WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatially distributed systems

  1. Measurement-Based Spatial Correlation and Capacity of Indoor Distributed MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed MIMO (D-MIMO system is one of the candidates for future wireless access networks. In this study, the spatial correlation and capacity in indoor D-MIMO system are presented. All results are from the actual channel measurements in typical indoor scenarios, including office and corridor. Based on measured data, spatial correlation coefficients between distributed transmitting antennas are analyzed. Although the literature about D-MIMO system assumes the small scale fading between distributed antennas is independent, we find that spatial correlation may still exist in specific propagation scenario. This correlation can also degrade the performance of D-MIMO system. To mitigate the impact of spatial correlation, one efficient method is to use transmitting antenna selection technique.

  2. Managing distributed dynamic systems with spatial grasp technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sapaty, Peter Simon

    2017-01-01

    The book describes a novel ideology and supporting information technology for integral management of both civil and defence-orientated large, distributed dynamic systems. The approach is based on a high-level Spatial Grasp Language, SGL, expressing solutions in physical, virtual, executive and combined environments in the form of active self-evolving and self-propagating patterns spatially matching the systems to be created, modified and controlled. The communicating interpreters of SGL can be installed in key system points, which may be in large numbers (up to millions and billions) and represent equipped humans, robots, laptops, smartphones, smart sensors, etc. Operating under gestalt-inspired scenarios in SGL initially injected from any points, these systems can be effectively converted into goal-driven spatial machines (rather than computers as dealing with physical matter too) capable of responding to numerous challenges caused by growing world dynamics in the 21st century. Including numerous practical e...

  3. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingqing [College of Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Huanyu [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Binhai Industrial Technology Research Institute of Zhejiang University, Tianjin 300000 (China); Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lou, Liping, E-mail: loulp@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda [Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH 45220 (United States); Hu, Baolan [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan [Shaoxing Water Environmental Science Institute Co. Ltd, Zhejiang 312000 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • First investigating the spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale. • Spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated their sources were different. • Three main factors effete the distribution of pollutants. • Organic deposits mainly included microbial and microalgae metabolites. - Abstract: In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600 mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  4. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First investigating the spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale. • Spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated their sources were different. • Three main factors effete the distribution of pollutants. • Organic deposits mainly included microbial and microalgae metabolites. - Abstract: In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600 mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  5. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-05

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Block scale interpretation on the spatial distribution of the fracture system in the study sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Geon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. This study aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fracture system in eastern and western-type granite rock mass. The spatial distribution characteristics of the fracture system around 500m depth has been estimated based on the homogeneous discontinuity domain except for the highly fractured upper zone. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  7. Hazard tolerance of spatially distributed complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Sarah; Wilkinson, Sean

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for quantifying the reliability of complex systems, using techniques from network graph theory. In recent years, network theory has been applied to many areas of research and has allowed us to gain insight into the behaviour of real systems that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to analyse, for example increasingly complex infrastructure systems. Although this work has made great advances in understanding complex systems, the vast majority of these studies only consider a systems topological reliability and largely ignore their spatial component. It has been shown that the omission of this spatial component can have potentially devastating consequences. In this paper, we propose a number of algorithms for generating a range of synthetic spatial networks with different topological and spatial characteristics and identify real-world networks that share the same characteristics. We assess the influence of nodal location and the spatial distribution of highly connected nodes on hazard tolerance by comparing our generic networks to benchmark networks. We discuss the relevance of these findings for real world networks and show that the combination of topological and spatial configurations renders many real world networks vulnerable to certain spatial hazards. - Highlights: • We develop a method for quantifying the reliability of real-world systems. • We assess the spatial resilience of synthetic spatially distributed networks. • We form algorithms to generate spatial scale-free and exponential networks. • We show how these “synthetic” networks are proxies for real world systems. • Conclude that many real world systems are vulnerable to spatially coherent hazard.

  8. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  9. Optimization of spatial light distribution through genetic algorithms for vision systems applied to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, P; Cecchini, S; Stroppa, L; Paone, N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes. (paper)

  10. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hong Sung; Chu, Chaeshin; Han, Dong Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea. Methods: A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations. Results: The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does...

  11. [Spatial distribution of occupational disease prevalence in Guangzhou and Foshan city by geographic information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q; Tu, H W; Gu, C H; Li, X D; Li, R Z; Wang, M; Chen, S G; Cheng, Y J; Liu, Y M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To explore the occupational disease spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou and Foshan city in 2006-2013 with Geographic Information System and to provide evidence for making control strategy. Methods: The data on occupational disease diagnosis in Guangzhou and Foshan city from 2006 through 2013 were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with Arc GIS12.0 software for spatial analysis. Results: The maps of occupational disease and Moran's spatial autocor-relation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in Shunde and Nanhai region with Moran's index 1.727, -0.003. Local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis pointed out the "positive high incidence re-gion" and the "negative high incidence region" during 2006~2013. Trend analysis showed that the diagnosis case increased slightly then declined from west to east, increase obviously from north to south, declined from? southwest to northeast, high in the middle and low on both sides in northwest-southeast direction. Conclusions: The occupational disease is obviously geographical distribution in Guangzhou and Foshan city. The corresponding prevention measures should be made according to the geographical distribution.

  12. A high spatial resolution distributed optical fiber grating sensing system based on OFDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Xiong, Yuchuan; Wen, Hongqiao; Tong, Xinlin; Zhang, Cui; Deng, Chengwei

    2017-10-01

    A distributed optical fiber grating sensing system with large capacity and high spatial resolution is presented. Since highdensity identical weak grating array was utilized as sensing fiber, the multiplexing number was greatly increased, meanwhile, optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technology was used to implement high resolution distributed sensing system. In order to eliminate the nonlinear effect of tunable light source, a windowed FFT algorithm based on cubic spline interpolation was applied. The feasibility of the algorithm was experimentally testified, ultimately, the spatial resolution of system can reach mm-level. The influence of the crosstalk signal in the grating array on the OFDR system was analyzed. A method that a long enough delay fiber was added before the first FBG to remove crosstalk signal was proposed. The experiment was verified using an optical fiber with 113 uniform Bragg gratings at an interval of 10cm whose reflectivity are less than 1%. It demonstrates that crosstalk signal and measurement signal can be completely separated in the distance domain after adding a long enough delay fiber. Finally, the temperature experiment of distributed grating sensing system was carried out. The results display that each raster's center wavelength in the fiber link is independent of each other and the center wavelength drift has a good linear relationship with the temperature. The sensitivity of linear fitting is equal to 11.1pm/°C.

  13. Optimal wind energy penetration in power systems: An approach based on spatial distribution of wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, Saeed; Riahy, Gholam H.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Golshannavaz, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronological wind speeds at distinct locations of the wind farm are not the same. • Spatial distribution of wind speed affects wind farm’s output power expectation. • Neglecting wind speed’s spatial doubt leads to mistake in wind energy penetration. • Scenario-based method can be used for effective wind capacity penetration level. - Abstract: Contributing in power system expansions, the present study establishes an efficient scheme for optimal integration of wind energy resources. The proposed approach highly concerns the spatial distribution of wind speed at different points of a wind farm. In mathematical statements, a suitable probability distribution function (PDF) is well-designed for representing such uncertainties. In such conditions, it is likely to have dissimilar output powers for individual and identical wind turbines. Thus, the overall aggregated PDF of a wind farm remarkably influences the critical parameters including the expected power and energy, capacity factor, and the reliability metrics such as loss of load expectation (LOLE) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). Furthermore, the proposed approach is deployed for optimal allocation of wind energy in bulk power systems. Hence, two typical test systems are numerically analyzed to interrogate the performance of the proposed approach. The conducted survey discloses an over/underestimation of harvestable wind energy in the case of overlooking spatial distributions. Thus, inaccurate amounts of wind farm’s capacity factor, output power, energy and reliability indices might be estimated. Meanwhile, the number of wind turbines may be misjudged to be installed. However, the proposed approach yields in a fair judgment regarding the overall performance of the wind farm. Consequently, a reliable penetration level of wind energy to the power system is assured. Extra discussions are provided to deeply assess the promising merits of the founded approach.

  14. In situ distributed diagnostics of flowable electrode systems: resolving spatial and temporal limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Gogotsi, Y; Kumbur, E C

    2014-09-14

    In this study, we have developed an in situ distributed diagnostics tool to investigate spatial and temporal effects in electrochemical systems based on flowable electrodes. Specifically, an experimental approach was developed that enables spatially-resolved voltage measurements to be obtained in situ, in real-time. To extract additional data from these distributed measurements, an experimentally-parameterized equivalent circuit model with a new 'flow capacitor' circuit element was developed to predict the distributions of various system parameters during operation. As a case study, this approach was applied to investigate the behavior of the suspension electrodes used in an electrochemical flow capacitor under flowing and static conditions. The volumetric capacitance is reduced from 15.6 F ml(-1) to 1.1 F ml(-1) under flowing conditions. Results indicate that the majority of the charging in suspension electrodes occurs within ∼750 μm of the current collectors during flow, which gives rise to significant state-of-charge gradients across the cell, as well as underutilization of the available active material. The underlying cause of this observation is attributed to the relatively high electrical resistance of the slurry coupled with a stratified charging regime and insufficient residence time. The observations highlight the need to develop more conductive slurries and to design cells with reduced charge transport lengths.

  15. Big Pylons: Mixed signals for transmission. Spatial planning for energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Heather; Hardy, Maelíosa; Lloyd, M. Greg; McGreal, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of a sustainable energy future raises many challenges in relation to energy distribution where a new understanding of spatial planning is needed in relation to energy production, consumption and storage. Understanding the emergent low carbon energy economy in terms of its production, distribution and consumption characteristics has prompted a deliberate spatial planning interest. This paper examines issues relating to spatial planning, regulation, political legitimacy and accountability in the current and future systems for energy distribution. In particular it examines the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland as a case study in terms of demonstrating the changing state–market–civil relations in an energy transition context with differentiated values and interests. The case study highlights implications for the regulation in the public interest of highly contested spaces, places and development schemes, together with a synopsis of government structure and change that is influencing the future of spatial planning and energy distribution in particular. - Highlights: • We examine links between spatial planning and regulation of energy distribution. • We examine the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland. • We highlight challenges surrounding the development of a resilient energy system. • We highlight links between spatial planning and infrastructural development

  16. High spatial resolution distributed fiber system for multi-parameter sensing based on modulated pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Shihong; Liu, Min; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-28

    We demonstrate a cost-effective distributed fiber sensing system for the multi-parameter detection of the vibration, the temperature, and the strain by integrating phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (φ-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (B-OTDR). Taking advantage of the fast changing property of the vibration and the static properties of the temperature and the strain, both the width and intensity of the laser pulses are modulated and injected into the single-mode sensing fiber proportionally, so that three concerned parameters can be extracted simultaneously by only one photo-detector and one data acquisition channel. A data processing method based on Gaussian window short time Fourier transform (G-STFT) is capable of achieving high spatial resolution in B-OTDR. The experimental results show that up to 4.8kHz vibration sensing with 3m spatial resolution at 10km standard single-mode fiber can be realized, as well as the distributed temperature and stress profiles along the same fiber with 80cm spatial resolution.

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of weeds in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Bottega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is one of the largest grain producers in the world, due to its extensive arable land and favorable climate for the cultivation of any species. The production could be higher, but problems such as competition between crops and weeds reduces crop yields. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of weeds, especially milkweed (Sonchus oleraceus, horse weed (Conyza spp. and ‘maria-mole’ (Senecio brasiliensis in an area under no-tillage system for two harvests. The work was carried out during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop years in an area of 22.5 ha, where soybean is grown in the summer and oat in the winter. The weeds were mapped using a sampling grid of 85 points. The number of plants present in 0.25 m2 was recorded at each sampling point. The data collected in the field composed the information bank and were used for geostatistical analysis and production of maps. Using geostatistical analysis, it was possible to map the horseweed infestation in the studied area for the 2013/14 season. The species ‘maria-mole’ and milkweed did not show spatial dependence. During the 2014/2015 season, because of the management carried out in the off season, none of the studied species showed spatial dependence.

  18. Robust Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Master-Slave Distributed Parameter Systems with Spatially Variable Coefficients and Nonlinear Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential synchronization problem of a class of master-slave distributed parameter systems (DPSs with spatially variable coefficients and spatiotemporally variable nonlinear perturbation, modeled by a couple of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. With a locally Lipschitz constraint, the perturbation is a continuous function of time, space, and system state. Firstly, a sufficient condition for the robust exponential synchronization of the unforced semilinear master-slave PDE systems is investigated for all admissible nonlinear perturbations. Secondly, a robust distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD state feedback controller is desired such that the closed-loop master-slave PDE systems achieve exponential synchronization. Using Lyapunov’s direct method and the technique of integration by parts, the main results of this paper are presented in terms of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods applied to the robust exponential synchronization problem of master-slave PDE systems with nonlinear perturbation.

  19. Long-term spatial and temporal microbial community dynamics in a large-scale drinking water distribution system with multiple disinfectant regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Sarah; Pinto, Ameet; Sigudu, Makhosazana; du Preez, Hein; Ncube, Esper; Venter, Stephanus

    2018-08-01

    Long-term spatial-temporal investigations of microbial dynamics in full-scale drinking water distribution systems are scarce. These investigations can reveal the process, infrastructure, and environmental factors that influence the microbial community, offering opportunities to re-think microbial management in drinking water systems. Often, these insights are missed or are unreliable in short-term studies, which are impacted by stochastic variabilities inherent to large full-scale systems. In this two-year study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in a large, full scale South African drinking water distribution system that uses three successive disinfection strategies (i.e. chlorination, chloramination and hypochlorination). Monthly bulk water samples were collected from the outlet of the treatment plant and from 17 points in the distribution system spanning nearly 150 km and the bacterial community composition was characterised by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Like previous studies, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria dominated the drinking water bacterial communities, with an increase in Betaproteobacteria post-chloramination. In contrast with previous reports, the observed richness, diversity, and evenness of the bacterial communities were higher in the winter months as opposed to the summer months in this study. In addition to temperature effects, the seasonal variations were also likely to be influenced by changes in average water age in the distribution system and corresponding changes in disinfectant residual concentrations. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial communities indicated distance decay, with bacterial communities becoming increasingly dissimilar with increasing distance between sampling locations. These spatial effects dampened the temporal changes in the bulk water community and were the dominant factor when considering the entire distribution system. However

  20. The Spatial Distribution of Bed Sediment on Fluvial System: A Mini Review of the Aceh Meandering River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic interactions of hydrological and geomorphological processes in the fluvial system result in accumulated deposit on the bed because the capacity to carry sediment has been exceeded. The bed load of the Aceh fluvial system is primarily generated by mechanical weathering resulting in boulders, pebbles, and sand, which roll or bounce along the river bed forming temporary deposits as bars on the insides of meander bends, as a result of a loss of transport energy in the system. This dynamic controls the style and range of deposits in the Aceh River. This study focuses on the spatial distribution of bed-load transport of the Aceh River. Understanding the spatial distribution of deposits facilitates the reconstruction of the changes in controlling factors during accumulation of deposits. One of the methods can be done by sieve analysis of sediment, where the method illuminates the distribution of sediment changes associated with channel morphology under different flow regimes. Hence, the purpose of this mini review is to investigate how the sediment along the river meander spatially dispersed. The results demonstrate that channel deposits in the Aceh River are formed from four different type of materials: pebble deposited along upstream left bank; sand located on the upstream, downstream, and along meander belts; and silt and clay located along the cut bank of meander bends. Because of different depositional pattern, the distribution of the sediment along the river can be used as a surrogate to identify bank stability, as well as to predict critical geometry for meander bend initiation

  1. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  2. Improved control for distributed parameter systems with time-dependent spatial domains utilizing mobile sensor–actuator networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian-Zhong; Cui Bao-Tong; Zhuang Bo

    2017-01-01

    A guidance policy for controller performance enhancement utilizing mobile sensor–actuator networks (MSANs) is proposed for a class of distributed parameter systems (DPSs), which are governed by diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs) with time-dependent spatial domains. Several sufficient conditions for controller performance enhancement are presented. First, the infinite dimensional operator theory is used to derive an abstract evolution equation of the systems under some rational assumptions on the operators, and a static output feedback controller is designed to control the spatial process. Then, based on Lyapunov stability arguments, guidance policies for collocated and non-collocated MSANs are provided to enhance the performance of the proposed controller, which show that the time-dependent characteristic of the spatial domains can significantly affect the design of the mobile scheme. Finally, a simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed policy. (paper)

  3. Prediction of spatial distribution for some land use allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of spatial distribution for some land use allometric characteristics in land use planning models with geostatistic and Geographical Information System (GIS) (Case study: Boein and Miandasht, Isfahan Province, Iran)

  4. Development of an ICCD-scintillator system for measurement of spatial dose distributions around 'hot particles'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydarous, A. Sh; Darley, P. J.; Charles, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    An intensified charge coupled device (ICCD)-scintillator system has been investigated for potential use in measuring the spatially non-uniform dose distribution around 'hot particles'. This imaging system is capable of producing real-time measurements considerably quicker than other presently available radiation dosimetry techniques and exhibits good linearity and reproducibility and relatively high spatial resolution (∼17.5 μm). The time required for a dose evaluation is less than a hundredth that required for radiochromic dye film measurements. The non-uniformity of the system has been eliminated by applying pixel-to-pixel correction factors. The measurable dose rate range using a 110 μm thick scintillator extends from ∼2000 down to ∼6 Gy h -1 . The prototype ICCD-scintillator system has been used in evaluation of the skin dose from some high-activity nuclear fuel fragments. The results agree within a few percentage with radiochromic dye film measurements for 1 cm 2 averaging areas. (authors)

  5. Development of a hemispherical rotational modulation collimator system for imaging spatial distribution of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, M.; Lee, S.; Kim, G.; Kim, H. S.; Rho, J.; Ok, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactive materials is of great importance for environmental and security issues. We design and present a novel hemispherical rotational modulation collimator (H-RMC) system which can visualize the location of the radiation source by collecting signals from incident rays that go through collimator masks. The H-RMC system comprises a servo motor-controlled rotating module and a hollow heavy-metallic hemisphere with slits/slats equally spaced with the same angle subtended from the main axis. In addition, we also designed an auxiliary instrument to test the imaging performance of the H-RMC system, comprising a high-precision x- and y-axis staging station on which one can mount radiation sources of various shapes. We fabricated the H-RMC system which can be operated in a fully-automated fashion through the computer-based controller, and verify the accuracy and reproducibility of the system by measuring the rotational and linear positions with respect to the programmed values. Our H-RMC system may provide a pivotal tool for spatial radiation imaging with high reliability and accuracy.

  6. Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plejdrup, M S; Gyldenkaerne, S

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)

  7. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vögeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applicationssuch as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power.To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed,physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolationsof observations from automatic weather stations (AWS, leading to errors in the spatial distributionof atmospheric forcing. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snowdepth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and accuracy. In this work, maps of the snowdepth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models based on AirborneDigital Sensors (ADS, are used to scale precipitation input data, with the aim to improve theaccuracy of simulation of the spatial distribution of snow with Alpine3D. A simple method toscale and redistribute precipitation is presented and the performance is analysed. The scalingmethod is only applied if it is snowing. For rainfall the precipitation is distributed by interpolation,with a simple air temperature threshold used for the determination of the precipitation phase.It was found that the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly forthe simulated domain. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error is reduced up toa factor 3.4 to less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error in snow distribution was reducedwhen using representative input sources for the simulation domain. For inter-annual scaling, themodel performance could also be improved, even when using a remote sensing dataset from adifferent winter. In conclusion, using remote sensing data to process precipitation input, complexprocesses such as preferential snow deposition and snow relocation due to wind or avalanches,can be substituted and modelling performance of spatial snow distribution is improved.

  8. SPATIAL VARIETY AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN SURAKARTA AS POTENTIAL FACTORS IN IMPROVING SPATIAL-BASED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istijabatul Aliyah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional markets function as trading place, socio-culture interaction, and recreation facility either in regional or urban scope. Distribution and variety of spatial condition influence traditional markets’ planning both physically and non-physically. Therefore, this research aimed to conduct a mapping of traditional markets’ spatial distribution and variety as potential factors to improve spatial-based management. Analysis methods including: (1 Mapping by employing Geographic Information System, (2 Category Based Analysis (CBA, and (3 Interactive Analysis were applied in Surakarta City as the research location. The result of this research signifies that spatial variety and distribution of traditional markets in Surakarta had similar pattern between one market to others; overlapping service function; specific commodity types in accordance with the market’s characteristics; diverse operating hours. Spatial variety and distribution could be potential factors to improve traditional market management as shopping service. This result was contrasted with Central Place Theory by Christaller and NÆss & Jensen’s research finding stating that distance became a key factor influencing accessibility to a number of activity facilities. Therefore, distance toward the service center is not considered as the main factor in traditional market management. The main factor in managing and controlling traditional markets’ development includes service function, commodity specification, and operating hour’s flexibility.

  9. Estimating the spatial distribution of artificial groundwater recharge using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Hollender, Juliane; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Stable isotopes of water, organic micropollutants and hydrochemistry data are powerful tools for identifying different water types in areas where knowledge of the spatial distribution of different groundwater is critical for water resource management. An important question is how the assessments change if only one or a subset of these tracers is used. In this study, we estimate spatial artificial infiltration along an infiltration system with stage-discharge relationships and classify different water types based on the mentioned hydrochemistry data for a drinking water production area in Switzerland. Managed aquifer recharge via surface water that feeds into the aquifer creates a hydraulic barrier between contaminated groundwater and drinking water wells. We systematically compare the information from the aforementioned tracers and illustrate differences in distribution and mixing ratios. Despite uncertainties in the mixing ratios, we found that the overall spatial distribution of artificial infiltration is very similar for all the tracers. The highest infiltration occurred in the eastern part of the infiltration system, whereas infiltration in the western part was the lowest. More balanced infiltration within the infiltration system could cause the elevated groundwater mound to be distributed more evenly, preventing the natural inflow of contaminated groundwater. Dedicated to Professor Peter Fritz on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  10. Spatial pattern of 2009 dengue distribution in Kuala Lumpur using GIS application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, S; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Sholehah, I; Nur Farhana, J; Azizan, A S; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2012-03-01

    In the last few years in Malaysia, dengue fever has increased dramatically and has caused huge public health concerns. The present study aimed to establish a spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Kuala Lumpur using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistical tools. Collation of data from 1,618 dengue cases in 2009 was obtained from Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL). These data were processed and then converted into GIS format. Information on the average monthly rainfall was also used to correlate with the distribution pattern of dengue cases. To asses the spatial distribution of dengue cases, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Analysis was applied together with spatial analysis with the ESRI ArcGIS V9.3 programme. Results indicated that the distribution of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur for the year 2009 was spatially clustered with R value less than 1 (R = 0.42; z-scores = - 4.47; p 1) between August and November. In addition, the mean monthly rainfall has not influenced the distribution pattern of the dengue cases. Implementation of control measures is more difficult for dispersed pattern compared to clustered pattern. From this study, it was found that distribution pattern of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur in 2009 was spatially distributed (dispersed or clustered) rather than cases occurring randomly. It was proven that by using GIS and spatial statistic tools, we can determine the spatial distribution between dengue and population. Utilization of GIS tools is vital in assisting health agencies, epidemiologist, public health officer, town planner and relevant authorities in developing efficient control measures and contingency programmes to effectively combat dengue fever.

  11. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  12. Unleashing spatially distributed ecohydrology modeling using Big Data tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Idaszak, R.

    2015-12-01

    Physically based spatially distributed ecohydrology models are useful for answering science and management questions related to the hydrology and biogeochemistry of prairie, savanna, forested, as well as urbanized ecosystems. However, these models can produce hundreds of gigabytes of spatial output for a single model run over decadal time scales when run at regional spatial scales and moderate spatial resolutions (~100-km2+ at 30-m spatial resolution) or when run for small watersheds at high spatial resolutions (~1-km2 at 3-m spatial resolution). Numerical data formats such as HDF5 can store arbitrarily large datasets. However even in HPC environments, there are practical limits on the size of single files that can be stored and reliably backed up. Even when such large datasets can be stored, querying and analyzing these data can suffer from poor performance due to memory limitations and I/O bottlenecks, for example on single workstations where memory and bandwidth are limited, or in HPC environments where data are stored separately from computational nodes. The difficulty of storing and analyzing spatial data from ecohydrology models limits our ability to harness these powerful tools. Big Data tools such as distributed databases have the potential to surmount the data storage and analysis challenges inherent to large spatial datasets. Distributed databases solve these problems by storing data close to computational nodes while enabling horizontal scalability and fault tolerance. Here we present the architecture of and preliminary results from PatchDB, a distributed datastore for managing spatial output from the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The initial version of PatchDB uses message queueing to asynchronously write RHESSys model output to an Apache Cassandra cluster. Once stored in the cluster, these data can be efficiently queried to quickly produce both spatial visualizations for a particular variable (e.g. maps and animations), as well

  13. Spatial distribution of emissions to air - the SPREAD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plejdrup, M.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, completes the annual national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to Denmark's obligations under international conventions, e.g. the climate convention, UNFCCC and the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, CLRTAP. NERI has developed a model to distribute emissions from the national emission inventories on a 1x1 km grid covering the Danish land and sea territory. The new spatial high resolution distribution model for emissions to air (SPREAD) has been developed according to the requirements for reporting of gridded emissions to CLRTAP. Spatial emission data is e.g. used as input for air quality modelling, which again serves as input for assessment and evaluation of health effects. For these purposes distributions with higher spatial resolution have been requested. Previously, a distribution on the 17x17 km EMEP grid has been set up and used in research projects combined with detailed distributions for a few sectors or sub-sectors e.g. a distribution for emissions from road traffic on 1x1 km resolution. SPREAD is developed to generate improved spatial emission data for e.g. air quality modelling in exposure studies. SPREAD includes emission distributions for each sector in the Danish inventory system; stationary combustion, mobile sources, fugitive emissions from fuels, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture and waste. This model enables generation of distributions for single sectors and for a number of sub-sectors and single sources as well. This report documents the methodologies in this first version of SPREAD and presents selected results. Further, a number of potential improvements for later versions of SPREAD are addressed and discussed. (Author)

  14. Curved-straight neutron guide system with uniform spatial intensity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.; Cook, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial intensity distribution of neutrons emerging from a curved guide is asymmetric, and straight guide sections are sometimes appended to curved guides to make the intensity distribution more nearly uniform. For idealized uniform illumination and in the perfect reflectivity approximation, the spatial-angular acceptance at the exit of the combination can be made exactly uniform for a range of long wavelengths by using a sufficiently long straight section, together with a curved guide whose outer wall coating has a critical angle slightly greater than those of the other guide walls. We refer to this as a 'phase space tailoring guide' where the coatings on the inner wall and straight section are used to define the required divergence at the end of the guide. Increasing the critical angle of the outer wall of the curved section reduces the characteristic wavelength of the curved guide as well as the wavelength at which ideal uniformity can be obtained. The outer wall coating need only be of sufficiently high critical angle to fill the transmittable phase space area of the straight guide uniformly to adequately short wavelength

  15. Assessing the spatial distribution of coral bleaching using small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hunter, Cynthia; Lukacazyk, Trent; Franklin, Erik C.

    2018-06-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are an affordable, effective complement to existing coral reef monitoring and assessment tools. sUAS provide repeatable low-altitude, high-resolution photogrammetry to address fundamental questions of spatial ecology and community dynamics for shallow coral reef ecosystems. Here, we qualitatively describe the use of sUAS to survey the spatial characteristics of coral cover and the distribution of coral bleaching across patch reefs in Kānéohe Bay, Hawaii, and address limitations and anticipated technology advancements within the field of UAS. Overlapping sub-decimeter low-altitude aerial reef imagery collected during the 2015 coral bleaching event was used to construct high-resolution reef image mosaics of coral bleaching responses on four Kānéohe Bay patch reefs, totaling 60,000 m2. Using sUAS imagery, we determined that paled, bleached and healthy corals on all four reefs were spatially clustered. Comparative analyses of data from sUAS imagery and in situ diver surveys found as much as 14% difference in coral cover values between survey methods, depending on the size of the reef and area surveyed. When comparing the abundance of unhealthy coral (paled and bleached) between sUAS and in situ diver surveys, we found differences in cover from 1 to 49%, depending on the depth of in situ surveys, the percent of reef area covered with sUAS surveys and patchiness of the bleaching response. This study demonstrates the effective use of sUAS surveys for assessing the spatial dynamics of coral bleaching at colony-scale resolutions across entire patch reefs and evaluates the complementarity of data from both sUAS and in situ diver surveys to more accurately characterize the spatial ecology of coral communities on reef flats and slopes.

  16. Spatial power distribution in the SR-0 experimental module of the SPHINX nuclear transmutation system - 2006 and 2007 variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypar, Vojtech; Svadlenkova, Marie; Novak, Evzen; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Bily, Tomas

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were performed with various assemblies modelling the SPHINX transmutation system with the aim to investigate the effect of materials in the SR-0 modules, i.e. LiF, NaF, graphite, on the spatial power distribution of the reaction rates of the activation detectors, axial and radial distribution of the fission products of the fuel pins located in some points of the reactor core, and photon dose distribution by using thermoluminescent dosemeters

  17. Location-Based Mapping Services to Support Collaboration in Spatially Distributed Workgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eike Michael; Wichmann, Daniel; Büsch, Henning; Boll, Susanne

    Mobile devices and systems reached almost every part of our daily life. Following the mobile computing trend, also business logics of distributed, cooperative applications started to move into the mobile client applications. With this shift, the cooperation aspect may also exploit the user’s location and situation context and capabilities of the mobile device and integrate it into the actual cooperation and collaboration. In this paper, we present an approach for a Collaborative Map that exploits the spatial context of the member of a distributed group as a means to visualize and provide collaboration functionality. Then, a number of location-related cooperation methods become feasible such as getting an overview of the spatial distribution of the team members, identify an ad-hoc meeting place nearby, or chat with a group member who has a certain expertise in his or her profile. With CoMa, we move from standard collaboration tools that marginally consider spatial information towards context-aware mobile collaborative systems that can support a wide range of applications such as emergency response, maintenance work or event organization where human resources have to be coordinated in a spatial context and tasks need to be assigned dynamically depending on capabilities and situation context.

  18. Temporal acceleration of spatially distributed kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2006-01-01

    The computational intensity of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation is a major impediment in simulating large length and time scales. In recent work, an approximate method for KMC simulation of spatially uniform systems, termed the binomial τ-leap method, was introduced [A. Chatterjee, D.G. Vlachos, M.A. Katsoulakis, Binomial distribution based τ-leap accelerated stochastic simulation, J. Chem. Phys. 122 (2005) 024112], where molecular bundles instead of individual processes are executed over coarse-grained time increments. This temporal coarse-graining can lead to significant computational savings but its generalization to spatially lattice KMC simulation has not been realized yet. Here we extend the binomial τ-leap method to lattice KMC simulations by combining it with spatially adaptive coarse-graining. Absolute stability and computational speed-up analyses for spatial systems along with simulations provide insights into the conditions where accuracy and substantial acceleration of the new spatio-temporal coarse-graining method are ensured. Model systems demonstrate that the r-time increment criterion of Chatterjee et al. obeys the absolute stability limit for values of r up to near 1

  19. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  20. Cross-coherent vector sensor processing for spatially distributed glider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brendan; Sabra, Karim G

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders fitted with vector sensors can be used as a spatially distributed sensor array to passively locate underwater sources. However, to date, the positional accuracy required for robust array processing (especially coherent processing) is not achievable using dead-reckoning while the gliders remain submerged. To obtain such accuracy, the gliders can be temporarily surfaced to allow for global positioning system contact, but the acoustically active sea surface introduces locally additional sensor noise. This letter demonstrates that cross-coherent array processing, which inherently mitigates the effects of local noise, outperforms traditional incoherent processing source localization methods for this spatially distributed vector sensor network.

