such treatments should be planned

  20. Magnetoresistive properties of non-uniform state of antiferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model of magnetoresistive properties of magneto-non-single-phase state of alloyed magnetic semiconductors is considered using the concept derived for a description of magnetoresistive effects in layered and granular magnetic metals. By assuming that there exists a magneto-non-single state in the manganites having the perovskite structure, it is possible to describe, in the framework of above approach, large magnetoresistive effects of manganite phases with antiferromagnetic order and semiconductor-type conductivity as well as those with antiferromagnetic properties and metallic-type conductivity

  1. Spatially resolved resistivity near the vortex lattice phase transition in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berseth, V.; Indenbom, M. V.; van der Beek, C. J.; D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.

    1997-08-01

    Using a multiterminal contact configuration, we investigate the local variations of the resistivity drop near the vortex lattice first order phase transition in a very homogeneous Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (BSCCO) single crystal.

  2. Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae

    2006-01-01

    The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length

  3. Experimental observation of the inductive electric field and related plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. K.; Chang, H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharges, Langmuir probe and B-dot probe measurements were carried out in the radial direction in a cylindrical capacitive discharge driven at 90 MHz with argon pressures of 50 and 400 mTorr. Through the measurements, a significant inductive electric field (i.e., time-varying magnetic field) was observed at the radial edge, and it was found that the inductive electric field creates strong plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation. The plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation is physically similar to the E-H mode transition typically observed in inductive discharges. This result agrees well with the theories of electromagnetic effects in large area and/or high frequency capacitive discharges

  4. Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.

  5. An efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction method for infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiyan; Sui, Xiubao; Zhao, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The non-uniformity response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors has a bad effect on images with fixed pattern noise. At present, it is common to use shutter to prevent from radiation of target and to update the parameters of non-uniformity correction in the infrared imaging system. The use of shutter causes "freezing" image. And inevitably, there exists the problems of the instability and reliability of system, power consumption, and concealment of infrared detection. In this paper, we present an efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction (NUC) method for infrared focal plane arrays. The infrared imaging system can use the data gaining in thermostat to calculate the incident infrared radiation by shell real-timely. And the primary output of detector except the shell radiation can be corrected by the gain coefficient. This method has been tested in real infrared imaging system, reaching high correction level, reducing fixed pattern noise, adapting wide temperature range.

  6. Vibration of nonuniform carbon nanotube with attached mass via nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hai Li; Shen, Zhi Bin; Li, Dao Kui

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the vibrational behavior of nonuniform single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carrying a nanoparticle. A nonuniform cantilever beam with a concentrated mass at the free end is analyzed according to the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. A governing equation of a nonuniform SWCNT with attached mass is established. The transfer function method incorporating with the perturbation method is utilized to obtain the resonant frequencies of a vibrating nonlocal cantilever-mass system. The effects of the nonlocal parameter, taper ratio and attached mass on the natural frequencies and frequency shifts are discussed. Obtained results indicate that the sensitivity of the frequency shifts on the attached mass increases when the length-to-diameter ratio decreases. Tapered SWCNT possesses higher fundamental frequencies if the taper ratio becomes larger.

  7. Computer Simulation of Nonuniform MTLs via Implicit Wendroff and State-Variable Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brancik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with techniques for a computer simulation of nonuniform multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs based on the implicit Wendroff and the statevariable methods. The techniques fall into a class of finitedifference time-domain (FDTD methods useful to solve various electromagnetic systems. Their basic variants are extended and modified to enable solving both voltage and current distributions along nonuniform MTL’s wires and their sensitivities with respect to lumped and distributed parameters. An experimental error analysis is performed based on the Thomson cable whose analytical solutions are known, and some examples of simulation of both uniform and nonuniform MTLs are presented. Based on the Matlab language programme, CPU times are analyzed to compare efficiency of the methods. Some results for nonlinear MTLs simulation are presented as well.

  8. A poloidal non-uniformity of the collisionless parallel current in a tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romannikov, A.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C

    2005-07-01

    The collisionless distortion of the ion (electron) distribution function at certain points on a magnetic surface is studied in the framework of a simple model of a large aspect ratio tokamak plasma. The flow velocity driven by this distortion is calculated. The possibility of an additional non-uniform collisionless parallel current density on a magnetic surface, other than the known neo-classical non-uniformity is shown. The difference between the parallel current density on the low and high field side of a magnetic surface is close to the neoclassical bootstrap current density. The first Tore-Supra experimental test indicates the possibility of the poloidal non-uniformity of the parallel current density. (authors)

  9. Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.

  10. Circumferential nonuniformity of cladding radiation swelling of fast reactor peripheral fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.; Farkhutdinov, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of the investigation into the perimeter radiation swelling of Kh18N10T stainless steel cladding in different cross sections of a peripheral fuel element of the BR-5 reactor. The fluence on the cladding is 1.8-2.9 x 10 22 fast neutr/cm 2 , the operating temperatures in different parts of the fuel element being 430 deg to 585 deg C. There has been observed circumferential non-uniformity of the distribution, concentration, and of the total volume of radiation cavities, which is due to temperature non-uniformity along the cladding perimeter. It is shown that such non-uniformity of radiation swelling of the cladding material may result in bending of the peripheral fuel element with regard to the fuel assembly sheath walls

  11. Photocathode non-uniformity contribution to the energy resolution of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghian, M.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Etaati, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basics of the light transport simulation in scintillators and the wavelength-dependencies in the process. The non-uniformity measurement of the photocathode surface is undertaken, showing that for the photocathode used in this study the quantum efficiency falls to about 4% of its maximum value, especially in areas far from the centre. The wavelength-and position-dependent quantum efficiency is implemented in the Monte Carlo light transport code, showing that, the contribution of the photocathode non-uniformity to the energy resolution is estimated to be around 18%, when all position-and wavelength-dependencies are included. (authors)

  12. Effects of non-uniformities on electrical conduction in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, M.; Murakami, Y.; Nitta, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of non-uniformities on the flow of electric current in weakly ionized plasmas is investigated by taking into account the ion slip as well as the Hall current. An Ohm's law for a non-uniform plasma is derived, from which the formula previously obtained by Numano, i.e. an extension of Rosa's equation, is obtainable as a special case. Making use of this new Ohm's law, the effective electrical conductivity and the effective Hall parameter are determined for isotropically turbulent plasmas. It is found that when the ion-slip effect is absent they are in good agreement with the results obtained previously. (author)

  13. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.

  14. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)

  16. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.

  17. A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.

    1979-08-01

    A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)

  18. Wastewater diffusive dilution and sedimentation of the fine contaminated particles for nonuniform flow in open channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lyapin Anton; Lyapin Valery

    2018-01-01

    The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniform...

  19. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.; Simpson, John T.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Voelkl, Edgar

    2007-12-25

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  20. TH-A-BRF-11: Image Intensity Non-Uniformities Between MRI Simulation and Diagnostic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: MRI simulation for MRI-based radiotherapy demands that patients be setup in treatment position, which frequently involves use of alternative radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations to accommodate immobilized patients. However, alternative RF coil geometries may exacerbate image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) beyond those observed in diagnostic MRI, which may challenge image segmentation and registration accuracy as well as confound studies assessing radiotherapy response when MR simulation images are used as baselines for evaluation. The goal of this work was to determine whether differences in IINU exist between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Methods: ACR-MRI phantom images were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo sequence (TE/TR:20/500ms, rBW:62.5kHz, TH/skip:5/5mm). MR simulation images were obtained by wrapping two flexible phased-array RF coils around the phantom. Diagnostic MR images were obtained by placing the phantom into a commercial phased-array head coil. Pre-scan normalization was enabled in both cases. Images were transferred offline and corrected for IINU using the MNI N3 algorithm. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/μ) were calculated for each slice. Wilcoxon matched-pairs and Mann-Whitney tests compared CV values between original and N3 images and between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Results: Significant differences in CV were detected between original and N3 images in both MRI simulation and diagnostic MRI groups (p=0.010, p=0.010). In addition, significant differences in CV were detected between original MR simulation and original and N3 diagnostic MR images (p=0.0256, p=0.0016). However, no significant differences in CV were detected between N3 MR simulation images and original or N3 diagnostic MR images, demonstrating the importance of correcting MR simulation images beyond pre-scan normalization prior to use in radiotherapy. Conclusions: Alternative RF coil configurations used in MRI simulation can Result in

  1. Eikonal theory of the transition to phase incoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.; Rosengaus, E.

    1983-02-01

    When a monochromatic electromagnetic wave propagates through a nonuniform plasma (of n dimensions), its refraction may be studied in terms of its family of rays in 2n-dimensional phase space (k,x). These rays generate and n-dimensional surface. Imbedded in the phase space. The wave amplitude and phase are defined on this surface. As the rays twist and separate (from the dynamics of the ray Hamiltonian), the surface develops pleats and becomes convoluted. Projection of the surface onto x-space then yields a multivalued k(x). The local spectral density, as a function of k for given x, exhibits sharp spikes at these k(x), in the ray-optics limit. The next correction yields a finite width to these spikes. As the surface becomes more and more pppleated, these spectral peaks overlap; the spectrum changes qualitatively from a line spectrum to a continuous spectrum. Correspondingly, the two-point spatial correlation function loses its long-range order, as the correlation volume contracts. This phenomenon is what we call the transition to incoherence

  2. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    2011-01-01

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.

  3. Non-Darcy interfacial dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in rough fractures under drainage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Ju, Yang; Xie, Heping; Zhou, Quanlin; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-04

    Two-phase flow interfacial dynamics in rough fractures is fundamental to understanding fluid transport in fractured media. The Haines jump of non-Darcy flow in porous media has been investigated at pore scales, but its fundamental processes in rough fractures remain unclear. In this study, the micron-scale Haines jump of the air-water interface in rough fractures was investigated under drainage conditions, with the air-water interface tracked using dyed water and an imaging system. The results indicate that the interfacial velocities represent significant Haines jumps when the meniscus passes from a narrow "throat" to a wide "body", with jump velocities as high as five times the bulk drainage velocity. Locally, each velocity jump corresponds to a fracture aperture variation; statistically, the velocity variations follow an exponential function of the aperture variations at a length scale of ~100 µm to ~100 mm. This spatial-scale-invariant correlation may indicate that the high-speed local velocities during the Haines jump would not average out spatially for a bulk system. The results may help in understanding the origin of interface instabilities and the resulting non-uniform phase distribution, as well as the micron-scale essence of the spatial and temporal instability of two-phase flow in fractured media at the macroscopic scale.