  1. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere, the tiny zone of soil surrounding roots, certainly represents one of the most dynamic habitat and interfaces on Earth. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods for the determination of the rhizosphere extension and enzyme distribution. Recently, zymography as a new technique based on diffusion of enzymes through the 1 mm gel plate for analysis has been introduced (Spohn & Kuzyakov, 2013). We developed the zymography technique to visualize the enzyme activities with a higher spatial resolution. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root tip and the root surface in the soil. We visualized the two dimensional distribution of the activity of three enzymes: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and leucine amino peptidase in the rhizosphere of maize using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial-resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography visualized heterogeneity of enzyme activities along the roots. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at the apical parts of individual roots. Across the roots, the enzyme activities were higher at immediate vicinity of the roots (1.5 mm) and gradually decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify spatial distribution of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere hotspots. References Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61: 69-75

  2. Multi-scale dynamical behavior of spatially distributed systems: a deterministic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Le Jean, F.; Drapeau, L.; Huc, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical and biophysical systems are spatially distributed systems. Their behavior can be observed or modelled spatially at various resolutions. In this work, a deterministic point of view is adopted to analyze multi-scale behavior taking a set of ordinary differential equation (ODE) as elementary part of the system.To perform analyses, scenes of study are thus generated based on ensembles of identical elementary ODE systems. Without any loss of generality, their dynamics is chosen chaotic in order to ensure sensitivity to initial conditions, that is, one fundamental property of atmosphere under instable conditions [1]. The Rössler system [2] is used for this purpose for both its topological and algebraic simplicity [3,4].Two cases are thus considered: the chaotic oscillators composing the scene of study are taken either independent, or in phase synchronization. Scale behaviors are analyzed considering the scene of study as aggregations (basically obtained by spatially averaging the signal) or as associations (obtained by concatenating the time series). The global modeling technique is used to perform the numerical analyses [5].One important result of this work is that, under phase synchronization, a scene of aggregated dynamics can be approximated by the elementary system composing the scene, but modifying its parameterization [6]. This is shown based on numerical analyses. It is then demonstrated analytically and generalized to a larger class of ODE systems. Preliminary applications to cereal crops observed from satellite are also presented.[1] Lorenz, Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 130-141 (1963).[2] Rössler, An equation for continuous chaos, Phys. Lett. A, 57, 397-398 (1976).[3] Gouesbet & Letellier, Global vector-field reconstruction by using a multivariate polynomial L2 approximation on nets, Phys. Rev. E 49, 4955-4972 (1994).[4] Letellier, Roulin & Rössler, Inequivalent topologies of chaos in simple equations, Chaos, Solitons

  3. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution

  4. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  5. Reactivity effect of spent fuel due to spatial distributions for coolant temperature and burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Yamane, Y. [Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Suyama, K. [OECD/NEA, Paris (France); Mochizuki, H. [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the reactivity effect of spent fuel caused by the spatial distributions of coolant temperature and burnup by using the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT. The reactivity effect which arises from taking account of the spatial coolant temperature distribution increases as the average burnup increases, and reaches the maximum value of 0.69%{delta}k/k at 50 GWd/tU when the burnup distribution is concurrently considered. When the burnup distribution is ignored, the reactivity effect decreases by approximately one-third. (author)

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics in the natural plague foci of Chinese Mongolian gerbils based on spatial autocorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Wen; Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Jiang, Xiao-San

    2017-08-07

    The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This research detected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the plague natural foci of Mongolian gerbils by body flea index from 2005 to 2014, in order to predict plague outbreaks. Global spatial autocorrelation was used to describe the entire spatial distribution pattern of the body flea index in the natural plague foci of typical Chinese Mongolian gerbils. Cluster and outlier analysis and hot spot analysis were also used to detect the intensity of clusters based on geographic information system methods. The quantity of M. unguiculatus nest fleas in the sentinel surveillance sites from 2005 to 2014 and host density data of the study area from 2005 to 2010 used in this study were provided by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic focus regions of the Mongolian gerbils remain the same as the hot spot regions relating to the body flea index. High clustering areas possess a similar pattern as the distribution pattern of the body flea index indicating that the transmission risk of plague is relatively high. In terms of time series, the area of the epidemic focus gradually increased from 2005 to 2007, declined rapidly in 2008 and 2009, and then decreased slowly and began trending towards stability from 2009 to 2014. For the spatial change, the epidemic focus regions began moving northward from the southwest epidemic focus of the Mongolian gerbils from 2005 to 2007, and then moved from north to south in 2007 and 2008. The body flea index of Chinese gerbil foci reveals significant spatial and temporal aggregation characteristics through the employing of spatial autocorrelation. The diversity of temporary and spatial distribution is mainly affected by seasonal variation, the human

  7. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  8. An Innovative Metric to Evaluate Satellite Precipitation's Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Chu, W.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to its capability to cover the mountains, where ground measurement instruments cannot reach, satellites provide a good means of estimating precipitation over mountainous regions. In regions with complex terrains, accurate information on high-resolution spatial distribution of precipitation is critical for many important issues, such as flood/landslide warning, reservoir operation, water system planning, etc. Therefore, in order to be useful in many practical applications, satellite precipitation products should possess high quality in characterizing spatial distribution. However, most existing validation metrics, which are based on point/grid comparison using simple statistics, cannot effectively measure satellite's skill of capturing the spatial patterns of precipitation fields. This deficiency results from the fact that point/grid-wised comparison does not take into account of the spatial coherence of precipitation fields. Furth more, another weakness of many metrics is that they can barely provide information on why satellite products perform well or poor. Motivated by our recent findings of the consistent spatial patterns of the precipitation field over the western U.S., we developed a new metric utilizing EOF analysis and Shannon entropy. The metric can be derived through two steps: 1) capture the dominant spatial patterns of precipitation fields from both satellite products and reference data through EOF analysis, and 2) compute the similarities between the corresponding dominant patterns using mutual information measurement defined with Shannon entropy. Instead of individual point/grid, the new metric treat the entire precipitation field simultaneously, naturally taking advantage of spatial dependence. Since the dominant spatial patterns are shaped by physical processes, the new metric can shed light on why satellite product can or cannot capture the spatial patterns. For demonstration, a experiment was carried out to evaluate a satellite

  9. Spatial distributions of Cu polycrystal sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgaryan, V.K.; Semenov, A.A.; Shkarban, I.I.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the experimental determination of the Cu atoms spatial distribution, sputtered from the polycrystalline copper target, irradiated by the Xe + ions with the energy of 300 eV, are presented. The spatial distributions of the sputtered particles, calculated through the quasistable-dynamic model of the cascade modeling (CAMO) are presented also for the case of the polycrystalline copper irradiation by the Ar + and Xe + ions with the energy of 300-1000 eV [ru

  10. Oscillations and waves in a spatially distributed system with a 1/f spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    A spatially distributed system with a 1/f power spectrum is described by two nonlinear stochastic equations. Conditions for the formation of auto-oscillations have been found using numerical methods. The formation of a 1/f and 1/k spectrum simultaneously with the formation and motion of waves under the action of white noise has been demonstrated. The large extreme fluctuations with 1/f and 1/k spectra correspond to the maximum entropy, which points to the stability of such processes. It is shown that on the background of formation and motion of waves at an external periodic action there appears spatio-temporal stochastic resonance, at which one can observe the expansion of the region of periodic pulsations under the action of white noise.

  11. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POVERTY AT DIFFERENT SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PAWITAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty mapping is usually developed from some sources of data, such as from census and survey data. In some practical application, the poverty was measured usually by household income or expenditure of daily basic consumption. Using different scales and zoning on a particular set of spatial data may leads to problems in interpreting the results. In practice, organizations publish statistics and maps at a particular area level. Minot and Baulch (2005a discussed some consequences of using aggregated level data in poverty mapping, which may affect the validity of the output. The key point of this paper is to compare spatial distribution of the poverty at two different scale, which is the province and district level. How the spatial distribution of the poverty at province level can be use to infer the distribution at the district level. The geographical weighted regression will be applied, and the poverty data of Vietnam will be used as an illustration.

  12. Spatial distribution measured by the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.; Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial distributions in ion micro-beam and IBA experimental practice are regularly characterized through the parameters of FWHM and tail area percentage (TF, tail fraction). Linear and stationary transducer theory allows these distributions to be described in the Fourier-dual frequency space, and provides an indirect method to evaluate them through measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF). We suggest direct measurement of MTF by employing bar pattern grids, similar to those used for calibration of radiological equipment. Assuming spatial distributions of the form exp(-(|αx|) η ), we are able to relate the MTF measurements to the more popular FWHM and TF. This new approach to determine spatial resolution can become a standard for use by the micro-beam community

  13. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  14. Experimental measurements of spatial dose distributions in radiosurgery treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Perez-Pastenes, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of stereotactic radiosurgery dose distributions requires an integrating, high-resolution dosimeter capable of providing a spatial map of absorbed dose. This paper describes the use of a commercial radiochromic dye film (GafChromic MD-55-2) to measure radiosurgery dose distributions with 6 MV X-rays in a head phantom. The response of the MD-55-2 was evaluated by digitizing and analyzing the films with conventional computer systems. Radiosurgery dose distributions were measured using the radiochromic film in a spherical acrylic phantom of 16 cm diameter undergoing a typical SRS treatment as a patient, and were compared with dose distributions provided by the treatment planning system. The comparison lead to mean radial differences of ±0.6 mm, ±0.9 mm, ±1.3 mm, ±1.9 mm, and ±2.8 mm, for the 80, 60, 50, 40, and 30% isodose curves, respectively. It is concluded that the radiochromic film is a convenient and useful tool for radiosurgery treatment planning validation

  15. Spatial distribution and longitudinal development of deep cortical sulcal landmarks in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-10-15

    Sulcal pits, the locally deepest points in sulci of the highly convoluted and variable cerebral cortex, are found to be spatially consistent across human adult individuals. It is suggested that sulcal pits are genetically controlled and have close relationships with functional areas. To date, the existing imaging studies of sulcal pits are mainly focused on adult brains, yet little is known about the spatial distribution and temporal development of sulcal pits in the first 2 years of life, which is the most dynamic and critical period of postnatal brain development. Studying sulcal pits during this period would greatly enrich our limited understandings of the origins and developmental trajectories of sulcal pits, and would also provide important insights into many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with abnormal cortical foldings. In this paper, by using surface-based morphometry, for the first time, we systemically investigated the spatial distribution and temporal development of sulcal pits in major cortical sulci from 73 healthy infants, each with three longitudinal 3T MR scans at term birth, 1 year, and 2 years of age. Our results suggest that the spatially consistent distributions of sulcal pits in major sulci across individuals have already existed at term birth and this spatial distribution pattern keeps relatively stable in the first 2 years of life, despite that the cerebral cortex expands dramatically and the sulcal depth increases considerably during this period. Specially, the depth of sulcal pits increases regionally heterogeneously, with more rapid growth in the high-order association cortex, including the prefrontal and temporal cortices, than the sensorimotor cortex in the first 2 years of life. Meanwhile, our results also suggest that there exist hemispheric asymmetries of the spatial distributions of sulcal pits in several cortical regions, such as the central, superior temporal and postcentral sulci, consistently from birth to 2 years of age

  16. Spatial Distribution of Soil Fauna In Long Term No Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, J. Z. F.; Vieira, S. R.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil is a complex system constituted by living beings, organic and mineral particles, whose components define their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil fauna plays an important role in soil and may reflect and interfere in its functionality. These organisms' populations may be influenced by management practices, fertilization, liming and porosity, among others. Such changes may reduce the composition and distribution of soil fauna community. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spatial variability of soil fauna in consolidated no-tillage system. The experimental area is located at Instituto Agronômico in Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). The sampling was conducted in a Rhodic Eutrudox, under no tillage system and 302 points distributed in a 3.2 hectare area in a regular grid of 10.00 m x 10.00 m were sampled. The soil fauna was sampled with "Pitfall Traps" method and traps remained in the area for seven days. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the main statistical moments (mean variance, coefficient of variation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis). Geostatistical tools were used to determine the spatial variability of the attributes using the experimental semivariogram. For the biodiversity analysis, Shannon and Pielou indexes and richness were calculated for each sample. Geostatistics has proven to be a great tool for mapping the spatial variability of groups from the soil epigeal fauna. The family Formicidae proved to be the most abundant and dominant in the study area. The parameters of descriptive statistics showed that all attributes studied showed lognormal frequency distribution for groups from the epigeal soil fauna. The exponential model was the most suited for the obtained data, for both groups of epigeal soil fauna (Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae and Coleoptera larva), and the other biodiversity indexes. The sampling scheme (10.00 m x 10.00 m) was not sufficient to detect the spatial

  17. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  18. Relations Between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations And Dominance Hierarchy In A Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eNaud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual’s spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1 does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2 Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3 Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks

  19. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities along the root and in the rhizosphere of different plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many biological macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. So far acquisition of in situ data about local activity of different enzymes in soil has been challenged. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods such as 2-D zymography to determine the variation of enzymes along the roots in different plants. Here, we developed further the zymography technique in order to quantitatively visualize the enzyme activities (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013), with a better spatial resolution We grew Maize (Zea mays L.) and Lentil (Lens culinaris) in rhizoboxes under optimum conditions for 21 days to study spatial distribution of enzyme activity in soil and along roots. We visualized the 2D distribution of the activity of three enzymes:β-glucosidase, leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase, using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography shows different pattern of spatial distribution of enzyme activity along roots and soil of different plants. We observed a uniform distribution of enzyme activities along the root system of Lentil. However, root system of Maize demonstrated inhomogeneity of enzyme activities. The apical part of an individual root (root tip) in maize showed the highest activity. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at vicinity of the roots and it decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify

  20. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1 identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2 analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3 conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

  1. Positional information generated by spatially distributed signaling cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muñoz-García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and stationary behavior of protein modification cascades has been extensively studied, yet little is known about the spatial aspects of signal propagation. We have previously shown that the spatial separation of opposing enzymes, such as a kinase and a phosphatase, creates signaling activity gradients. Here we show under what conditions signals stall in the space or robustly propagate through spatially distributed signaling cascades. Robust signal propagation results in activity gradients with long plateaus, which abruptly decay at successive spatial locations. We derive an approximate analytical solution that relates the maximal amplitude and propagation length of each activation profile with the cascade level, protein diffusivity, and the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities. The control of the spatial signal propagation appears to be very different from the control of transient temporal responses for spatially homogenous cascades. For spatially distributed cascades where activating and deactivating enzymes operate far from saturation, the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities is shown to be a key parameter controlling signal propagation. The signaling gradients characteristic for robust signal propagation exemplify a pattern formation mechanism that generates precise spatial guidance for multiple cellular processes and conveys information about the cell size to the nucleus.

  2. Spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Haridah; Surin, Johari; Mahmud, Rohela; Shafie, Aziz; Mohd Zin, Junaidden; Mohamad Nor, Mahadzir; Ibrahim, Ahmad Shah; Rundi, Christina

    2014-04-15

    Malaria is still an endemic disease of public health importance in Malaysia. Populations at risk of contracting malaria includes indigenous people, traditional villagers, mobile ethnic groups and land scheme settlers, immigrants from malaria endemic countries as well as jungle workers and loggers. The predominant species are Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. An increasing number of P. knowlesi infections have also been encountered. The principal vectors in Peninsular Malaysia are Anopheles maculatus and An. cracens. This study aims to determine the changes in spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from year 2000-2009. Data for the study was collected from Ministry of Health, Malaysia and was analysed using Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes for a period of 10 years of malaria spatial distribution in 12 states of Peninsular Malaysia were documented and discussed. This is illustrated by digital mapping according to five variables; incidence rate (IR), fatality rate (FR), annual blood examination rate (ABER), annual parasite index (API) and slide positivity rate (SPR). There is a profound change in the spatial distribution of malaria within a 10-year period. This is evident from the digital mapping of the infection in Peninsular Malaysia.

  3. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  4. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Age Using Synoptic Surveys of Environmental Tracers in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A model which simulates tracer concentration in surface water as a function the age distribution of groundwater discharge is used to characterize groundwater flow systems at a variety of spatial scales. We develop the theory behind the model and demonstrate its application in several groundwater systems of local to regional scale. A 1-D stream transport model, which includes: advection, dispersion, gas exchange, first-order decay and groundwater inflow is coupled a lumped parameter model that calculates the concentration of environmental tracers in discharging groundwater as a function of the groundwater residence time distribution. The lumped parameters, which describe the residence time distribution, are allowed to vary spatially, and multiple environmental tracers can be simulated. This model allows us to calculate the longitudinal profile of tracer concentration in streams as a function of the spatially variable groundwater age distribution. By fitting model results to observations of stream chemistry and discharge, we can then estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater age. The volume of groundwater discharge to streams can be estimated using a subset of environmental tracers, applied tracers, synoptic stream gauging or other methods, and the age of groundwater then estimated using the previously calculated groundwater discharge and observed environmental tracer concentrations. Synoptic surveys of SF6, CFC's, 3H and 222Rn, along with measured stream discharge are used to estimate the groundwater inflow distribution and mean age for regional scale surveys of the Berland River in west-central Alberta. We find that groundwater entering the Berland has observable age, and that the age estimated using our stream survey is of similar order to limited samples from groundwater wells in the region. Our results show that the stream can be used as an easily accessible location to constrain the regional scale spatial distribution of groundwater age.

  5. On the spatial distributions of dense cores in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We quantify the spatial distributions of dense cores in three spatially distinct areas of the Orion B star-forming region. For L1622, NGC 2068/NGC 2071, and NGC 2023/NGC 2024, we measure the amount of spatial substructure using the Q-parameter and find all three regions to be spatially substructured (Q Orion B, the mass segregation cannot be dynamical. Our results are also inconsistent with simulations in which the most massive stars form via competitive accretion, and instead hint that magnetic fields may be important in influencing the primordial spatial distributions of gas and stars in star-forming regions.

  6. Analysing the distribution of synaptic vesicles using a spatial point process model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Nava, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    functionality by statistically modelling the distribution of the synaptic vesicles in two groups of rats: a control group subjected to sham stress and a stressed group subjected to a single acute foot-shock (FS)-stress episode. We hypothesize that the synaptic vesicles have different spatial distributions...... in the two groups. The spatial distributions are modelled using spatial point process models with an inhomogeneous conditional intensity and repulsive pairwise interactions. Our results verify the hypothesis that the two groups have different spatial distributions....

  7. Spatial distributions of niche-constructing populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhuo Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Niche construction theory regards organisms not only as the object of natural selection but also an active subject that can change their own selective pressure through eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Through reviewing the existing works on the theoretical models of niche construction, here we present the progress made on how niche construction influences genetic structure of spatially structured populations and the spatial-temporal dynamics of metapopulations, with special focuses on mathematical models and simulation methods. The majority of results confirmed that niche construction can significantly alter the evolutionary trajectories of structured populations. Organism-environmental interactions induced by niche construction can have profound influence on the dynamics, competition and diversity of metapopulations. It can affect fine-scale spatially distribution of species and spatial heterogeneity of the environment. We further propose a few research directions with potentials, such as applying adaptive dynamics or spatial game theory to explore the effect of niche construction on phenotypic evolution and diversification.

  8. Spatial distribution of enzyme driven reactions at micro-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeler, Ellen; Boeddinghaus, Runa; Nassal, Dinah; Preusser, Sebastian; Marhan, Sven; Poll, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Studies of microbial biogeography can often provide key insights into the physiologies, environmental tolerances, and ecological strategies of soil microorganisms that dominate in natural environments. In comparison with aquatic systems, soils are particularly heterogeneous. Soil heterogeneity results from the interaction of a hierarchical series of interrelated variables that fluctuate at many different spatial and temporal scales. Whereas spatial dependence of chemical and physical soil properties is well known at scales ranging from decimetres to several hundred metres, the spatial structure of soil enzymes is less clear. Previous work has primarily focused on spatial heterogeneity at a single analytical scale using the distribution of individual cells, specific types of organisms or collective parameters such as bacterial abundance or total microbial biomass. There are fewer studies that have considered variations in community function and soil enzyme activities. This presentation will give an overview about recent studies focusing on spatial pattern of different soil enzymes in the terrestrial environment. Whereas zymography allows the visualization of enzyme pattern in the close vicinity of roots, micro-sampling strategies followed by MUF analyses clarify micro-scale pattern of enzymes associated to specific microhabitats (micro-aggregates, organo-mineral complexes, subsoil compartments).

  9. Real-time distribution of pelagic fish: combining hydroacoustics, GIS and spatial modelling at a fine spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muška, Milan; Tušer, Michal; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Ricard, Daniel; Seďa, Jaromír; Morelli, Federico; Kubečka, Jan

    2018-03-29

    Understanding spatial distribution of organisms in heterogeneous environment remains one of the chief issues in ecology. Spatial organization of freshwater fish was investigated predominantly on large-scale, neglecting important local conditions and ecological processes. However, small-scale processes are of an essential importance for individual habitat preferences and hence structuring trophic cascades and species coexistence. In this work, we analysed the real-time spatial distribution of pelagic freshwater fish in the Římov Reservoir (Czechia) observed by hydroacoustics in relation to important environmental predictors during 48 hours at 3-h interval. Effect of diurnal cycle was revealed of highest significance in all spatial models with inverse trends between fish distribution and predictors in day and night in general. Our findings highlighted daytime pelagic fish distribution as highly aggregated, with general fish preferences for central, deep and highly illuminated areas, whereas nighttime distribution was more disperse and fish preferred nearshore steep sloped areas with higher depth. This turnover suggests prominent movements of significant part of fish assemblage between pelagic and nearshore areas on a diel basis. In conclusion, hydroacoustics, GIS and spatial modelling proved as valuable tool for predicting local fish distribution and elucidate its drivers, which has far reaching implications for understanding freshwater ecosystem functioning.

  10. A Climatology of Derecho-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Central and Eastern United States, 1986-95. Part I: Temporal and Spatial Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    1998-11-01

    In 1888, Iowa weather researcher Gustavus Hinrichs gave widespread convectively induced windstorms the name "derecho". Refinements to this definition have evolved after numerous investigations of these systems; however, to date, a derecho climatology has not been conducted.This investigation examines spatial and temporal aspects of derechos and their associated mesoscale convective systems that occurred from 1986 to 1995. The spatial distribution of derechos revealed four activity corridors during the summer, five during the spring, and two during the cool season. Evidence suggests that the primary warm season derecho corridor is located in the southern Great Plains. During the cool season, derecho activity was found to occur in the southeast states and along the Atlantic seaboard. Temporally, derechos are primarily late evening or overnight events during the warm season and are more evenly distributed throughout the day during the cool season.

  11. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Bak Christensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    -pattern by Acinetobacter sp. C6. Ecological spatial pattern analyses revealed that the microcolonies were not entirely randomly distributed, and instead arranged in a uniform pattern. Detailed time-lapse confocal microscopy at the single cell level demonstrated that the spatial pattern was the result of an intriguing self......-organization: Small multicellular clusters moved along the surface to fuse with one another to form microcolonies. This active distribution capability was dependent on environmental factors (carbon source, oxygen) and historical contingency (formation of phenotypic variants). The findings of this study are discussed...

  12. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  13. Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of European brown hares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-11-01

    Many herbivore species prefer to forage on patches of intermediate biomass. Plant quality and forage efficiency are predicted to decrease with increasing plant standing crop which explains the lower preference of the herbivore. However, often is ignored that on the long-term, plant species composition is predicted to change with increasing plant standing crop. The amount of low-quality, unpreferred food plants increases with increasing plant standing crop. In the present study the effects of unpreferred plants on patch choice and distribution of European brown hare in a salt-marsh system were studied. In one experiment, unpreferred plants were removed from plots. In the second experiment, plots were planted with different densities of an unpreferred artificial plant. Removal of unpreferred plants increased hare-grazing pressure more than fivefold compared to unmanipulated plots. Planting of unpreferred plants reduced hare-grazing pressure, with a significant reduction of grazing already occurring at low unpreferred plant density. Spatial distribution of hares within this salt-marsh system was related to spatial arrangement of unpreferred plants. Hare-grazing intensity decreased strongly with increasing abundance of unpreferred plants despite a high abundance of principal food plants. The results of this study indicate that plant species replacement is an important factor determining patch choice and spatial distribution of hares next to changing plant quality. Increasing abundance of unpreferred plant species can strengthen the decreasing patch quality with increasing standing crop and can decrease grazing intensity when preferred food plants are still abundantly present.

  14. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  15. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churmakov, D Y; Meglinski, I V; Piletsky, S A; Greenhalgh, D A

    2003-01-01

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an 'effective' depth

  16. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churmakov, D Y [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Meglinski, I V [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Piletsky, S A [Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D A [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-21

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an 'effective' depth.

  17. Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Churmakov, D.; Meglinski, I. V.; Piletsky, S. A.; Greenhalgh, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    A novel Monte Carlo technique of simulation of spatial fluorescence distribution within the human skin is presented. The computational model of skin takes into account the spatial distribution of fluorophores, which would arise due to the structure of collagen fibres, compared to the epidermis and stratum corneum where the distribution of fluorophores is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of simulation suggest that distribution of auto-fluorescence is significantly suppressed in the near-infrared spectral region, whereas the spatial distribution of fluorescence sources within a sensor layer embedded in the epidermis is localized at an `effective' depth.

  18. A digital elevation analysis: Spatially distributed flow apportioning algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun [Pusan National University, Pusan(Korea); Jung, Sun-Hee [Korea Environment Institute, (Korea)

    2001-06-30

    A flow determination algorithm is proposed for the distributed hydrologic model. The advantages of a single flow direction scheme and multiple flow direction schemes are selectively considered to address the drawbacks of existing algorithms. A spatially varied flow apportioning factor is introduced in order to accommodate the accumulated area from upslope cells. The channel initiation threshold area(CIT) concept is expanded and integrated into the spatially distributed flow apportioning algorithm in order to delineate a realistic channel network. An application of a field example suggests that the linearly distributed flow apportioning scheme provides some advantages over existing approaches, such as the relaxation of over-dissipation problems near channel cells, the connectivity feature of river cells, the continuity of saturated areas and the negligence of the optimization of few parameters in existing algorithms. The effects of grid sizes are explored spatially as well as statistically. (author). 28 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) data over land areas. The Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at most locations according to R 2 , root mean square error, and power density error. The wind speed frequency distribution, as represented by the Weibull k parameter, exhibits a large amount of spatial variation, a regionally varying amount of seasonal variation, and relatively low decadal variation. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in non-negligible errors. While large-scale wind speed data are often presented in the form of mean wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed frequency distribution. (letter)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A HETEROGENIC DISTRIBUTED ENVIRONMENT FOR SPATIAL DATA PROCESSING USING CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Garov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a unified distributed communication environment for processing of spatial data which integrates web-, desktop- and mobile platforms and combines volunteer computing model and public cloud possibilities. The main idea is to create a flexible working environment for research groups, which may be scaled according to required data volume and computing power, while keeping infrastructure costs at minimum. It is based upon the "single window" principle, which combines data access via geoportal functionality, processing possibilities and communication between researchers. Using an innovative software environment the recently developed planetary information system (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal will be updated. The new system will provide spatial data processing, analysis and 3D-visualization and will be tested based on freely available Earth remote sensing data as well as Solar system planetary images from various missions. Based on this approach it will be possible to organize the research and representation of results on a new technology level, which provides more possibilities for immediate and direct reuse of research materials, including data, algorithms, methodology, and components. The new software environment is targeted at remote scientific teams, and will provide access to existing spatial distributed information for which we suggest implementation of a user interface as an advanced front-end, e.g., for virtual globe system.

  1. Development of a Heterogenic Distributed Environment for Spatial Data Processing Using Cloud Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garov, A. S.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Matveev, E. V.; Zubarev, A. E.; Florinsky, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    We are developing a unified distributed communication environment for processing of spatial data which integrates web-, desktop- and mobile platforms and combines volunteer computing model and public cloud possibilities. The main idea is to create a flexible working environment for research groups, which may be scaled according to required data volume and computing power, while keeping infrastructure costs at minimum. It is based upon the "single window" principle, which combines data access via geoportal functionality, processing possibilities and communication between researchers. Using an innovative software environment the recently developed planetary information system (geoportal"target="_blank">http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal) will be updated. The new system will provide spatial data processing, analysis and 3D-visualization and will be tested based on freely available Earth remote sensing data as well as Solar system planetary images from various missions. Based on this approach it will be possible to organize the research and representation of results on a new technology level, which provides more possibilities for immediate and direct reuse of research materials, including data, algorithms, methodology, and components. The new software environment is targeted at remote scientific teams, and will provide access to existing spatial distributed information for which we suggest implementation of a user interface as an advanced front-end, e.g., for virtual globe system.

  2. A tutorial on Palm distributions for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...

  3. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2013-12-06

    Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most pathogenic zoonoses in the temperate and arctic region of the Northern Hemisphere. To investigate the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis and the factors influencing this distribution in the recently identified endemic area of Hungary, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory from November 2008 to February 2009 and from November 2012 to February 2013. The topographic positions of foxes were recorded in geographic information system database. The digitized home ranges and the vector data were used to calculate the altitude, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, soil water retention, soil permeability, areas of land cover types and the presence and buffer zone of permanent water bodies within the fox territories. The intestinal mucosa from all the foxes was tested by sedimentation and counting technique. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and E. multilocularis counts. The spatial distribution of the parasite was clumped. Based on statistical analysis, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Hungary. It can be attributed to the sensitivity of E. multilocularis eggs to high temperatures and desiccation. Although spreading and emergence of the parasite was observed in Hungary before 2009, the prevalence and intensity of infection did not change significantly between the two collection periods. It can be explained by the considerably lower annual precipitation before the second collection period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of the spatial distribution of ten endangered bird species in jurisdiction of Corantioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez M, Ana Maria; Alvarez, Esteban

    2006-01-01

    Recently, thanks to advances made in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), techniques have been developed for the construction of models that predict the spatial distribution of species and other attributes of biodiversity. These methods have allowed for the development of objective criteria that are fundamental for making decisions regarding the creation of protected areas systems throughout the world. In this research, the spatial distribution of ten endangered species of birds found within the jurisdiction of CORANTIOQUIA (JDC from here on) was modelled, using GIS techniques. The JDC was divided into 177 squares of 15 x 10 Km and the following variables were quantified within each one: presence or absence of endangered species of birds, rainfall, temperature, sun brightness, relative humidity, day duration, altitude, vegetal cover, slope and primary net productivity. With the help of logistic regression were made predictive models. Based on logistic regressions techniques predictive models were made. These models allow to explain a percentage between 24% and 80% of spatial distribution variability of these species. Those results can help in the identification of valuable zones for the biodiversity conservation. In places where there are neither the time or the economic resources to carry out exhaustive analyses of biodiversity, the models can predict the probable presence of this endangered species

  5. New ecological mechanism of formation of spatial distribution of radionuclides in river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Shevyrnogov, A.P.; Kosolapova, L.G.; Levin, L.A.; Chernousov, A.V.; Vlasik, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioecological expeditions on the Yenissei river revealed 'spotty' distribution of radioisotopes in bottom sediments and along the coastline of the river. This work presents results of theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of stable spatial non-uniformities of river ecosystem components by population interactions of 'predator-prey' type between the phytoplukton and zooplankton. 'Patchiness contrast' (i.e. the amplitude of the radionuclide spatial propagation wave in the water) for the large oscillations control by increasing or decreasing current velocity depends both on the boundary concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton and on the established nature of their interpopulation interactions (or coefficients of interactions). Variation of the below given interaction parameters within the 'phytoplanbon-zooplankton' system makes increase the amplitude of spatial distribution wave: decrease of algal growth rate; increase of algal death rate; decrease of zooplankton death rate; increase of interaction coefficients. It was shown for small oscillations that the period of component distribution waves is in proportion to the current velocity and the amplitude of 'small' waves does not depend on the water current velocity. Theoretically it has been also found that with deep limitation of phytoplankton growth by biogenous elements the 'standing wave' is observed to deteriorate and monotonous distribution of radionuclide concentration fields is found to form. (author)

  6. Thematic and spatial resolutions affect model-based predictions of tree species distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong S; Fraser, Jacob S; Wu, ZhiWei

    2013-01-01

    Subjective decisions of thematic and spatial resolutions in characterizing environmental heterogeneity may affect the characterizations of spatial pattern and the simulation of occurrence and rate of ecological processes, and in turn, model-based tree species distribution. Thus, this study quantified the importance of thematic and spatial resolutions, and their interaction in predictions of tree species distribution (quantified by species abundance). We investigated how model-predicted species abundances changed and whether tree species with different ecological traits (e.g., seed dispersal distance, competitive capacity) had different responses to varying thematic and spatial resolutions. We used the LANDIS forest landscape model to predict tree species distribution at the landscape scale and designed a series of scenarios with different thematic (different numbers of land types) and spatial resolutions combinations, and then statistically examined the differences of species abundance among these scenarios. Results showed that both thematic and spatial resolutions affected model-based predictions of species distribution, but thematic resolution had a greater effect. Species ecological traits affected the predictions. For species with moderate dispersal distance and relatively abundant seed sources, predicted abundance increased as thematic resolution increased. However, for species with long seeding distance or high shade tolerance, thematic resolution had an inverse effect on predicted abundance. When seed sources and dispersal distance were not limiting, the predicted species abundance increased with spatial resolution and vice versa. Results from this study may provide insights into the choice of thematic and spatial resolutions for model-based predictions of tree species distribution.

  7. Network-scale spatial and temporal variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redd distributions: patterns inferred from spatially continuous replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow

    2006-01-01

    Spatially continuous sampling designs, when temporally replicated, provide analytical flexibility and are unmatched in their ability to provide a dynamic system view. We have compiled such a data set by georeferencing the network-scale distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redds across a large wilderness basin (7330 km2) in...

  8. Incorporating Human Movement Behavior into the Analysis of Spatially Distributed Infrastructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wu

    Full Text Available For the first time in human history, the majority of the world's population resides in urban areas. Therefore, city managers are faced with new challenges related to the efficiency, equity and quality of the supply of resources, such as water, food and energy. Infrastructure in a city can be viewed as service points providing resources. These service points function together as a spatially collaborative system to serve an increasing population. To study the spatial collaboration among service points, we propose a shared network according to human's collective movement and resource usage based on data usage detail records (UDRs from the cellular network in a city in western China. This network is shown to be not scale-free, but exhibits an interesting triangular property governed by two types of nodes with very different link patterns. Surprisingly, this feature is consistent with the urban-rural dualistic context of the city. Another feature of the shared network is that it consists of several spatially separated communities that characterize local people's active zones but do not completely overlap with administrative areas. According to these features, we propose the incorporation of human movement into infrastructure classification. The presence of well-defined spatially separated clusters confirms the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, our findings reveal the spatial structure inside a city, and the proposed approach provides a new perspective on integrating human movement into the study of a spatially distributed system.

  9. Incorporating Human Movement Behavior into the Analysis of Spatially Distributed Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Leung, Henry; Jiang, Hao; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in human history, the majority of the world's population resides in urban areas. Therefore, city managers are faced with new challenges related to the efficiency, equity and quality of the supply of resources, such as water, food and energy. Infrastructure in a city can be viewed as service points providing resources. These service points function together as a spatially collaborative system to serve an increasing population. To study the spatial collaboration among service points, we propose a shared network according to human's collective movement and resource usage based on data usage detail records (UDRs) from the cellular network in a city in western China. This network is shown to be not scale-free, but exhibits an interesting triangular property governed by two types of nodes with very different link patterns. Surprisingly, this feature is consistent with the urban-rural dualistic context of the city. Another feature of the shared network is that it consists of several spatially separated communities that characterize local people's active zones but do not completely overlap with administrative areas. According to these features, we propose the incorporation of human movement into infrastructure classification. The presence of well-defined spatially separated clusters confirms the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, our findings reveal the spatial structure inside a city, and the proposed approach provides a new perspective on integrating human movement into the study of a spatially distributed system.

  10. Influence of spatial and temporal spot distribution on the ocular surface quality and maximum ablation depth after photoablation with a 1050 Hz excimer laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temporal and spatial distributions of laser spots (scan sequences) on the corneal surface quality after ablation and the maximum ablation of a given refractive correction after photoablation with a high-repetition-rate scanning-spot laser. IROC AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated using a 1050 Hz excimer laser prototype for corneal laser surgery. Four temporal and spatial spot distributions (scan sequences) with different temporal overlapping factors were created for 3 myopic, 3 hyperopic, and 3 phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation profiles. Surface quality and maximum ablation depth were measured using a surface profiling system. The surface quality factor increased (rough surfaces) as the amount of temporal overlapping in the scan sequence and the amount of correction increased. The rise in surface quality factor was less for bovine corneas than for PMMA. The scan sequence might cause systematic substructures at the surface of the ablated material depending on the overlapping factor. The maximum ablation varied within the scan sequence. The temporal and spatial distribution of the laser spots (scan sequence) during a corneal laser procedure affected the surface quality and maximum ablation depth of the ablation profile. Corneal laser surgery could theoretically benefit from smaller spot sizes and higher repetition rates. The temporal and spatial spot distributions are relevant to achieving these aims.

  11. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of onroad CO2 emissions at the Urban spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Mendoza, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Hestia Project is a multi-disciplinary effort to help better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission at urban scale. Onroad transportation is an essential source of CO2 emissions. This study examines two urban domains: Marion County (Indianapolis) and Los Angeles County and explores the methods and results associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of local urban onroad CO2 emissions. We utilize a bottom-up approach and spatially distribute county emissions based on the Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts provided by local Department of Transportation. The total amount of CO2 emissions is calculated by the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) for Marion County and the EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model for Los Angeles County. The NMIM model provides CO2 emissions based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data at the county-level from the national county database (NCD). The EMFAC model provides CO2 emissions for California State based on vehicle activities, including VMT, vehicle population and fuel types. A GIS road atlas is retrieved from the US Census Bureau. Further spatial analysis and integration are performed by GIS software to distribute onroad CO2 emission according to the traffic volume. The temporal allocation of onroad CO2 emission is based on the hourly traffic data obtained from the Metropolitan Planning Orgnizations (MPO) for Marion County and Department of Transportation for Los Angeles County. The annual CO2 emissions are distributed according to each hourly fraction of traffic counts. Due to the fact that ATR stations are unevenly distributed in space, we create Thiessen polygons such that each road segment is linked to the nearest neighboring ATR station. The hourly profile for each individual station is then combined to create a "climatology" of CO2 emissions in time on each road segment. We find that for Marion County in the year 2002, urban interstate and arterial roads have

  13. Spatial distribution of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases in China: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Fu, Yang; Liu, Jinlin; Mao, Ying

    2018-01-01

    China is the largest developing country with a relatively developed public health system. To further prevent and eliminate the spread of infectious diseases, China has listed 39 notifiable infectious diseases characterized by wide prevalence or great harm, and classified them into classes A, B, and C, with severity decreasing across classes. Class A diseases have been almost eradicated in China, thus making class B diseases a priority in infectious disease prevention and control. In this retrospective study, we analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases that remain active all over China. Global and local Moran's I and corresponding graphic tools are adopted to explore and visualize the global and local spatial distribution of the incidence of the selected epidemics, respectively. Inter-correlations of clustering patterns of each pair of diseases and a cumulative summary of the high/low cluster frequency of the provincial units are also provided by means of figures and maps. Of the 12 most commonly notifiable class B infectious diseases, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis show high incidence rates and account for more than half of the reported cases. Almost all the diseases, except pertussis, exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation at the provincial level. All diseases feature varying spatial concentrations. Nevertheless, associations exist between spatial distribution patterns, with some provincial units displaying the same type of cluster features for two or more infectious diseases. Overall, high-low (unit with high incidence surrounded by units with high incidence, the same below) and high-high spatial cluster areas tend to be prevalent in the provincial units located in western and southwest China, whereas low-low and low-high spatial cluster areas abound in provincial units in north and east China. Despite the various distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases, certain similarities between

  14. A Modeling Framework for Schedulability Analysis of Distributed Avionics Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Pujie; Zhai, Zhengjun; Nielsen, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework for schedulability analysis of distributed integrated modular avionics (DIMA) systems that consist of spatially distributed ARINC-653 modules connected by a unified AFDX network. We model a DIMA system as a set of stopwatch automata (SWA) in UPPAAL...

  15. Spatially resolved In and As distributions in InGaAs/GaP and InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J; Cha, J J; Song, Y; Lee, M L

    2014-01-01

    InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaP are promising for monolithic integration of optoelectronics with Si technology. To understand and improve the optical properties of InGaAs/GaP QD systems, detailed measurements of the QD atomic structure as well as the spatial distributions of each element at high resolution are crucial. This is because the QD band structure, band alignment, and optical properties are determined by the atomic structure and elemental composition. Here, we directly measure the inhomogeneous distributions of In and As in InGaAs QDs grown on GaAs and GaP substrates at the nanoscale using energy dispersive x-ray spectral mapping in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We find that the In distribution is broader on GaP than on GaAs, and as a result, the QDs appear to be In-poor using a GaP matrix. Our findings challenge some of the assumptions made for the concentrations and distributions of In within InGaAs/GaAs or InGaAs/GaP QD systems and provide detailed structural and elemental information to modify the current band structure understanding. In particular, the findings of In deficiency and inhomogeneous distribution in InGaAs/GaP QD systems help to explain photoluminescence spectral differences between InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/GaP QD systems. (paper)

  16. Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Maritime traffic profile in Western Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhai, C; Feng, L; Guojun, P

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical statistics and spatial analyses for merchant vessels navigating in Western Taiwan Strait are used to unravel potential spatial heterogeneity based on ship tracking records derived from China's coastal Automatic Identification System shore-based network from October 2011 to September 2012. Two maritime traffic profile's indices, composition of vessels, weighted frequency of ship transits, are proposed. Based on the two indices, the most risky hotspots or areas in the Strait are detected by comparing spatial distribution of maritime traffic volume of fishing boat, container ship, crude oil tanker and all ships exclude fishing boats

  17. High spatial and temporal resolution interrogation of fully distributed chirped fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Eamonn J.; Wang, Chao; Feng, Dejun; Yan, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel interrogation technique for fully distributed linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) strain sensors with simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution based on optical time-stretch frequency-domain reflectometry (OTS-FDR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. LCFBGs is a promising candidate for fully distributed sensors thanks to its longer grating length and broader reflection bandwidth compared to normal uniform FBGs. In the proposed system, two identical LCFBGs are...

  18. Process and device for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This invention describes a process for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance consisting in determining the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions that occur owing to the emission of gamma photons by the radioactive material and in deducing an information on the spatial distribution of the radioactive substance, depending on the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect of these gamma photons and the positions and energy losses associated to the subsequent photoelectric interactions of these same photons. The invention also concerns a processing system for identifying, among the signals representing the positions and energy losses of the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions of the gamma photons emitted by a radioactive source, those signals that are in keeping with the gamma photons that have been subjected to an initial interaction of the Compton effect and a second and last photoelectric interaction. It further concerns a system for determining, among the identified signals, the positions of the sources of several gamma photons. This detector of Compton interaction can be used with conventional Auger-type imaging system (gamma camera) for detecting photoelectric interactions [fr

  19. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  20. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  1. An Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Government Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reveals that the spatial distribution of Government Owned Secondary Schools in Zaria area is very uneven. The paper argues that uneven distribution of Government Owned Secondary education facilities as well as their inadequacy and inefficiency encourage the proliferation of Private Owned Secondary Schools (POSS) ...

  2. Monte Carlo studies of accelerator driven systems energy and spatial distribution of neutrons in multiplying and non-multiplying media

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Brandt, R; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Odoj, R; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W

    2002-01-01

    The LAHET code system is used to study the behaviour of the spallation neutrons resulting from the interaction of 2.5 GeV/c protons with a massive lead target within a large (approx 32 m sup 3) lead and graphite moderating environments. The spatial and energy distribution of the neutrons with presence and absence of a fissile material in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are investigated. It is shown that the energy spectra of the neutrons in graphite and lead moderators are very different and such difference is expected to result in noticeable differences in the nuclear waste transmutation abilities of the ADSs that use graphite and lead for neutron moderation and storage.

  3. Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile workshops in Osogbo, ... data pertaining to the activities and other related issues of their workshops. ... The study therefore, recommends the establishment of mechanic complex, ...

  4. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Helen Aline; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA). The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high). A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2) and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676), but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (pCinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  5. GIS-based spatial decision support system for grain logistics management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Tong; Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Che, Yi

    2010-07-01

    Grain logistics is the important component of the social logistics, which can be attributed to frequent circulation and the great quantity. At present time, there is no modern grain logistics distribution management system, and the logistics cost is the high. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been widely used for spatial data manipulation and model operations and provide effective decision support through its spatial database management capabilities and cartographic visualization. In the present paper, a spatial decision support system (SDSS) is proposed to support policy makers and to reduce the cost of grain logistics. The system is composed of two major components: grain logistics goods tracking model and vehicle routing problem optimization model and also allows incorporation of data coming from external sources. The proposed system is an effective tool to manage grain logistics in order to increase the speed of grain logistics and reduce the grain circulation cost.

  6. Measurement of spatial dose-rate distribution using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Torii, T.; Nozaki, T.; Ando, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the radiation detectors using plastic scintillation fibers (PSF) have been developed to measure the positions exposed to radiation such as neutrons and high energy charged particles. In particular, the time of flight (TOF) method for measuring the difference of time that two directional signals of scintillation light reach both ends of a PSF is a rather simple method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of fast neutron fluence rate. It is possible to use the PSF in nuclear facility working areas because of its flexibility, small diameter and long length. In order to apply TOF method to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution, the characteristic tests of a detector using PSFs were carried out. First, the resolution of irradiated positions and the counting efficiency were measured with collimated gamma ray. The sensitivity to unit dose rate was also obtained. The measurement of spatial dose rate distribution was also carried out. The sensor is made of ten bundled PSFs, and the experimental setup is described. The experiment and the results are reported. It was found that the PSF detector has the good performance to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution. (K.I.)

  7. Spatial distribution of dust in galaxies from the Integral field unit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Sophie Dubber, Andrew Hopkins

    2018-01-01

    An important characteristic of the dust is it can be used as a tracer of stars (and gas) and tell us about the composition of galaxies. Sub-mm and infrared studies can accurately determine the total dust mass and its spatial distribution in massive, bright galaxies. However, faint and distant galaxies are hampered by resolution to dust spatial dust distribution. In the era of integral-field spectrographs (IFS), Balmer decrement is a useful quantity to infer the spatial extent of the dust in distant and low-mass galaxies. We conducted a study to estimate the spatial distribution of dust using the Sydney-Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) galaxies. Our methodology is unique to exploit the potential of IFS and using the spatial and spectral information together to study dust in galaxies of various morphological types. The spatial extent and content of dust are compared with the star-formation rate, reddening, and inclination of galaxies. We find a right correlation of dust spatial extent with the star-formation rate. The results also indicate a decrease in dust extent radius from Late Spirals to Early Spirals.

  8. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Alaria alata in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Tolnai, Z; Sréter, T

    2013-11-15

    Alaria alata is a potential zoonotic parasite, which is widely distributed in Eurasia. To assess the risk of human infection, it is important to know the spatial distribution pattern of the parasite and factors influencing this pattern. To investigate these relationships, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory, and the intestines were examined by sedimentation and counting technique. The spatial distribution of the parasite was highly clumped. The topographic positions where the foxes had been shot and the intensity of infections were recorded in geographic information system database. Digitized home ranges of infected and uninfected foxes were analysed on the background of geographic vector data of altitude, land cover types, permanent waters, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and soil permeability. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and A. alata scores. Based on the statistical analysis, lack of permanent waters, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and soil permeability were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of A. alata. It can be explained by the use of biotopes by the intermediate hosts. The lack of permanent waters results in the use of temporary waters by the second intermediate hosts, frogs. The higher temperature, the lower precipitation and the higher soil permeability lead to earlier desiccation of temporary waters, and tadpoles and frogs infected with mesocercariae can be more easily predated by the final hosts (e.g., red foxes). Moreover, temporary waters are more easily contaminated with the faeces of the final hosts containing eggs than permanent waters. Therefore, high infection rate with A. alata can be expected mainly in lowland areas, where the hydrogeography of permanent waters is less complex, the precipitation is lower, the mean temperature and the soil permeability are higher than in highland areas

  9. A New Perspective: Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Coral Bleaching with Unmanned Low Altitude Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.; Franklin, E. C.; Hunter, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots that are vital to the function of global economic and biological processes. Coral bleaching is a significant contributor to the global decline of reefs and can impact an expansive reef area over short timescales. In order to understand the dynamics of coral bleaching and how these stress events impact reef ecosystems, it is important to conduct rapid bleaching surveys at functionally important spatial scales. Due to the inherent heterogeneity, size, and in some cases, remoteness of coral reefs, it is difficult to routinely monitor coral bleaching dynamics before, during, and after bleaching. Additionally, current in situ survey methods only collect snippets of discrete reef data over small reef areas, which are unable to accurately represent the reef as a whole. We present a new technique using small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) as cost effective, efficient monitoring tools that target small to intermediate-scale reef dynamics to understand the spatial distribution of bleached coral colonies during the 2015 bleaching event on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Overlapping low altitude aerial images were collected at four reefs during the bleaching period and processed using Structure-from-Motion techniques to produce georeferenced and spatially accurate orthomosaics of complete reef areas. Mosaics were analyzed using manual and heuristic neural network classification schemes to identify comprehensive populations of bleached and live coral on each patch reef. We found that bleached colonies had random and clumped distributions on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay depending on local environmental conditions. Our work demonstrates that sUAS provide a low cost, efficient platform that can rapidly and repeatedly collect high-resolution imagery (1 cm/pixel) and map large areas of shallow reef ecosystems (5 hectares). This study proves the feasibility of utilizing sUAS as a tool to collect spatially rich reef data that will provide reef

  10. Factors Impacting Spatial Patterns of Snow Distribution in a Small Catchment near Nome, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in the climate, hydrology and ecological systems of the Arctic due to its influence on the water balance, thermal regimes, vegetation and carbon flux. Thus, snow depth and coverage have been key components in all the earth system models but are often poorly represented for arctic regions, where fine scale snow distribution data is sparse. The snow data currently used in the models is at coarse resolution, which in turn leads to high uncertainty in model predictions. Through the DOE Office of Science Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic, high resolution snow distribution data is being developed and applied in catchment scale models to ultimately improve representation of snow and its interactions with other model components in the earth system models . To improve these models, it is important to identify key factors that control snow distribution and quantify the impacts of those factors on snow distribution. In this study, two intensive snow depth surveys (1 to 10 meters scale) were conducted for a 2.3 km2 catchment on the Teller road, near Nome, AK in the winter of 2016 and 2017. We used a statistical model to quantify the impacts of vegetation types, macro-topography, micro-topography, and meteorological parameters on measured snow depth. The results show that snow spatial distribution was similar between 2016 and 2017, snow depth was spatially auto correlated over small distance (2-5 meters), but not spatially auto correlated over larger distance (more than 2-5 meters). The coefficients of variation of snow depth was above 0.3 for all the snow survey transects (500-800 meters long). Variation of snow depth is governed by vegetation height, aspect, slope, surface curvature, elevation and wind speed and direction. We expect that this empirical statistical model can be used to estimate end of winter snow depth for the whole watershed and will further develop the model using data from other arctic regions to estimate

  11. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  12. Spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Chattopadhyay, J

    2015-06-01

    The production of toxins by some species of phytoplankton is known to have several economic, ecological, and human health impacts. However, the role of toxins on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton is not well understood. In the present study, the spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton is investigated. We analyze the linear stability of the system and obtain the condition for Turing instability. In the presence of toxic effect, we find that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton becomes inhomogeneous in space and results in different patterns, like stripes, spots, and the mixture of them depending on the toxicity level. We also observe that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton shows spatiotemporal oscillation for certain toxicity level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial distribution of calcium-gated chloride channels in olfactory cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Donald A; Badamdorj, Dorjsuren; Kleene, Steven J

    2010-12-30

    In vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, sensory cilia transduce odor stimuli into changes in neuronal membrane potential. The voltage changes are primarily caused by the sequential openings of two types of channel: a cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) cationic channel and a calcium-gated chloride channel. In frog, the cilia are 25 to 200 µm in length, so the spatial distributions of the channels may be an important determinant of odor sensitivity. To determine the spatial distribution of the chloride channels, we recorded from single cilia as calcium was allowed to diffuse down the length of the cilium and activate the channels. A computational model of this experiment allowed an estimate of the spatial distribution of the chloride channels. On average, the channels were concentrated in a narrow band centered at a distance of 29% of the ciliary length, measured from the base of the cilium. This matches the location of the CNG channels determined previously. This non-uniform distribution of transduction proteins is consistent with similar findings in other cilia. On average, the two types of olfactory transduction channel are concentrated in the same region of the cilium. This may contribute to the efficient detection of weak stimuli.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Market Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Morshedul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find the location pattern, distribution and their sphere of influences of market centers in Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh. Rangpur is facing some problems like a traffic jam, noisy environment, population pressure etc due to the over population in full day long in the center of this city, all of the whole sale and retail sale markets are located in the middle. Location of Market is always influencing the daily life of the city population who are directly or indirectly connected with the market. If the market strategically distributed in an area they don’t face such kind of problems. Analysis or investigation shows that at about all of the market centers are located in the center of Rangpur and in the residential area of Rangpur. The maximum 67% market centers are found in the high-income residential area. Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and survey of Bangladesh provided the maps, reports and relevant documents of the study. The spatial dispersion pattern of market centers is clustered together at one place 0.33(Nearest Neighbor Index value, R found in the study area. Geographical Information System (GIS and other software also used to analyze the maps and diagrams. Investigation refers that, the market of Rangpur city have a clustered pattern and different levels of market centers found on the bases of centrality scores. By this centrality scores or levels, found the variation of influencing spheres of market centers in Rangpur City.

  15. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2015-01-01

    in the tomographic reconstructions and the amount of drug in each tissue class was quantified. With a scan time of about 45min per sample, and a robust segmentation it was possible to analyze differences in the spatial drug distribution between several similar injections. It was studied how the drug distribution...

  16. Precise Mapping Of A Spatially Distributed Radioactive Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Caras, I.; Piestum, S.; Sheli, E.; Melamud, Y.; Berant, S.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial distribution measurement of radioactive sources is a routine task in the nuclear industry. The precision of each measurement depends upon the specific application. However, the technological edge of this precision is motivated by the production of standards for calibration. Within this definition, the most demanding field is the calibration of standards for medical equipment. In this paper, a semi-empirical method for controlling the measurement precision is demonstrated, using a relatively simple laboratory apparatus. The spatial distribution of the source radioactivity is measured as part of the quality assurance tests, during the production of flood sources. These sources are further used in calibration of medical gamma cameras. A typical flood source is a 40 x 60 cm 2 plate with an activity of 10 mCi (or more) of 57 Co isotope. The measurement set-up is based on a single NaI(Tl) scintillator with a photomultiplier tube, moving on an X Y table which scans the flood source. In this application the source is required to have a uniform activity distribution over its surface

  17. Digital autoradiography technique for studying of spatial Impurity distributions Delara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of the digital image processing for autoradiographic investigations of impurity distributions in the different objects (crystals, biology, geology et al) are shown. Activation autoradiography based on the secondary beta-irradiation is the method spread widely for investigations of the spatial distribution of chemical elements in the different objects. The analysis of autoradiography features is connected with the elucidation of optical density distribution of photoemulsion by means of photometry. The photoemulsion is used as detector of secondary beta irradiation. For different technological and nature materials to have elemental shifts the fine structure of chemical element distribution is often interested. But photometry makes it difficult to study the inhomogeneous chemical elements with the little gradient of concentration (near 20%). Therefore, the suppression of the background and betterment of linear solvability are the main problems of autoradiographic analysis. Application of the fast-acting digital computers and the technical means of signals treatment are allowed to spread the possibilities and the resolution of activation autoradiography. Mechanism of creation of autoradiographic features is described. The treatment of autoradiograms was conducted with the help of the dialogue system having matrix in 512 x 512 elements. For the interpretation of the experimental data clustering analysis methodology was used. Classification of the zones on the minimum of the square mistake was conducted according to the data of histograms of the optical densities of the studying autoradiograms. It was proposed algorithm for digital treatment for reconstruction of autoradiographic features. At a minimal contrast the resolution of the method has been enhanced on the degree by adaptation of methods of digital image processing (DIP) to suppress background activity. Results of the digital autoradiographic investigations of spatial impurity

  18. Inferring processes from spatial patterns: the role of directional and non-directional forces in shaping fish larvae distribution in a freshwater lake system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bertolo

    Full Text Available Larval dispersal is a crucial factor for fish recruitment. For fishes with relatively small-bodied larvae, drift has the potential to play a more important role than active habitat selection in determining larval dispersal; therefore, we expect small-bodied fish larvae to be poorly associated with habitat characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we used as model yellow perch (Perca flavescens, whose larvae are among the smallest among freshwater temperate fishes. Thus, we analysed the habitat association of yellow perch larvae at multiple spatial scales in a large shallow fluvial lake by explicitly modelling directional (e.g. due to water currents and non-directional (e.g. due to aggregation spatial patterns. This allowed us to indirectly assess the relative roles of drift (directional process and potential habitat choice on larval dispersal. Our results give weak support to the drift hypothesis, whereas yellow perch show a strong habitat association at unexpectedly small sizes, when compared to other systems. We found consistent non-directional patterns in larvae distributions at both broad and medium spatial scales but only few significant directional components. The environmental variables alone (e.g. vegetation generally explained a significant and biologically relevant fraction of the variation in fish larvae distribution data. These results suggest that (i drift plays a minor role in this shallow system, (ii larvae display spatial patterns that only partially covary with environmental variables, and (iii larvae are associated to specific habitats. By suggesting that habitat association potentially includes an active choice component for yellow perch larvae, our results shed new light on the ecology of freshwater fish larvae and should help in building more realistic recruitment models.

  19. Disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy: effect of host spatial structure and of inoculum quantity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Spatial patterns of both the host and the disease influence disease spread and crop losses. Therefore, the manipulation of these patterns might help improve control strategies. Considering disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy allows one to capture important features of epidemics developing in space without using explicitly spatialized variables. Thus, if the system under study is composed of roots, plants, and planting hills, the effect of host spatial pattern can be studied by varying the number of plants per planting hill. A simulation model based on hierarchy theory was used to simulate the effects of large versus small planting hills, low versus high level of initial infections, and aggregated versus uniform distribution of initial infections. The results showed that aggregating the initially infected plants always resulted in slower epidemics than spreading out the initial infections uniformly. Simulation results also showed that, in most cases, disease epidemics were slower in the case of large host aggregates (100 plants/hill) than with smaller aggregates (25 plants/hill), except when the initially infected plants were both numerous and spread out uniformly. The optimal strategy for disease control depends on several factors, including initial conditions. More importantly, the model offers a framework to account for the interplay between the spatial characteristics of the system, rates of infection, and aggregation of the disease.

  20. The size and spatial distribution of microchannel plate output electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapington, J.S.; Edgar, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the output charge cloud from a microchannel plate (MCP), using a planar, charge-division-type anode is discussed. The anode simultaneously measures, for each charge cloud, both the position of the charge centroid and the fractional charge falling to one side of the split in the pattern. The measurements from several thousand events have been combined to calculate the average spatial distribution of the electron cloud and the dominant factors influencing the charge cloud distribution have been found to be the MCP gain and the MCP-anode accelerating field and geometry. Experimental research on the two dominant factors with respect to ranges of distribution is presented. 10 refs

  1. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  2. Spatial distribution of cold antihydrogen formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, N.; Hangst, J.S.; Amoretti, M.; Carraro, C.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Amsler, C.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Bonomi, G.; Doser, M.; Kellerbauer, A.; Landua, R.; Bowe, P.D.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L.V.; Mitchard, D.; Werf, D.P. van der; Cesar, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    Antihydrogen is formed when antiprotons are mixed with cold positrons in a nested Penning trap. We present experimental evidence, obtained using our antihydrogen annihilation detector, that the spatial distribution of the emerging antihydrogen atoms is independent of the positron temperature and axially enhanced. This indicates that antihydrogen is formed before the antiprotons are in thermal equilibrium with the positron plasma. This result has important implications for the trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen

  3. Spatial Distribution of Infection Risk of SARS Transmission in a Hospital Ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Hua; Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    The classical Wells-Riley model for predicting risk of airborne transmission of diseases assumes a uniform spatial distribution of the infected cases in an enclosed space. A new mathematical model is developed here for predicting the spatial distribution of infection risk of airborne transmitted ......, such as inpatients in a hospital ward, passengers in an airplane etc....

  4. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Aline Melo

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA. The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high. A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2 and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676, but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (p< 0.05. In the construction and analysis of the cluster maps, areas with a high-high positive association were found in the Ivaí-Pirapó, Tibagi, Cinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  5. Sediment spatial distribution evaluated by three methods and its relation to some soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, O O.S. . [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-CENA/USP, Laboratorio de Fisica do Solo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Reichardt, K [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-CENA/USP, Laboratorio de Fisica do Solo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sparovek, G [Departamento de Solos e Nutricao de Plantas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-02-15

    An investigation of rates and spatial distribution of sediments on an agricultural field cultivated with sugarcane was undertaken using the {sup 137}Cs technique, USLE and WEPP models. The study was carried out on the Ceveiro watershed of the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, experiencing severe soil degradation due to soil erosion. The objectives of the study were to compare the spatial distribution of sediments evaluated by the three methods and its relation to some soil properties. Erosion and sedimentation rates and their spatial distribution estimated by the three methods were completely different. Although not able to show sediment deposition, the spatial distribution of erosion rates evaluated by USLE presented the best correlation with other studied soil properties. (author)

  6. Effect of gel texture and sucrose spatial distribution on sweetness perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Layered gels differing in mechanical and breakdown properties (soft, medium and hard gels) and in the distribution of sucrose in the matrix (homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions) were used to investigate the effects of texture and spatial distribution of sucrose on sweetness perception.

  7. Inferring the flood frequency distribution for an ungauged basin using a spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moretti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the peak river flow for ungauged river sections is a topical issue in applied hydrology. Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff models can be a useful tool to this end, since they are potentially able to simulate the river flow at any location of the watershed drainage network. However, it is not fully clear to what extent these models can provide reliable simulations over a wide range of spatial scales. This issue is investigated here by applying a spatially distributed, continuous simulation rainfall-runoff model to infer the flood frequency distribution of the Riarbero River. This is an ungauged mountain creek located in northern Italy, whose drainage area is 17 km2. The hydrological model is first calibrated by using a 1-year record of hourly meteorological data and river flows observed at the outlet of the 1294 km2 wide Secchia River basin, of which the Riarbero is a tributary. The model is then validated by performing a 100-year long simulation of synthetic river flow data, which allowed us to compare the simulated and observed flood frequency distributions at the Secchia River outlet and the internal cross river section of Cavola Bridge, where the basin area is 337 km2. Finally, another simulation of hourly river flows was performed by referring to the outlet of the Riarbero River, therefore allowing us to estimate the related flood frequency distribution. The results were validated by using estimates of peak river flow obtained by applying hydrological similarity principles and a regional method. The results show that the flood flow estimated through the application of the distributed model is consistent with the estimate provided by the regional procedure as well as the behaviors of the river banks. Conversely, the method based on hydrological similarity delivers an estimate that seems to be not as reliable. The analysis highlights interesting perspectives for the application of

  8. Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of plague records from 1986 to 2002 and household interviews were carried out in the plague endemic villages to establish a pattern and spatial distribution of the disease in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Spatial data of households and village centres were collected and mapped using a hand held Global Positioning ...

  9. Non-homogeneous Behaviour of the Spatial Distribution of Macrospicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Bennett, S.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distribution of macrospicules is examined. We found a statistical relationship between the active longitude (determined by sunspot groups) and the longitudinal distribution of macrospicules. This distribution of macrospicules shows an inhomogeneity and non-axisymmetrical behaviour in the time interval between June 2010 and December 2012, covered by observations of the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) satellite. The enhanced positions of the activity and its time variation have been calculated. The migration of the longitudinal distribution of macrospicules shows a similar behaviour to that of the sunspot groups.

  10. Does Vertebroplasty Affect Radiation Dose Distribution?: Comparison of Spatial Dose Distributions in a Cement-Injected Vertebra as Calculated by Treatment Planning System and Actual Spatial Dose Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, A.; Tanigawa, N.; Kariya, Sh.; Yagi, R.; Nakatani, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sano, A.; Ikeda, K.; Utsunomiya, K.; Harima, Y.; Sawada, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess differences in dose distribution of a vertebral body injected with bone cement as calculated by radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) and actual dose distribution. Methods. We prepared two water-equivalent phantoms with cement, and the other two phantoms without cement. The bulk density of the bone cement was imported into RTPS to reduce error from high CT values. A dose distribution map for the phantoms with and without cement was calculated using RTPS with clinical setting and with the bulk density importing. Actual dose distribution was measured by the film density. Dose distribution as calculated by RTPS was compared to the dose distribution measured by the film dosimetry. Results. For the phantom with cement, dose distribution was distorted for the areas corresponding to inside the cement and on the ventral side of the cement. However, dose distribution based on film dosimetry was undistorted behind the cement and dose increases were seen inside cement and around the cement. With the equivalent phantom with bone cement, differences were seen between dose distribution calculated by RTPS and that measured by the film dosimetry. Conclusion. The dose distribution of an area containing bone cement calculated using RTPS differs from actual dose distribution

  11. Environmental Justice and the Spatial Distribution of Outdoor Recreation sites: an Applications of Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation sites and their proximity to census block groups (CBGs), in order to determine potential socio-economic inequities. It is framed within the context of environmental justice. Information from the Southern Appalachian Assessment database was applied to a case study of the Chattahoochee National Forest in...

  12. The experimental method of measurement for spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light by circular PIN-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuefeng; Wang Chuanke; Hu Feng; Kuang Longyu; Wang Zhebin; Li Sanwei; Liu Shengye; Jiang Gang

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of backscatter light is very important for understanding the production of backscatter light. The experimental method of spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is based on the circular PIN array composed of concentric orbicular multi-PIN detectors. The image of backscatter light spatial distribution of full aperture SBS is obtained by measuring spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light using the method in the experiment of laser hohlraum targets interaction at 'Shenguang II'. A preliminary method to measure spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is established. (authors)

  13. Accuration of Time Series and Spatial Interpolation Method for Prediction of Precipitation Distribution on the Geographical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Spatial Plan of the Province of Central Java 2009-2029 identifies that most regencies or cities in Central Java Province are very vulnerable to landslide disaster. The data are also supported by other data from Indonesian Disaster Risk Index (In Indonesia called Indeks Risiko Bencana Indonesia) 2013 that suggest that some areas in Central Java Province exhibit a high risk of natural disasters. This research aims to develop an application architecture and analysis methodology in GIS to predict and to map rainfall distribution. We propose our GIS architectural application of “Multiplatform Architectural Spatiotemporal” and data analysis methods of “Triple Exponential Smoothing” and “Spatial Interpolation” as our significant scientific contribution. This research consists of 2 (two) parts, namely attribute data prediction using TES method and spatial data prediction using Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) method. We conduct our research in 19 subdistricts in the Boyolali Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Our main research data is the biweekly rainfall data in 2000-2016 Climatology, Meteorology, and Geophysics Agency (In Indonesia called Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika) of Central Java Province and Laboratory of Plant Disease Observations Region V Surakarta, Central Java. The application architecture and analytical methodology of “Multiplatform Architectural Spatiotemporal” and spatial data analysis methodology of “Triple Exponential Smoothing” and “Spatial Interpolation” can be developed as a GIS application framework of rainfall distribution for various applied fields. The comparison between the TES and IDW methods show that relative to time series prediction, spatial interpolation exhibit values that are approaching actual. Spatial interpolation is closer to actual data because computed values are the rainfall data of the nearest location or the neighbour of sample values. However, the IDW’s main weakness is that some

  14. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The availability and spatial distribution of oxygen (O2) in agricultural soil are controlling factors in the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but most experiments investigating the effects of various factors on N2O emissions in soil have been conducted without...... to interpret data on N2O emissions following a uniform or layered amendment of manure to agricultural soil. The spatial distribution of O2 and gas emission rates were monitored for 12 h. An anoxic layer formed rapidly around the layered manure, whereas the uniformly distributed manure led to a more widespread...... anoxia. Nitrous oxide emissions increased immediately after depletion of O2 in the manure-amended treatments. Greater understanding and improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of O2 is clearly beneficial and can be used to devise improved application strategies for mitigating N2O emissions from...