  4. A Non-Equilibrium Sediment Transport Model for Dam Break Flow over Moveable Bed Based on Non-Uniform Rectangular Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple-level non-uniform rectangular mesh in coupled flow and sediment transport modeling is preferred to achieve high accuracy in important region without increasing computational cost greatly. Here, a robust coupled hydrodynamic and non-equilibrium sediment transport model is developed on non-uniform rectangular mesh to simulate dam break flow over movable beds. The enhanced shallow water and sediment transport equations are adopted to consider the mass and momentum exchange between the flow phase and sediment phase. The flux at the interface is calculated by the positivity preserving central upwind scheme, which belongs to Godunov-type Riemann-problem-solver-free central schemes and is less expensive than other popular Riemann solvers while still capable of tracking wet/dry fronts accurately. The nonnegative water depth reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The model was first verified against two laboratory experiments of dam break flow over irregular fixed bed. Then the quantitative performance of the model was further investigated by comparing the computational results with measurement data of dam break flow over movable bed. The good agreements between the measurements and the numerical simulations are found for the flow depth, velocity and bed changes.

  5. Measurement of spatial and temporal evolution of electromagnetic fields in a 100 MHz plasma source using B dot and double dipole probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Barton, E-mail: barton.lane@tel.com; Campbell, Colin; Sawada, Ikuo; Ventzek, Peter L. G., E-mail: peter.ventzek@tel.com [Tokyo Electron America, Inc., 2400 Grove Blvd., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Very high frequency plasma sources are often accompanied by plasma density nonuniformities associated with a standing-wave effect. Electron density measurements using a plasma absorption probe show density nonuniformities that can be larger than predicted by a standing wave model. These structures have been associated with harmonics of the electric fields in the plasma. The authors present the first time and phase-resolved measurements of the spatial structure of the electromagnetic waves in a 100 MHz plasma source using argon at 40 mTorr employing a B dot probe. The authors show that the harmonic structure is related to a current reversal and subsequent circulation that appears when the sheath collapses during the radio frequency cycle. The circulation is driven by inward traveling waves that are electromagnetic in nature, not plasma waves traveling at the electron thermal velocity. Double dipole probe measurements were used to validate the B dot probe electric field measurements derived from the time derivative of Β{sub θ} which is derived from the B dot probe signal.

  6. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  7. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  8. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  9. Photography activities for developing students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendroanto, Aan; van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, D.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Istiandaru, A.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial orientation and spatial visualization are the foundation of students’ spatial ability. They assist students’ performance in learning mathematics, especially geometry. Considering its importance, the present study aims to design activities to help young learners developing their spatial orientation and spatial visualization ability. Photography activity was chosen as the context of the activity to guide and support the students. This is a design research study consisting of three phases: 1) preparation and designing 2) teaching experiment, and 3) retrospective analysis. The data is collected by tests and interview and qualitatively analyzed. We developed two photography activities to be tested. In the teaching experiments, 30 students of SD Laboratorium UNESA, Surabaya were involved. The results showed that the activities supported the development of students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization indicated by students’ learning progresses, answers, and strategies when they solved the problems in the activities.

  10. Acoustic holography for piston sound radiation with non-uniform velocity profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of orthogonal (Zernike) expansions of functions on a disk, as used in the diffraction theory of optical aberrations, is applied to obtain (semi-) analytical results for the radiation of sound due to a non-uniformly moving, baffled, circular piston. For this particular case, a scheme for

  11. CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities

  12. Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, J.

    2017-01-01

    The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail

  13. Deep convolutional neural networks for dense non-uniform motion deblurring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available to form a dense non-uniform motion estimation map. Furthermore, a second CNN is trained to perform deblurring given a blurry image patch and the estimated motion vector. Combining the two trained networks result in a deep learning approach that can enhance...

  14. Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC ` Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K A

    1998-03-01

    An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)

  15. Maximum Likelihood DOA Estimation of Multiple Wideband Sources in the Presence of Nonuniform Sensor Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in the presence of unknown nonuniform sensor noise. New closed-form expression for the direction estimation Cramér-Rao-Bound (CRB has been derived. The performance of the conventional wideband uniform ML estimator under nonuniform noise has been studied. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the nonuniformity of the noise, a new deterministic wideband nonuniform ML DOA estimator is derived and two associated processing algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is based on an iterative procedure which stepwise concentrates the log-likelihood function with respect to the DOAs and the noise nuisance parameters, while the second is a noniterative algorithm that maximizes the derived approximately concentrated log-likelihood function. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested through extensive computer simulations. Simulation results show the stepwise-concentrated ML algorithm (SC-ML requires only a few iterations to converge and both the SC-ML and the approximately-concentrated ML algorithm (AC-ML attain a solution close to the derived CRB at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Dynamic behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the dynamics behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected to concentrated loads ravelling at variable velocities. The solution technique is based on the Generalized Galerkin Method and the use of the generating function of the Bessel function type. The results show that, for all the ...

  17. On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams Under Uniformly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-uniform continuous beam was replaced by a non-continuous (discrete) system made up of beam elements. The modified elemental and overall stiffness, and mass matrices, the elemental and overall centripetal acceleration matrices as well as the load vector were derived. Next, the Newmark's direct integration ...

  18. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...

  19. A DSP-based neural network non-uniformity correction algorithm for IRFPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong-liang; Jin, Wei-qi; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiu

    2009-07-01

    An effective neural network non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm based on DSP is proposed in this paper. The non-uniform response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors produces corrupted images with a fixed-pattern noise(FPN).We introduced and analyzed the artificial neural network scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithm. A design of DSP-based NUC development platform for IRFPA is described. The DSP hardware platform designed is of low power consumption, with 32-bit fixed point DSP TMS320DM643 as the kernel processor. The dependability and expansibility of the software have been improved by DSP/BIOS real-time operating system and Reference Framework 5. In order to realize real-time performance, the calibration parameters update is set at a lower task priority then video input and output in DSP/BIOS. In this way, calibration parameters updating will not affect video streams. The work flow of the system and the strategy of real-time realization are introduced. Experiments on real infrared imaging sequences demonstrate that this algorithm requires only a few frames to obtain high quality corrections. It is computationally efficient and suitable for all kinds of non-uniformity.

  20. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift ...

  1. Sharp lower bounds on the extractable randomness from non-uniform sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Obi, C.; Verbitskiy, E.A.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uniform randomness from (noisy) non-uniform sources is an important primitive in many security applications, e.g. (pseudo-)random number generators, privacy-preserving biometrics, and key storage based on Physical Unclonable Functions. Generic extraction methods exist, using universal

  2. Physical correction model for automatic correction of intensity non-uniformity in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leger

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The proposed PCM algorithm led to a significantly improved image quality compared to the originally acquired images, suggesting that it is applicable to the correction of MRI data. Thus it may help to reduce intensity non-uniformity which is an important step for advanced image analysis.

  3. Nonuniform Illumination Correction Algorithm for Underwater Images Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sachin Sankpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering and absorption of light is main reason for limited visibility in water. The suspended particles and dissolved chemical compounds in water are also responsible for scattering and absorption of light in water. The limited visibility in water results in degradation of underwater images. The visibility can be increased by using artificial light source in underwater imaging system. But the artificial light illuminates the scene in a nonuniform fashion. It produces bright spot at the center with the dark region at surroundings. In some cases imaging system itself creates dark region in the image by producing shadow on the objects. The problem of nonuniform illumination is neglected by the researchers in most of the image enhancement techniques of underwater images. Also very few methods are discussed showing the results on color images. This paper suggests a method for nonuniform illumination correction for underwater images. The method assumes that natural underwater images are Rayleigh distributed. This paper used maximum likelihood estimation of scale parameter to map distribution of image to Rayleigh distribution. The method is compared with traditional methods for nonuniform illumination correction using no-reference image quality metrics like average luminance, average information entropy, normalized neighborhood function, average contrast, and comprehensive assessment function.

  4. Scaled nonuniform Fourier transform for image reconstruction in swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-02-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an important imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferograms measured in the frequency domain (k-space). This inverse DFT is typically implemented as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) that requires the data samples to be equidistant in k-space. As the frequency of light produced by a typical wavelength-swept laser is nonlinear in time, the recorded interferogram samples will not be uniformly spaced in k-space. Many image reconstruction methods have been proposed to overcome this problem. Most such methods rely on oversampling the measured interferogram then use either hardware, e.g., Mach-Zhender interferometer as a frequency clock module, or software, e.g., interpolation in k-space, to obtain equally spaced samples that are suitable for the FFT. To overcome the problem of nonuniform sampling in k-space without any need for interferogram oversampling, an earlier method demonstrated the use of the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) for image reconstruction in SS-OCT. In this paper, we present a more accurate method for SS-OCT image reconstruction from nonuniform samples in k-space using a scaled nonuniform Fourier transform. The result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  5. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  6. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  7. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations

  8. Effect of disjoining pressure in a thin film equation with non-uniform forcing

    KAUST Repository

    MOULTON, D. E.; LEGA, J.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effect of disjoining pressure on a thin film equation in the presence of a non-uniform body force, motivated by a model describing the reverse draining of a magnetic film. To this end, we use a combination of numerical investigations

  9. Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.

  10. Effect of non-uniform mean flow field on acoustic propagation problems in computational aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...

  11. Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning by Item-Focused Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…

  12. Modelling non-uniform strain distributions in aerospace composites using fibre Bragg gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabzadehdizaji, Aydin; Groves, R.M.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Chung, Y.; Jin, W.; Lee, B.; Canning, J.; Nakamura, K.; Yuan, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the behaviour of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors under non-uniform strain distributions was analysed. Using the fundamental matrix approach, the length of the FBG sensor was discretised, with each segment undergoing different strain values. FBG sensors that are embedded inside

  13. Critical opalescence of neutrons in nonuniform liquid in the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakov, V.I.; Chalyj, A.V.; Chernenko, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The altitude dependence of the refractive index and refractive angle of the neutron beam in a nonuniform liquid near the critical point is investigated. The neutron wave function in a passing beam as well as monochromatic transmission and reflection coefficients of neutrons are found

  14. Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...