  15. Benefits of incorporating spatial organisation of catchments for a semi-distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andreas; Oppel, Henning

    2017-04-01

    To represent the hydrological behaviour of catchments a model should reproduce/reflect the hydrologically most relevant catchment characteristics. These are heterogeneously distributed within a watershed but often interrelated and subject of a certain spatial organisation. Since common models are mostly based on fundamental assumptions about hydrological processes, the reduction of variance of catchment properties as well as the incorporation of the spatial organisation of the catchment is desirable. We have developed a method that combines the idea of the width-function used for determination of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph with information about soil or topography. With this method we are able to assess the spatial organisation of selected catchment characteristics. An algorithm was developed that structures a watershed into sub-basins and other spatial units to minimise its heterogeneity. The outcomes of this algorithm are used for the spatial setup of a semi-distributed model. Since the spatial organisation of a catchment is not bound to a single characteristic, we have to embed information of multiple catchment properties. For this purpose we applied a fuzzy-based method to combine the spatial setup for multiple single characteristics into a union, optimal spatial differentiation. Utilizing this method, we are able to propose a spatial structure for a semi-distributed hydrological model, comprising the definition of sub-basins and a zonal classification within each sub-basin. Besides the improved spatial structuring, the performed analysis ameliorates modelling in another way. The spatial variability of catchment characteristics, which is considered by a minimum of heterogeneity in the zones, can be considered in a parameter constrained calibration scheme in a case study both options were used to explore the benefits of incorporating the spatial organisation and derived parameter constraints for the parametrisation of a HBV-96 model. We use two benchmark

  16. Stellar bars and the spatial distribution of infrared luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based 10 micron observations of the central region of over 100 infrared luminous galaxies are presented. A first order estimate of the spatial distribution of infrared emission in galaxies is obtained through a combination of ground-based and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data. The galaxies are nearby and primarily noninteracting, permitting an unbiased investigation of correlations with Hubble type. Approximately 40% of the early-type barred galaxies in this sample are associated with enhanced luminosity in the central (approximately 1 kpc diameter) region. The underlying luminosity source is attributed to both Seyfert and star formation activity. Late-type spirals are different in that the spatial distribution of infrared emission and the infrared luminoisty are not strongly dependent on barred morphology

  17. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  18. The influence of row width and seed spacing on uniformity of plant spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Olsen, Jannie Maj; Weiner, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    width and evenness of spacing within rows influences two-dimensional spatial quality. The results can be used to define new requirements for improved seeding technologies to achieve higher benefits in sustainable crop production systems. In general it can be concluded that more even plant distributions...... are expected to result in a better crop plant performance....

  19. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Gingele, Franz Xaver; Leipe, Thomas; Brehme, Isa

    2006-04-01

    Ninety-two surface sediment samples were collected in Guanabara Bay, one of the most prominent urban bays in SE Brazil, to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metals, organic carbon and particle size were examined in all samples. Large spatial variations of heavy metals and particle size were observed. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found in the muddy sediments from the north western region of the bay near the main outlets of the most polluted rivers, municipal waste drainage systems and one of the major oil refineries. Another anomalous concentration of metals was found adjacent to Rio de Janeiro Harbour. The heavy metal concentrations decrease to the northeast, due to intact rivers and the mangrove systems in this area, and to the south where the sand fraction and open-marine processes dominate. The geochemical normalization of metal data to Li or Al has also demonstrated that the anthropogenic input of heavy metals have altered the natural sediment heavy metal distribution.

  20. Modeling the spatial distribution of crop cultivated areas at a large regional scale combining system dynamics and a modified Dyna-CLUE: A case from Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesgari, I.; Saeed Jabalameli, M.

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural land use pattern is affected by many factors at different scales and effects that are separated by time and space. This will lead to simulation models that optimize or project the cropping pattern changes and incorporate complexities in terms of details and dynamics. Combining System Dynamics (SD) and a modified Conversion of Land Use and its Effects (CLUE) modelling framework, this paper suggests a new dynamic approach for assessing the demand of different crops at country-level and for predicting the spatial distribution of cultivated areas at provincial scale. As example, a case study is presented for Iran, where we have simulated a scenario of future cropping pattern changes during 2015–2040.The results indicated a change in the spatial distribution of cultivated areas during the next years. An increase in the proportion of rice is expected in northern Iran, whereas the proportion of wheat is increasing in the mountainous western areas. Wheat and barley crops are expected to become dominant within the cropping system throughout the country regions.

  1. Spatial distribution of ozone over Indonesia (Study case: Forest fire event 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimah, Sri; Buce Saleh, Muhamad; Hidayat, Rahmat

    2018-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is known as surface ozone and caused several health impact. The objective of this study was to analysis spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone over Indonesia case study forest fire event in 2015. Monthly observation measured by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been analysed from January – December 2015 to study spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone related to forest fire event 2015. The study discovered high level of tropospheric column ozone (TCO) from October to November 2015. The result shows increasing average of TCO from September to October almost 6 DU. Meanwhile, monthly number of hotspot is higher in September 2015 with total number 257 hotspot which is acquired by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Terra version 6.1 with confidence level same or more than 90%. The hotspot distribution compared with spatial TCO distribution and shows interesting time lag with respect to hotspot distribution, one month. Further study for daily comparison of TCO and forest fire event needed. This result suggested that the tropospheric ozone over the Indonesian region increases in 2015 were remarkable and corresponded to forest fire event.

  2. Spatial organization in cyclic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachebourg, L.; Krapivsky, P.L.; Ben-Naim, E.

    1996-01-01

    We study the evolution of a system of N interacting species which mimics the dynamics of a cyclic food chain. On a one-dimensional lattice with N α , where α=3/4 (1/2) and 1/3 for N=3 with sequential (parallel) dynamics and N=4, respectively. The domain distribution also exhibits a self-similar spatial structure which is characterized by an additional length scale, left-angle L(t)right-angle ∼t β , with β=1 and 2/3 for N=3 and 4, respectively. For N≥5, the system quickly reaches a frozen state with noninteracting neighboring species. We investigate the time distribution of the number of mutations of a site using scaling arguments as well as an exact solution for N=3. Some relevant extensions are also analyzed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Long-term spatial heterogeneity in mallard distribution in the Prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2017-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of north-central United States and south-central Canada supports greater than half of all breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) annually counted in North America and is the focus of widespread conservation and research efforts. Allocation of conservation resources for this socioeconomically important population would benefit from an understanding of the nature of spatiotemporal variation in distribution of breeding mallards throughout the 850,000 km2 landscape. We used mallard counts from the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey to test for spatial heterogeneity and identify high- and low-abundance regions of breeding mallards over a 50-year time series. We found strong annual spatial heterogeneity in all years: 90% of mallards counted annually were on an average of only 15% of surveyed segments. Using a local indicator of spatial autocorrelation, we found a relatively static distribution of low-count clusters in northern Montana, USA, and southern Alberta, Canada, and a dynamic distribution of high-count clusters throughout the study period. Distribution of high-count clusters shifted southeast from northwestern portions of the PPR in Alberta and western Saskatchewan, Canada, to North and South Dakota, USA, during the latter half of the study period. This spatial redistribution of core mallard breeding populations was likely driven by interactions between environmental variation that created favorable hydrological conditions for wetlands in the eastern PPR and dynamic land-use patterns related to upland cropping practices and government land-retirement programs. Our results highlight an opportunity for prioritizing relatively small regions within the PPR for allocation of wetland and grassland conservation for mallard populations. However, the extensive spatial heterogeneity in core distributions over our study period suggests such spatial prioritization will have to overcome challenges presented by dynamic land

  4. Spatial distribution of cancer in Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fararouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of cancer is one of the powerful tools in epidemiology of cancer. The present study is designed to understand the geographical distribution of most frequent types of cancer in K&B province. Methods: All registered cases of cancer are reviewed and duplicate cases were removed. The data was analyzed using Arcgis software. Results: Of all registered cases, 1273  remained for analysis of which 57% were residences of urban areas. Cities including  Sisakht, Yasuj and Dehdsasht were shown to have highest incidence rates among the Urban areas. Dena, Sepidar and Kohmare Khaleghi had the highest rates among the rural areas in the province. Skin cancer was the most common type of cancer which had the highest rates of incidence in Sisakht and Dehdasht and Dena and Sepidar among urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: The distribution of cancer was not even in the province. Attitude and consumption of wild and regional plants are introduced as the potential risk factors for such a spatial distribution of the common cancers I the province. The results of this study could be used for further analytical studies to understand the regional etiology of cancer in the province.

  5. Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of mosquito species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections with mosquito-borne parasites are common in human populations inhabiting tropical regions of the world. Malaria is endemic along Kenyan Lake Victoria basin and its vectors are fresh water breeders. However, much less is known about the current spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of ...

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  7. Experimental study of spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.; Pai, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma were experimentally investigated. By means of direct comparisons between theory and experiment, the effects of the variation of gap separation, gas pressure, and electrode radius on the spatial distributions of electron density and electric field were studied. Results indicate that the maximum electron density moves toward the cathode as the gap separation or gas pressure increases while variation of electrode radius produces little effect. Predictions from a theoretical model have been experimentally verified. General agreements between theory and experiment were found to be reasonably good except in the cathode region, where discrepancy exists. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. GIS-based evaluation and spatial distribution characteristics of land degradation in Bijiang watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqing; Dai, Jinhua; Wang, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is one of the significant issues the human beings are confronted with, which has become a bottleneck of restricting the sustainable development of the regional society and economy. In order to ascertain the root causes contributed to the land degradation and characteristics of land degradation, Bijiang watershed, the most important Lead-Zinc mine area of Lanping county of Yunnan Province, was selected as the study area. One evaluation index system for land degradation that consists of 5 single factors(water-soil erosion intensity, geological disaster risk, cultivation intensity of arable land, pollution of heavy metals in soil and biodiversity deterioration) was established and 13 indicators were chosen, and the entropy method was adopted to assign weights to each single factor. By using the tools of Geographic Information System (GIS), the land degradation degree was evaluated and one spatial distribution map for land degradation was accomplished. In this study, the land of the whole watershed was divided into 4 types, including extremely-severe degradation area, severely-degraded area, moderately-degraded area and slightly-degraded area, and some solutions for ecological restoration and rehabilitation were also put forward in this study. The study results indicated that: (1) Water-soil erosion intension and pollution of heavy metals in soil have made greater contribution to the comprehensive land degradation in Bijiang watershed; (2) There is an apparent difference regarding land degradation degree in Bijiang watershed. The moderately-degraded area accounts for the most part in the region, which covers 79.66% of the whole watershed. The severely-degraded area accounts for 15.98% and the slightly-degraded regions and extremely severe degradation area accounts for 1.08% and 3.28% respectively; (3) There is an evident regularity of spatial distribution in land degradation in Bijiang watershed. The moderately-degraded areas mainly distribute in the

  9. Sodium Atoms in the Lunar Exotail: Observed Velocity and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Michael R.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Wilson, J. K.; Haffner, L. M.; Roesler, F. L.

    2011-01-01

    The lunar sodium tail extends long distances due to radiation pressure on sodium atoms in the lunar exosphere. Our earlier observations determined the average radial velocity of sodium atoms moving down the lunar tail beyond Earth along the Sun-Moon-Earth line (i.e., the anti-lunar point) to be 12.4 km/s. Here we use the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper to obtain the first kinematically resolved maps of the intensity and velocity distribution of this emission over a 15 x times 15 deg region on the sky near the anti-lunar point. We present both spatially and spectrally resolved observations obtained over four nights around new moon in October 2007. The spatial distribution of the sodium atoms is elongated along the ecliptic with the location of the peak intensity drifting 3 degrees east along the ecliptic per night. Preliminary modeling results suggest that the spatial and velocity distributions in the sodium exotail are sensitive to the near surface lunar sodium velocity distribution and that observations of this sort along with detailed modeling offer new opportunities to describe the time history of lunar surface sputtering over several days.

  10. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  11. Investigation of Spatial Distribution Properties of Mid-Infrared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution properties of quantum cascade lasers with emission wavelengths around 7 µm were measured. In addition, the emission profile on a plane orthogonal to the propagation axis of the beam were measured and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) on the orthogonal and lateral directions calculated.

  12. Patterns in the spatial distribution of Peruvian anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) revealed by spatially explicit fishing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie; Díaz, Erich; Lengaigne, Matthieu

    2008-10-01

    Peruvian anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) stock abundance is tightly driven by the high and unpredictable variability of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem. Management of the fishery therefore cannot rely on mid- or long-term management policy alone but needs to be adaptive at relatively short time scales. Regular acoustic surveys are performed on the stock at intervals of 2 to 4 times a year, but there is a need for more time continuous monitoring indicators to ensure that management can respond at suitable time scales. Existing literature suggests that spatially explicit data on the location of fishing activities could be used as a proxy for target stock distribution. Spatially explicit commercial fishing data could therefore guide adaptive management decisions at shorter time scales than is possible through scientific stock surveys. In this study we therefore aim to (1) estimate the position of fishing operations for the entire fleet of Peruvian anchovy purse-seiners using the Peruvian satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS), and (2) quantify the extent to which the distribution of purse-seine sets describes anchovy distribution. To estimate fishing set positions from vessel tracks derived from VMS data we developed a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANN) trained on a sample of fishing trips with known fishing set positions (exact fishing positions are known for approximately 1.5% of the fleet from an at-sea observer program). The ANN correctly identified 83% of the real fishing sets and largely outperformed comparative linear models. This network is then used to forecast fishing operations for those trips where no observers were onboard. To quantify the extent to which fishing set distribution was correlated to stock distribution we compared three metrics describing features of the distributions (the mean distance to the coast, the total area of distribution, and a clustering index) for concomitant acoustic survey observations and fishing set positions

  13. Systematic studies of the gas humidification effects on spatial PEMFC performance distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; Bender, Guido; Bethune, Keith; Rocheleau, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated impacts of gases humidification on a local PEMFC performance. ► The spatial performance and EIS were studied by a segmented cell system. ► The data were analyzed in the terms of voltage losses. ► A reduction in anode/cathode gases humidification decreased a PEMFC performance. ► A decrease of humidification led to non-uniform performances and voltage losses distributions. - Abstract: The overall current density that is measured in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) represents the average of the local reaction rates. The overall and local PEMFC performances are determined by several primary loss mechanisms, namely activation, ohmic, and mass transfer. Spatial performance and loss variabilities are significant and depend on the cell design and operating conditions. A segmented cell system was used to quantify different loss distributions along the gas channel to understand the effects of gas humidification. A reduction in the reactant stream humidification decreased cell performance and resulted in non-uniform distributions of overpotentials and performance along the flow field. Activation and ohmic overpotentials increased with a relative humidity decrease due to insufficient membrane and catalyst layer hydration. The relative humidity of the cathode had a strong impact on the mass transfer overpotential due to a lower oxygen permeability through the dry Nafion film covering the catalyst surface. The mass transfer loss distribution was non-uniform, and the mass transfer overpotential increased for the outlet segments due to the oxygen consumption at the inlet segments, which reduced the oxygen concentration downstream, and a progressive water accumulation from upstream segments. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and an equivalent electric circuit (EEC) facilitated the analysis and interpretation of the segmented cell data.

  14. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  15. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.

    2017-07-01

    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  16. Measurement of fuel importance distribution in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Izima, Kazunori; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem for nuclear criticality safety in a reprocessing plant. As a theory estimating this reactivity effect, the Goertzel and fuel importance theories are well known. It has been shown that the Goertzel's theory is valid in the range of our experiments based on measurements of reactivity effect and thermal neutron flux in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems. On the other hand, there have been no reports concerning systematic experimental studies on the flatness of fuel importance which is a more general index than the Goertzel's theory. It is derived from the perturbation theory that the fuel importance is proportional to the reactivity change resulting from a change of small amount of fuel mass. Using a uniform and three kinds of nonuniform fuel systems consisting of 93.2% enriched uranium plates and polyethylene plates, the fuel importance distributions were measured. As a result, it was found experimentally that the fuel importance distribution became flat, as its reactivity effect became large. Therefore it was concluded that the flatness of fuel importance distribution is the useful index for estimating reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel system. (author)

  17. Seasonal and spatial distribution of metals in surface sediment of an urban estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buggy, Conor J.; Tobin, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic pollution by metals is of concern because of various toxic effects to marine life. The Tolka Estuary, Co. Dublin, Ireland, is a typical Irish urban estuary. It has a significant metal loading originating from the urban environment. Results of a 25 month analysis of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc spatial and temporal distribution over 10 sample locations in this estuary are presented in this paper. Metal concentrations were analysed using differential pulse polarography. Significant seasonal and spatial trends in metal distribution were observed over the 25 months. Sediment metal concentrations gradually increased (30-120%) in spring to a maximum at the end of summer which was followed by a decrease in winter months (30-60%). Sediment organic matter (OM) concentrations exhibited similar seasonal trends and a positive correlation between OM and metal distributions was observed, implying OM had an influence on metal distributions over time. - Assessment and correlation of the seasonal and spatial distribution of metals and organic matter in surface sediment of an urban estuary

  18. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Reef Fish Spawning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial patterns among fish families were attributed to a combination of differences in species abundance and distribution as well as variation in fishing effort. Spawning periodicity reported by fishers indicated that for snappers and rabbitfishes, the most activity occurred across a protracted period of October to April/May, ...

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of human cryptosporidiosis in the west of Ireland 2004-2007.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callaghan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognised as a cause of gastrointestinal infection in Ireland and has been implicated in several outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of human cryptosporidiosis in the west of Ireland in order to identify high risk seasons and areas and to compare Classically Calculated (CC) and Empirical Bayesian (EB) incidence rates. Two spatial scales of analysis were used with a view to identifying the best one in assessing geographical patterns of infection. Global Moran\\'s I and Local Moran\\'s I tests of autocorrelation were used to test for evidence of global and local spatial clustering. RESULTS: There were statistically significant seasonal patterns of cryptosporidiosis with peaks in spring and an increasing temporal trend. Significant (p < 0.05) global spatial clustering was observed in CC rates at the Electoral Division (ED) level but not in EB rates at the same level. Despite variations in disease, ED level was found to provide the most accurate account of distribution of cryptosporidiosis in the West of Ireland but required spatial EB smoothing of cases. There were a number of areas identified with significant local clustering of cryptosporidiosis rates. CONCLUSION: This study identified spatial and temporal patterns in cryptosporidiosis distribution. The study also showed benefit in performing spatial analyses at more than one spatial scale to assess geographical patterns in disease distribution and that smoothing of disease rates for mapping in small areas enhances visualisation of spatial patterns. These findings are relevant in guiding policy decisions on disease control strategies.

  20. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  1. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  2. Detection of the Velocity Shear Effect on the Spatial Distributions of the Galactic Satellites in Isolated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-02-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal.

  3. DETECTION OF THE VELOCITY SHEAR EFFECT ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE GALACTIC SATELLITES IN ISOLATED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal

  4. Holographic monitoring of spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, A. V.; Bel'tyukova, D. M.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Chupov, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A method for monitoring spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in biological media has been developed. Singlet oxygen was generated using Radachlorin® photosensitizer, while thermal disturbances caused by nonradiative deactivation of singlet oxygen were detected by the holographic interferometry technique. Processing of interferograms yields temperature maps that characterize the deactivation process and show the distribution of singlet oxygen species.

  5. The seven sisters DANCe. III. Projected spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, J.; Moraux, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Bouy, H.; Berihuete, A.; Barrado, D.; Huelamo, N.; Bertin, E.; Bouvier, J.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Membership analyses of the DANCe and Tycho + DANCe data sets provide the largest and least contaminated sample of Pleiades candidate members to date. Aims: We aim at reassessing the different proposals for the number surface density of the Pleiades in the light of the new and most complete list of candidate members, and inferring the parameters of the most adequate model. Methods: We compute the Bayesian evidence and Bayes Factors for variations of the classical radial models. These include elliptical symmetry, and luminosity segregation. As a by-product of the model comparison, we obtain posterior distributions for each set of model parameters. Results: We find that the model comparison results depend on the spatial extent of the region used for the analysis. For a circle of 11.5 parsecs around the cluster centre (the most homogeneous and complete region), we find no compelling reason to abandon King's model, although the Generalised King model introduced here has slightly better fitting properties. Furthermore, we find strong evidence against radially symmetric models when compared to the elliptic extensions. Finally, we find that including mass segregation in the form of luminosity segregation in the J band is strongly supported in all our models. Conclusions: We have put the question of the projected spatial distribution of the Pleiades cluster on a solid probabilistic framework, and inferred its properties using the most exhaustive and least contaminated list of Pleiades candidate members available to date. Our results suggest however that this sample may still lack about 20% of the expected number of cluster members. Therefore, this study should be revised when the completeness and homogeneity of the data can be extended beyond the 11.5 parsecs limit. Such a study will allow for more precise determination of the Pleiades spatial distribution, its tidal radius, ellipticity, number of objects and total mass.

  6. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  7. Drivers of abundance and spatial distribution of reef-associated sharks in an isolated atoll reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Tickler

    Full Text Available We investigated drivers of reef shark demography across a large and isolated marine protected area, the British Indian Ocean Territory Marine Reserve, using stereo baited remote underwater video systems. We modelled shark abundance against biotic and abiotic variables at 35 sites across the reserve and found that the biomass of low trophic order fish (specifically planktivores had the greatest effect on shark abundance, although models also included habitat variables (depth, coral cover and site type. There was significant variation in the composition of the shark assemblage at different atolls within the reserve. In particular, the deepest habitat sampled (a seamount at 70-80m visited for the first time in this study recorded large numbers of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini not observed elsewhere. Size structure of the most abundant and common species, grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, varied with location. Individuals at an isolated bank were 30% smaller than those at the main atolls, with size structure significantly biased towards the size range for young of year (YOY. The 18 individuals judged to be YOY represented the offspring of between four and six females, so, whilst inconclusive, these data suggest the possible use of a common pupping site by grey reef sharks. The importance of low trophic order fish biomass (i.e. potential prey in predicting spatial variation in shark abundance is consistent with other studies both in marine and terrestrial systems which suggest that prey availability may be a more important predictor of predator distribution than habitat suitability. This result supports the need for ecosystem level rather than species-specific conservation measures to support shark recovery. The observed spatial partitioning amongst sites for species and life-stages also implies the need to include a diversity of habitats and reef types within a protected area for adequate protection of reef-associated shark

  8. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  9. The Not So Simple Globular Cluster ω Cen. I. Spatial Distribution of the Multiple Stellar Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamida, A.; Saha, A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory—AURA, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Strampelli, G.; Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute—AURA, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma—Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy); Scolnic, D. [The University of Chicago, The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, William Eckhardt Research Center—Suite 499, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); James, D.; Smith, C.; Zenteno, A., E-mail: calamida@noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-04-01

    We present a multi-band photometric catalog of ≈1.7 million cluster members for a field of view of ≈2° × 2° across ω Cen. Photometry is based on images collected with the Dark Energy Camera on the 4 m Blanco telescope and the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope . The unprecedented photometric accuracy and field coverage allowed us, for the first time, to investigate the spatial distribution of ω Cen multiple populations from the core to the tidal radius, confirming its very complex structure. We found that the frequency of blue main-sequence stars is increasing compared to red main-sequence stars starting from a distance of ≈25′ from the cluster center. Blue main-sequence stars also show a clumpy spatial distribution, with an excess in the northeast quadrant of the cluster pointing toward the direction of the Galactic center. Stars belonging to the reddest and faintest red-giant branch also show a more extended spatial distribution in the outskirts of ω Cen, a region never explored before. Both these stellar sub-populations, according to spectroscopic measurements, are more metal-rich compared to the cluster main stellar population. These findings, once confirmed, make ω Cen the only stellar system currently known where metal-rich stars have a more extended spatial distribution compared to metal-poor stars. Kinematic and chemical abundance measurements are now needed for stars in the external regions of ω Cen to better characterize the properties of these sub-populations.

  10. Spatial distribution sampling and Monte Carlo simulation of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Krainer, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the implementation of a program for random sampling of uniformly spatially distributed isotopes for Monte Carlo particle simulations and in specific FLUKA. With FLUKA it is possible to calculate the radio nuclide production in high energy fields. The decay of these nuclide, and therefore the resulting radiation field, however can only be simulated in the same geometry. This works gives the tool to simulate the decay of the produced nuclide in other geometries. With that the radiation field from an irradiated object can be simulated in arbitrary environments. The sampling of isotope mixtures was tested by simulating a 50/50 mixture of $Cs^{137}$ and $Co^{60}$. These isotopes are both well known and provide therefore a first reliable benchmark in that respect. The sampling of uniformly distributed coordinates was tested using the histogram test for various spatial distributions. The advantages and disadvantages of the program compared to standard methods are demonstrated in the real life ca...

  11. Spatial Data Management System (SDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    The Spatial Data Management System (SDMS) is a testbed for retrieval and display of spatially related material. SDMS permits the linkage of large graphical display objects with detail displays and explanations of its smaller components. SDMS combines UNIX workstations, MIT's X Window system, TCP/IP and WAIS information retrieval technology to prototype a means of associating aggregate data linked via spatial orientation. SDMS capitalizes upon and extends previous accomplishments of the Software Technology Branch in the area of Virtual Reality and Automated Library Systems.

  12. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  13. Daily urban systems in function of the spatial organisation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of theoretical discussion, this paper makes a brief analysis of relevant methodological steps for determination of Daily Urban Systems and the approach for their spatial-functional representation. The potential of using Daily Urban Systems as instruments for regional planning and regional development has been indicated. A model for determining Daily Urban Systems in Serbia has been proposed according to our socio-economic conditions. The experience thus far in reference to research of demographic, spatial and functional components of Daily Urban Systems demonstrates that for definition of their spatial and temporal manifestation and continuity models, the most relevant indicators are those which relate to distribution and functional specialization of work centers and places of living, and those which relate to quantitative-qualitative characteristics of daily migrants. Daily Urban Systems of Serbia have been developed under the conditions of continuous redistribution of population from rural to urban settlements and more or less synchronized processes of deagrarisation, deindustrialisation and urbanization with general socioeconomic flows. According to the dynamics of development in functions of work, living, education, service activities and public-social facilities in the urban regions, there have been formed Daily Urban Systems with appropriate hierarchy. The paper presents results of the latest research of Daily Urban Systems in Serbia, driven by scientific and appreciative reasons (preparation of the Regional spatial plans for municipalities of Južno pomoravlje and for Timočka krajina, and determination of the nodal systems in Zlatibor county. Daily Urban Systems, especially their regional role and implication, are proposed for instruments of rational spatial-functional organization of Serbia. According to the relevant theoretical-methodological approach and presented empirical evidence, the model of Daily Urban Systems

  14. Unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    We use a statistical-mechanical identity closely related to the familiar virial theorem, to derive unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids. In particular, we obtain estimators for both the fluid density ρ(r) in the vicinity of a fixed solute and the pair correlation g(r) of a homogeneous classical fluid. We illustrate the utility of our estimators with numerical examples, which reveal advantages over traditional histogram-based methods of computing such distributions.

  15. Spatial distribution of human-caused forest fires in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Chas-Amil; J. Touza; P. Prestemon

    2010-01-01

    It is crucial for fire prevention policies to assess the spatial patterns of human-started fires and their relationship with geographical and socioeconomic aspects. This study uses fire reports for the period 1988-2006 in Galicia, Spain, to analyze the spatial distribution of human-induced fire risk attending to causes and underlying motivations associated with fire...

  16. Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level Set Transformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Song, Xuehang; Ye, Ming; Dai, Zhenxue; Zachara, John; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new approach is developed to delineate the spatial distribution of discrete facies (geological units that have unique distributions of hydraulic, physical, and/or chemical properties) conditioned not only on direct data (measurements directly related to facies properties, e.g., grain size distribution obtained from borehole samples) but also on indirect data (observations indirectly related to facies distribution, e.g., hydraulic head and tracer concentration). Our method integrates for the first time ensemble data assimilation with traditional transition probability-based geostatistics. The concept of level set is introduced to build shape parameterization that allows transformation between discrete facies indicators and continuous random variables. The spatial structure of different facies is simulated by indicator models using conditioning points selected adaptively during the iterative process of data assimilation. To evaluate the new method, a two-dimensional semi-synthetic example is designed to estimate the spatial distribution and permeability of two distinct facies from transient head data induced by pumping tests. The example demonstrates that our new method adequately captures the spatial pattern of facies distribution by imposing spatial continuity through conditioning points. The new method also reproduces the overall response in hydraulic head field with better accuracy compared to data assimilation with no constraints on spatial continuity on facies.

  17. Determinants of the distribution and concentration of biogas production in Germany. A spatial econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The biogas production in Germany is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution and the formation of regional centers. In the present study the determinants of the spatial distribution and concentration are analyzed with methods of spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In addition to the consideration of ''classic'' site factors of agricultural production, the analysis here focuses on the possible relevance of agglomeration effects. The results of the work contribute to a better understanding of the regional distribution and concentration of the biogas production in Germany. [de

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of biofouling under different cross-flow velocities in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2016-09-06

    The spatially heterogeneous distribution of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems restricts (i) the water distribution over the membrane surface and therefore (ii) the membrane-based water treatment. The objective of the study was to assess the spatial heterogeneity of biofilm development over the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) length (inlet and outlet part) at three different cross-flow velocities (0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 m/s). The MFS contained sheets of membrane and feed spacer and simulated the first 0.20 m of spiral-wound membrane modules where biofouling accumulates the most in practice. In-situ non-destructive oxygen imaging using planar optodes was applied to determine the biofilm spatially resolved activity and heterogeneity.

  19. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  20. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  1. Predicting the spatial distribution of leaf litterfall in a mixed deciduous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staelens, Jeroen; Nachtergale, Lieven; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2004-01-01

    An accurate prediction of the spatial distribution of litterfall can improve insight in the interaction between the canopy layer and forest floor characteristics, which is a key feature in forest nutrient cycling. Attempts to model the spatial variability of litterfall have been made across forest

  2. Estimation of spatial distribution of recharge factors at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothoff, S.A.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Castellaw, H.

    1995-01-01

    Determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the Geologic Setting (GS) requires prediction of groundwater flow. Since infiltration is the primary source of water in the subsurface, the amounts and locations of infiltration are controlling factors in the movement of groundwater throughout the GS. In fractured, unsaturated rock, such as that found at the Yucca Mountain (YM) site, occurrence of infrequent, high-intensity rainfall events will modify, perhaps drastically, the subsurface flow regime from the one predicted by assuming that all rainfall events have averaged intensities. Indeed, the DOW has concluded that the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltration may be the most important factors influencing groundwater flow path development. Deep percolation fluxes are affected by processes active in the near-surface zone, including evaporation, transpiration, liquid water flow, and vapor flow. Each of these processes is governed by several factors. For example, precipitation has been found to vary substantially over the YM region, both spatially and temporally, and winter storms are, in general, more uniform and of longer duration than summer storms (Hevesi et al., 1992a,b; 1994). These observations indicate that, especially for summer storms, a spatially uniform precipitation pattern is clearly not applicable, even at the subregional scale. Similarly, evaporation from the ground surface is affected by air temperature, atmospheric vapor pressure, wind speed profile, incident solar radiation, surface soil and rock texture, plant activity, surficial temperature, and surficial moisture content. Many of these factors, such as surficial slope and orientation (related to incident solar radiation), surficial composition, and plant distributions, are or can be mapped at the YM site

  3. Spatial structures of the environment and of dispersal impact species distribution in competitive metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dexiecuo; Gravel, Dominique; Chu, Chengjin; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The correspondence between species distribution and the environment depends on species' ability to track favorable environmental conditions (via dispersal) and to maintain competitive hierarchy against the constant influx of migrants (mass effect) and demographic stochasticity (ecological drift). Here we report a simulation study of the influence of landscape structure on species distribution. We consider lottery competition for space in a spatially heterogeneous environment, where the landscape is represented as a network of localities connected by dispersal. We quantified the contribution of neutrality and species sorting to their spatial distribution. We found that neutrality increases and the strength of species-sorting decreases with the centrality of a community in the landscape when the average dispersal among communities is low, whereas the opposite was found at elevated dispersal. We also found that the strength of species-sorting increases with environmental heterogeneity. Our results illustrate that spatial structure of the environment and of dispersal must be taken into account for understanding species distribution. We stress the importance of spatial geographic structure on the relative importance of niche vs. neutral processes in controlling community dynamics.

  4. A preliminary survey and analysis of the spatial distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the Okavango River Delta, ... seasonally-flooded pools and temporary rain-filled pools in MGR and CI. ... biodiversity of the Okavango Delta, thereby contributing to its conservation.

  5. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-04-05

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century.

  6. A Multi-Resolution Spatial Model for Large Datasets Based on the Skew-t Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Tagle, Felipe

    2017-12-06

    Large, non-Gaussian spatial datasets pose a considerable modeling challenge as the dependence structure implied by the model needs to be captured at different scales, while retaining feasible inference. Skew-normal and skew-t distributions have only recently begun to appear in the spatial statistics literature, without much consideration, however, for the ability to capture dependence at multiple resolutions, and simultaneously achieve feasible inference for increasingly large data sets. This article presents the first multi-resolution spatial model inspired by the skew-t distribution, where a large-scale effect follows a multivariate normal distribution and the fine-scale effects follow a multivariate skew-normal distributions. The resulting marginal distribution for each region is skew-t, thereby allowing for greater flexibility in capturing skewness and heavy tails characterizing many environmental datasets. Likelihood-based inference is performed using a Monte Carlo EM algorithm. The model is applied as a stochastic generator of daily wind speeds over Saudi Arabia.

  7. Sapphire-fiber-based distributed high-temperature sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Hill, Cary; Cheng, Yujie; Homa, Daniel; Pickrell, Gary; Wang, Anbo

    2016-09-15

    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a sapphire-fiber-based distributed high-temperature sensing system based on a Raman distributed sensing technique. High peak power laser pulses at 532 nm were coupled into the sapphire fiber to generate the Raman signal. The returned Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes signals were measured in the time domain to determine the temperature distribution along the fiber. The sensor was demonstrated from room temperature up to 1200°C in which the average standard deviation is about 3.7°C and a spatial resolution of about 14 cm was achieved.

  8. Spatially Distributed, Coupled Modeling of Plant Growth, Nitrogen and Water Fluxes in an Alpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.

    2001-12-01

    Carbon, water and nitrogen fluxes are closely coupled. They interact and have many feedbacks. Human interference, in particular through land use management and global change strongly modifies these fluxes. Increasing demands and conflicting interests result in an increasing need for regulation targeting different aspects of the system. Without being their main target, many of these measures directly affect water quantity, quality and availability. Improved management and planning of our water resources requires the development of integrated tools, in particular since interactions of the involved environmental and social systems often lead to unexpected or adverse results. To investigate the effect of plant growth, land use management and global change on water fluxes and quality, the PROcess oriented Modular EnvironmenT and Vegetation Model (PROMET-V) was developed. PROMET-V models the spatial patterns and temporal course of water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes using process oriented and mechanistic model components. The hydrological model is based on the Penman-Monteith approach, it uses a plant-physiological model to calculate the canopy conductance, and a multi-layer soil water model. Plant growth for different vegetation is modelled by calculating canopy photosynthesis, respiration, phenology and allocation. Plant growth and water fluxes are coupled directly through photosynthesis and transpiration. Many indirect feedbacks and interactions occur due to their mutual dependency upon leaf area, root distribution, water and nutrient availability for instance. PROMET-V calculates nitrogen fluxes and transformations. The time step used depends upon the modelled process and varies from 1 hour to 1 day. The kernel model is integrated in a raster GIS system for spatially distributed modelling. PROMET-V was tested in a pre-alpine landscape (Ammer river, 709 km**2, located in Southern Germany) which is characterized by small scale spatial heterogeneities of climate, soil and

  9. Floral abundance, richness, and spatial distribution drive urban garden bee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M

    2017-10-01

    In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.

  10. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jihun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Sutherland, Kenneth [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hashimoto, Takayuki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine and Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (D{sub sub}) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial D{sub sub} distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  11. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  12. A preliminary survey and analysis of the spatial distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the Okavango River ... of taxa was recorded in marginal vegetation in the channels and lagoons, ... highlights the importance of maintaining a mosaic of aquatic habitats in the Delta.

  13. Delineating Hydrofacies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xuehang [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ye, Ming [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study develops a new framework of facies-based data assimilation for characterizing spatial distribution of hydrofacies and estimating their associated hydraulic properties. This framework couples ensemble data assimilation with transition probability-based geostatistical model via a parameterization based on a level set function. The nature of ensemble data assimilation makes the framework efficient and flexible to be integrated with various types of observation data. The transition probability-based geostatistical model keeps the updated hydrofacies distributions under geological constrains. The framework is illustrated by using a two-dimensional synthetic study that estimates hydrofacies spatial distribution and permeability in each hydrofacies from transient head data. Our results show that the proposed framework can characterize hydrofacies distribution and associated permeability with adequate accuracy even with limited direct measurements of hydrofacies. Our study provides a promising starting point for hydrofacies delineation in complex real problems.

  14. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  15. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  16. Within-field spatial distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-12-01

    The recently introduced plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) can infest fields of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in the southeastern United States. Grid sampling in four soybean fields was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to study the spatial distribution of M. cribraria adults, nymphs, and egg masses. Peak oviposition typically occurred in early August, while peak levels of adults occurred in mid-late September. The overall sex ratio was slightly biased at 53.1 ± 0.2% (SEM) male. Sweep samples of nymphs were biased toward late instars. All three life stages exhibited a generally aggregated spatial distribution based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE). Interpolation maps of local SADIE aggregation indices showed clusters of adults and nymphs located at field edges, and mean densities of adults were higher in samples taken from field edges than in those taken from field interiors. Adults and nymphs were often spatially associated based on SADIE, indicating spatial stability across life stages.

  17. Abiotic and biotic controls on local spatial distribution and performance of Boechera stricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSUM J NAITHANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative influence of biotic and abiotic factors on community dynamics using an integrated approach and highlights the influence of space on genotypic and phenotypic traits in plant community structure. We examined the relative influence of topography, environment, spatial distance, and intra- and interspecific interactions on spatial distribution and performance of Boechera stricta (rockcress, a close perennial relative of model plant Arabidopsis. First, using Bayesian kriging, we mapped the topography and environmental gradients and explored the spatial distribution of naturally occurring rockcress plants and two neighbors, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion and Solidago missouriensis (goldenrod found in close proximity within a typical diverse meadow community across topographic and environmental gradients. We then evaluated direct and indirect relationships among variables using Mantel path analysis and developed a network displaying abiotic and biotic interactions in this community. We found significant spatial autocorrelation among rockcress individuals, either because of common microhabitats as displayed by high density of individuals at lower elevation and high soil moisture area, or limited dispersal as shown by significant spatial autocorrelation of naturally occurring inbred lines, or a combination of both. Goldenrod and dandelion density around rockcress does not show any direct relationship with rockcress fecundity, possibly due to spatial segregation of resources. However, dandelion density around rockcress shows an indirect negative influence on rockcress fecundity via herbivory, indicating interspecific competition. Overall, we suggest that common microhabitat preference and limited dispersal are the main drivers for spatial distribution. However, intra-specific interactions and insect herbivory are the main drivers of rockcress performance in the meadow community.

  18. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  19. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takahashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs. Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community.

  20. Origin of Pareto-like spatial distributions in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Alon; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2008-12-31

    Recent studies of cluster distribution in various ecosystems revealed Pareto statistics for the size of spatial colonies. These results were supported by cellular automata simulations that yield robust criticality for endogenous pattern formation based on positive feedback. We show that this patch statistics is a manifestation of the law of proportionate effect. Mapping the stochastic model to a Markov birth-death process, the transition rates are shown to scale linearly with cluster size. This mapping provides a connection between patch statistics and the dynamics of the ecosystem; the "first passage time" for different colonies emerges as a powerful tool that discriminates between endogenous and exogenous clustering mechanisms. Imminent catastrophic shifts (such as desertification) manifest themselves in a drastic change of the stability properties of spatial colonies.

  1. Potential and flux field landscape theory. I. Global stability and dynamics of spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2013-09-28

    We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general spatially dependent non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for spatially independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to spatially dependent stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium spatially dependent systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium spatially dependent systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the spatially dependent system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is

  2. Determinants of Spatial Distribution in a Bee Community: Nesting Resources, Flower Resources, and Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné-Noguera, Anna; Rodrigo, Anselm; Arnan, Xavier; Osorio, Sergio; Barril-Graells, Helena; da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Bosch, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500–1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks. PMID:24824445

  3. Modeling the isotopic evolution of snowpack and snowmelt: Testing a spatially distributed parsimonious approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kormos, Patrick; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge. We present a novel, parsimonious modeling method to account for the snowpack isotope fractionation and estimate isotope ratios in snowmelt water in a fully spatially distributed manner. Our model introduces two calibration parameters that alone account for the isotopic fractionation caused by sublimation from interception and ground snow storage, and snowmelt fractionation progressively enriching the snowmelt runoff. The isotope routines are linked to a generic process-based snow interception-accumulation-melt model facilitating simulation of spatially distributed snowmelt runoff. We use a synthetic modeling experiment to demonstrate the functionality of the model algorithms in different landscape locations and under different canopy characteristics. We also provide a proof-of-concept model test and successfully reproduce isotopic ratios in snowmelt runoff sampled with snowmelt lysimeters in two long-term experimental catchment with contrasting winter conditions. To our knowledge, the method is the first such tool to allow estimation of the spatially distributed nature of isotopic fractionation in snowpacks and the resulting isotope ratios in snowmelt runoff. The method can thus provide a useful tool for tracer-aided modeling to better understand the integrated nature of flow, mixing, and transport processes in snow-influenced catchments.

  4. Spatial structures of the environment and of dispersal impact species distribution in competitive metacommunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexiecuo Ai

    Full Text Available The correspondence between species distribution and the environment depends on species' ability to track favorable environmental conditions (via dispersal and to maintain competitive hierarchy against the constant influx of migrants (mass effect and demographic stochasticity (ecological drift. Here we report a simulation study of the influence of landscape structure on species distribution. We consider lottery competition for space in a spatially heterogeneous environment, where the landscape is represented as a network of localities connected by dispersal. We quantified the contribution of neutrality and species sorting to their spatial distribution. We found that neutrality increases and the strength of species-sorting decreases with the centrality of a community in the landscape when the average dispersal among communities is low, whereas the opposite was found at elevated dispersal. We also found that the strength of species-sorting increases with environmental heterogeneity. Our results illustrate that spatial structure of the environment and of dispersal must be taken into account for understanding species distribution. We stress the importance of spatial geographic structure on the relative importance of niche vs. neutral processes in controlling community dynamics.

  5. Modeling of Subsurface Lagrangian Sensor Swarms for Spatially Distributed Current Measurements in High Energy Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. W.; Polagye, B. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ecosystems are characterized by spatially and temporally varying hydrodynamics. In marine renewable energy applications, these variations strongly influence project economics and in oceanographic studies, they impact accuracy of biological transport and pollutant dispersion models. While stationary point or profile measurements are relatively straight forward, spatial representativeness of point measurements can be poor due to strong gradients. Moving platforms, such as AUVs or surface vessels, offer better coverage, but suffer from energetic constraints (AUVs) and resolvable scales (vessels). A system of sub-surface, drifting sensor packages is being developed to provide spatially distributed, synoptic data sets of coastal hydrodynamics with meter-scale resolution over a regional extent of a kilometer. Computational investigation has informed system parameters such as drifter size and shape, necessary position accuracy, number of drifters, and deployment methods. A hydrodynamic domain with complex flow features was created using a computational fluid dynamics code. A simple model of drifter dynamics propagate the drifters through the domain in post-processing. System parameters are evaluated relative to their ability to accurately recreate domain hydrodynamics. Implications of these results for an inexpensive, depth-controlled Lagrangian drifter system is presented.

  6. Block circulant and block Toeplitz approximants of a class of spatially distributed systems-An LQR perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, Orest V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper block circulant and block Toeplitz long strings of MIMO systems with finite length are compared with their corresponding infinite-dimensional spatially invariant systems. The focus is on the convergence of the sequence of solutions to the control Riccati equations and the convergence

  7. Interference competition as a key determinant for spatial distribution of mangrove crabs

    KAUST Repository

    Cannicci, Stefano

    2018-02-15

    The spatial distribution of mangrove crabs has been commonly associated with tree zonation and abiotic factors such as ground temperature and soil granulometry. Conversely, no studies were designed to investigate the role of competition for resources and predation in shaping crab distribution in mangroves, despite these biotic factors are recognised as key determinants for spatial patterns observed in the communities colonising rocky and sandy intertidal habitats.We studied floral and faunal assemblages in two zones of a Sri Lankan mangrove, a man-made upper intertidal level and a natural eulittoral, mid-shore one. Leaf choice experiments were designed to study both feeding rate and intra and inter-specific interactions for food of sesarmid crabs in the two habitats in order to better understand crab spatial distribution.The two intertidal belts differed in terms of floral composition and crab species abundance. The eulittoral zone was strongly dominated by Neosarmatium smithi, while within the elevated littoral fringe four sesarmids (N. smithi, N. asiaticum, N. malabaricum and Muradium tetragonum) were more evenly distributed. At both levels, all sesarmids showed to collect significantly more Bruguiera spp. and Rhizophora apiculata leaves than Excoecaria agallocha ones. There was no temporal segregation in feeding activity among the four species, resulting in a high interference competition for leaves. Regardless of the habitat, N. smithi was always successful in winning inter-specific fights.Our results showed that the elevated littoral fringe was more crowded with crabs, but was less favourable in terms of food availability and environmental conditions. The dominance of N. smithi in gathering mangrove leaves suggests that this species may segregate the other sesarmids into less favourable habitats. The present data strongly suggest for the first time that interference competition for food can contribute to shape mangrove crab spatial distribution.

  8. Interference competition as a key determinant for spatial distribution of mangrove crabs

    KAUST Repository

    Cannicci, Stefano; Fusi, Marco; Cimó , Filippo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of mangrove crabs has been commonly associated with tree zonation and abiotic factors such as ground temperature and soil granulometry. Conversely, no studies were designed to investigate the role of competition for resources and predation in shaping crab distribution in mangroves, despite these biotic factors are recognised as key determinants for spatial patterns observed in the communities colonising rocky and sandy intertidal habitats.We studied floral and faunal assemblages in two zones of a Sri Lankan mangrove, a man-made upper intertidal level and a natural eulittoral, mid-shore one. Leaf choice experiments were designed to study both feeding rate and intra and inter-specific interactions for food of sesarmid crabs in the two habitats in order to better understand crab spatial distribution.The two intertidal belts differed in terms of floral composition and crab species abundance. The eulittoral zone was strongly dominated by Neosarmatium smithi, while within the elevated littoral fringe four sesarmids (N. smithi, N. asiaticum, N. malabaricum and Muradium tetragonum) were more evenly distributed. At both levels, all sesarmids showed to collect significantly more Bruguiera spp. and Rhizophora apiculata leaves than Excoecaria agallocha ones. There was no temporal segregation in feeding activity among the four species, resulting in a high interference competition for leaves. Regardless of the habitat, N. smithi was always successful in winning inter-specific fights.Our results showed that the elevated littoral fringe was more crowded with crabs, but was less favourable in terms of food availability and environmental conditions. The dominance of N. smithi in gathering mangrove leaves suggests that this species may segregate the other sesarmids into less favourable habitats. The present data strongly suggest for the first time that interference competition for food can contribute to shape mangrove crab spatial distribution.

  9. Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Distributed System Theory to the Control of Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Two general themes in the control of large space structures are addressed: control theory for distributed parameter systems and distributed control for systems requiring spatially-distributed multipoint sensing and actuation. Topics include modeling and control, stabilization, and estimation and identification.

  10. Graphic display of spatially distributed binary-state experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data collected from a large number of transducers spatially distributed throughout a three-dimensional volume has typically posed a difficult interpretation task for the analyst. This paper describes one approach to alleviating this problem by presenting color graphic displays of experimental data; specifically, data representing the dynamic three-dimensional distribution of cooling fluid collected during the reflood and refill of simulated nuclear reactor vessels. Color-coded binary data (wet/dry) are integrated with a graphic representation of the reactor vessel and displayed on a high-resolution color CRT. The display is updated with successive data sets and made into 16-mm movies for distribution and analysis. Specific display formats are presented and extension to other applications discussed

  11. Stochastic population dynamics in spatially extended predator-prey systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, Ulrich; Mobilia, Mauro; Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C.

    2018-02-01

    Spatially extended population dynamics models that incorporate demographic noise serve as case studies for the crucial role of fluctuations and correlations in biological systems. Numerical and analytic tools from non-equilibrium statistical physics capture the stochastic kinetics of these complex interacting many-particle systems beyond rate equation approximations. Including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey competition invalidates the neutral Lotka-Volterra population cycles. Stochastic models yield long-lived erratic oscillations stemming from a resonant amplification mechanism. Spatially extended predator-prey systems display noise-stabilized activity fronts that generate persistent correlations. Fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the oscillation parameters can be analyzed perturbatively via a Doi-Peliti field theory mapping of the master equation; related tools allow detailed characterization of extinction pathways. The critical steady-state and non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics at the predator extinction threshold are governed by the directed percolation universality class. Spatial predation rate variability results in more localized clusters, enhancing both competing species’ population densities. Affixing variable interaction rates to individual particles and allowing for trait inheritance subject to mutations induces fast evolutionary dynamics for the rate distributions. Stochastic spatial variants of three-species competition with ‘rock-paper-scissors’ interactions metaphorically describe cyclic dominance. These models illustrate intimate connections between population dynamics and evolutionary game theory, underscore the role of fluctuations to drive populations toward extinction, and demonstrate how space can support species diversity. Two-dimensional cyclic three-species May-Leonard models are characterized by the emergence of spiraling patterns whose properties are elucidated by a mapping onto a complex

  12. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Marijuana Establishments in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this 22-question activity, high school students investigate the spatial distribution of marijuana stores in Colorado using an interactive web map containing stores, centers, highways, population, and other data at several scales. After completing this lesson, students will know and be able to: (1) Use interactive maps, layers, and tools in…

  13. Spatial distribution of dengue disease in municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using the Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Narcísio Bessa Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dengue viral infection is one of the most relevant vector-borne diseases in the world. The disease can manifest in a variety of forms, from asymptomatic to a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The last reported cases in Brazil correspond to 80% of the cases reported in the Americas, which emphasizes the magnitude of the problem. This study was conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the disease in the urban area of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. In the period between 2001 and 2007, 867 new cases were listed. About 85.7% of the addresses were georeferenced, with a larger number of cases, 14.8%, in the neighborhoods of Santo Antônio and Santa Delmira (north region, and 11.7% in the neighborhoods of Conjunto Vingt-Rosado and Alto de São Manoel (east region. There were 18 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever associated with regions with the highest incidence of classic cases of the disease. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS proved a great benefit for better visualization of the endemic, especially in elucidating the actual distribution of dengue cases in the county and providing an effective tool for planning the monitoring of the disease at a local level.

  14. GEOINFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM ‘BANK OF SPATIAL DATA KRASNOYARSK REGION’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation and effective use of geospatial data is today one of the most pressing problems facing the scientific community and public authorities. Are posed the task of technological and organizational support geographically distributed systems for collecting, processing, storing and providing spatial data and metadata. These systems must provide its users with remote access to digital geographic information, provide them with information interaction. Consider the stages and features of the creation of the state information system, the ‘Bank of spatial data’ for interagency cooperation and integration projects of Krasnoyarsk region along line cataloging, storage, analytical processing and publishing of geospatial data. Considerable attention is given to web services, software interfaces and generally accepted standards. In developing the software many different software libraries and components were used. Web mapping user interface was created using a number of open source libraries. To create a server-side web application author used GIS platforms MapGuide Open Source and Minnesota MapServer. GeoWebCache was another essential component of distributed web mapping environmental monitoring applications.

  15. Systems, methods, and software for determining spatially variable distributions of the dielectric properties of a heterogeneous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Stephen P.

    2018-05-15

    Systems, methods, and software for measuring the spatially variable relative dielectric permittivity of materials along a linear or otherwise configured sensor element, and more specifically the spatial variability of soil moisture in one dimension as inferred from the dielectric profile of the soil matrix surrounding a linear sensor element. Various methods provided herein combine advances in the processing of time domain reflectometry data with innovations in physical sensing apparatuses. These advancements enable high temporal (and thus spatial) resolution of electrical reflectance continuously along an insulated waveguide that is permanently emplaced in contact with adjacent soils. The spatially resolved reflectance is directly related to impedance changes along the waveguide that are dominated by electrical permittivity contrast due to variations in soil moisture. Various methods described herein are thus able to monitor soil moisture in profile with high spatial resolution.

  16. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Ceratozamia mexicana BRONGN. (ZAMIACEAE IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rivera-Fernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal populations are affected by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the regeneration processes. The aims of this study were to know the population structure of Ceratozamia mexicana under two contrasting conditions (conserved site and disturbed site, and to determine if the sexual structure, the population density and the spatial distribution of C. mexicana are modified by effect of disturbance. Eight plots of 25 m2 within each site (conserved and disturbed were used. The structure and spatial distribution of the sites were determined. Methods included analysis of variance, spatial distribution indexes, and climatic and edaphic factors determined by conventional methods for their comparison. The conserved site showed a demographic structure of an inverted "J", while the disturbed site varied slightly with more discontinuous distribution. Population density was 0.78 individuals/m2 in the conserved site and 0.26 individuals/m2 in the disturbed site. Spatial distribution for all development stages of the plant was random, with the exception of the seedling stage, which was aggregated. Results showed that perturbation decreases the density of plants and removes reproductive individuals, which threatens the persistence of the population.

  17. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  18. Advances in the spatially distributed ages-w model: parallel computation, java connection framework (JCF) integration, and streamflow/nitrogen dynamics assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic and water quality (H/WQ) simulation components under the Java Connection Framework (JCF) and the Object Modeling System (OMS) environmental modeling framework. AgES-W is implicitly scala...

  19. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  20. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  1. Spatial Domain Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Rotary Systems Subject to Spatially Periodic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsiu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generic spatial domain control scheme for a class of nonlinear rotary systems of variable speeds and subject to spatially periodic disturbances. The nonlinear model of the rotary system in time domain is transformed into one in spatial domain employing a coordinate transformation with respect to angular displacement. Under the circumstances that measurement of the system states is not available, a nonlinear state observer is established for providing the estimated states. A two-degree-of-freedom spatial domain control configuration is then proposed to stabilize the system and improve the tracking performance. The first control module applies adaptive backstepping with projected parametric update and concentrates on robust stabilization of the closed-loop system. The second control module introduces an internal model of the periodic disturbances cascaded with a loop-shaping filter, which not only further reduces the tracking error but also improves parametric adaptation. The overall spatial domain output feedback adaptive control system is robust to model uncertainties and state estimated error and capable of rejecting spatially periodic disturbances under varying system speeds. Stability proof of the overall system is given. A design example with simulation demonstrates the applicability of the proposed design.

  2. Constraining Distributed Catchment Models by Incorporating Perceptual Understanding of Spatial Hydrologic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Distributed models offer the potential to resolve catchment systems in more detail, and therefore simulate the hydrological impacts of spatial changes in catchment forcing (e.g. landscape change). Such models tend to contain a large number of poorly defined and spatially varying model parameters which are therefore computationally expensive to calibrate. Insufficient data can result in model parameter and structural equifinality, particularly when calibration is reliant on catchment outlet discharge behaviour alone. Evaluating spatial patterns of internal hydrological behaviour has the potential to reveal simulations that, whilst consistent with measured outlet discharge, are qualitatively dissimilar to our perceptual understanding of how the system should behave. We argue that such understanding, which may be derived from stakeholder knowledge across different catchments for certain process dynamics, is a valuable source of information to help reject non-behavioural models, and therefore identify feasible model structures and parameters. The challenge, however, is to convert different sources of often qualitative and/or semi-qualitative information into robust quantitative constraints of model states and fluxes, and combine these sources of information together to reject models within an efficient calibration framework. Here we present the development of a framework to incorporate different sources of data to efficiently calibrate distributed catchment models. For each source of information, an interval or inequality is used to define the behaviour of the catchment system. These intervals are then combined to produce a hyper-volume in state space, which is used to identify behavioural models. We apply the methodology to calibrate the Penn State Integrated Hydrological Model (PIHM) at the Wye catchment, Plynlimon, UK. Outlet discharge behaviour is successfully simulated when perceptual understanding of relative groundwater levels between lowland peat, upland peat

  3. GeoCEGAS: natural gas distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Lorena C.J. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Targa, Fernando O. [Gestao Empresarial e Informatica Ltda. (GEMPI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This Technical Paper approach the conception, architecture, design, construction, and implementation of GeoCEGAS, a spatially enabled corporate management information system, oriented to store and provide Web access, to information associated with the natural gas distribution network, owned by CEGAS. This paper reports business processes, business entities and business intelligence approached on the project, as well as an overview of system architecture, applications, and technology used on the implementation of GeoCEGAS. Finally, is presented an introduction to the work methodology used, as well a synopsis of benefits achievements. (author)

  4. Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: nesting resources, flower resources, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné-Noguera, Anna; Rodrigo, Anselm; Arnan, Xavier; Osorio, Sergio; Barril-Graells, Helena; da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Bosch, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg) species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges), and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks.

  5. Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: nesting resources, flower resources, and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torné-Noguera

    Full Text Available Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges, and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8% of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks.

  6. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with nitrogen transport to study the spatial variation of carbon stocks and fluxes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; He, Y.; Davis, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Most current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve topographically driven land surface heterogeneity (e.g., lateral water flow, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation) or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest biogeochemical model with nitrogen transport, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM, and adding an advection dominated nitrogen transport module. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model, and is augmented by adding a topographic solar radiation module. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while nitrogen is transported among model grids via surface and subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with spatially-distributed leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. The model-predicted aboveground vegetation carbon and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed within the watershed. The importance of abiotic variables (including soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and soil mineral nitrogen) in predicting aboveground carbon distribution is calculated using a random forest. The result suggests that the spatial pattern of aboveground carbon is controlled by the distribution of soil mineral nitrogen. A Flux-PIHM-BGC simulation

  7. Characterization of spatial distribution of Tetranychus urticae in peppermint in California and implication for improving sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of peppermint in California, USA. Spider mite feeding on peppermint leaves causes physiological changes in the plant, which coupling with the favorable environmental condition can lead to increased mite infestations. Significant yield loss can occur in absence of pest monitoring and timely management. Understating the within-field spatial distribution of T. urticae is critical for the development of reliable sampling plan. The study reported here aims to characterize the spatial distribution of mite infestation in four commercial peppermint fields in northern California using spatial techniques, variogram and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). Variogram analysis revealed that there was a strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) mite population in 13 of 17 sampling dates and the physical distance of the aggregation reached maximum to 7 m in peppermint fields. Using SADIE, 11 of 17 sampling dates showed aggregated distribution pattern of mite infestation. Combining results from variogram and SADIE analysis, the spatial aggregation of T. urticae was evident in all four fields for all 17 sampling dates evaluated. Comparing spatial association using SADIE, ca. 62% of the total sampling pairs showed a positive association of mite spatial distribution patterns between two consecutive sampling dates, which indicates a strong spatial and temporal stability of mite infestation in peppermint fields. These results are discussed in relation to behavior of spider mite distribution within field, and its implications for improving sampling guidelines that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management.

  8. Analysis of the spatial distribution of infant mortality by cause of death in Austria in 1984 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzl Harald

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Austria, over the last 20 years infant mortality declined from 11.2 per 1,000 life births (1985 to 4.7 per 1,000 in1997 but remained rather constant since then. In addition to this time trend we already reported a non-random spatial distribution of infant mortality rates in a recent study covering the time period 1984 to 2002. This present study includes four additional years and now covers about 1.9 million individual birth certificates. It aimes to elucidate the observed non-random spatial distribution in more detail. We split up infant mortality into six groups according to the underlying cause of death. The underlying spatial distribution of standardized mortality ratios (SMR is estimated by univariate models as well as by two models incorporating all six groups simultaneously. Results We observe strong correlations between the individual spatial patterns of SMR's except for "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome" and to some extent for "Peripartal Problems". The spatial distribution of SMR's is non-random with an area of decreased risk in the South-East of Austria. The group "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome" clearly and the group "Peripartal Problems" slightly show deviations from the common pattern. When comparing univariate and multivariate SMR estimates we observe that the resulting spatial distributions are very similar. Conclusion We observe different non-random spatial distributions of infant mortality rates when grouped by cause of death. The models applied were based on individual data thereby avoiding ecological regression bias. The estimated spatial distributions do not substantially depend on the employed estimation method. The observed non-random spatial patterns of Austrian infant mortality remain to appear ambiguous.

  9. Modeling the spatial distribution of the parameters of the coolant in the reactor volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the approach to the question about the spatial distribution of the parameters of the coolant in-reactor volume. To describe the in-core space is used specially developed preprocessor. When the work of the preprocessor in the first place, is recreated on the basis of available information (mostly-the original drawings) with high accuracy three-dimensional description of the structures of the reactor volume and, secondly, are prepared on this basis blocks input to the nodal system code improved estimate ATHLET, allows to take into account the hydrodynamic interaction between the spatial control volumes. As an example the special case of solutions of international standard problem on the reconstruction of the transition process in the third unit of the Kalinin nuclear power plant, due to the shutdown of one of the four Main Coolant Pumps in operation at the rated capacity (first download). Model-core area consists of approximately 58 000 control volumes and spatial relationships. It shows the influence of certain structural units of the core to the distribution of the mass floe rate of its height. It is detected a strong cross-flow coolant in the area over the baffle. Moreover, we study the distribution of the coolant temperature at the assembly head of WWER-1000 reactor. It is shown that in the region of the top of the assembly head, where we have installation of thermocouples, the flow coolant for internal assemblies core is formed by only from guide channel Reactor control and protected system Control rod flow, or a mixture of the guide channel flow and flow from the area in front of top grid head assembly (the peripheral assemblies). It is shown that the magnitude of the flow guide channels affects not only the position of control rods, but also the presence of a particular type of measuring channels (Self powered neutron detector sensors or Temperature control sensors) in the cassette. (Author)

  10. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2015-09-23

    The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies.

  11. A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Nasem; Uria-Diez, J; Mateu, J; Youssef, Ali; Stal, Cornelis; El-Bana, Magdy; Magdy, Ahmed; Goossens, Rudi

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments. A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species (HS) in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship. Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. A total of 2703 individuals of the HS community were found in the case study, and approximately 82% were located above an elevation of 2 m. The micro-topography exhibited a significant negative relationship with pH and EC (r = -0.79 and -0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). The spatial structure was modeled using stochastic point processes, in particular a hybrid family of Gibbs processes. A new model is proposed that uses a hard-core structure at very short distances, together with a cluster structure in short-to-medium distances and a Poisson structure for larger distances. This model was found to fit the data perfectly well.