  15. A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.

  16. New fundamental insights into capacitance modeling of laterally nonuniform MOS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Hout, van der R.; Paasschens, J.C.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Willemsen, M.B.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In compact transistor modeling for circuit simulation, the capacitances of conventional MOS devices are commonly determined as the derivatives of terminal charges, which in their turn are obtained from the so-called Ward-Dutton charge partitioning scheme. For devices with a laterally nonuniform

  17. A Method of Sky Ripple Residual Nonuniformity Reduction for a Cooled Infrared Imager and Hardware Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin

    2017-05-08

    Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired ripple residual nonuniformity (RNU) in sky scene observations. The ripple residual nonuniformity seriously affects the imaging quality, especially for small target detection. It is difficult to eliminate it using the calibration-based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using fuzzy scene classification. The fuzzy scene classification is designed to control the correction threshold so that the algorithm can remove ripple RNU without degrading the scene details. We test the algorithm on a real infrared sequence by comparing it to several well-established methods. The result shows that the algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the tested methods in terms of detail conservation and convergence speed for ripple RNU correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption; and (2) small hardware delay (less than 10 image rows). It has been successfully applied in an actual system.

  18. Evidence for nonuniform permafrost degradation after fire in boreal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Pastick, Neal J.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R.N.; Kass, M. Andy

    2016-01-01

    Fire can be a significant driver of permafrost change in boreal landscapes, altering the availability of soil carbon and nutrients that have important implications for future climate and ecological succession. However, not all landscapes are equally susceptible to fire-induced change. As fire frequency is expected to increase in the high latitudes, methods to understand the vulnerability and resilience of different landscapes to permafrost degradation are needed. We present a combination of multiscale remote sensing, geophysical, and field observations that reveal details of both near-surface (1 m) impacts of fire on permafrost. Along 11 transects that span burned-unburned boundaries in different landscape settings within interior Alaska, subsurface electrical resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate locations where permafrost appears to be resilient to disturbance from fire, areas where warm permafrost conditions exist that may be most vulnerable to future change, and also areas where permafrost has thawed. High-resolution geophysical data corroborate remote sensing interpretations of near-surface permafrost and also add new high-fidelity details of spatial heterogeneity that extend from the shallow subsurface to depths of about 10 m. Results show that postfire impacts on permafrost can be variable and depend on multiple factors such as fire severity, soil texture, soil moisture, and time since fire.

  19. Effect of two-step aging on spatial distribution of γ-phase particles and mechanical properties of Ni-14at.% Al single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, Yu.D.; Travina, N.T.; Ugarova, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscope images were processed by statistical methods to investigate the space distribution of particles of the γ'-phase (formation of ''quasiperiodic micro-lattices'') after various conditions of single- and double-stage aging of the Ni-14 at.% Al alloy. Mechanical properties in uniaxial tension of single crystals were studied. Parameters of the space distribution of particles have been correlated with the mechanical properties

  20. Nonuniform Changes in the Distribution of Visual Attention from Visual Complexity and Action: A Driving Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, George D; Reed, Catherine L

    2015-02-01

    Researchers acknowledge the interplay between action and attention, but typically consider action as a response to successful attentional selection or the correlation of performance on separate action and attention tasks. We investigated how concurrent action with spatial monitoring affects the distribution of attention across the visual field. We embedded a functional field of view (FFOV) paradigm with concurrent central object recognition and peripheral target localization tasks in a simulated driving environment. Peripheral targets varied across 20-60 deg eccentricity at 11 radial spokes. Three conditions assessed the effects of visual complexity and concurrent action on the size and shape of the FFOV: (1) with no background, (2) with driving background, and (3) with driving background and vehicle steering. The addition of visual complexity slowed task performance and reduced the FFOV size but did not change the baseline shape. In contrast, the addition of steering produced not only shrinkage of the FFOV, but also changes in the FFOV shape. Nonuniform performance decrements occurred in proximal regions used for the central task and for steering, independent of interference from context elements. Multifocal attention models should consider the role of action and account for nonhomogeneities in the distribution of attention. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  1. The segmented non-uniform dielectric module design for uniformity control of plasma profile in a capacitively coupled plasma chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Huanxiong; Xiang, Dong; Yang, Wang; Mou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma technique is one of the critical techniques in IC manufacturing process, such as etching and thin-film deposition, and the uniformity greatly impacts the process quality, so the design for the plasma uniformity control is very important but difficult. It is hard to finely and flexibly regulate the spatial distribution of the plasma in the chamber via controlling the discharge parameters or modifying the structure in zero-dimensional space, and it just can adjust the overall level of the process factors. In the view of this problem, a segmented non-uniform dielectric module design solution is proposed for the regulation of the plasma profile in a CCP chamber. The solution achieves refined and flexible regulation of the plasma profile in the radial direction via configuring the relative permittivity and the width of each segment. In order to solve this design problem, a novel simulation-based auto-design approach is proposed, which can automatically design the positional sequence with multi independent variables to make the output target profile in the parameterized simulation model approximate the one that users preset. This approach employs an idea of quasi-closed-loop control system, and works in an iterative mode. It starts from initial values of the design variable sequences, and predicts better sequences via the feedback of the profile error between the output target profile and the expected one. It never stops until the profile error is narrowed in the preset tolerance

  2. CC-MUSIC: An Optimization Estimator for Mutual Coupling Correction of L-Shaped Nonuniform Array with Single Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguan Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the case of the single snapshot, the integrated SNR gain could not be obtained without the multiple snapshots, which degrades the mutual coupling correction performance under the lower SNR case. In this paper, a Convex Chain MUSIC (CC-MUSIC algorithm is proposed for the mutual coupling correction of the L-shaped nonuniform array with single snapshot. It is an online self-calibration algorithm and does not require the prior knowledge of the correction matrix initialization and the calibration source with the known position. An optimization for the approximation between the no mutual coupling covariance matrix without the interpolated transformation and the covariance matrix with the mutual coupling and the interpolated transformation is derived. A global optimization problem is formed for the mutual coupling correction and the spatial spectrum estimation. Furthermore, the nonconvex optimization problem of this global optimization is transformed as a chain of the convex optimization, which is basically an alternating optimization routine. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improve the resolution ability and the estimation accuracy of the multisources with the single snapshot.

  3. Current-induced nonuniform enhancement of sheet resistance in A r+ -irradiated SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debangsu; Frenkel, Yiftach; Davidovitch, Sagi; Persky, Eylon; Haham, Noam; Gabay, Marc; Kalisky, Beena; Klein, Lior

    2017-06-01

    The sheet resistance Rs of A r+ irradiated SrTi O3 in patterns with a length scale of several microns increases significantly below ˜40 K in connection with driving currents exceeding a certain threshold. The initial lower Rs is recovered upon warming with accelerated recovery around 70 and 160 K. Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy shows local irreversible changes in the spatial distribution of the current with a length scale of several microns. We attribute the observed nonuniform enhancement of Rs to the attraction of the charged single-oxygen and dioxygen vacancies by the crystallographic domain boundaries in SrTi O3 . The boundaries, which are nearly ferroelectric below 40 K, are polarized by the local electrical field associated with the driven current and the clustered vacancies which suppress conductivity in their vicinity and yield a noticeable enhancement in the device resistance when the current path width is on the order of the boundary extension. The temperatures of accelerated conductivity recovery are associated with the energy barriers for the diffusion of the two types of vacancies.

  4. Investigation of non-uniformity and inclusions in 6LiInSe2 utilizing laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Brenden; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Rowe, Emmanuel; Lukosi, Eric; Chvala, Ondrej; Burger, Arnold; Stowe, Ashley

    2013-09-01

    Impurity analysis and compositional distribution studies have been conducted on a crystal of LiInSe2, a compound semiconductor which recently has been shown to respond to ionizing radiation. IR microscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) revealed the presence of inclusions within the crystal lattice. These precipitates were revealed to be alkali and alkaline earth elemental impurities with non-uniform spatial distribution in the crystal. LIBS compositional maps correlate the presence of these impurities with visual color differences in the crystal as well as a significant shift of the band gap. Further, LIBS revealed variation in the ratio of I-III-VI2 elemental constituents throughout the crystal. Analysis of compositional variation and impurities will aid in discerning optimal synthesis and crystal growth parameters to maximize the mobility-lifetime product and charge collection efficiency in the LiInSe2 crystal. Preliminary charge trapping calculations have also been conducted with the Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended (MCNPx) package indicating preferential trapping of holes during irradiation with thermal neutrons.

  5. Incorporation of Collision Probability Method in STREAM to Consider Non-uniform Material Composition in Fuel Subregions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy

  6. Incorporation of Collision Probability Method in STREAM to Consider Non-uniform Material Composition in Fuel Subregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy.