  12. Study on plasma visible radiation spatial distribution at the TO-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, L.I.; Shvindt, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of spatial distribution measurements of radiation intensities of spectral lines of hydrogen and light plasma impurities in the visible-light spectrum TO-1 tokamak are described. The method of electrochemical scanning with the help of rotating disk with notches was used. The experiments were carried out in the stable regime of discharge and in the regime with breakdown instability. In the stable regime absolute intensities of the spectral lines were measured. The concentration of radiating atoms and ions were calculated using the measured absolute intensities. Besides in order to determine the region in which the discharge appears in the cross section of the TO-1 chamber the spatial distributions of Hsub(β) neutral hydrogen spectral line in the initial stage of the discharge (0 9 cm -3 for the C(3) ion and anti nsub(0)=1.1x10 10 cm -3 for hydrogen atoms. The investigation into spatial distributions of the Hsub(β) line radiation in the initial stage of the filament formation showed that in the overwhelming majority of cases the discharge appears near the internal wall of the tokamak chamber

  13. Spatial relationship between tumor perfusion and endogeneous glucose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Larrier, N.; Viglianti, B.; Rabbani, Z.N.; Peltz, C.; Vujascovic, Z.; Dewhirst, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies detecting glucose in tissue and solid tumors by bioluminescence imaging suggested, that glucose distribution patterns may be spatially related to functional vascularity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this relationship by comparing glucose distribution patterns as determined by bioluminescence imaging to perfusion patterns of endogeneous Hoechst 33342 in rats bearing mammary carcinomas. R 3230 mammary carcinoma cells have been implanted subcutaneously into 7 female Fischer 344 rats. Two months post implantation, after injection of Hoechst 33342 the tumors were removed and snap frozen to conserve metabolite levels. Concomitantly, blood was sampled from the animals for analysis of glucose concentrations using a micodialysis analyzer. Cryosections of the tumors have been prepared, and every slice has been analyzed for both, Hoechst binding by fluorescence microscopy, and for glucose distribution patterns using bioluminescence imaging. In many cases vascular structures could be retrieved by the spatial pattern of glucose distribution. In some cases however, higher glucose concentrations could be found independent from Hoechst signal. On the other hand, regions of high Hoechst signal are not necessarily correlated with high glucose concentrations. When comparing blood and tissue glucose levels, tissue glucose content as measured with bioluminescence imaging (1.9-3.5 mM) is considerably lower than blood glucose (5.6-8.0 mM), demonstrating the expected gradient from blood to tissue. This study demonstrates the feasibility of monitoring glucose gradients in relation to functional vasculature throughout the body, from blood down to tissue or tumor and further, throughout the microenvironment of the solid tumor. Glucose distribution patterns may be an important tool in perfusion studies, e. g. in detecting the direction of blood flow in ex-vivo samples or in estimating glucose consumption rates of tumor cells adjacent to or in between perfused

  14. A novel spatial performance metric for robust pattern optimization of distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.; Koch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of performance is an integral part of model development and calibration as well as it is of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to stakeholders and the scientific community. There exists a comprehensive and well tested toolbox of metrics to assess temporal model performance in the hydrological modelling community. On the contrary, the experience to evaluate spatial performance is not corresponding to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study aims at making a contribution towards advancing spatial pattern oriented model evaluation for distributed hydrological models. This is achieved by introducing a novel spatial performance metric which provides robust pattern performance during model calibration. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (spaef) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multi-component approach is necessary in order to adequately compare spatial patterns. spaef, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are tested in a spatial pattern oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. The calibration is constrained by a remote sensing based spatial pattern of evapotranspiration and discharge timeseries at two stations. Our results stress that stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information to the optimizer which underlines the importance of multi-component metrics. The three spaef components are independent which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. This study promotes the use of bias insensitive metrics which allow comparing variables which are related but may differ in unit in order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in underground storm drain systems in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Webb, James P; Meyer, Richard P; Mulla, Mir S

    2003-06-01

    Underground storm drain systems in urban areas of Orange County include thousands of miles of gutters and underground pipelines, plus hundreds of thousands of catch basins and manhole chambers, all of which drain runoff water from residential, business and commercial establishments as well as highways and streets. These systems serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. Investigations on spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in these systems were conducted during November 1999 to October 2001. Immature mosquitoes were sampled by dipper or dipping net and adult mosquitoes by non-attractive CDC traps in manhole chambers, catch basins and a large drain. Culex quinquefasciatus Say prevailed at all 15 structures of the study in 4 cities of Orange County as the predominant species (> 99.9%). Larvae and pupae were present from April to October, peaking from May to September. The population density of adults was the lowest in February with 2 peaks of abundance occurring from May to July and from September to October. Manhole chambers and catch basins harbored more mosquitoes than did the large drain. Minimum and maximum temperatures during a 24 h sampling period was an important factor influencing adult mosquito activity and catches; more mosquitoes were caught in traps when it was warmer, especially when the minimum temperatures were higher. The proportion of females to males in general increased during winter and early spring an ddeclined during summer. The proportion of gravid females to empty females was higher during the winter than in summer. Other dipteran taxa such as psychodid moth flies and chironomid midges exhibited somewhat similar seasonal patterns as did mosquito populations. Average water temperature was relatively stable throughout the year, and water quality in underground drain systems was characterized by low dissolved oxygen, coupled with above normal electrical conductivity and salinity levels

  16. ANALYSIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF MIXED SPIDER POPULATION IN RICE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhiWang; Zhe-mingYuan; Da-xiangSong; Ming-shengZhu

    2004-01-01

    The results make it clear that there are total 11 families, 29 genera and 43 species of spiders in the rice field of Dong Fang Hong Farm. Among them, there are 8 families, 19 genera and 28 species in the early rice field, and 10 families, 27 genera and 36 species in the late rice field. The spatial distribution pattern of mixed spider populations in rice fields was different during different development stages of rice plant. During the prophase, metaphase and anaphase of early rice plant development, the spatial distribution pattern of mixed spider populations was aggregative, random and aggregative respectively. During the prophase, metaphase and anaphase of late rice plant development, the spatial distribution pattern was uniform, aggregative and uniform respectively.

  17. Spatial distribution of carbon species in laser ablation of graphite target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, T.; Ishibashi, S.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.; Thareja, R.K.; Narayan, J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of C 2 and C 3 molecules produced by KrF laser ablation of a graphite target using laser induced fluorescence imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Spatial density profiles of C 2 were measured using two-dimensional fluorescence in various pressures of different ambient (vacuum, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, and argon) gases at various ablation laser fluences and ablation area. A large yield of C 2 is observed in the central part of the plume and near the target surface and its density and distribution was affected by the laser fluence and ambient gas. Fluorescent C 3 was studied in Ar gas and the yield of C 3 is enhanced at higher gas pressure and longer delay times after ablation

  18. AKaplan-Meier estimators of distance distributions for spatial point processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    When a spatial point process is observed through a bounded window, edge effects hamper the estimation of characteristics such as the empty space function $F$, the nearest neighbour distance distribution $G$, and the reduced second order moment function $K$. Here we propose and study product-limit

  19. Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Redding

    Full Text Available Statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of taxa (Species Distribution Models, SDMs commonly rely on available occurrence data, which is often clumped and geographically restricted. Although available SDM methods address some of these factors, they could be more directly and accurately modelled using a spatially-explicit approach. Software to fit models with spatial autocorrelation parameters in SDMs are now widely available, but whether such approaches for inferring SDMs aid predictions compared to other methodologies is unknown. Here, within a simulated environment using 1000 generated species' ranges, we compared the performance of two commonly used non-spatial SDM methods (Maximum Entropy Modelling, MAXENT and boosted regression trees, BRT, to a spatial Bayesian SDM method (fitted using R-INLA, when the underlying data exhibit varying combinations of clumping and geographic restriction. Finally, we tested how any recommended methodological settings designed to account for spatially non-random patterns in the data impact inference. Spatial Bayesian SDM method was the most consistently accurate method, being in the top 2 most accurate methods in 7 out of 8 data sampling scenarios. Within high-coverage sample datasets, all methods performed fairly similarly. When sampling points were randomly spread, BRT had a 1-3% greater accuracy over the other methods and when samples were clumped, the spatial Bayesian SDM method had a 4%-8% better AUC score. Alternatively, when sampling points were restricted to a small section of the true range all methods were on average 10-12% less accurate, with greater variation among the methods. Model inference under the recommended settings to account for autocorrelation was not impacted by clumping or restriction of data, except for the complexity of the spatial regression term in the spatial Bayesian model. Methods, such as those made available by R-INLA, can be successfully used to account

  20. Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, David W; Lucas, Tim C D; Blackburn, Tim M; Jones, Kate E

    2017-01-01

    Statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of taxa (Species Distribution Models, SDMs) commonly rely on available occurrence data, which is often clumped and geographically restricted. Although available SDM methods address some of these factors, they could be more directly and accurately modelled using a spatially-explicit approach. Software to fit models with spatial autocorrelation parameters in SDMs are now widely available, but whether such approaches for inferring SDMs aid predictions compared to other methodologies is unknown. Here, within a simulated environment using 1000 generated species' ranges, we compared the performance of two commonly used non-spatial SDM methods (Maximum Entropy Modelling, MAXENT and boosted regression trees, BRT), to a spatial Bayesian SDM method (fitted using R-INLA), when the underlying data exhibit varying combinations of clumping and geographic restriction. Finally, we tested how any recommended methodological settings designed to account for spatially non-random patterns in the data impact inference. Spatial Bayesian SDM method was the most consistently accurate method, being in the top 2 most accurate methods in 7 out of 8 data sampling scenarios. Within high-coverage sample datasets, all methods performed fairly similarly. When sampling points were randomly spread, BRT had a 1-3% greater accuracy over the other methods and when samples were clumped, the spatial Bayesian SDM method had a 4%-8% better AUC score. Alternatively, when sampling points were restricted to a small section of the true range all methods were on average 10-12% less accurate, with greater variation among the methods. Model inference under the recommended settings to account for autocorrelation was not impacted by clumping or restriction of data, except for the complexity of the spatial regression term in the spatial Bayesian model. Methods, such as those made available by R-INLA, can be successfully used to account for spatial

  1. [Prediction and spatial distribution of recruitment trees of natural secondary forest based on geographically weighted Poisson model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Yu; Liu, Zhao Gang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data collected from 108 permanent plots of the forest resources survey in Maoershan Experimental Forest Farm during 2004-2016, this study investigated the spatial distribution of recruitment trees in natural secondary forest by global Poisson regression and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) with four bandwidths of 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 km. The simulation effects of the 5 regressions and the factors influencing the recruitment trees in stands were analyzed, a description was given to the spatial autocorrelation of the regression residuals on global and local levels using Moran's I. The results showed that the spatial distribution of the number of natural secondary forest recruitment was significantly influenced by stands and topographic factors, especially average DBH. The GWPR model with small scale (2.5 km) had high accuracy of model fitting, a large range of model parameter estimates was generated, and the localized spatial distribution effect of the model parameters was obtained. The GWPR model at small scale (2.5 and 5 km) had produced a small range of model residuals, and the stability of the model was improved. The global spatial auto-correlation of the GWPR model residual at the small scale (2.5 km) was the lowe-st, and the local spatial auto-correlation was significantly reduced, in which an ideal spatial distribution pattern of small clusters with different observations was formed. The local model at small scale (2.5 km) was much better than the global model in the simulation effect on the spatial distribution of recruitment tree number.

  2. Temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system and associated influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shiwei; Liu, Bailin; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Yang, Wenzhi; Bai, Xiaojuan; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Yingmei

    2018-05-30

    Heavy metal pollution in farmlands is highly concerned as crops' easy-uptake of heavy metal can ultimately affect consumers. In order to offer suggestions on cultivating safe quality vegetable, specifically eggplant which is widely consumed for its nutritional value and antioxidant activity, a field study was undertaken to investigate the temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system. In the present study, eggplants were planted in the farmlands of Weichuan village (WC) (relatively unpolluted field), Liangzhuang village (LZ) (moderately polluted field) and Minqin village (MQ) (seriously polluted field) to elucidate their temporal uptake processes of heavy metals described by the sigmoid model. Eggplant tissues from severely polluted farmlands were found with higher heavy metal concentrations and lower yields compared with other two groups. What is more, 25 farmlands along the Dongdagou stream (heavy metals polluted stream) were chosen to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and eggplants. Heavy metal concentrations in eggplants decreased with the decline of heavy metal concentrations in soil from upstream (pollution source) to downstream. Moreover, several methods were employed to assess bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. All the bioavailable heavy metals were found in linear positive correlations with heavy metal concentrations. Meanwhile, linear correlations were found between heavy metals in soils and eggplants. At last, redundancy analysis was used to investigate the effects of soil properties (pH, organic matter and texture of soils) and heavy metals on eggplants' uptake. The results indicated that soil heavy metals had a dominant impact on their accumulations in eggplant fruit, with a variance contribution of 78.0%, while soil properties had a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 5.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RESOLUTIONS IN TROPICAL SUMMER RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples’ life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007, accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG. However, the models’ resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF and cumulative distribution functions(CDF of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  4. The Impact of Spatial and Temporal Resolutions in Tropical Summer Rainfall Distribution: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Chiu, L. S.; Hao, X.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples' life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007), accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). However, the models' resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling) procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days) and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions(CDF) of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS) test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  5. Dynamic Raman imaging system with high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Yinzhen; He, Hao; Lv, Ruiqi; Zong, Cheng; Ren, Bin

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing need to study dynamic changing systems with significantly high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this work, we integrated point-scanning, line-scanning, and wide-field Raman imaging techniques into a single system. By using an Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with a high gain and high frame rate, we significantly reduced the time required for wide-field imaging, making it possible to monitor the electrochemical reactions in situ. The highest frame rate of EMCDD was ˜50 fps, and the Raman images for a specific Raman peak can be obtained by passing the signal from the sample through the Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The spatial resolutions of scanning imaging and wide-field imaging with a 100× objective (NA = 0.9) are 0.5 × 0.5 μm2 and 0.36 × 0.36 μm2, respectively. The system was used to study the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal distribution for Au Nanoparticle aggregates, and dynamic Raman imaging of an electrochemical reacting system.

  6. Spatial root distribution of plants growing in vertical media for use in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: For plants growing in living walls, the growth potential is correlated to the roots ability to utilize resources in all parts of the growing medium and thereby to the spatial root distribution. The aim of the study was to test how spatial root distribution was affected...... root growth was limited for plants in the middle or lower parts of the medium and 15N measurements confirmed that only plants in the bottom of the box had active roots in the bottom of the medium. The species differed in root architecture and spatial root distribution. Conclusions: The choice...... by growing medium, planting position and competition from other plants. Methods: Five species (Campanula poscharskyana cv. 'Stella', Fragaria vesca cv. 'Småland', Geranium sanguineum cv. 'Max Frei', Sesleria heufleriana and Veronica officinalis cv. 'Allgrün') were grown in three growing media (coir and two...

  7. Continuous time modelling of dynamical spatial lattice data observed at sparsely distributed times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Summary. We consider statistical and computational aspects of simulation-based Bayesian inference for a spatial-temporal model based on a multivariate point process which is only observed at sparsely distributed times. The point processes are indexed by the sites of a spatial lattice......, and they exhibit spatial interaction. For specificity we consider a particular dynamical spatial lattice data set which has previously been analysed by a discrete time model involving unknown normalizing constants. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using continuous time processes compared...... with discrete time processes in the setting of the present paper as well as other spatial-temporal situations....

  8. Spatial distribution of potential and positive Aedes aegypti breeding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elías Cuartas

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The spatial relationship between positive and potential A. aegypti breeding sites both indoors and outdoors is dynamic and highly sensitive to the characteristics of each territory. Knowing how positive and potential breeding sites are distributed contributes to the prioritization of resources and actions in vector control programs.

  9. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  10. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic

  11. The fractal spatial distribution of pancreatic islets in three dimensions: a self-avoiding growth model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Junghyo; Periwal, Vipul; Hörnblad, Andreas; Ahlgren, Ulf; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2013-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans, responsible for controlling blood glucose levels, are dispersed within the pancreas. A universal power law governing the fractal spatial distribution of islets in two-dimensional pancreatic sections has been reported. However, the fractal geometry in the actual three-dimensional pancreas volume, and the developmental process that gives rise to such a self-similar structure, has not been investigated. Here, we examined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of islets in intact mouse pancreata using optical projection tomography and found a power law with a fractal dimension of 2.1. Furthermore, based on two-dimensional pancreatic sections of human autopsies, we found that the distribution of human islets also follows a universal power law with a fractal dimension of 1.5 in adult pancreata, which agrees with the value previously reported in smaller mammalian pancreas sections. Finally, we developed a self-avoiding growth model for the development of the islet distribution and found that the fractal nature of the spatial islet distribution may be associated with the self-avoidance in the branching process of vascularization in the pancreas. (paper)

  12. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-11-01

    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.

  13. Characterizing the spatial distribution of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in fragmented forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Ye, X.P.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution of the entire wild giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population, and to propose a modelling approach for monitoring the spatial distribution and habitat of pandas at the landscape scale using Moderate Resolution Imaging

  14. Spatial distribution and vertical variation of arsenic in Guangdong soil profiles, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.H.; Yuan, H.X.; Hu, Y.G.; Wu, Z.F.; Zhu, L.A.; Zhu, L.; Li, F.B.; LI, D.Q.

    2006-01-01

    Total of 260 soil profiles were reported to investigate the arsenic spatial distribution and vertical variation in Guangdong province. The arsenic concentration followed an approximately lognormal distribution. The arsenic geometric mean concentration of 10.4 mg/kg is higher than that of China. An upper baseline concentration of 23.4 mg/kg was estimated for surface soils. The influence of soil properties on arsenic concentration was not important. Arsenic spatial distributions presented similar patterns that high arsenic concentration mainly located in limestone, and sandshale areas, indicating that soil arsenic distribution was dependent on bedrock properties than anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, from A- to C-horizon arsenic geometric mean concentrations had an increasing tendency of 10.4, 10.7 to 11.3 mg/kg. This vertical variation may be related to the lower soil organic matter and soil degradation and erosion. Consequently, the soil arsenic export into surface and groundwaters would reach 1040 t year -1 in the study area. - Soil arsenic movement export is a potential threat to the water quality of the study area

  15. Influence of macular pigment optical density spatial distribution on intraocular scatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Christopher M; Bland, Pauline J; Bassi, Carl J

    This study evaluated the summed measures of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial distribution and their effects on intraocular scatter using a commercially available device (C-Quant, Oculus, USA). A customized heterochromatic flicker photometer (cHFP) device was used to measure MPOD spatial distribution across the central 16° using a 1° stimulus. MPOD was calculated as a discrete measure and summed measures across the central 1°, 3.3°, 10° and 16° diameters. Intraocular scatter was determined as a mean of 5 trials in which reliability and repeatability measures were met using the C-Quant. MPOD spatial distribution maps were constructed and the effects of both discrete and summed values on intraocular scatter were examined. Spatial mapping identified mean values for discrete MPOD [0.32 (s.d.=0.08)], MPOD summed across central 1° [0.37 (s.d.=0.11)], MPOD summed across central 3.3° [0.85 (s.d.=0.20)], MPOD summed across central 10° [1.60 (s.d.=0.35)] and MPOD summed across central 16° [1.78 (s.d.=0.39)]. Mean intraocular scatter was 0.83 (s.d.=0.16) log units. While there were consistent trends for an inverse relationship between MPOD and scatter, these relationships were not statistically significant. Correlations between the highest and lowest quartiles of MPOD within the central 1° were near significance. While there was an overall trend of decreased intraocular forward scatter with increased MPOD consistent with selective short wavelength visible light attenuation, neither discrete nor summed values of MPOD significantly influence intraocular scatter as measured by the C-Quant device. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated

  17. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  18. The study for the Spatial Distribution Pattern of NDVI in the Western of Jilin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-jie; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Shou-gang

    2018-02-01

    Using methods of spatial autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis, the paper studies the spatial distribution pattern of NDVI based on the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1998-2008), in Western Jilin. The maximum value for 15d is got through the method of MAX processing. Results show that: the NDVI in growing season shows a rising trend in western Jilin in 1998-2008. In the study area, the NDVI in Western Jilin shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the whole region, but the partial NDVI is apt to scattered distribution, which means the vegetation cover of Western Jilin is generally fragmental.

  19. Behavioral correlates of the distributed coding of spatial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael I; Killing, Sarah; Morris, Caitlin; O'Donoghue, Alan; Onyiagha, Dikennam; Stevenson, Rosemary; Verriotis, Madeleine; Jeffery, Kathryn J

    2006-01-01

    Hippocampal place cells respond heterogeneously to elemental changes of a compound spatial context, suggesting that they form a distributed code of context, whereby context information is shared across a population of neurons. The question arises as to what this distributed code might be useful for. The present study explored two possibilities: one, that it allows contexts with common elements to be disambiguated, and the other, that it allows a given context to be associated with more than one outcome. We used two naturalistic measures of context processing in rats, rearing and thigmotaxis (boundary-hugging), to explore how rats responded to contextual novelty and to relate this to the behavior of place cells. In experiment 1, rats showed dishabituation of rearing to a novel reconfiguration of familiar context elements, suggesting that they perceived the reconfiguration as novel, a behavior that parallels that of place cells in a similar situation. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place preference task on an open-field arena. A change in the arena context triggered renewed thigmotaxis, and yet navigation continued unimpaired, indicating simultaneous representation of both the altered contextual and constant spatial cues. Place cells similarly exhibited a dual population of responses, consistent with the hypothesis that their activity underlies spatial behavior. Together, these experiments suggest that heterogeneous context encoding (or "partial remapping") by place cells may function to allow the flexible assignment of associations to contexts, a faculty that could be useful in episodic memory encoding. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Gulyaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the spatial distribution of small-leaved forests in Kuznetskaya depression where they are forest component of zonal forest-steppe vegetation. Two levels of spatial organization were determined. According to mesorelief communities of different associations are organized into topo-ecological series. These series differ by length and set of communities. On higher level spatial distribution is controlled by climate and reflects zonal structure. Central part of the depression is occupied by Artemisio–Betuletum communities in combination with communities of Calamagrostio–Betuletum which occur in more humid habitats. Near the eastern edge of the depres­sion forest vegetation is represented by combination of Trollio–Populetum and Campanulo–Betuletum communities where the first one is more typical for the plain conditions and second one – for the mountainous environment. In south­ern part of the depression communities of Campanulo–Betuletum are widespread in combination with Saussureo–Populetum communities which localized on higher well-moisturized slopes. In north-western part syntaxonomical diversity drops down to one association – Primulo–Betuletum, and communities of Carici–Betuletum association occur across the whole depression in lowest relief positions. Climatically it is possible to distinguish two belts – forest-steppe and subtaiga. Forest-steppe is represented by two types – typical plain forest-steppe in north-western part and submountainous forest-steppe in the central part of depression. Subtaiga belt in the depression is developed on eastern edge, but in western part it exists only on mountain slopes.

  1. The effect of spatial planning patterns on distribution of pedestrians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on public spaces of residential neighbourhoods in the City of Nairobi. It establishes various spatial characteristics, hence patterns, that have a bearing on the distribution of pedestrians therein. A higher encounter rate of pedestrians is a desirable public space quality given that the higher degree of ...

  2. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  3. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated.RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom.CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process.

  4. Improving the accuracy of livestock distribution estimates through spatial interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryssinckx, Ward; Ducheyne, Els; Muhwezi, Bernard; Godfrey, Sunday; Mintiens, Koen; Leirs, Herwig; Hendrickx, Guy

    2012-11-01

    Animal distribution maps serve many purposes such as estimating transmission risk of zoonotic pathogens to both animals and humans. The reliability and usability of such maps is highly dependent on the quality of the input data. However, decisions on how to perform livestock surveys are often based on previous work without considering possible consequences. A better understanding of the impact of using different sample designs and processing steps on the accuracy of livestock distribution estimates was acquired through iterative experiments using detailed survey. The importance of sample size, sample design and aggregation is demonstrated and spatial interpolation is presented as a potential way to improve cattle number estimates. As expected, results show that an increasing sample size increased the precision of cattle number estimates but these improvements were mainly seen when the initial sample size was relatively low (e.g. a median relative error decrease of 0.04% per sampled parish for sample sizes below 500 parishes). For higher sample sizes, the added value of further increasing the number of samples declined rapidly (e.g. a median relative error decrease of 0.01% per sampled parish for sample sizes above 500 parishes. When a two-stage stratified sample design was applied to yield more evenly distributed samples, accuracy levels were higher for low sample densities and stabilised at lower sample sizes compared to one-stage stratified sampling. Aggregating the resulting cattle number estimates yielded significantly more accurate results because of averaging under- and over-estimates (e.g. when aggregating cattle number estimates from subcounty to district level, P interpolation to fill in missing values in non-sampled areas, accuracy is improved remarkably. This counts especially for low sample sizes and spatially even distributed samples (e.g. P <0.001 for a sample of 170 parishes using one-stage stratified sampling and aggregation on district level

  5. Spatial Distribution of Transgenic Protein After Gene Electrotransfer to Porcine Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Corydon, Thomas; Hojman, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gene electrotransfer is an effective nonviral technique for delivery of plasmid DNA into tissues. From a clinical perspective, muscle is an attractive target tissue as long-term, high-level transgenic expression can be achieved. Spatial distribution of the transgenic protein following gene...... electrotransfer to muscle in a large animal model has not yet been investigated. In this study, 17 different doses of plasmid DNA (1-1500 μg firefly luciferase pCMV-Luc) were delivered in vivo to porcine gluteal muscle using electroporation. Forty-eight hours post treatment several biopsies were obtained from...... each transfection site in order to examine the spatial distribution of the transgenic product. We found a significantly higher luciferase activity in biopsies from the center of the transfection site compared to biopsies taken adjacent to the center, 1 and 2 cm along muscle fiber orientation (p...

  6. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default) or extrinsic (executive) attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator). After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement) and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression), suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  7. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  8. Spatial distribution modelling of the endangered bivalve Pinna nobilis in a Marine Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VÁZQUEZ-LUIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of Pinna nobilis densities have been analysed through a geostatistical approach in the MPA of Cabrera National Park, Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean Sea. Regression kriging was used to model the effect of environmental variables on the density of living individuals of P. nobilis and generate a predictive map of its distribution within the MPA. The environmental variables considered for the model were: depth; slope; habitat type and heterogeneity; wave exposure; and MPA zoning. A total of 378 transects were randomly distributed with a total of 149,000 m2 surveyed at a depth range from 4.2 to 46 m. The recorded P. nobilis densities are among the highest in the Mediterranean Sea. With respect to the prediction model, results indicate that benthic habitats play a key role in the spatial distribution of P. nobilis, with higher densities in seagrass meadows of Posidonia oceanica. The fan mussel population density peaked at 9 m depth, decreasing with depth. Also, decreasing densities are expected with increasing exposure to waves. The predicted map shows some hotspots of density different in size and distributed along the MPA, and provides valuable information for the spatial conservation management of this species.

  9. STRUCTURE, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SEED YIELD FOR ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl. IN SOUTH RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba is one of the Amazon species with great potential of exploration for timber and non-timber forest products (NFTPs. This work was carried out with the objective of studying the population structure, spatial distribution and seed yield in a native forest of andiroba in the south of Roraima state. A permanent sample plot of 300 x 300 m (9 ha was installed and all the trees with DBH equal or superior to 10 cm were identified, mapped and measured. In each tree, the light climate, crown form and lianas load were appraised. To identify the spatial distribution, the medium variance/average rate and the Morisita’s Index were used. The seed yield data were obtained by the seed weighing, being 145 trees monitored during 2006. The population presented a diametric distribution of the j inverted type, and a seed yield of 65,4 kg.ha-1 with average of 8,3 kg.tree-1 was observed. DBH ≥ 30 cm was considered as borderline for commercial seed yield, allowing stratifying the population in juveniles (DBH ≤ 30 cm and adults (DBH > 30 cm. The spatial distribution analysis showed that adult individuals presented random distribution and the juveniles tendency of grouping.

  10. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  11. Harnessing Big Data to Represent 30-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Van Huijgevoort, M.; Milly, C.; Sulman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial land surface processes play a critical role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (˜30 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing global environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles. The state-of-the-art Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model is then used to simulate these tiles and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  12. Biodegradation in a Partially Saturated Sand Matrix: Compounding Effects of Water Content, Bacterial Spatial Distribution, and Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Bazire, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    colonizing these zones or on pollutant mass transfer to neighboring zones containing degraders. In a model system, we quantified the role exerted by water on mineralization rate in the context of a heterogeneously distributed degradation potential. Alginate beads colonized by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were......Bacterial pesticide degraders are generally heterogeneously distributed in soils, leaving soil volumes devoid of degradation potential. This is expected to have an impact on degradation rates because the degradation of pollutant molecules in such zones will be contingent either on degraders...... inserted at prescribed locations in sand microcosms so that the initial spatial distribution of the mineralization potential was controlled. The mineralization rate was strongly affected by the matric potential (decreasing rate with decreasing matric potential) and by the initial distribution...

  13. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  14. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  15. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  16. Spatially Explicit Modeling Reveals Cephalopod Distributions Match Contrasting Trophic Pathways in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Puerta

    Full Text Available Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla and sea surface temperature (SST, and trophic (prey density conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents

  17. Environmental DNA reflects spatial and temporal jellyfish distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Minamoto

    Full Text Available Recent development of environmental DNA (eDNA analysis allows us to survey underwater macro-organisms easily and cost effectively; however, there have been no reports on eDNA detection or quantification for jellyfish. Here we present the first report on an eDNA analysis of marine jellyfish using Japanese sea nettle (Chrysaora pacifica as a model species by combining a tank experiment with spatial and temporal distribution surveys. We performed a tank experiment monitoring eDNA concentrations over a range of time intervals after the introduction of jellyfish, and quantified the eDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time PCR. The eDNA concentrations peaked twice, at 1 and 8 h after the beginning of the experiment, and became stable within 48 h. The estimated release rates of the eDNA in jellyfish were higher than the rates previously reported in fishes. A spatial survey was conducted in June 2014 in Maizuru Bay, Kyoto, in which eDNA was collected from surface water and sea floor water samples at 47 sites while jellyfish near surface water were counted on board by eye. The distribution of eDNA in the bay corresponded with the distribution of jellyfish inferred by visual observation, and the eDNA concentration in the bay was ~13 times higher on the sea floor than on the surface. The temporal survey was conducted from March to November 2014, in which jellyfish were counted by eye every morning while eDNA was collected from surface and sea floor water at three sampling points along a pier once a month. The temporal fluctuation pattern of the eDNA concentrations and the numbers of observed individuals were well correlated. We conclude that an eDNA approach is applicable for jellyfish species in the ocean.

  18. Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Fragnière, Emilie; Costanzo, Floriana; Di Vara, Silvia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps. The spatial response learning system depends on the striatum and creates fixed stimulus-response representations, also known as habits. Indeed, no study assessing WS spatial competence has used tasks which selectively target these two spatial memory systems. Here, we report that individuals with WS exhibit a dissociation in their spatial abilities subserved by these two memory systems. As compared to typically developing (TD) children in the same mental age range, place learning performance was impaired in individuals with WS. In contrast, their spatial response learning performance was facilitated. Our findings in individuals with WS and TD children suggest that place learning and response learning interact competitively to control the behavioral strategies normally used to support human spatial navigation. Our findings further suggest that the neural pathways supporting place learning may be affected by the genetic deletion that characterizes WS, whereas those supporting response learning may be relatively preserved. The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Comparative Study of Spatially Clustered Distribution of Jumbo Flying Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Offshore Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yongjiu; CUI Li; CHEN Xinjun; LIU Yu

    2017-01-01

    We examined spatially clustered distribution of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the offshore waters of Peru bounded by 78°-86°W and 8°-20°S under 0.5°×0.5° fishing grid.The study is based on the catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and fishing effort from Chinese mainland squid jigging fleet in 2003-2004 and 2006-2013.The data for all years as well as the eight years (excluding E1 Ni(n)o events) were studied to examine the effect of climate variation on the spatial distribution of D.gigas.Five spatial clusters reflecting the spatial distribution were computed using K-means and Getis-Ord Gi* for a detailed comparative study.Our results showed that clusters identified by the two methods were quite different in terms of their spatial patterns,and K-means was not as accurate as Getis-Ord Gi*,as inferred from the agreement degree and receiver operating characteristic.There were more areas of hot and cold spots in years without the impact of El Ni(n)o,suggesting that such large-scale climate variations could reduce the clustering level ofD.gigas.The catches also showed that warm E1 Ni(n)o conditions and high water temperature were less favorable for D.gigas offshore Peru.The results suggested that the use of K-means is preferable if the aim is to discover the spatial distribution of each sub-region (cluster) of the study area,while Getis-Ord Gi* is preferable if the aim is to identify statistically significant hot spots that may indicate the central fishing ground.

  20. A comparative study of spatially clustered distribution of jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) offshore Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Cui, Li; Chen, Xinjun; Liu, Yu

    2017-06-01

    We examined spatially clustered distribution of jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) in the offshore waters of Peru bounded by 78°-86°W and 8°-20°S under 0.5°×0.5° fishing grid. The study is based on the catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and fishing effort from Chinese mainland squid jigging fleet in 2003-2004 and 2006-2013. The data for all years as well as the eight years (excluding El Niño events) were studied to examine the effect of climate variation on the spatial distribution of D. gigas. Five spatial clusters reflecting the spatial distribution were computed using K-means and Getis-Ord Gi* for a detailed comparative study. Our results showed that clusters identified by the two methods were quite different in terms of their spatial patterns, and K-means was not as accurate as Getis-Ord Gi*, as inferred from the agreement degree and receiver operating characteristic. There were more areas of hot and cold spots in years without the impact of El Niño, suggesting that such large-scale climate variations could reduce the clustering level of D. gigas. The catches also showed that warm El Niño conditions and high water temperature were less favorable for D. gigas offshore Peru. The results suggested that the use of K-means is preferable if the aim is to discover the spatial distribution of each sub-region (cluster) of the study area, while Getis-Ord Gi* is preferable if the aim is to identify statistically significant hot spots that may indicate the central fishing ground.

  1. Agent-based Algorithm for Spatial Distribution of Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2012-06-02

    In this paper we present an agent-based algorithm for the spatial distribution of objects. The algorithm is a generalization of the bubble mesh algorithm, initially created for the point insertion stage of the meshing process of the finite element method. The bubble mesh algorithm treats objects in space as bubbles, which repel and attract each other. The dynamics of each bubble are approximated by solving a series of ordinary differential equations. We present numerical results for a meshing application as well as a graph visualization application.

  2. The Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollutants in Suez Bay Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.B.; Mohamed, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Suez city represents the southern entrance of the Suez Canal. As a result of the rapid development of industrialization and anthropogenic activities of Suez city may be entered containments such as heavy metals through Suez bay boundaries. The geographical information system (Arc GIS 9.1) is used to study the spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) of water samples which were collected in four different sampling sites (I, II, III and IV) from Suez bay. In this study, tabular data representation of the spatial distribution was developed using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method. The GIS technique was applied to transfer the information into a final map illustrating the spatial distribution of heavy metals within the studied area. GIS models showed the high concentrations of heavy metals in some sites in the Suez city affecting by their activities. An overall distribution map of heavy metals is observed from GIS special analysis. Site (IV) in Suez City demonstrated the highest polluted are a in the overall distribution map

  3. Analysis of thrips distribution: application of spatial statistics and Kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Aleong; Bruce L. Parker; Margaret Skinner; Diantha Howard

    1991-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical technique that provides predictions for spatially and temporally correlated data. Observations of thrips distribution and density in Vermont soils are made in both space and time. Traditional statistical analysis of such data assumes that the counts taken over space and time are independent, which is not necessarily true. Therefore, to analyze...