  7. Heterogeneous analysis of non-uniform neutron field formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, A.M.; Fedosov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated are the specific features of spatial-energy neutron distribution formation in the transient zone between regions, operating at different levels of energy release with accounting for the real structure of fuel element lattice and control elements in the channel reactors of high power. Presented are the calculation results, obtained by heterogeneous method in the two-group monopole approximation by means of the HETLAT code. The analysis, based on the homogeneous model shows, that the efficiency of the transient zone in forming neutron flux qradient can be increased by introducing an additional interlayer of moderator between the layers with extreme multiplying properties. It is stressed, that the most favourable from the point of view of energy release uniformity in zones and width of the transient zone is the variant in which neutron flux gradient is carried out by moving the control elements on the boundaries of regions while the internal rows of control elements create the conditions for flattening the energy release in the zones. The result obtained corresponds to the recommendation on optimal control, coming from the Pontryagin maximum principle. The analysis of neutron field formation using heterogeneous models mainly proves the conclusions following from homogeneous calculations using the maximum principle. At the same time quantitative results for the zones of small dimensions (less than 10 migration lengths) with a vividly expressed heterogeneous structure essentially differ from the forecast, obtained on the basis of the simplified homogeneous one-group model. The heterogeneous analysis shows possibilities for further optimization of the transient zone structure with account of the control element location

  8. SAUSAGE WAVES IN TRANSVERSELY NONUNIFORM MONOLITHIC CORONAL TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk astrophysical observatory, Russion Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-10

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  9. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  10. The whole brain diffusion tensor imaging study on acute phase of the posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from the single-prolonged stress based on tract based spatial statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yibin; Liu Kang; Zhe Xia; Mu Yunfeng; Yin Hong; Huan Yi; Yang Xiaobin; Du Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the brain white matter microstructure at the acute stage of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from a single-prolonged stress. Methods: DTI scans were performed on 17 survivors buried more than 190 h in Shanxi Wangjialing mine disaster and 17 cases of normal controls using Siemens 3.0 T MR. The differences of the FA values measured from the whole brain DTI between the two groups were analyzed based on tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). FA data were statistically compared between the two groups based on nonparametric random permutation test (RPT), and the brain areas of the PTSD patients with abnormal FA were defined. Results: Compared with control group, FA values in the PTSD (at acute stage) group decreased in genu, rostral body of corpus callosum, and increased in the left thalamic and corticospinal tract region of bilateral corona radiata and the posterior limb of the left internal capsule, the left cerebral peduncle. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01 TFCE-corrected). Conclusions: TBSS is a comprehensive and accurate method for evaluating the changes of whole brain DTI in PTSD cases. The fiber structural abnormalities in the genu, rostral body of bilateral corpus callosum, anterior radiation of left thalamic may be due to stress. TBSS can provide a more objective basis for the early diagnosis and intervention of PTSD. (authors)

  11. Investigation of Non-Uniform Rust Distribution and Its Effects on Corrosion Induced Cracking in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Wahyuniarsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform corrosion still widely used by a lot of researchers and engineers to analyze the corrosion induced cracking. However, in practice, corrosion process occurred non-uniformly. The part nearest to the exposed surface is more likely to have faster corrosion initiation compared with other regions. This research is mainly focused on investigating the effect of non-uniform rust distribution to cover cracking in reinforced concrete. An experimental test performed using accelerated corrosion test by using 5% NaCl solution and applied a constant electric current to the concrete samples. The rust distribution and measurement were observed by using a digital microscope. Based on the experimental result, it was found that the rust was distributed in a non-uniform pattern. As a result, the cracks also formed non-uniformly along the perimeter of steel bar. At the last part of this paper, a simulation result of concrete cracking induced by non-uniform corrosion is presented. The result compared with a simulation using uniform corrosion assumption to investigate the damage pattern of each model. The simulation result reveals stress evolution due to rust expansion which leads to concrete cracking. Furthermore, a comparison of stresses induced by non-uniform corrosion and uniform corrosion indicates that non-uniform corrosion could lead to earlier damage to the structure which is specified by the formation and propagation of the crack.

  12. Methods and means of Fourier-Stokes polarimetry and the spatial-frequency filtering of phase anisotropy manifestations in endometriosis diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Ushenko, Vladimir A.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Yu.; Prydiy, O. G.; Lakusta, I. I.; Novakovskaya, O. Yu.; Melenko, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    This research presents investigation results of diagnostic efficiency of a new azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix method of laser autofluorescence coordinate distributions analysis of dried polycrystalline films of uterine cavity peritoneal fluid. A new model of generalized optical anisotropy of biological tissues protein networks is proposed in order to define the processes of laser autofluorescence. The influence of complex mechanisms of both phase anisotropy (linear birefringence and optical activity) and linear (circular) dichroism is taken into account. The interconnections between the azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix elements characterizing laser autofluorescence and different mechanisms of optical anisotropy are determined. The statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of such Mueller-matrix rotation invariants is proposed. Thereupon the quantitative criteria (statistic moments of the 1st to the 4th order) of differentiation of dried polycrystalline films of peritoneal fluid - group 1 (healthy donors) and group 2 (uterus endometriosis patients) are estimated.

  13. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  15. Improving the quality factor of an RF spiral inductor with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform coil spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun

    2011-01-01

    An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmehran, O.; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter

  17. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmehran, O., E-mail: oveis87@yahoo.com; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M., E-mail: gorji@nit.ac.ir; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-11-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter.

  18. Smoothing and instability with magnetic field in a non-uniformly laser-irradiated planar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Epperlein, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the magneto-hydrodynamic response of a planar target to non-uniformities in energy deposition by a laser. The amplitude of the non-uniformities are assumed small and the equations are linearised in small perturbations about the solution for steady planar ablation driven by uniform laser energy deposition. The grad(n)xgrad(T) magnetic field source is included, along with Nernst convection and the Righi-Leduc heat flow. The magnetic field is shown to give a small increase in smoothing. A source term for magnetic field is included to simulate the effects of the Weibel instability. The instability is not strong enough to overcome the smoothing processes under the present assumptions. (author)

  19. Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.

  20. Non-Uniform Dose Mapping Controlled by Modulated Vertical and Horizontal Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, S.; Kimura, Y.; Kudo, T.; Ochi, A.; Toda, R.; Tsukihara, M.; Sato, F.; Fuse, G.; Ueno, K.; Sugitani, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since geometries of semi-conductor devices continue to shrink, the requirement for each process becomes severer to keep uniformity of electrical parameters of the semi-conductor devices. A larger wafer also causes larger variations. Thus it has been strongly required for ion implantation process to compensate for the variations from other processes because of its good dose controllability. A newly developed mapping of intentional non-uniform dosage system, which is named 'MIND system', is implemented in SEN's single-wafer-type implanters. The MIND system controls both horizontal and vertical scan speed simultaneously. Intentional two-dimensional non-uniform profiles of sheet resistance, such as concentric and eccentric profiles, are obtained only by single-step ion implantation.

  1. Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.

    2010-01-01

    to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...

  2. Nonuniform Sparse Data Clustering Cascade Algorithm Based on Dynamic Cumulative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A small amount of prior knowledge and randomly chosen initial cluster centers have a direct impact on the accuracy of the performance of iterative clustering algorithm. In this paper we propose a new algorithm to compute initial cluster centers for k-means clustering and the best number of the clusters with little prior knowledge and optimize clustering result. It constructs the Euclidean distance control factor based on aggregation density sparse degree to select the initial cluster center of nonuniform sparse data and obtains initial data clusters by multidimensional diffusion density distribution. Multiobjective clustering approach based on dynamic cumulative entropy is adopted to optimize the initial data clusters and the best number of the clusters. The experimental results show that the newly proposed algorithm has good performance to obtain the initial cluster centers for the k-means algorithm and it effectively improves the clustering accuracy of nonuniform sparse data by about 5%.

  3. Effects of non-uniform embedments on earthquake responses of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Yoshida, K.; Inove, H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear reactor buildings have the portion embedded in soil. In the seismic design of such structures, it is essential to consider the effects of the embedment on the earthquake response. Most studies on these effects, however, assume the uniform embedment, i.e. the depth of the embedment is constant, which is convenient for the design and analysis. The behavior of the earthquake response considering the three-dimensional aspects of non-uniform embedment has not been made clear yet. In this paper, the authors evaluate the effects of the non-uniform embedment in an inclined ground surface on the earthquake response of a nuclear reactor building as illustrated. A typical PWR type reactor building is chosen as an analysis structure model. Four different types of embedment are set up for the comparison study. The three-dimensional analysis is carried out considering the geometry of embedment

  4. Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with Electromagnetic Effects and Nonuniform Heat Source/Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with electric and magnetic dissipation and nonuniform heat source/sink has been studied. The buoyant effect and the electric number E1 couple with magnetic parameter M to represent the dominance of the electric and magnetic effects, and adding the specific item of nonuniform heat source/sink is presented in governing equations which are the main contribution of this study. The similarity transformation, the finite-difference method, Newton method, and Gauss elimination method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, and the important wall unknown values of f''(0 and θ'(0 have been carried out. The parameter Pr, E1, or Ec can increase the heat transfer effects, but the parameter M or A* may decrease the heat transfer effects.

  5. Selective catalytic reduction converter design: The effect of ammonia nonuniformity at inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramadayalan, Thiyagarajan; Pant, Atul

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model of SCR converter with detailed chemistry is developed. The model is used to study the effects of radial variation in inlet ammonia profile on SCR emission performance at different temperatures. The model shows that radial variation in inlet ammonia concentration affects the SCR performance in the operating range of 200-400 .deg. C. In automotive SCR systems, ammonia is non-uniformly distributed due to evaporation/reaction of injected urea, and using a 1D model or a 3D model with flat ammonia profile at inlet for these conditions can result in erroneous emission prediction. The 3D SCR model is also used to study the effect of converter design parameters like inlet cone angle and monolith cell density on the SCR performance for a non-uniform ammonia concentration profile at the inlet. The performance of SCR is evaluated using DeNO x efficiency and ammonia slip

  6. Tunable pinning effects produced by non-uniform antidot arrays in YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.; Jones, A.; Al-Qurainy, M. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Fedoseev, S.A. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Rosenfeld, A. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Pan, A.V. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Uniform, graded and spaced arrays of 3 μm triangular antidots in pulsed laser deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) superconducting thin films are compared by examining the improvements in the critical current density J{sub c} they produced. The comparison is made to establish the role of their lithographically defined (non-)uniformity and the effectiveness to control and/or enhance the critical current density. It is found that almost all types of non-uniform arrays, including graded ones enhance J{sub c} over the broad applied magnetic field and temperature range due to the modified critical state. Whereas uniform arrays of antidots either reduce or produce no effect on J{sub c} compared to the original (as-deposited) thin films. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)

  8. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  9. Many-junction photovoltaic device performance under non-uniform high-concentration illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wilkins, Matthew M.; Chahal, Sanmeet S.; Proulx, Francine; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-09-01

    A parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxial vertically-stacked pn junctions. PPC devices are designed with many pn junctions to realize higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. Performance impacts of non-uniform illumination were greatly reduced with increasing number of junctions, with simulations comparing PPC devices with 3 to 20 junctions. Experimental results using Azastra Opto's 12- and 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser show high performance even with a small gap between the PPC and optical fiber output, until the local tunnel junction limit is reached.