  4. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-01-30

    Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are the most important lungworm species infecting wild and domesticated canids in Europe. To investigate the spatial distribution of these parasites and the factors influencing their circulation in the fox populations, 937 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were tested for lungworm infection in Hungary. The prevalence of A. vasorum, C. vulpis and E. aerophilus infection was high (17.9, 24.6 and 61.7%). The distribution pattern of infection in foxes and the relationship of this pattern with landscape and climate was analyzed by geographic information system. Based on the analysis, the annual precipitation was the major determinant of the spatial distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis and E. aerophilus. Nevertheless, the mean annual temperature also influenced the distribution of A. vasorum and E. aerophilus. The positive relationship with annual precipitation and the negative relationship with mean annual temperature can be attributed to the sensitivity of larvae, eggs and intermediate hosts (snails and slugs) of lungworms for desiccation. Based on the highly clumped distribution of A. vasorum and C. vulpis, the indirect life cycle (larvae, slugs and snails) of these parasites seems to be particularly sensitive for environmental effects. The distribution of E. aerophilus was considerably less clumped indicating a lower sensitivity of the direct life cycle (eggs) of this parasite for environmental factors. Based on these results, lungworm infections in canids including dogs can be expected mainly in relatively wet and cool areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A spatial scan statistic for survival data based on Weibull distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya; Tiwari, Neeraj

    2014-05-20

    The spatial scan statistic has been developed as a geographical cluster detection analysis tool for different types of data sets such as Bernoulli, Poisson, ordinal, normal and exponential. We propose a scan statistic for survival data based on Weibull distribution. It may also be used for other survival distributions, such as exponential, gamma, and log normal. The proposed method is applied on the survival data of tuberculosis patients for the years 2004-2005 in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, India. Simulation studies reveal that the proposed method performs well for different survival distribution functions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model using observed spatial patterns from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; González, Gorka M.; Mai, Juliane; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are typically calibrated against streamflow observations at the outlet of the basin. Along with these observations from gauging stations, satellite based estimates offer independent evaluation data such as remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration (aET) and land surface temperature. The primary objective of the study is to compare model calibrations against traditional downstream discharge measurements with calibrations against simulated spatial patterns and combinations of both types of observations. While the discharge based model calibration typically improves the temporal dynamics of the model, it seems to give rise to minimum improvement of the simulated spatial patterns. In contrast, objective functions specifically targeting the spatial pattern performance could potentially increase the spatial model performance. However, most modeling studies, including the model formulations and parameterization, are not designed to actually change the simulated spatial pattern during calibration. This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM). This model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the optimization of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) values directly as input. In addition the simulated aET can be estimated at a spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed with MODIS data. To increase our control on spatial calibration we introduced three additional parameters to the model. These new parameters are part of an empirical equation to the calculate crop coefficient (Kc) from daily LAI maps and used to update potential evapotranspiration (PET) as model inputs. This is done instead of correcting/updating PET with just a uniform (or aspect driven) factor used in the mHM model

  7. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  8. Projecting the impacts of climate change on skipjack tuna abundance and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueri, Sibylle; Bopp, Laurent; Maury, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Climate-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment are expected to increasingly stress marine ecosystems, with important consequences for fisheries exploitation. Here, we use the APECOSM-E numerical model (Apex Predator ECOSystem Model - Estimation) to evaluate the future impacts of climate change on the physiology, spatial distribution, and abundance of skipjack tuna, the worldwide most fished species of tropical tuna. The main novelties of our approach lie in the mechanistic link between environmental factors, metabolic rates, and behavioral responses and in the fully three dimensional representation of habitat and population abundance. Physical and biogeochemical fields used to force the model are provided by the last generation of the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model run from 1990 to 2100 under a 'business-as-usual' scenario (RCP8.5). Our simulations show significant changes in the spatial distribution of skipjack tuna suitable habitat, as well as in their population abundance. The model projects deterioration of skipjack habitat in most tropical waters and an improvement of habitat at higher latitudes. The primary driver of habitat changes is ocean warming, followed by food density changes. Our projections show an increase of global skipjack biomass between 2010 and 2050 followed by a marked decrease between 2050 and 2095. Spawning rates are consistent with population trends, showing that spawning depends primarily on the adult biomass. On the other hand, growth rates display very smooth temporal changes, suggesting that the ability of skipjack to keep high metabolic rates in the changing environment is generally effective. Uncertainties related to our model spatial resolution, to the lack or simplification of key processes and to the climate forcings are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Spatial Differences in the Distribution of Bone Between Femoral Neck and Trochanteric Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aihong; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Wang, Ling; Lang, Thomas F; Su, Yongbin; Wu, Xinbao; Wang, Manyi; Wei, Jie; Yi, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoguang

    2017-08-01

    There is little knowledge about the spatial distribution differences in volumetric bone mineral density and cortical bone structure at the proximal femur between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures. In this case-control study, a total of 93 women with fragility hip fractures, 72 with femoral neck fractures (mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 12.7 years) and 21 with trochanteric fractures (75.6 ± 9.3 years), and 50 control subjects (63.7 ± 7.0 years) were included for the comparisons. Differences in the spatial distributions of volumetric bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, cortical volumetric bone mineral density, and volumetric bone mineral density in a layer adjacent to the endosteal surface were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We compared these spatial distributions between controls and both types of fracture, and between the two types of fracture. Using VBM, we found spatially heterogeneous volumetric bone mineral density differences between control subjects and subjects with hip fracture that varied by fracture type. Interestingly, femoral neck fracture subjects, but not subjects with trochanteric fracture, showed significantly lower volumetric bone mineral density in the superior aspect of the femoral neck compared with controls. Using surface-based SPM, we found that compared with controls, both fracture types showed thinner cortices in regions in agreement with the type of fracture. Most outcomes of cortical and endocortical volumetric bone mineral density comparisons were consistent with VBM results. Our results suggest: 1) that the spatial distribution of trabecular volumetric bone mineral density might play a significant role in hip fracture; 2) that focal cortical bone thinning might be more relevant in femoral neck fractures; and 3) that areas of reduced cortical and endocortical volumetric bone mineral density might be more relevant for

  10. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R J; Morris, K J; Bett, B J; Durden, J M; Jones, D O B; Robert, K; Ruhl, H A; Bailey, D M

    2016-05-16

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing two spatial scales (1-10 km(2)) on and adjacent to a small abyssal hill (240 m elevation). The spatial distributions of the total fish fauna and that of the two dominant morphotypes (Coryphaenoides sp. 1 and C. profundicolus) appeared to be random, a result contrary to common expectation but consistent with previous predictions for these fishes. We estimated total fish density on the abyssal plain to be 723 individuals km(-2) (95% CI: 601-844). This estimate is higher, and likely more precise, than prior estimates from trawl catch and baited camera techniques (152 and 188 individuals km(-2) respectively). We detected no significant difference in fish density between abyssal hill and plain, nor did we detect any evidence for the existence of fish aggregations at any spatial scale assessed.

  11. Kinetics and spatial distribution of enzymes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in earthworm biopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Thi Thu, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms boost microbial activities and consequently form hotspots in soil. The distribution of enzyme activities inside the earthworm biopores is completely unknown. For the first time, we analyzed enzyme kinetics and visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside biopores by in situ soil zymography. Kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of 6 enzymes β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) were determined in biopores formed by Lumbricus terrestris L.. The spatial distributions of GLU, NAG and APT become visible via zymograms in comparison between earthworm-inhabited and earthworm-free soil. Zymography showed heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in the rhizosphere and biopores. The hotspot areas were 2.4 to 14 times larger in the biopores than in soil without earthworms. The significantly higher Vmax values for GLU, CBH, XYL, NAG and APT in biopores confirmed the stimulation of enzyme activities by earthworms. For CBH, XYL and NAG, the 2- to 3-fold higher Km values in biopores indicated different enzyme systems with lower substrate affinity compared to control soil. The positive effects of earthworms on Vmax were cancelled by the Km increase for CBH, XYL and NAG at a substrate concentration below 20 μmol g-1 soil. The change of enzyme systems reflected a shift in dominant microbial populations toward species with lower affinity to holo-celluloses and to N-acetylglucosamine, and with higher affinity to proteins as compared to the biopores-free soil. We conclude that earthworm biopores are microbial hotspots with much higher and dense distribution of enzyme activities compared to bulk soil. References Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. (2014) Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity in soil as affected by living and dead roots - a soil zymography analysis, Plant Soil 379: 67-77. Blagodatskaya, E., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Review paper: Active microorganisms in soil

  12. Spatial distribution and occurrence probability of regional new particle formation events in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the spatial extent of new particle formation (NPF events and the relative probability of observing particles originating from different spatial origins around three rural sites in eastern China were investigated using the NanoMap method, using particle number size distribution (PNSD data and air mass back trajectories. The length of the datasets used were 7, 1.5, and 3 years at rural sites Shangdianzi (SDZ in the North China Plain (NCP, Mt. Tai (TS in central eastern China, and Lin'an (LAN in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China, respectively. Regional NPF events were observed to occur with the horizontal extent larger than 500 km at SDZ and TS, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses. At LAN, however, the spatial footprint of NPF events was mostly observed around the site within 100–200 km. Difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas at different sites was connected to typical meteorological conditions at the sites. Consecutive large-scale regional NPF events were observed at SDZ and TS simultaneously and were associated with a high surface pressure system dominating over this area. Simultaneous NPF events at SDZ and LAN were seldom observed. At SDZ the polluted air masses arriving over the NCP were associated with higher particle growth rate (GR and new particle formation rate (J than air masses from Inner Mongolia (IM. At TS the same phenomenon was observed for J, but GR was somewhat lower in air masses arriving over the NCP compared to those arriving from IM. The capability of NanoMap to capture the NPF occurrence probability depends on the length of the dataset of PNSD measurement but also on topography around the measurement site and typical air mass advection speed during NPF events. Thus the long-term measurements of PNSD in the planetary boundary layer are necessary in the further study of spatial extent and the probability of NPF events. The spatial

  13. Neutron spatial distribution measurement with 6Li-contained thermoluminescent sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, A.; Odano, N.; Sawamura, H.; Ozasa, N.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing a thermoluminescent (TL) sheet for photon dosimetry (TL sheet) with thermoluminescent material of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and a co-polymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. For the purpose of a development of simple method for neutron spatial distribution measurement, TL sheet for neutron detection (NTL sheet) is made by adding 94.7% enriched 6 LiF to TL sheet. TL material in TL sheet is directly excited by ionizing radiation whereas, in the case of neutron detection, TL material in NTL sheet is indirectly excited by neutron capture reaction. That is neutron distribution can be obtained with TL caused by α particle from 6 Li(n, α) 3 H reaction. Responses of NTL sheets to neutrons were examined at the neutron beam irradiation facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in JRR-4 research reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. TL and NTL sheets were exposed to striped and roundly distributed neutron fields. Attenuations of neutron flux in air and water were also observed using NTL sheets. TL sheets were also exposed on the same conditions and compared with NTL sheets. TL intensity ratios of NTL sheet to TL sheet were consistent with the calculated value from 6 Li content. Thermal neutron attenuation observed by NTL sheet also corresponded with the result measured by Au wire radioactivation and TLD chips, which were currently used in BNCT at JRR-4. These results were analyzed with by Monte Carlo simulation. The present results indicated that NTL sheet is applicable to measurement of neutron spatial distribution. (author)

  14. Modelling the distribution of fish accounting for spatial correlation and overdispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    correlation between observations. It is therefore possible to predict and interpolate unobserved densities at any location in the area. This is important for obtaining unbiased estimates of stock concentration and other measures depending on the distribution in the entire area. Results show that the spatial...

  15. Specific features of accounting the time and spatial distribution of absorbed dose during the assessment of radiation casualties in current circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavskyij, I.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an attempt to assess the necessity of accounting the spatial and time distribution of absorbed dose of mixed radiations of main radiation factors for the correct estimation of the troops' capabilities in the system of military dosimetry

  16. Channel-facilitated molecular transport: The role of strength and spatial distribution of interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppulury, Karthik, E-mail: karthik.uppulury@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Kolomeisky, Anatoly B. [Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Highlights: • Molecular flux strongly depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions. • There exists an optimal molecule-pore interaction potential for maximal flux. • Volume of interactions depends inversely on the strength for maximal flux. • Stronger interactions need more number of attractive sites for maximal flux. • Channels with few special sites need more attractive sites for higher flux. - Abstract: Molecular transport across channels and pores is critically important for multiple natural and industrial processes. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed researchers to probe translocation through nanopores with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of channel-facilitated molecular transport is still not complete. We present a theoretical approach that investigates the role of molecular interactions in the transport through channels. It is based on the discrete-state stochastic analysis that provides a fully analytical description of this complex process. It is found that a spatial distribution of the interactions strongly influences the translocation dynamics. We predict that there is the optimal distribution that leads to the maximal flux through the channel. It is also argued that the channel transport depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions, on the shape of interaction potentials and on the relative contributions of entrance and diffusion processes in the system. These observations are discussed using simple physical-chemical arguments.

  17. Spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Cirino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the methodology used for assessing the spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units. METHODS A modeling and simulation method was adopted for the practical application of cardiac care service in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, using the p-median model. As the state is divided into 21 health care regions, a methodology which suggests an arrangement of eight intermediate cardiac care units was analyzed, comparing the results obtained using data from 1996 and 2012. RESULTS Results obtained using data from 2012 indicated significant changes in the state, particularly in relation to the increased population density in the coastal regions. The current study provided a satisfactory response, indicated by the homogeneity of the results regarding the location of the intermediate cardiac care units and their respective regional administrations, thereby decreasing the average distance traveled by users to health care units, located in higher population density areas. The validity of the model was corroborated through the analysis of the allocation of the median vertices proposed in 1996 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS The current spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units is more homogeneous and reflects the demographic changes that have occurred in the state over the last 17 years. The comparison between the two simulations and the current configuration showed the validity of the proposed model as an aid in decision making for system expansion.

  18. Channel-facilitated molecular transport: The role of strength and spatial distribution of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppulury, Karthik; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular flux strongly depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions. • There exists an optimal molecule-pore interaction potential for maximal flux. • Volume of interactions depends inversely on the strength for maximal flux. • Stronger interactions need more number of attractive sites for maximal flux. • Channels with few special sites need more attractive sites for higher flux. - Abstract: Molecular transport across channels and pores is critically important for multiple natural and industrial processes. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed researchers to probe translocation through nanopores with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of channel-facilitated molecular transport is still not complete. We present a theoretical approach that investigates the role of molecular interactions in the transport through channels. It is based on the discrete-state stochastic analysis that provides a fully analytical description of this complex process. It is found that a spatial distribution of the interactions strongly influences the translocation dynamics. We predict that there is the optimal distribution that leads to the maximal flux through the channel. It is also argued that the channel transport depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions, on the shape of interaction potentials and on the relative contributions of entrance and diffusion processes in the system. These observations are discussed using simple physical-chemical arguments.

  19. An efficient communication strategy for mobile agent based distributed spatial data mining application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guodong; Wang, Jiazhen

    2005-11-01

    An efficient communication strategy is proposed in this paper, which aims to improve the response time and availability of mobile agent based distributed spatial data mining applications. When dealing with decomposed complex data mining tasks or On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP), mobile agents authorized by the specified user need to coordinate and cooperate with each other by employing given communication method to fulfill the subtasks delegated to them. Agent interactive behavior, e.g. messages passing, intermediate results exchanging and final results merging, must happen after the specified path is determined by executing given routing selection algorithm. Most of algorithms exploited currently run in time that grows approximately quadratic with the size of the input nodes where mobile agents migrate between. In order to gain enhanced communication performance by reducing the execution time of the decision algorithm, we propose an approach to reduce the number of nodes involved in the computation. In practice, hosts in the system are reorganized into groups in terms of the bandwidth between adjacent nodes. Then, we find an optimal node for each group with high bandwidth and powerful computing resources, which is managed by an agent dispatched by agent home node. With that, the communication pattern can be implemented at a higher level of abstraction and contribute to improving the overall performance of mobile agent based distributed spatial data mining applications.

  20. The change in spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity is correlated to contraction duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Leclerc, Frédéric; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Buttelli, Olivier; Madeleine, Pascal

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that the longer a contraction is sustained, the larger are the changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. For this purpose, surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded with a 13 x 5 grid of electrodes from the upper trapezius muscle of 11 healthy male subjects during static contractions with shoulders 90 degrees abducted until endurance. The entropy (degree of uniformity) and center of gravity of the EMG root mean square map were computed to assess spatial inhomogeneity in muscle activation and changes over time in EMG amplitude spatial distribution. At the endurance time, entropy decreased (mean+/-SD, percent change 2.0+/-1.6%; Pgrid) root mean square was positively correlated with the shift in the center of gravity (R(2)=0.51, P<0.05). Moreover, the shift in the center of gravity was negatively correlated to both initial and final (at the endurance) entropy (R(2)=0.54 and R(2)=0.56, respectively; P<0.01 in both cases), indicating that subjects with less uniform root mean square maps had larger shift of the center of gravity over time. The spatial changes in root mean square EMG were likely due to spatially-dependent changes in motor unit activation during the sustained contraction. It was concluded that the changes in spatial muscle activity distribution play a role in the ability to maintain a static contraction.

  1. An experimental and theoretical model of children’s search behavior in relation to target conspicuity and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Marcos Francisco; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2010-11-01

    This work explores search trajectories of children attempting to find targets distributed on a playing field. This task, of ludic nature, was developed to test the effect of conspicuity and spatial distribution of targets on the searcher’s performance. The searcher’s path was recorded by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device attached to the child’s waist. Participants were not rewarded nor their performance rated. Variation in the conspicuity of the targets influenced search performance as expected; cryptic targets resulted in slower searches and longer, more tortuous paths. Extracting the main features of the paths showed that the children: (1) paid little attention to the spatial distribution and at least in the conspicuous condition approximately followed a nearest neighbor pattern of target collection, (2) were strongly influenced by the conspicuity of the targets. We implemented a simple statistical model for the search rules mimicking the children’s behavior at the level of individual (coarsened) steps. The model reproduced the main features of the children’s paths without the participation of memory or planning.

  2. [Downscaling research of spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease based on area-to-area Poisson Kriging method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Hu, M G; Yu, S C; Xiao, G X

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To understand the spatial distribution of incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) at scale of township and provide evidence for the better prevention and control of HFMD and allocation of medical resources. Methods: The incidence data of HFMD in 108 counties (district) in Shandong province in 2010 were collected. Downscaling interpolation was conducted by using area-to-area Poisson Kriging method. The interpolation results were visualized by using geographic information system (GIS). The county (district) incidence was interpolated into township incidence to get the distribution of spatial distribution of incidence of township. Results: In the downscaling interpolation, the range of the fitting semi-variance equation was 20.38 km. Within the range, the incidence had correlation with each other. The fitting function of scatter diagram of estimated and actual incidence of HFMD at country level was y =1.053 1 x , R (2)=0.99. The incidences at different scale were consistent. Conclusions: The incidence of HFMD had spatial autocorrelation within 20.38 km. When HFMD occurs in one place, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and allocation of medical resource in the surrounding area within 20.38 km. Area to area Poisson Kriging method based downscaling research can be used in spatial visualization of HFMD incidence.

  3. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  4. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  5. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  6. Attention, spatial integration, and the tail of response time distributions in Stroop task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    A few studies have examined selective attention in Stroop task performance through ex-Gaussian analyses of response time (RT) distributions. It has remained unclear whether the tail of the RT distribution in vocal responding reflects spatial integration of relevant and irrelevant attributes, as

  7. Modeling the spatial distribution of Chagas disease vectors using environmental variables and people´s knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jaime; Núñez, Ignacia; Bacigalupo, Antonella; Cattan, Pedro E

    2013-05-31

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to mammal hosts by triatomine insect vectors. The goal of this study was to model the spatial distribution of triatomine species in an endemic area. Vector's locations were obtained with a rural householders' survey. This information was combined with environmental data obtained from remote sensors, land use maps and topographic SRTM data, using the machine learning algorithm Random Forests to model species distribution. We analysed the combination of variables on three scales: 10 km, 5 km and 2.5 km cell size grids. The best estimation, explaining 46.2% of the triatomines spatial distribution, was obtained for 5 km of spatial resolution. Presence probability distribution increases from central Chile towards the north, tending to cover the central-coastal region and avoiding areas of the Andes range. The methodology presented here was useful to model the distribution of triatomines in an endemic area; it is best explained using 5 km of spatial resolution, and their presence increases in the northern part of the study area. This study's methodology can be replicated in other countries with Chagas disease or other vectorial transmitted diseases, and be used to locate high risk areas and to optimize resource allocation, for prevention and control of vectorial diseases.

  8. [Distribution and spatial ordering of biopolymer molecules in resting bacterial spores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, V I; Korolev, Iu N; El'-Registan, G I; Duzha, M V; Telegin, N L

    1978-01-01

    The presence, distribution and spatial arrangement of biopolymers in situ were studied in both a total intact spore and in a certain cellular layer using a spectroscopic technique of attenuated total refraction (ATR-IR) in the IR region. In contrast to vegetative cells, intact spores were characterized by isotropic distribution of protein components. This feature can be regarded as an index of the cryptobiotic state of spores. However, the distribution of protein components among individual layers of a spore was anisotropic. Bonds characterized by amide I and amide II bands were most often ordered in a layer which comprised cellular structures from the exosporium to the inner spore membrane.

  9. Spatial distribution of Plecoptera nymphs in streams of a mountainous area of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. BISPO

    Full Text Available In this paper the spatial distribution of Plecoptera nymphs in the Almas' River basin, Pirenópolis, GO, was studied. Two Surber samples, each comprising 20 sampling units and totalling 2 m², were taken in each of the 13 stations, one during the rainy season (January 1994 and the second during the dry season (July 1994. In 5 of these stations, monthly samplings were made from June 1993 to July 1994; in these, temperature, velocity, discharge, electrical conductivity and pH were measured. Regional rainfall was also obtained. To ascertain the distribution of nymphs in the habitat, a separate sample was taken. Of the factors considered, the most important affecting the spatial distribution of the stonefly nymphs were altitude, stream order, and anthropic influence. Locally, the genera Anacroneuria and Kempnyia showed clumped distributions, but the data for Gripopteryx and Tupiperla were inconclusive due to low numbers.

  10. Geotechnical parameter spatial distribution stochastic analysis based on multi-precision information assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial distribution of important geotechnical parameter named compression modulus Es contributes considerably to the understanding of the underlying geological processes and the adequate assessment of the Es mechanics effects for differential settlement of large continuous structure foundation. These analyses should be derived using an assimilating approach that combines in-situ static cone penetration test (CPT) with borehole experiments. To achieve such a task, the Es distribution of stratum of silty clay in region A of China Expo Center (Shanghai) is studied using the Bayesian-maximum entropy method. This method integrates rigorously and efficiently multi-precision of different geotechnical investigations and sources of uncertainty. Single CPT samplings were modeled as a rational probability density curve by maximum entropy theory. Spatial prior multivariate probability density function (PDF) and likelihood PDF of the CPT positions were built by borehole experiments and the potential value of the prediction point, then, preceding numerical integration on the CPT probability density curves, the posterior probability density curve of the prediction point would be calculated by the Bayesian reverse interpolation framework. The results were compared between Gaussian Sequential Stochastic Simulation and Bayesian methods. The differences were also discussed between single CPT samplings of normal distribution and simulated probability density curve based on maximum entropy theory. It is shown that the study of Es spatial distributions can be improved by properly incorporating CPT sampling variation into interpolation process, whereas more informative estimations are generated by considering CPT Uncertainty for the estimation points. Calculation illustrates the significance of stochastic Es characterization in a stratum, and identifies limitations associated with inadequate geostatistical interpolation techniques. This characterization results will provide a multi

  11. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  12. Investigations on the gas distribution phenomena inside the containment system of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredini, A.; Oriolo, F.; Villotti, A.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of mixing and distribution phenomena of hydrogen gas in the reactor safety is emphasised in the advanced reactor concepts, that heavily rely upon the passive cooling systems during a typical severe accident sequence. An advanced methodology for evaluating the temporal and spatial distribution of non condensable gases, including the simulation of buoyancy-driven flows and the effects of the various ESFs activation, in a multi-compartment containment system of a LWR is reviewed. The methodology employs an analogy technique with electrical networks to determine the convection flows among the containment compartments and evaluates, inside a single node, the profile of the vertical concentrations of steam and non condensable gases. The application of the proposed models to simulate the gas distribution phenomena occurring in the HDR E11.2, in the FIPLOC-F2 and in the NUPEC M-7-1 tests demonstrates the importance of these models providing information about local details and spatial distribution. The main results from the post-test analysis performed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic responses of the above mentioned experiments are presented and demonstrate the improvements and the reduction of the error band with respect to the experimental data. This methodology allows to perform a realistic prediction of severe accident sequence inside the containment system of the actual and advanced passive generation of LWRs. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs

  13. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  14. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  15. MAVEN Observations of Escaping Planetary Ions from the Martian Atmosphere: Mass, Velocity, and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaxue; Fang, Xiaohua; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, James P.; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from the Martian atmosphere through a number of processes, including ‘pick-up’ by electromagnetic fields. The MAVEN spacecraft has made routine observations of escaping planetary ions since its arrival at Mars in September 2014. The SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument measures the ion energy, mass, and angular spectra. It has detected energetic planetary ions during most of the spacecraft orbits, which are attributed to the pick-up process. We found significant variations in the escaping ion mass and velocity distributions from the STATIC data, which can be explained by factors such as varying solar wind conditions, contributions of particles from different source locations and different phases during the pick-up process. We also study the spatial distributions of different planetary ion species, which can provide insight into the physics of ion escaping process and enhance our understanding of atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. Our results will be further interpreted within the context of the upstream solar wind conditions measured by the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instrument and the magnetic field environment measured by the Magnetometer (MAG) instrument. Our study shows that the ion spatial distribution in the Mars-Sun-Electric-Field (MSE) coordinate system and the velocity space distribution with respect to the local magnetic field line can be used to distinguish the ions escaping through the polar plume and those through the tail region. The contribution of the polar plume ion escape to the total escape rate will also be discussed.

  16. Spatial Structure of Cities and Distribution of Retail Sales - Analysis based on a Potential NEG Model (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAMURA Ryohei; TAKATSUKA Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the retail sales turnover in cities based on a potential New Economic Geography (NEG) model, addressing how (the distribution of) sales turnover is explained by the spatial structure of cities. This also takes into account the population distribution, by treating the spatial distribution of population and retail sales turnover in the cities by district and street (cho and chome) data. The cities covered are prefectural cities excluding government ordinance cities l...

  17. Spatial distribution of spin polarization in a channel on the surface of a topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoying; Shao Huaihua; Liu Yiman; Tang Dongsheng; Zhou Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of electron spin polarization for a gate-controlled T-shaped channel on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI). We demonstrate that an energy gap depending on channel geometry parameters is definitely opened due to the spatial confinement. Spin surface locking in momentum space for a uniform wide channel with Hamiltonian linearity in the wavevector is still kept, but it is broken with Hamiltonian nonlinearity in the wavevector, like that for two-dimensional surface states widely studied in the literature. However, the spin surface locking for a T-shaped channel is broken even with Hamiltonian linearity in the wavevector. Interestingly, the magnitude and direction of the in-plane spin polarization are spatially dependent in all regions due to the breaking of translational symmetry of the T-shaped channel system. These interesting findings for an electrically controlled nanostructure based on the 3D TI surface may be testable with the present experimental technique, and may provide further understanding the nature of 3D TI surface states. (paper)

  18. Spatial and temporal resolution requirements for quench detection in (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox magnets using Rayleigh-scattering-based fiber optic distributed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W K; Schwartz, J; Flanagan, G

    2013-01-01

    One of the key remaining challenges to safe and reliable operation of large, high temperature superconductor (HTS)-based magnet systems is quench detection and protection. Due to the slow quench propagation in HTS systems, the conventional discrete voltage-tap approach developed for NbTi and Nb 3 Sn magnets may not be sufficient. In contrast, a distributed temperature profile, generated by a distributed temperature sensor and facilitating continuous monitoring of the temperature at any monitored locations within a magnet with high spatial resolution, may be required. One such distributed temperature sensing option is the use of Rayleigh-based fiber optic sensors (FOS), which are immune to electromagnetic interference. The detection of a quench via Rayleigh-based FOS relies on converting the spectral shifts in the Rayleigh scattering spectra into temperature variations. As a result, the higher the spatial sampling resolution the larger the data processing volume, and thus the lower the temporal sampling resolution. So, for effective quench detection, which requires the quick and accurate identification of a hot spot, it is important to find a balance between the spatial and temporal resolutions executable on a given data acquisition and processing (DAQ) system. This paper discusses a method for finding an appropriate DAQ technology that matches the characteristic of a superconducting coil, and determining the acceptable resolutions for efficient and safe quench detection. A quench detection algorithm based on distributed temperature sensing is proposed and its implementation challenges are discussed. (paper)

  19. Direct numerical solution of the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation and spatial distribution of water around hydrophobic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Doi, Junta

    1995-09-01

    The Ornstein-Zernike integral equation (OZ equation) has been used to evaluate the distribution function of solvents around solutes, but its numerical solution is difficult for molecules with a complicated shape. This paper proposes a numerical method to directly solve the OZ equation by introducing the 3D lattice. The method employs no approximation the reference interaction site model (RISM) equation employed. The method enables one to obtain the spatial distribution of spherical solvents around solutes with an arbitrary shape. Numerical accuracy is sufficient when the grid-spacing is less than 0.5 Å for solvent water. The spatial water distribution around a propane molecule is demonstrated as an example of a nonspherical hydrophobic molecule using iso-value surfaces. The water model proposed by Pratt and Chandler is used. The distribution agrees with the molecular dynamics simulation. The distribution increases offshore molecular concavities. The spatial distribution of water around 5α-cholest-2-ene (C27H46) is visualized using computer graphics techniques and a similar trend is observed.

  20. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; Gemignani, Lorenzo; van der Beek, Peter

    2018-03-01

    One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of any given catchment to the

  1. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of

  2. Detection of endolithic spatial distribution in marble stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Municchia, A; Percario, Z; Caneva, G

    2014-10-01

    The penetration of endolithic microorganisms, which develop to depths of several millimetres or even centimetres into the stone, and the diffusion of their extracellular substances speeds up the stone deterioration process. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a confocal laser scanning microscopy with a double-staining, a marble rock sample by observing the endolithic spatial distribution and quantifying the volume they occupied within the stone, in order to understand the real impact of these microorganisms on the conservation of stone monuments. Often the only factors taken into account by biodeterioration studies regarding endolithic microorganisms, are spread and depth of penetration. Despite the knowledge of three-dimensional spatial distribution and quantification of volume, it is indispensable to understand the real damage caused by endolithic microorganisms to stone monuments. In this work, we analyze a marble rock sample using a confocal laser scanning microscopy stained with propidium iodide and Concavalin-A conjugate with the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 488, comparing these results with other techniques (SEM microscope, microphotographs of polished cross-sections and thin-section, PAS staining methods), An image analysis approach has also been applied. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy with double staining shows clear evidence of the presence of endolithic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and fungi) as well as the extracellular polymeric substance matrix in a three-dimensional architecture as part of the rock sample, this technique, therefore, seems very useful when applied to restoration interventions on stone monuments when endolithic growth is suspected. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Agricultural ammonia emissions inventory and spatial distribution in the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Dore, A.J.; Ma, L.; Liu, X.J.; Ma, W.Q.; Cape, J.N.; Zhang, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    An agricultural ammonia (NH 3 ) emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP) on a prefecture level for the year 2004, and a 5 x 5 km 2 resolution spatial distribution map, has been calculated for the first time. The census database from China's statistics datasets, and emission factors re-calculated by the RAINS model supported total emissions of 3071 kt NH 3 -N yr -1 for the NCP, accounting for 27% of the total emissions in China. NH 3 emission from mineral fertilizer application contributed 1620 kt NH 3 -N yr -1 , 54% of the total emission, while livestock emissions accounted for the remaining 46% of the total emissions, including 7%, 27%, 7% and 5% from cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, and poultry, respectively. A high-resolution spatial NH 3 emissions map was developed based on 1 x 1 km land use database and aggregated to a 5 x 5 km grid resolution. The highest emission density value was 198 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . - The first high-resolution spatial distribution of ammonia emissions for the North China Plain showed rates up to 200 kg NH 3 -N ha -1 yr -1 .