  10. Nonuniform Overlapping Method in Designing Microstrip Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Jeevani W. Jayasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA has been a popular optimization technique used for performance improvement of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs. When using GA, the patch geometry is optimized by dividing the patch area into small rectangular cells. This has an inherent problem of adjacent cells being connected to each other with infinitesimal connections, which may not be achievable in practice due to fabrication tolerances in chemical etching. As a solution, this paper presents a novel method of dividing the patch area into cells with nonuniform overlaps. The optimized design, which is obtained by using fixed overlap sizes, shows a quad-band performance covering GSM1800, GSM1900, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bands. In contrast, use of nonuniform overlap sizes leads to obtaining a pentaband design covering GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bandswith fractional bands with of 38% due to the extra design flexibility.

  11. Series-nonuniform rational B-spline signal feedback: From chaos to any embedded periodic orbit or target point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Chenxi, E-mail: cxshao@ustc.edu.cn; Xue, Yong; Fang, Fang; Bai, Fangzhou [Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Yin, Peifeng [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States); Wang, Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The self-controlling feedback control method requires an external periodic oscillator with special design, which is technically challenging. This paper proposes a chaos control method based on time series non-uniform rational B-splines (SNURBS for short) signal feedback. It first builds the chaos phase diagram or chaotic attractor with the sampled chaotic time series and any target orbit can then be explicitly chosen according to the actual demand. Second, we use the discrete timing sequence selected from the specific target orbit to build the corresponding external SNURBS chaos periodic signal, whose difference from the system current output is used as the feedback control signal. Finally, by properly adjusting the feedback weight, we can quickly lead the system to an expected status. We demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of our method by applying it to two classic chaotic systems, i.e., the Van der Pol oscillator and the Lorenz chaotic system. Further, our experimental results show that compared with delayed feedback control, our method takes less time to obtain the target point or periodic orbit (from the starting point) and that its parameters can be fine-tuned more easily.

  12. Synthesis of Non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics and Their Thermoelectric Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Darroudi, Taghi; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics via a combination of solid state reaction and spark plasma sintering techniques. Polycrystalline ceramics possessing a unique morphology can be achieved by optimizing the process parameters, particularly spark plasma sintering heating rate. The phase and morphology of the synthesized ceramics were investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy It was observed that the grains of these bulk Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics were enhanced with Pr-rich grain boundaries. Electronic and thermal transport properties were also investigated as a function of temperature and doping concentration Such a microstructure was found to give rise to improved thermoelectric properties. Specifically, it resulted in a significant improvement in carrier mobility and the thermoelectric power factor. Simultaneously, it also led to a marked reduction in the thermal conductivity. As a result, a significant improvement (> 30%) in the thermoelectric figure of merit was achieved for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values for SrTiO3-based ceramics. This synthesis demonstrates the steps for the preparation of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3.

  13. Synthesis of Non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics and Their Thermoelectric Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate a novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics via a combination of solid state reaction and spark plasma sintering techniques. Polycrystalline ceramics possessing a unique morphology can be achieved by optimizing the process parameters, particularly spark plasma sintering heating rate. The phase and morphology of the synthesized ceramics were investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy It was observed that the grains of these bulk Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics were enhanced with Pr-rich grain boundaries. Electronic and thermal transport properties were also investigated as a function of temperature and doping concentration Such a microstructure was found to give rise to improved thermoelectric properties. Specifically, it resulted in a significant improvement in carrier mobility and the thermoelectric power factor. Simultaneously, it also led to a marked reduction in the thermal conductivity. As a result, a significant improvement (> 30%) in the thermoelectric figure of merit was achieved for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values for SrTiO3-based ceramics. This synthesis demonstrates the steps for the preparation of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3.

  14. Series-nonuniform rational B-spline signal feedback: From chaos to any embedded periodic orbit or target point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenxi; Xue, Yong; Fang, Fang; Bai, Fangzhou; Yin, Peifeng; Wang, Binghong

    2015-07-01

    The self-controlling feedback control method requires an external periodic oscillator with special design, which is technically challenging. This paper proposes a chaos control method based on time series non-uniform rational B-splines (SNURBS for short) signal feedback. It first builds the chaos phase diagram or chaotic attractor with the sampled chaotic time series and any target orbit can then be explicitly chosen according to the actual demand. Second, we use the discrete timing sequence selected from the specific target orbit to build the corresponding external SNURBS chaos periodic signal, whose difference from the system current output is used as the feedback control signal. Finally, by properly adjusting the feedback weight, we can quickly lead the system to an expected status. We demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of our method by applying it to two classic chaotic systems, i.e., the Van der Pol oscillator and the Lorenz chaotic system. Further, our experimental results show that compared with delayed feedback control, our method takes less time to obtain the target point or periodic orbit (from the starting point) and that its parameters can be fine-tuned more easily.

  15. 3.0 Tesla high spatial resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the pulmonary circulation: initial experience with a 32-channel phased array coil using a high relaxivity contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nael, Kambiz; Fenchel, Michael; Krishnam, Mayil; Finn, J Paul; Laub, Gerhard; Ruehm, Stefan G

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility of high spatial resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) with highly accelerated parallel acquisition at 3.0 T using a 32-channel phased array coil, and a high relaxivity contrast agent. Ten adult healthy volunteers (5 men, 5 women, aged 21-66 years) underwent high spatial resolution CE-MRA of the pulmonary circulation. Imaging was performed at 3 T using a 32-channel phase array coil. After intravenous injection of 1 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) at 1.5 mL/s, a timing bolus was used to measure the transit time from the arm vein to the main pulmonary artery. Subsequently following intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-BOPTA at the same rate, isotropic high spatial resolution data sets (1 x 1 x 1 mm3) CE-MRA of the entire pulmonary circulation were acquired using a fast gradient-recalled echo sequence (TR/TE 3/1.2 milliseconds, FA 18 degrees) and highly accelerated parallel acquisition (GRAPPA x 6) during a 20-second breath hold. The presence of artifact, noise, and image quality of the pulmonary arterial segments were evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. Phantom measurements were performed to assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Statistical analysis of data was performed by using Wilcoxon rank sum test and 2-sample Student t test. The interobserver variability was tested by kappa coefficient. All studies were of diagnostic quality as determined by both observers. The pulmonary arteries were routinely identified up to fifth-order branches, with definition in the diagnostic range and excellent interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.90). Phantom measurements showed significantly lower SNR (P < 0.01) using GRAPPA (17.3 +/- 18.8) compared with measurements without parallel acquisition (58 +/- 49.4). The described 3 T CE-MRA protocol in addition to high T1 relaxivity of Gd-BOPTA provides sufficient SNR to support highly accelerated parallel acquisition

  16. Thermomagnetic force acting on an ellipsoidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naletova, V.A.; Kvitantsev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A prolate spheroidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid in an applied magnetic field has been considered. The expressions for the pressure and velocity of the liquid, temperature and magnetic field have been obtained. The formula for a thermomagnetic force acting on the body has been calculated. It has been shown that the body shape needs to be taken into account when we study the thermomagnetic diffusion of the prolate bodies

  17. Research of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners for measuring flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Duanzhong; Zhong Dezhen; Cai Zhuti

    1989-01-01

    Standard throttling flowmeters are widely used in process flow rate measurement. Enough upstream and downstream straight pipe are necessary for it. If not, the error will be increased. Mounting straightener is an effective way for solving this problem. Advantages of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners studied by authors are good results for straighting, simple in Structure, convenient for mounting and low cost. So it can be popularized in many applications

  18. The use of non-uniform drowning terminology: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew C; Sempsrott, Justin R; Szpilman, David; Queiroga, Ana Catarina; Davison, Matt S; Zeigler, Ryan J; McAlister, Sean J

    2017-07-17

    In 2002, the World Congress on Drowning developed a uniform definition for drowning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of "non-uniform drowning terminology" (NUDT) and "non-uniform drowning definitions" (NUDD) in peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2010 to 2016, and compare these findings with those from our unpublished study performing a similar analysis on literature from 2003 to 2010. A systematic review was performed using drowning-specific search terms in Pubmed and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts published between July 2010 and January 2016 were screened for relevance to the study focus. Articles meeting screening criteria were reviewed for exclusion criteria to produce the final group of studies. These articles were reviewed by four reviewers for NUDT and NUDD. The Fisher exact test was used to determine any statistically significant changes. The final group of studies included 167 articles. A total of 53 articles (32%) utilized NUDT, with 100% of these including the term "near drowning". The proportion of articles utilizing NUDT was significantly less than reported by our previous study (p drowning (uniform or non-uniform), with 15% of these utilizing NUDD. Our study reveals a statistically significant improvement over the past thirteen years in the use of uniform drowning terminology in peer-reviewed scientific literature, although year-to-year variability over the current study period does not yield an obvious trend. Of the articles reviewed during the 2010-2016 study period, 32% included outdated and non-uniform drowning terminology and definitions. While this reveals an absolute decrease of 11% as compared with the previous study period (2003-2010), there is still significant room for improvement.

  19. A splitting algorithm for the wavelet transform of cubic splines on a nonuniform grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimanov, Z. M.; Shumilov, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    For cubic splines with nonuniform nodes, splitting with respect to the even and odd nodes is used to obtain a wavelet expansion algorithm in the form of the solution to a three-diagonal system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients. Computations by hand are used to investigate the application of this algorithm for numerical differentiation. The results are illustrated by solving a prediction problem.

  20. Influence of Non-uniform Temperature Field on Spectra of Fibre Bragg Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhou; Xing-Fang, He; Xiao-Yong, Fang; Jie, Yuan; Li-Qun, Yin; Mao-Sheng, Cao

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the spectrum characteristics of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) with non-uniform temperature using the transmission matrix method, and the results are analysed. It is found that firstly the modulated coefficient of average refractive index is a very important parameter that influences the spectrum characteristic of the fibre Bragg grating, and secondly the spectrum curves are different in different temperature fields at the same parameter. Hence, we can determine the metrical temperature by analysing the spectrum of fibre Bragg grating

  1. Experience with nonuniform damping in the seismic analysis of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; Julyk, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Individual components of nuclear power plants may exhibit pronounced differences in damping magnitude. Various methods for accounting for nonuniform damping in a structural model are reviewed and evaluated. The methods are compared by solving a beam/pipe model subjected to a typical seismic ground motion. A two-degree-of-freedom variable damping parameter study is also presented. Based upon the experience of evaluating and applying the available methods, application guidelines are presented

  2. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  3. Elucidation of the Dynamics for Hot-Spot Initiation at Nonuniform Interfaces of Highly Shocked Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    with nonuniform interfaces plays an essential role in the interfacial instabilities in iner- tial confinement fusion (ICF), in shock-induced...involved in interfacial instabilities at the atomic scale, providing insights on such phenomenon. Thus ReaxFF provides the possibility of realistic...on the IPDI and DOA to determine the charges and structures for the binder model. These QM results and model preparation procedure are provided as part

  4. On the Super-Turing Computational Power of Non-Uniform Families of Neuromata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2002), s. 509-516 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2002 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 28.11.2002-29.11.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : neuromata * Turing machines with advice * non-uniform computational complexity * super-Turing computational power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Mixed Non-Uniform Width / Evanescent Mode Ceramic Resonator Waveguide Filter With Wide Spurious Free Bandwidth

    OpenAIRE

    Afridi, S; Sandhu, M; Hunter, I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the spurious performance of integrated ceramic waveguide filters. Nonuniform width ceramic waveguide resonator and evanescent mode ceramic resonators are employed together to the resonant frequencies of higher order modes. The proposed designs give 75% improvement in stop band response when compared to uniform width ceramic waveguide filter. Simulated results of two six pole chebyshev filters are presented here with improved stop band performance.

  6. Numerical modeling of positive streamer in air in nonuniform fields: Efficiency of radicals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated

  7. Enceladus's crust as a non-uniform thin shell: I tidal deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2018-03-01

    The geologic activity at Enceladus's south pole remains unexplained, though tidal deformations are probably the ultimate cause. Recent gravity and libration data indicate that Enceladus's icy crust floats on a global ocean, is rather thin, and has a strongly non-uniform thickness. Tidal effects are enhanced by crustal thinning at the south pole, so that realistic models of tidal tectonics and dissipation should take into account the lateral variations of shell structure. I construct here the theory of non-uniform viscoelastic thin shells, allowing for depth-dependent rheology and large lateral variations of shell thickness and rheology. Coupling to tides yields two 2D linear partial differential equations of the fourth order on the sphere which take into account self-gravity, density stratification below the shell, and core viscoelasticity. If the shell is laterally uniform, the solution agrees with analytical formulas for tidal Love numbers; errors on displacements and stresses are less than 5% and 15%, respectively, if the thickness is less than 10% of the radius. If the shell is non-uniform, the tidal thin shell equations are solved as a system of coupled linear equations in a spherical harmonic basis. Compared to finite element models, thin shell predictions are similar for the deformations due to Enceladus's pressurized ocean, but differ for the tides of Ganymede. If Enceladus's shell is conductive with isostatic thickness variations, surface stresses are approximately inversely proportional to the local shell thickness. The radial tide is only moderately enhanced at the south pole. The combination of crustal thinning and convection below the poles can amplify south polar stresses by a factor of 10, but it cannot explain the apparent time lag between the maximum plume brightness and the opening of tiger stripes. In a second paper, I will study the impact of a non-uniform crust on tidal dissipation.

  8. Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)

  9. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012

  10. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  11. 3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.

  12. Characterization of nonuniform chaos in area-preserving nonlinear maps through a continuous archetype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerbelli, S.; Giona, M.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations conducted over a wealth of nonlinear area-preserving smooth maps (e.g. the Standard Map) showed that these systems possess physically relevant features that are not captured by any continuous archetype of two-dimensional conservative dynamics. Among these properties are the dispersive behavior of stretch factor statistics, the multifractal character of the measure associated with invariant foliations, the sign-alternating property, accounting for the nestedly bent structure of invariant foliations, and the strict inequality between the topological entropy, h top , and the Lyapunov exponent, Λ. We refer to systems possessing all of these properties as nonuniformly chaotic. In this article, we present a globally continuous, piecewise-smooth area-preserving transformation, the toral homeomorphism H, as an archetype of nonuniformly chaotic behavior. The relatively simple structure of point set dynamics and the closed-form knowledge of the pointwise expanding and contracting invariant directions associated with H, permits to derive either analytically, or with arbitrary numerical precision, the standard chaotic properties as well as the dynamics of the physically relevant properties that define nonuniform chaos. Potentialities and limitations of the model proposed in representing geometric and statistical properties of physically relevant smooth systems are discussed in detail

  13. Characterization and Processing of Non-Uniformities in Back-Illuminated CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Alia D.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Maddocks, Sally

    2018-01-01

    In astronomical photometry, Charged Coupled Device (CCD) detectors are used to achieve high precision photometry and must be properly calibrated to correct for noise and pixel non-uniformities. Uncalibrated images may contain bias offset, dark current, bias structure and uneven illumination. In addition, standard data reduction is often not sufficient to “normalize” imagery to single-digit millimagnitude (mmag) precision. We are investigating an apparent non-uniformity, or interference pattern, in a back-illuminated sensor, the Alta U-47, attached to a DFM Engineering 41-cm Ritchey-Chrétien f/8 telescope. Based on the amplitude of this effect, we estimate that instrument magnitude peak-to-valley deviations of 50 mmag or more may result. Our initial testing strongly suggests that reflected skylight from high pressure sodium city lights may be the cause of this interference pattern. Our research goals are twofold: to fully characterize this non-uniformity and to determine the best method to remove this interference pattern from our reduced CCD images.

  14. Synergistic nonuniform shortening of atrial refractory period induced by autonomic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, M; Furukawa, Y; Narita, M; Ren, L M; Karasawa, Y; Murakami, M; Chiba, S

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the nonuniform effects of autonomic nerve stimulation of the effective refractory period (ERP) of the right atrium in the anesthetized dog. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac sympathetic nerves to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal region uniformly shortened ERPs at three sites in the right atrium after administration of atropine. Right ansa subclavia (RS) stimulation similarly shortened ERPs in the absence of atropine. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac parasympathetic nerves to the SA nodal region (SAP stimulation) shortened ERPs of the right atrium in a nonuniform manner. Simultaneous RS and SAP stimulation additively shortened ERPs at each site and decreased sinus rate much more than SAP stimulation alone. Shortening of ERP induced by SAP stimulation was greater than that induced by RS stimulation at similar absolute changes in heart rate. These results suggest that simultaneous activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves nonuniformly shortens the ERP in the right atrium as the algebraic sum of the individual responses to each stimulation. However, parasympathetics exert the principal neural control over atrial ERP.

  15. Test stand for non-uniformity correction of microbolometer focal plane arrays used in thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kastek, Mariusz

    2013-10-01

    Uneven response of particular detectors (pixels) to the same incident power of infrared radiation is an inherent feature of microbolometer focal plane arrays. As a result an image degradation occurs, known as Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), which distorts the thermal representation of an observed scene and impairs the parameters of a thermal camera. In order to compensate such non-uniformity, several NUC correction methods are applied in digital data processing modules implemented in thermal cameras. Coefficients required to perform the non-uniformity correction procedure (NUC coefficients) are determined by calibrating the camera against uniform radiation sources (blackbodies). Non-uniformity correction is performed in a digital processing unit in order to remove FPN pattern in the registered thermal images. Relevant correction coefficients are calculated on the basis of recorded detector responses to several values of radiant flux emitted from reference IR radiation sources (blackbodies). The measurement of correction coefficients requires specialized setup, in which uniform, extended radiation sources with high temperature stability are one of key elements. Measurement stand for NUC correction developed in Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT, comprises two integrated extended blackbodies with the following specifications: area 200×200 mm, stabilized absolute temperature range +15 °C÷100 °C, and uniformity of temperature distribution across entire surface +/-0.014 °C. Test stand, method used for the measurement of NUC coefficients and the results obtained during the measurements conducted on a prototype thermal camera will be presented in the paper.

  16. Impulsive response of nonuniform density liquid in a laterally excited tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.; Chang, Y.W.

    1994-04-01

    A study on the impulsive component of the dynamic response of a liquid of nonuniform density in a tank undergoing lateral base excitations is presented. The system considered is a circular cylindrical tank containing an incompressible and inviscid liquid whose density increases with the liquid depth. The density distribution along the depth can be of any arbitrary continuous or discontinuous function. In the analysis, the liquid field is divided into n layers. The thickness of the liquid layers can be different, but the density of each liquid layer is considered to be uniform and is equal to the value of the original liquid density at the mid-height of that layer. The problem is solved by the eigenfunction expansion in conjunction with the transfer matrix technique. The effect of the nonuniform liquid density on the impulsive component of the dynamic response is illustrated in a numerical example in which the linear and cosine distributions of the liquid density are assumed. The response quantities examined include the impulsive pressure, base shear and moments. The results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. It is found that the impulsive pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the density, and the base shear and moments for the nonuniform liquid can be estimated by assuming an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. The effect of tank flexibility is assessed by a simple approach in which the response quantities for flexible tanks are evaluated by simplified equations

  17. Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB using canonic signed digit (CSD coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB.

  18. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjeres, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery

  19. Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia

    2016-08-01

    The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.

  20. On the burnout in annular channels at non-uniform heat release distribution in length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornatskij, A.P.; Chernobaj, V.A.; Vasil'ev, A.F.; Struts, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of axial heat release non-uniformity on the conditions of the burnout in annular channels is investigated. The investigation is carried out in annular channels with different laws of heat flux density distribution by channel length. The heat release non-uniformity coefficient was varied from 4.4 to 10, the pressure from 9.8 to 17.6 MPa, mass rate from 500 to 1700 kg (m 2 xS), liquid temperature (chemically desalted water) at the channel inlet constituted 30-300 deg C. The experiments have been performed at the test bench with a closed circulation circuit. The data obtained testify to the fact that under non-uniform heat release the influence of main operating parameters on the value of critical power is of the same character as under uniform heat release. The character of wall temperature variation by channel length before the burnout is determined by the form of heat supply temperature profile. The temperature maximum is observed in the region lying behind the cross section with maximum heat flux. The conclusion is drawn that the dominant influence on the position of the cross section in which the burnout arises is exerted by the form of heat flux density distribution by length. Independently of this distribution form the burnout developes when the vapour content near the wall reaches a limiting value

  1. Distributed ISAR Subimage Fusion of Nonuniform Rotating Target Based on Matching Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yaowen; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2018-06-04

    In real applications, the image quality of the conventional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for the maneuvering target is subject to the strong fluctuation of Radar Cross Section (RCS), as the target aspect varies enormously. Meanwhile, the maneuvering target introduces nonuniform rotation after translation motion compensation which degrades the imaging performance of the conventional Fourier Transform (FT)-based method in the cross-range dimension. In this paper, a method which combines the distributed ISAR technique and the Matching Fourier Transform (MFT) is proposed to overcome these problems. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the distributed ISAR, the multiple channel echoes of the nonuniform rotation target from different observation angles can be acquired. Then, by applying the MFT to the echo of each channel, the defocused problem of nonuniform rotation target which is inevitable by using the FT-based imaging method can be avoided. Finally, after preprocessing, scaling and rotation of all subimages, the noncoherent fusion image containing all the RCS information in all channels can be obtained. The accumulation coefficients of all subimages are calculated adaptively according to the their image qualities. Simulation and experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and fusion image with improved recognizability can be obtained. Therefore, by using the distributed ISAR technique and MFT, subimages of high-maneuvering target from different observation angles can be obtained. Meanwhile, by employing the adaptive subimage fusion method, the RCS fluctuation can be alleviated and more recognizable final image can be obtained.

  2. The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-03-01

    When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.

  3. On-site processing systems for determination of the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in microtremors using the spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho wo mochiita bidochu no Rayleigh ha iso sokudo no genba kettei system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T; Umezawa, N [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To render the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method easier to use, a system has been constructed that can be used with ease on the site for the calculation of phase velocities. This system can perform two observation methods of the same frequency characteristics, that is, the simultaneous multi-point observation and one-point independent observation. The pickup is a velocity type seismograph of a natural period of 1 second that has been so electrically adjusted as to work on an apparent natural period of 7 seconds. Among the frequency characteristics, those related to phase are regarded as important because the SAC method is based on the measurement of coherence between two points. The analysis software runs on a waveform processing software DADiSP/WIN designed for personal computers. To know the operability of this system on the site and to accumulate records using the SAC method, observations were made at the depth of 100-500m at 6 locations in Saitama Prefecture where the underground structure was known thanks to prior PS logging. As the result, a dispersion curve was obtained by use of an array of appropriate dimensions at every location agreeing with the underground structure. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  5. Gas-Dynamic Methods to Reduce Gas Flow Nonuniformity from the Annular Frames of Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and consequently to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. Based on existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.

  6. Numerical Prediction of the Impact of Non-Uniform Leading Edge Coatings On the Aerodynamic Performance of Compressor Airfoils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmstrom, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation is presented that provides predictions of the aerodynamic impact of uniform and non-uniform coatings applied to the leading edge of a compressor airfoil in a cascade. Using a NACA 65(12...

  7. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  8. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed through a Nonuniform Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Aldering, G.; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.

    2017-11-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the nonuniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (≳ 10 {pc}) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of an SN photosphere. Therefore, the typical amplitude of time variation due to a nonuniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths, and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that nonuniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power-law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  9. The non-uniformity correction factor for the cylindrical ionization chambers in dosimetry of an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Bishnu; Patel, Narayan Prasad; Vijayan, V.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to derive the non-uniformity correction factor for the two therapy ionization chambers for the dose measurement near the brachytherapy source. The two ionization chambers of 0.6 cc and 0.1 cc volume were used. The measurement in air was performed for distances between 0.8 cm and 20 cm from the source in specially designed measurement jig. The non-uniformity correction factors were derived from the measured values. The experimentally derived factors were compared with the theoretically calculated non-uniformity correction factors and a close agreement was found between these two studies. The experimentally derived non-uniformity correction factor supports the anisotropic theory. (author)

  10. A two-dimensional finite element model of front surface current flow in cells under non-uniform, concentrated illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)

  11. Detecting oscillatory patterns and time lags from proxy records with non-uniform sampling: Some pitfalls and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik

    2013-04-01

    Time series analysis offers a rich toolbox for deciphering information from high-resolution geological and geomorphological archives and linking the thus obtained results to distinct climate and environmental processes. Specifically, on various time-scales from inter-annual to multi-millenial, underlying driving forces exhibit more or less periodic oscillations, the detection of which in proxy records often allows linking them to specific mechanisms by which the corresponding drivers may have affected the archive under study. A persistent problem in geomorphology is that available records do not present a clear signal of the variability of environmental conditions, but exhibit considerable uncertainties of both the measured proxy variables and the associated age model. Particularly, time-scale uncertainty as well as the heterogeneity of sampling in the time domain are source of severe conceptual problems that may lead to false conclusions about the presence or absence of oscillatory patterns and their mutual phasing in different archives. In my presentation, I will discuss how one can cope with non-uniformly sampled proxy records to detect and quantify oscillatory patterns in one or more data sets. For this purpose, correlation analysis is reformulated using kernel estimates which are found superior to classical estimators based on interpolation or Fourier transform techniques. In order to characterize non-stationary or noisy periodicities and their relative phasing between different records, an extension of continuous wavelet transform is utilized. The performance of both methods is illustrated for different case studies. An extension to explicitly considering time-scale uncertainties by means of Bayesian techniques is briefly outlined.

  12. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  13. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  14. Spontaneous phase transitions in magnetic films with a modulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Evtikhov, M. G.; Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of monoperiodic and biperiodic bias fields on the nucleation of domain structures in quasi-uniaxial magnetic films near the Curie point has been studied experimentally. The main types of observed nonuniform magnetic moment distributions have been established and chains of a devil’s staircase phase transitions are shown to be realized when the films are slowly cooled.

  15. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  16. Large eddy simulation of a buoyancy-aided flow in a non-uniform channel – Buoyancy effects on large flow structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or

  17. Prevention of Bridge Scour with Non-uniform Circular Piers Plane under Steady Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Ting; Wang, Chuan-Yi

    2017-04-01

    River bed scour and deposit variation extremely severe because of most of rivers are steep and rapid flows, and river discharge extremely unstable and highly unsteady during different seasons in Taiwan. In addition to the obstruction of piers foundation, it causes local scour and threatens the safety of bridges. In the past, riprap, wire gabion or wrap pier works were adopted as the protections of piers foundation, but there were no effectual outcomes. The events of break off piers still happen sometimes. For example, typhoon Kalmaegi (2008) and Morakot (2009) caused heavy damages on Ho-Fon bridge in the Da-jia river and Shuang-Yuan bridge in the Kao-Ping river, respectively. Accordingly, to understand the piers scour system and propose an appropriate protection of piers foundation becomes an important topic for this study currently. This research improves the protection works of the existing uniform bridge pier (diameter D) to ensure the safety of the bridge. The non-uniform plane of circular piers (diameter D*) are placed on the top of a bridge pier foundation to reduce the down flow impacting energy and scour by its' surface roughness characteristics. This study utilize hydraulic models to simulate local scour depth and scour depth change with time for non-uniform pier diameter ratio D/D* of 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7 and 0.8, and different type pier and initial bed level (Y) relative under the foundation top elevation under steady flows of V/Vc=0.95,0.80 and 0.65. The research results show that the scour depth increases with an increase of flow intensity (V/Vc) under different types of steady flow hydrographs. The scour depth decreases with increase of initial bed level (Y=+0.2D*,0D*and -0.2D*) relative under the foundation top elevation of the different type pier. The maximum scour depth occurred in the front of the pier for all conditions. Because of the scouring retardation by the non-uniform plane of foundation, the scour depth is reduced for the un-exposed bridge

  18. How nonuniform contact profiles of T cell receptors modulate thymic selection outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanrong; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kardar, Mehran

    2018-03-01

    T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies. Past theoretical work cast thymic selection as an extreme value problem and characterized the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids in the postselection TCR repertoire, showing how T cells are selected to be able to specifically recognize peptides derived from diverse pathogens yet have limited self-reactivity. Here, we investigate how the diversity of the postselection TCR repertoire is modified when TCRs make nonuniform contacts with peptide-MHC. Specifically, we were motivated by recent experiments showing that amino acids at certain positions of a TCR sequence have large effects on thymic selection outcomes, and crystal structure data that reveal a nonuniform contact profile between a TCR and its peptide-MHC ligand. Using a representative TCR contact profile as an illustration, we show via simulations that the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids now varies by position according to the contact profile, and, importantly, it depends on the implementation of nonuniform contacts during thymic selection. We explain these nontrivial results analytically. Our study has implications for understanding the selection forces that shape the functionality of the postselection TCR repertoire.

  19. Efficient SPECT scatter calculation in non-uniform media using correlated Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate simulation of scatter in projection data of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is computationally extremely demanding for activity distribution in non-uniform dense media. This paper suggests how the computation time and memory requirements can be significantly reduced. First the scatter projection of a uniform dense object (P SDSE ) is calculated using a previously developed accurate and fast method which includes all orders of scatter (slab-derived scatter estimation), and then P SDSE is transformed towards the desired projection P which is based on the non-uniform object. The transform of P SDSE is based on two first-order Compton scatter Monte Carlo (MC) simulated projections. One is based on the uniform object (P u ) and the other on the object with non-uniformities (P ν ). P is estimated by P-tilde=P SDSE P ν /P u . A tremendous decrease in noise in P-tilde is achieved by tracking photon paths for P ν identical to those which were tracked for the calculation of P u and by using analytical rather than stochastic modelling of the collimator. The method was validated by comparing the results with standard MC-simulated scatter projections (P) of 99m Tc and 201 Tl point sources in a digital thorax phantom. After correction, excellent agreement was obtained between P-tilde and P. The total computation time required to calculate an accurate scatter projection of an extended distribution in a thorax phantom on a PC is a only few tens of seconds per projection, which makes the method attractive for application in accurate scatter correction in clinical SPECT. Furthermore, the method removes the need of excessive computer memory involved with previously proposed 3D model-based scatter correction methods. (author)

  20. Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki

    2001-09-01

    Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions.

  1. Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki

    2001-09-01

    Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions

  2. Ultrasonic backscatter imaging by shear-wave-induced echo phase encoding of target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for ultrasound backscatter image formation wherein lateral resolution of the target is obtained by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of targets in the phase of the received echo. We demonstrate that the phase modulation as a function of shear wavenumber can be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform of the lateral component of the target echogenicity. The inverse transform, obtained by measurements of the phase modulation over a range of shear wave spatial frequencies, yields the lateral scatterer distribution. Range data are recovered from time of flight as in conventional ultrasound, yielding a B-mode-like image. In contrast to conventional ultrasound imaging, where mechanical or electronic focusing is used and lateral resolution is determined by aperture size and wavelength, we demonstrate that lateral resolution using the proposed method is independent of the properties of the aperture. Lateral resolution of the target is achieved using a stationary, unfocused, single-element transducer. We present simulated images of targets of uniform and non-uniform shear modulus. Compounding for speckle reduction is demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrate image formation with an unfocused transducer in gelatin phantoms of uniform shear modulus.

  3. A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, Michael; Hornegger, Joachim; Zheng Yefeng; Comaniciu, Dorin; Huber, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average

  4. Three-phase boundary length in solid-oxide fuel cells: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    A mathematical model to calculate the volume specific three-phase boundary length in the porous composite electrodes of solid-oxide fuel cell is presented. The model is exclusively based on geometrical considerations accounting for porosity, particle diameter, particle size distribution, and solids phase distribution. Results are presented for uniform particle size distribution as well as for non-uniform particle size distribution.

  5. The importance of non-uniform dose-distribution in an organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    The recent revival of interest in the 'hot particle' problem, especially as regards particulate plutonium and other actinide elements in the lung, stimulated the preparation of this paper. Non-uniformity of dose-distribution has been of concern to standards-setting bodies and other groups such as the National Academy of Sciences and to health protectionists for many years. This paper reviews data from animal experiments that are used by some to implicate particulate plutonium as being especially hazardous to man. Other relevant biological data are also discussed. (author)

  6. Wetting layer and void fraction nonuniformity in a liquid-metal MHD generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branover, H.; Yakhot, A.

    1981-01-01

    The quetion of the effect of a liquid layer on the walls of an MHD channel in the case of uniform void fraction distribution in the flow core was first considered several years ago. More recently an analytic solution for high Hartmann numbers was obtained, which led to the conclusion that this layer does not have a significant effect on the efficiency of large generators. This paper postulates an analytic model which makes it possible to estimate the effect of a void fraction nonuniformity, in the presence of the wetting layer on the walls, on the generator performance. 3 refs

  7. The effect of nanoparticle nonuniformity on the ratio of gyration and hydrodynamic radiuses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2017), s. 112-117 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24504; AV ČR(CZ) ASRT-16-02 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : diffusion coefficient * nanoparticles * nonuniformity correction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2015

  8. Non-uniform absorption of terahertz radiation on superconducting hot electron bolometer microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, W.; Zhang, W.; Zhong, J. Q.; Shi, S. C.; Delorme, Y.; Lefevre, R.; Feret, A.; Vacelet, T.

    2014-01-01

    We interpret the experimental observation of a frequency-dependence of superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers by taking into account the non-uniform absorption of the terahertz radiation on the superconducting HEB microbridge. The radiation absorption is assumed to be proportional to the local surface resistance of the HEB microbridge, which is computed using the Mattis-Bardeen theory. With this assumption the dc and mixing characteristics of a superconducting niobium-nitride (NbN) HEB device have been modeled at frequencies below and above the equilibrium gap frequency of the NbN film

  9. The effect of non-uniform fuel rod temperatures on effective resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, A.

    1961-06-01

    The effective resonance integral for heterogeneous lattices can be reduced to the effective resonance integral for an equivalent homogeneous system with a fairly well defined error depending on lump size and geometry. This report investigates the effect of a radial parabolic temperature variation in cylindrical lumps on the equivalent homogeneous effective resonance integral. Also determined is the equivalent uniform temperature to be taken in the usual formulae to allow for non-uniform fuel rod temperature. This effective temperature is found to be T eff. = T s + 4/9 (T c - T s ) where T s and T c are the surface and central temperatures of the lump. (author)

  10. Interpretation of UV radiometric measurements of spectrally non-uniform sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.; Gardner, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Narrow bandpass UV radiometers are used in a variety of high-temperature measurement applications. Significant systematic errors, in the form of an apparent wavelength shift in the system response curve, may be introduced when interpreting data obtained from spectrally nonuniform sources. Theoretical calculations, using transmission curves from commercially available narrow bandpass filters, show that the apparent shift in the system spectral response is a function of temperature for a blackbody source. A brief comparison between the theoretical analysis and experimentaal data is presented

  11. Optical security devices using nonuniform schlieren texture of UV-curable nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keizo; Ohtsubo, Junji

    2016-02-10

    We proposed and quantitatively evaluated an optical security device that provides nonuniform or random patterns of schlieren texture in nematic liquid crystal as unique identification information with a design by employing computer image processing and normalized cross correlation. Using the same photomask as the first author's university logo, the written patterns, which were composed of polymerized isotropic areas and polymerized nematic areas, were stable among different cells. Judging from the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.09, the patterns of the schlieren texture were unique in different cells. These results indicate that photocurable nematic liquid crystal materials have the potential to be applied to security devices for anticounterfeiting measures.

  12. Zonal flow excitation by Shukla-Varma modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling between the Shukla-Varma (SV) modes and the zonal flows in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is considered. By using a two-fluid model and the guiding center particle drifts, a pair of coupled mode equations is obtained. The latter are Fourier analyzed to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation, which exhibits the excitation of zonal flows by the ponderomotive force of the SV modes. The increment of the parametrically excited zonal flows is presented. The relevance of our investigation to laboratory and space plasmas is discussed

  13. Non-Uniform Free-Free Absorption in the GPS Radio Galaxy 0108+388

    CERN Document Server

    Marr, J M; Crawford, F

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the canonical gigahertz-peaked spectrum source 0108+388 with the VLBA at a range of frequencies above and below the spectral peak. The activity that dominates the radio emission from 0108+388, which is also classified as a Compact Symmetric Object, is thought to be less than 1000 years old. We present strong evidence that the spectral turnover in 0108+388 results from free-free absorption by non-uniform gas, possibly in the form of a disk in the central tens of parsecs.

  14. A mechanical model of a non-uniform ionomeric polymer metal composite actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Mart; Aabloo, Alvo; Punning, Andres; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a mechanical model of an IPMC (ionomeric polymer metal composite) actuator in a cantilever beam configuration. The main contribution of our model is that it gives the most detailed description reported so far of the quasistatic mechanical behaviour of the actuator with non-uniform bending at large deflections. We also investigate a case where part of an IPMC actuator is replaced with a rigid elongation and demonstrate that this configuration would make the actuator behave more linearly. The model is experimentally validated with MuscleSheet(TM) IPMCs, purchased from BioMimetics Inc

  15. Factorization of the hypergeometric-type difference equation on non-uniform lattices: dynamical algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Nodarse, R [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1160, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Atakishiyev, N M [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 273-3, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Germany); Costas-Santos, R S [Departamento de Matematicas, EPS, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Ave. Universidad 30, E-28911, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-01-07

    We argue that one can factorize the difference equation of hypergeometric type on non-uniform lattices in the general case. It is shown that in the most cases of q-linear spectrum of the eigenvalues, this directly leads to the dynamical symmetry algebra su{sub q}(1, 1), whose generators are explicitly constructed in terms of the difference operators, obtained in the process of factorization. Thus all models with the q-linear spectrum (some of them, but not all, previously considered in a number of publications) can be treated in a unified form.

  16. Initial particle loadings for a nonuniform simulation plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Sinji.

    1978-09-01

    Improved methods for initially loading particles in a magnetized simulation plasma with nonuniform density and temperature distributions are proposed. In the usual guiding center loading (GCL), a charge separation coming from finite Larmor radius effects remains due to the difference between the guiding center density and the actual density. The modified guiding center loading (MGCL) presented here eliminates the electric field so generated and can be used for arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Some applications of these methods to actual simulations are given for comparison. The significance of these methods of initial particle loadings is also discussed. (author)

  17. Non-uniformly polarized beams across their transverse profiles: an introductory study for undergraduate optics courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquero, Gemma; Vargas-Balbuena, Javier

    2004-01-01

    We provide a simple theoretical study of beams non-uniformly polarized across their transverse sections which can be introduced in undergraduate optics courses. In order to generate such beams we propose to use a slightly convergent (or divergent) linearly and uniformly polarized beam impinging on an anisotropic uniaxial material with the beam propagation direction along the optic axis. Analytical expressions for the Jones vector, Stokes parameters, ellipticity and azimuth at each point of the transverse section, perpendicular to the propagation direction, are obtained at the output of this system. By means of these parameters a detailed description of the state of polarization across the transverse profile is given

  18. A new correlation of non-uniformly heated round tube burnout data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.

    1966-07-01

    A new correlation of non-uniformly heated round tube burnout data is presented. This fits the available data better than any previously published correlation - the root-mean-square deviation being 5.7% for all data at 1000 p.s.i.a. and the worst fit being to data at 2000 p.s.i.a. where the r.m.s. error is 6.6%. The correlation is used to investigate the effect of flux profile changes and no significant increase in burnout power is obtained by modifying the present chopped cosine distribution. (author)

  19. The reliability of multistory buildings with the effect of non-uniform settlements of foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'Malul, Rafik; Gadzhuntsev, Michail

    2018-03-01

    The issue is the evaluation of reliability of construction considering the influence of the variation of the support settlement, which is changing during the lifetime of constructions due to the consolidation process of the ground. Recently, the specialists give special emphasis to the necessity to develop the methods for the estimation of reliability and durability of structures. The problem, the article considers, is the determination of the reliability of multistory buildings with non-uniform changing-in-time sediments caused by the consolidation process in soils. Failure of structures may occur before the draft reaches it`s stabilizing value, because of the violations of the conditions of normal use.

  20. Impact of roof height non-uniformity on pollutant transport between a street canyon and intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. - Highlights: • The pollutant transport strongly depends on the roof-height arrangement. • The non-uniform canyons also remove the pollutants through their lateral openings. • The higher the upstream wall, the more pollutant is removed through the top. • The lateral coherent structures correlate