  4. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  5. TRMM Satellite Algorithm Estimates to Represent the Spatial Distribution of Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site measurements from rain gauge provide important information for the design, construction, and operation of water resources engineering projects, groundwater potentials, and the water supply and irrigation systems. A dense gauging network is needed to accurately characterize the variation of rainfall over a region, unfitting for conditions with limited networks, such as in Sarawak, Malaysia. Hence, satellite-based algorithm estimates are introduced as an innovative solution to these challenges. With accessibility to dataset retrievals from public domain websites, it has become a useful source to measure rainfall for a wider coverage area at finer temporal resolution. This paper aims to investigate the rainfall estimates prepared by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM to explain whether it is suitable to represent the distribution of extreme rainfall in Sungai Sarawak Basin. Based on the findings, more uniform correlations for the investigated storms can be observed for low to medium altitude (>40 MASL. It is found for the investigated events of Jan 05-11, 2009: the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE = 36.7 %; and good correlation (CC = 0.9. These findings suggest that satellite algorithm estimations from TRMM are suitable to represent the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall.

  6. Double Wigner distribution function of a first-order optical system with a hard-edge aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weiqing

    2008-01-01

    The effect of an apertured optical system on Wigner distribution can be expressed as a superposition integral of the input Wigner distribution function and the double Wigner distribution function of the apertured optical system. By introducing a hard aperture function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions, the double Wigner distribution functions of a first-order optical system with a hard aperture outside and inside it are derived. As an example of application, the analytical expressions of the Wigner distribution for a Gaussian beam passing through a spatial filtering optical system with an internal hard aperture are obtained. The analytical results are also compared with the numerical integral results, and they show that the analytical results are proper and ascendant.

  7. Towards sustainable regions: the spatial distribution of electric vehicles’ recharging stations from a socio-economic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian; Kaplan, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    -free, low-emission vehicles due to the rising oil prices and global warming. Adequate on-road EV recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of EV into a practical transport option and the wide-scale market penetration of EV. Nevertheless, the efficient spatial distribution of EV recharging...... is rarely explored. current study focuses on assessing the demand driven need for on-road EV recharging stations, and finding their efficient spatial distribution, while accounting for economic, social, environmental and land-use considerations. The analysis, conducted for Demark, consists of four steps...... a discrete choice model, estimated on the basis of a stated preference survey. Last, the feasibility of the optimal EV spatial distribution of the EV charging stations is analyzed, based on the Danish official socio-economic framework (TERESA). Results show: (i) the number of required recharging stations...

  8. The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhaugh, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Arguably the majority of species on Earth utilise tropical rainforest canopies, and much progress has been made in describing arboreal assemblages, especially for arthropods. The most commonly described patterns for tropical rainforest insect communities are host specificity, spatial specialisation (predominantly vertical stratification), and temporal changes in abundance (seasonality and circadian rhythms). Here I review the recurrent results with respect to each of these patterns and discuss the evolutionary selective forces that have generated them in an attempt to unite these patterns in a holistic evolutionary framework. I propose that species can be quantified along a generalist-specialist scale not only with respect to host specificity, but also other spatial and temporal distribution patterns, where specialisation is a function of the extent of activity across space and time for particular species. When all of these distribution patterns are viewed through the paradigm of specialisation, hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the evolution of host specificity can also be applied to explain the generation and maintenance of other spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The main driver for most spatial and temporal distribution patterns is resource availability. Generally, the distribution of insects follows that of the resources they exploit, which are spatially stratified and vary temporally in availability. Physiological adaptations are primarily important for host specificity, where nutritional and chemical variation among host plants in particular, but also certain prey species and fungi, influence host range. Physiological tolerances of abiotic conditions are also important for explaining the spatial and temporal distributions of some insect species, especially in drier forest environments where desiccation is an ever-present threat. However, it is likely that for most species in moist tropical rainforests, abiotic conditions are valuable

  9. Relationship between the spatial distribution of SMS messages reporting needs and building damage in 2010 Haiti disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corbane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Just 4 days after the M = 7.1 earthquake on 12 January 2010, Haitians could send SMS messages about their location and urgent needs through the on-line mapping platform Ushahidi. This real-time crowdsourcing of crisis information provided direct support to key humanitarian resources on the ground, including Search and Rescue teams. In addition to its use as a knowledge base for rescue operations and aid provision, the spatial distribution of geolocated SMS messages may represent an early indicator on the spatial distribution and on the intensity of building damage.

    This work explores the relationship between the spatial patterns of SMS messages and building damage. The latter is derived from the detailed damage assessment of individual buildings interpreted in post-earthquake airborne photos. The interaction between SMS messages and building damage is studied by analyzing the spatial structure of the corresponding bivariate patterns.

    The analysis is performed through the implementation of cross Ripley's K-function which is suitable for characterizing the spatial structure of a bivariate pattern, and more precisely the spatial relationship between two types of point sets located in the same study area.

    The results show a strong attraction between the patterns exhibited by SMS messages and building damages. The interactions identified between the two patterns suggest that the geolocated SMS can be used as early indicators of the spatial distribution of building damage pattern. Accordingly, a statistical model has been developed to map the distribution of building damage from the geolocated SMS pattern.

    The study presented in this paper is the first attempt to derive quantitative estimates on the spatial patterns of novel crowdsourced information and correlate these to established methods in damage assessment using remote sensing data. The consequences of the study findings for rapid damage detection in

  10. Environmental and spatial factors influencing the distribution of cladocerans in lakes across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of local environmental and spatial factors in explaining variation in the composition of cladoceran assemblages from surface sediments within a set of 50 lakes spanning a broad southwest to northeast transect across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region from Yellowknife (Northwest Territories to the northern boundary of the Thelon Game Sanctuary (Nunavut Territory. Within each lake, the cladoceran fauna was identified based on the subfossil exoskeletal remains preserved in recently deposited lake sediments. Physical and chemical limnological data were measured in August of 1996 and 1998. Spatial data were generated based on latitude and longitude using Principal Coordinates of Neighbors Matrices analysis (PCNM. The relationships between cladocerans and the measured environmental and spatial variables were examined using both unconstrained (Principal Components Analysis, PCA and constrained (Redundancy Analysis, RDA ordination techniques. Variance partitioning, based on partial RDAs, was used to identify the relative importance of significant environmental and spatial explanatory variables. Three environmental variables were identified as significantly influencing cladoceran community structure: surface water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and total phosphorus (TP. Five PCNM-generated spatial variables were also significant in explaining cladoceran distributions. Variance partitioning attributed 14% of the variance in the distribution of Cladocera to spatial factors, an additional 10% to spatially-structured environmental variables, and 8% to environmental factors that were not spatially-structured. Within the central Canadian Arctic treeline region, spatial and other environmental processes had an important influence on the distribution of cladoceran communities. The strong influence of spatial factors was related to the large ecoclimatic gradient across treeline. The distribution patterns of cladocerans

  11. The HTM Spatial Pooler—A Neocortical Algorithm for Online Sparse Distributed Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM provides a theoretical framework that models several key computational principles of the neocortex. In this paper, we analyze an important component of HTM, the HTM spatial pooler (SP. The SP models how neurons learn feedforward connections and form efficient representations of the input. It converts arbitrary binary input patterns into sparse distributed representations (SDRs using a combination of competitive Hebbian learning rules and homeostatic excitability control. We describe a number of key properties of the SP, including fast adaptation to changing input statistics, improved noise robustness through learning, efficient use of cells, and robustness to cell death. In order to quantify these properties we develop a set of metrics that can be directly computed from the SP outputs. We show how the properties are met using these metrics and targeted artificial simulations. We then demonstrate the value of the SP in a complete end-to-end real-world HTM system. We discuss the relationship with neuroscience and previous studies of sparse coding. The HTM spatial pooler represents a neurally inspired algorithm for learning sparse representations from noisy data streams in an online fashion.

  12. The HTM Spatial Pooler-A Neocortical Algorithm for Online Sparse Distributed Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuwei; Ahmad, Subutai; Hawkins, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) provides a theoretical framework that models several key computational principles of the neocortex. In this paper, we analyze an important component of HTM, the HTM spatial pooler (SP). The SP models how neurons learn feedforward connections and form efficient representations of the input. It converts arbitrary binary input patterns into sparse distributed representations (SDRs) using a combination of competitive Hebbian learning rules and homeostatic excitability control. We describe a number of key properties of the SP, including fast adaptation to changing input statistics, improved noise robustness through learning, efficient use of cells, and robustness to cell death. In order to quantify these properties we develop a set of metrics that can be directly computed from the SP outputs. We show how the properties are met using these metrics and targeted artificial simulations. We then demonstrate the value of the SP in a complete end-to-end real-world HTM system. We discuss the relationship with neuroscience and previous studies of sparse coding. The HTM spatial pooler represents a neurally inspired algorithm for learning sparse representations from noisy data streams in an online fashion.

  13. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  14. Analysis of the spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Carvalho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the spatial distribution of classical dengue and severe dengue cases in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS Exploratory study, considering cases of classical dengue and severe dengue with laboratory confirmation of the infection in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the years 2011/2012. The georeferencing technique was applied for the cases notified in the Notification Increase Information System in the period of 2011 and 2012. For this process, the fields “street” and “number” were used. The ArcGis10 program’s Geocoding tool’s automatic process was performed. The spatial analysis was done through the kernel density estimator. RESULTS Kernel density pointed out hotspots for classic dengue that did not coincide geographically with severe dengue and were in or near favelas. The kernel ratio did not show a notable change in the spatial distribution pattern observed in the kernel density analysis. The georeferencing process showed a loss of 41% of classic dengue registries and 17% of severe dengue registries due to the address in the Notification Increase Information System form. CONCLUSIONS The hotspots near the favelas suggest that the social vulnerability of these localities can be an influencing factor for the occurrence of this aggravation since there is a deficiency of the supply and access to essential goods and services for the population. To reduce this vulnerability, interventions must be related to macroeconomic policies.

  15. Wide-area-distributed storage system for a multimedia database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Shigechika; Kuriki, Makato; Murata, Setsuko; Iwatsu, Shigetaro

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a wide-area-distribution storage system for multimedia databases, which minimizes the possibility of simultaneous failure of multiple disks in the event of a major disaster. It features a RAID system, whose member disks are spatially distributed over a wide area. Each node has a device, which includes the controller of the RAID and the controller of the member disks controlled by other nodes. The devices in the node are connected to a computer, using fiber optic cables and communicate using fiber-channel technology. Any computer at a node can utilize multiple devices connected by optical fibers as a single 'virtual disk.' The advantage of this system structure is that devices and fiber optic cables are shared by the computers. In this report, we first described our proposed system, and a prototype was used for testing. We then discussed its performance; i.e., how to read and write throughputs are affected by data-access delay, the RAID level, and queuing.

  16. Coloniality of birds in the Kalahari – spatial distribution of trees and nests of the Sociable Weaver (Philetairus socius)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rösner, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of suitable nest sites is a limiting resource for many colonial breeding animals. Therefore, we investigated and mapped the spatial distribution of nests of Sociable Weaver (Philetairus socius) to evaluate whether the size...

  17. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevy, Juliette; Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent; Bastie, Pierre; Duval, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  18. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevy, Juliette, E-mail: juliette.chevy@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)] [Laboratoire Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)] [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Duval, Paul [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-03-15

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  19. Design of a distributed system of exploration and spatial communication - PiBots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Gamboa, Monica; Castro Leiva, Luis; Garro Ruiz, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of a prototype robot PiBots has been suggested in Costa Rica for exploration in an alien environment to land. The design has been addressed PiBots considering the resources and the use of current technology for initial exploratory prototype. A real model and the ideal model of a PiBot were prepared. The actual design of a prototype pursued, has provided the testing of theoretical concepts and the collection of recommendations for the development of robots with constructed parts and appropriate materials specified of a spatial mission. The ideal design has resulted from the elaboration of the program that has allowed the selection of components to assist in the design stage, with special emphasis on the size, autonomy and power of PiBots with a functional and efficient energy system [es

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Mei-Huey

    1994-12-01

    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5° latitude × 5° longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominate in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted.

  1. Assessment of spatial distribution of soil loss over the upper basin of Miyun reservoir in China based on RS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Niu, Rui-qing; Wang, Yi; Li, Ping-xiang; Zhang, Liang-pei; Du, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Soil conservation planning often requires estimates of the spatial distribution of soil erosion at a catchment or regional scale. This paper applied the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss over the upper basin of Miyun reservoir in China. Among the soil erosion factors, which are rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), slope length (L), slope steepness (S), vegetation cover (C), and support practice factor (P), the vegetative cover or C factor, which represents the effects of vegetation canopy and ground covers in reducing soil loss, has been one of the most difficult to estimate over broad geographic areas. In this paper, the C factor was estimated based on back propagation neural network and the results were compared with the values measured in the field. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained was 0.929. Then the C factor and the other factors were used as the input to RUSLE model. By integrating the six factor maps in geographical information system (GIS) through pixel-based computing, the spatial distribution of soil loss over the upper basin of Miyun reservoir was obtained. The results showed that the annual average soil loss for the upper basin of Miyun reservoir was 9.86 t ha(-1) ya(-1) in 2005, and the area of 46.61 km(2) (0.3%) experiences extremely severe erosion risk, which needs suitable conservation measures to be adopted on a priority basis. The spatial distribution of erosion risk classes was 66.9% very low, 21.89% low, 6.18% moderate, 2.89% severe, and 1.84% very severe. Thus, by using RUSLE in a GIS environment, the spatial distribution of water erosion can be obtained and the regions which susceptible to water erosion and need immediate soil conservation planning and application over the upper watershed of Miyun reservoir in China can be identified.

  2. Wave actions and topography determine the small-scale spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clams Ruditapes philippinarum on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ryogen; Saito, Hajime; Tanaka, Yoshio; Higano, Junya; Kuwahara, Hisami

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies on spatial distributions of Asari clam Ruditapes philippinarum adults on tidal flats but few have dealt with spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam (physical/topographical conditions on tidal flats. We examined small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled individuals on the Matsunase tidal flat, central Japan, during the low spring tides on two days 29th-30th June 2007, together with the shear stress from waves and currents on the flat. The characteristics of spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clam markedly varied depending on both of hydrodynamic and topographical conditions on the tidal flat. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), factors responsible for affecting newly settled Asari clam density and its spatial distribution were distinguished between sampling days, with "crest" sites always having a negative influence each on the density and the distribution on both sampling days. The continuously recorded data for the wave-current flows at the "crest" site on the tidal flat showed that newly settled Asari clam, as well as bottom sediment particles, at the "crest" site to be easily displaced. Small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam changed with more advanced benthic stages in relation to the wave shear stress.

  3. Spatially-explicit estimation of geographical representation in large-scale species distribution datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Jesse M; Robertson, Mark P; Ronk, Argo; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-01-01

    Much ecological research relies on existing multispecies distribution datasets. Such datasets, however, can vary considerably in quality, extent, resolution or taxonomic coverage. We provide a framework for a spatially-explicit evaluation of geographical representation within large-scale species distribution datasets, using the comparison of an occurrence atlas with a range atlas dataset as a working example. Specifically, we compared occurrence maps for 3773 taxa from the widely-used Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE) with digitised range maps for 2049 taxa of the lesser-known Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. We calculated the level of agreement at a 50-km spatial resolution using average latitudinal and longitudinal species range, and area of occupancy. Agreement in species distribution was calculated and mapped using Jaccard similarity index and a reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis of species richness between the entire atlases (5221 taxa in total) and between co-occurring species (601 taxa). We found no difference in distribution ranges or in the area of occupancy frequency distribution, indicating that atlases were sufficiently overlapping for a valid comparison. The similarity index map showed high levels of agreement for central, western, and northern Europe. The RMA regression confirmed that geographical representation of AFE was low in areas with a sparse data recording history (e.g., Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine). For co-occurring species in south-eastern Europe, however, the Atlas of North European Vascular Plants showed remarkably higher richness estimations. Geographical representation of atlas data can be much more heterogeneous than often assumed. Level of agreement between datasets can be used to evaluate geographical representation within datasets. Merging atlases into a single dataset is worthwhile in spite of methodological differences, and helps to fill gaps in our knowledge of species distribution ranges. Species distribution

  4. Calculation of spatial distribution of optical escape factor and its application to He I collisional-radiative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yohei; Kado, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    An integral analytical formula for a spatial distribution of the optical escape factor (OEF) in an infinite cylindrical plasma is derived as a function of an arbitrary upper state spatial density profile, the temperature ratio of the upper state to the lower state, and the optical depth of the corresponding transition. Test calculations are carried out for three different upper state profiles, i.e., uniform (rectangular), parabolic, and Gaussian upper state profiles. The OEF takes on negative values at the periphery of the parabolic and Gaussian upper state profiles. These characteristics cannot be expressed by the conventional OEF formulas derived for the center of the plasma, even though the optical depth is increased. In addition to the analytical derivation of the formula, two practical formulas are proposed: an empirical formula of the spatial distribution of the OEF for the Gaussian upper state density profile and a linear formula of the OEF distribution for upper state profiles that are expressed as linear combinations. These formulas enable us to calculate the spatial distribution of the OEF for the multiple-Gaussian upper state profile without the need for time-consuming integral calculations.

  5. Documentation of programs that compute 1) static tilts for a spatially variable slip distribution, and 2) quasi-static tilts produced by an expanding dislocation loop with a spatially variable slip distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    The material in this report is concerned with the effects of a vertically oriented rectangular dislocation loop on the tilts observed at the free surface of an elastic half-space. Part I examines the effect of a spatially variable static strike-slip distribution across the slip surface. The tilt components as a function of distance parallel, or perpendicular, to the strike of the slip surface are displayed for different slip-versus-distance profiles. Part II examines the effect of spatially and temporally variable slip distributions across the dislocation loop on the quasi-static tilts at the free surface of an elastic half space. The model discussed in part II may be used to generate theoretical tilt versus time curves produced by creep events.

  6. Measurement of the temperature distribution inside the power cable using distributed temperature system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the power cables are manufactured to fulfill the following condition - the highest allowable temperature of the cable during normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature at short circuit conditions cannot exceed the condition of the maximum allowable internal temperature. The distribution of the electric current through the conductor leads to the increase of the amplitude of electrons in the crystal lattice of the cables material. The consequence of this phenomenon is the increase of friction and the increase of collisions between particles inside the material, which causes the temperature increase of the carrying elements. The temperature increase is unwanted phenomena, because it is causing losses. In extreme cases, the long-term overload leads to the cable damaging or fire. This paper deals with the temperature distribution measurement inside the power cables using distributed temperature system. With cooperation with Kabex company, the tube containing optical fibers was installed into the center of power cables. These fibers, except telecommunications purposes, can be also used as sensors in measurements carrying out with distributed temperature system. These systems use the optical fiber as a sensor and allow the continual measurement of the temperature along the whole cable in real time with spatial resolution 1 m. DTS systems are successfully deployed in temperature measurement applications in industry areas yet. These areas include construction, drainage, hot water etc. Their advantages are low cost, resistance to electromagnetic radiation and the possibility of real time monitoring at the distance of 8 km. The location of the optical fiber in the center of the power cable allows the measurement of internal distribution of the temperature during overloading the cable. This measurement method can be also used for prediction of short-circuit and its exact location.

  7. Effect of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the stability of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina-Villalba, German; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the effects of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the drop size of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions, a modification of a standard Brownian Dynamics algorithm was employed. The new algorithm is able to simulate the evolution of oil/water emulsions towards flocculation and coalescence. The simulation boxes contain 216 and 125 particles initially distributed in a homogeneous simple cubic arrangement, corresponding to bitumen/water volume fractions of 0.30 and 0.51, respectively. The particles interact through a DLVO potential dependent on the total surfactant concentration, spatial surfactant distribution, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed to the bitumen/water interface. As will be shown in this article, certain combinations of the referred variables can produce a wide variety of repulsive potentials between similar drops. The variation of the total number of drops with time does not obey the usual analytical formalisms developed for more diluted cases, and instead, a simple exponential decrease of the number of drops with time is found. Such behavior has already been confirmed by experiment. Some similarities between the present results and those previously published for more diluted systems are discussed [es

  8. Impact of precipitation spatial resolution on the hydrological response of an integrated distributed water resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Suhua; Sonnenborg, Torben; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable to hydrological models, and the spatial variability of the input is expected to impact the hydrological response predicted by a distributed model. In this study, the effect of spatial resolution of precipitation on runoff , recharge and groundwater head...... of the total catchment and runoff discharge hydrograph at watershed outlet. On the other hand, groundwater recharge and groundwater head were both aff ected. The impact of the spatial resolution of precipitation input is reduced with increasing catchment size. The effect on stream discharge is relatively low...... was analyzed in the Alergaarde catchment in Denmark. Six different precipitation spatial resolutions were used as inputs to a physically based, distributed hydrological model, the MIKE SHE model. The results showed that the resolution of precipitation input had no apparent effect on annual water balance...

  9. The Spatial Variability of Beryllium-7 Depth Distribution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zainudin Othman; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi; Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial variability of 7 Be depth evolution in soil profile at two different sampling sites. The soil samples have been collected by using metal core in bare area in Bangi, Selangor and Timah Tasoh, Perlis , Malaysia. Two composite core samples for each sampling sites has been sectioned into 2 mm increments to a depth of 4 cm and oven dried at 45- 60 degree Celsius and gently desegregated. These two composite spatial samples are passed through a < 2 mm sieve and packed into proper geometry plastic container for 7 Be analysis by using gamma spectrometry with a 24-hour count time. From the findings, the 7 Be content in the soil samples from Bangi, Selangor study area is distributed lower depth penetration into the soil profile than Timah Tasoh, Perlis catchment due to many factors such as precipitation (fallout) and others. However, the spatial variability from both samples study area is also decreases exponentially with depth and is confined within the top few centimeters and similar with other works been reported (Blake et al., (2000) and Walling et al.,(2008). Furthermore, a detailed discussion from this study findings will be in full papers. (author)

  10. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  11. Spatial distribution of, and risk factors for, Opisthorchis viverrini infection in southern Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Forrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne trematode species that might give rise to biliary diseases and the fatal cholangiocarcinoma. In Lao PDR, an estimated 2.5 million individuals are infected with O. viverrini, but epidemiological studies are scarce and the spatial distribution of infection remains to be determined. Our aim was to map the distribution of O. viverrini in southern Lao PDR, identify underlying risk factors, and predict the prevalence of O. viverrini at non-surveyed locations. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was carried out in 51 villages in Champasack province in the first half of 2007. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water supply, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data and fed into a geographical information system. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to identify risk factors and to investigate the spatial pattern of O. viverrini infection. Bayesian kriging was utilized to predict infection risk at non-surveyed locations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of O. viverrini among 3,371 study participants with complete data records was 61.1%. Geostatistical models identified age, Lao Loum ethnic group, educational attainment, occupation (i.e., rice farmer, fisherman, and animal breeder, and unsafe drinking water source as risk factors for infection. History of praziquantel treatment, access to sanitation, and distance to freshwater bodies were found to be protective factors. Spatial patterns of O. viverrini were mainly governed by environmental factors with predictive modeling identifying two different risk profiles: low risk of O. viverrini in the mountains and high risk in the Mekong corridor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first risk map of O. viverrini infection in Champasack province, which is important for spatial targeting of control efforts. Infection with O. viverrini appears to be strongly associated

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hualiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is

  13. Distributed processor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, B.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency in high-energy physics and in other fields to solve computational problems by distributing tasks among the resources of inter-coupled processing devices and associated system elements. This trend has gained further momentum more recently with the increased availability of low-cost processors and with the development of the means of data distribution. In two lectures, the broad question of distributed computing systems is examined and the historical development of such systems reviewed. An attempt is made to examine the reasons for the existence of these systems and to discern the main trends for the future. The components of distributed systems are discussed in some detail and particular emphasis is placed on the importance of standards and conventions in certain key system components. The ideas and principles of distributed systems are discussed in general terms, but these are illustrated by a number of concrete examples drawn from the context of the high-energy physics environment. (Auth.)

  14. A hierarchical model for estimating the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected by continuous-time recorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available Several spatial capture-recapture (SCR models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection. Both practices make inefficient use of potentially important information in the data.We developed a hierarchical SCR model to estimate the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected with continuous-time recorders. Our model includes two kinds of point processes: a spatial process to specify the distribution of latent activity centers of individuals within the region of sampling and a temporal process to specify temporal patterns in the detections of individuals. We illustrated this SCR model by analyzing spatial and temporal patterns evident in the camera-trap detections of tigers living in and around the Nagarahole Tiger Reserve in India. We also conducted a simulation study to examine the performance of our model when analyzing data sets of greater complexity than the tiger data.Our approach provides three important benefits: First, it exploits all of the information in SCR data obtained using continuous-time recorders. Second, it is sufficiently versatile to allow the effects of both space use and behavior of animals to be specified as functions of covariates that vary over space and time. Third, it allows both the spatial distribution and abundance of individuals to be estimated, effectively providing a species distribution model, even in

  15. Modelling the potential spatial distribution of mosquito species using three different techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Ibáñez-Justicia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Models for the spatial distribution of vector species are important tools in the assessment of the risk of establishment and subsequent spread of vector-borne diseases. The aims of this study are to define the environmental conditions suitable for several mosquito species through species

  16. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Forest carbon processes are affected by, among other factors, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil nutrients and solar radiation. Most of the current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve the topographically driven hill-slope land surface heterogeneity or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest ecosystem model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while soil nitrogen is transported among model grids via subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation information, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). Model results suggest that the vegetation and soil carbon distribution is primarily constrained by nitorgen availability (affected by nitorgen transport via topographically driven subsurface flow), and also constrained by solar radiation and root zone soil moisture. The predicted vegetation and soil carbon distribution generally agrees with the macro pattern observed within the watershed. The coupled ecosystem-hydrologic model provides an important tool to study the impact of topography on watershed carbon processes, as well as the impact of climate change on water resources.

  17. Spatial and mass distributions of molecular clouds and spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.; Valdes, F.; National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    The growth of molecular clouds resulting from cloud-cloud collisions and coalescence in the Galactic ring between 4 and 8 kpc are modeled, taking into account the presence of a spiral potential and the mutual cloud-cloud gravitational attraction. The mean lifetime of molecular clouds is determined to be about 200 million years. The clouds are present in both spiral arm and interarm regions, but a spiral pattern in their spatial distribution is clearly discernible, with the more massive clouds showing a stronger correlation with the spiral arms. As viewed from within the Galactic disk, however, it is very difficult to ascertain that the molecular cloud distribution in longitude-velocity space has a spiral pattern. 19 references

  18. Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.

    2014-11-01

    The rate of secure key generation (SKG) in quantum key distribution (QKD) is adversely affected by optical noise and loss in the quantum channel. In a free-space atmospheric channel, the scattering of sunlight into the channel can lead to quantum bit error ratios (QBERs) sufficiently large to preclude SKG. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence limits the degree to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. A system simulation quantifies the potential benefit of tracking and higher-order adaptive optics (AO) technologies to SKG rates in a daytime satellite engagement scenario. The simulations are performed assuming propagation from a low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes an AO system comprised of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (SHWFS) and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror (DM). The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain waveoptics hardware emulator. Secure key generation rates are then calculated for the decoy state QKD protocol as a function of the receiver field of view (FOV) for various pointing angles. The results show that at FOVs smaller than previously considered, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and even enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of either background optical noise or signal loss due to turbulence effects.

  19. Experimental investigation of leak detection using mobile distributed monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Zheng, Junli; Xiong, Feng; Ge, Qi; Yan, Qixiang; Cheng, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The leak detection of rockfill dams is currently hindered by spatial and temporal randomness and wide monitoring range. The spatial resolution of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing technology is related to the distance between measuring points. As a result, the number of measuring points should be increased to ensure that the precise location of the leak is detected. However, this leads to a higher monitoring cost. Consequently, it is difficult to promote and apply this technology to effectively monitor rockfill dam leakage. In this paper, a practical mobile distributed monitoring system with dual-tubes is used by combining the FBG sensing system and hydrothermal cycling system. This dual-tube structure is composed of an outer polyethylene of raised temperature resistance heating pipe, an inner polytetrafluoroethylene tube, and a FBG sensor string, among which, the FBG sensor string can be dragged freely in the internal tube to change the position of the measuring points and improve the spatial resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of the system, the large-scale model test of concentrated leakage in 13 working conditions is carried out by identifying the location, quantity, and leakage rate of leakage passage. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, the leakage state is identified using the seepage identification index ζ v that was confirmed according to the cooling curve. Results suggested that the monitoring system shows high sensitivity and can improve the spatial resolution with limited measuring points, and thus better locate the leakage area. In addition, the seepage identification index ζ v correlated well with the leakage rate qualitatively.

  20. Agricultural ammonia emissions inventory and spatial distribution in the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: zhangying0928@hotmail.co [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Dore, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Ma, L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001 (China); Liu, X.J., E-mail: liu310@cau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ma, W.Q. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001 (China); Cape, J.N. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-02-15

    An agricultural ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP) on a prefecture level for the year 2004, and a 5 x 5 km{sup 2} resolution spatial distribution map, has been calculated for the first time. The census database from China's statistics datasets, and emission factors re-calculated by the RAINS model supported total emissions of 3071 kt NH{sub 3}-N yr{sup -1} for the NCP, accounting for 27% of the total emissions in China. NH{sub 3} emission from mineral fertilizer application contributed 1620 kt NH{sub 3}-N yr{sup -1}, 54% of the total emission, while livestock emissions accounted for the remaining 46% of the total emissions, including 7%, 27%, 7% and 5% from cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, and poultry, respectively. A high-resolution spatial NH{sub 3} emissions map was developed based on 1 x 1 km land use database and aggregated to a 5 x 5 km grid resolution. The highest emission density value was 198 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. - The first high-resolution spatial distribution of ammonia emissions for the North China Plain showed rates up to 200 kg NH{sub 3}-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}.

  1. Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Cai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China, however, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07, and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets.

  2. Spatial distribution of the chromosomal forms of anopheles gambiae in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Sékou F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of the distribution of malaria vectors are useful tools for stratification of malaria risk and for selective vector control strategies. Although the distribution of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is well documented in Africa, a continuous map of the spatial distribution of the chromosomal forms of An. gambiae s.s. is not yet available at country level to support control efforts. Methods Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to produce continuous maps of the spatial distribution of the chromosomal forms of An. gambiae s.s. (Mopti, Bamako, Savanna and their hybrids/recombinants based on their relative frequencies in relation to climatic and environmental factors in Mali. Results The maps clearly show that each chromosomal form favours a particular defined eco-climatic zone. The Mopti form prefers the dryer northern Savanna and Sahel and the flooded/irrigated areas of the inner delta of the Niger River. The Savanna form favours the Sudan savanna areas, particularly the South and South-Eastern parts of the country (Kayes and Sikasso regions. The Bamako form has a strong preference for specific environmental conditions and it is confined to the Sudan savanna areas around urban Bamako and the Western part of Sikasso region. The hybrids/recombinants favour the Western part of the country (Kayes region bordering the Republic of Guinea Conakry. Conclusion The maps provide valuable information for selective vector control in Mali (insecticide resistance management and may serve as a decision support tool for the basis for future malaria control strategies including genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  3. Incorporating spatial autocorrelation into species distribution models alters forecasts of climate-mediated range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crase, Beth; Liedloff, Adam; Vesk, Peter A; Fukuda, Yusuke; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-08-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to forecast changes in the spatial distributions of species and communities in response to climate change. However, spatial autocorrelation (SA) is rarely accounted for in these models, despite its ubiquity in broad-scale ecological data. While spatial autocorrelation in model residuals is known to result in biased parameter estimates and the inflation of type I errors, the influence of unmodeled SA on species' range forecasts is poorly understood. Here we quantify how accounting for SA in SDMs influences the magnitude of range shift forecasts produced by SDMs for multiple climate change scenarios. SDMs were fitted to simulated data with a known autocorrelation structure, and to field observations of three mangrove communities from northern Australia displaying strong spatial autocorrelation. Three modeling approaches were implemented: environment-only models (most frequently applied in species' range forecasts), and two approaches that incorporate SA; autologistic models and residuals autocovariate (RAC) models. Differences in forecasts among modeling approaches and climate scenarios were quantified. While all model predictions at the current time closely matched that of the actual current distribution of the mangrove communities, under the climate change scenarios environment-only models forecast substantially greater range shifts than models incorporating SA. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences intensified with increasing increments of climate change across the scenarios. When models do not account for SA, forecasts of species' range shifts indicate more extreme impacts of climate change, compared to models that explicitly account for SA. Therefore, where biological or population processes induce substantial autocorrelation in the distribution of organisms, and this is not modeled, model predictions will be inaccurate. These results have global importance for conservation efforts as inaccurate

  4. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

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    More Simon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  5. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Samaniego, Luis; Stisen, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the shuffled complex

  6. Modelling the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Ducheyne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status assessed using an indirect bulk tank milk (BTM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Dairy farms were considered exposed when the optical density ratio (ODR exceeded the 0.3 cut-off. Two ensemble-modelling techniques, Random Forests (RF and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT, were used to obtain the spatial distribution of the probability of exposure to Fasciola hepatica using remotely sensed environmental variables (1-km spatial resolution and interpolated values from meteorological stations as predictors. The median ODRs amounted to 0.31, 0.12, 0.54, 0.25 and 0.44 for Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and southern Sweden, respectively. Using the 0.3 threshold, 571 municipalities were categorized as positive and 429 as negative. RF was seen as capable of predicting the spatial distribution of exposure with an area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC curve (AUC of 0.83 (0.96 for BRT. Both models identified rainfall and temperature as the most important factors for probability of exposure. Areas of high and low exposure were identified by both models, with BRT better at discriminating between low-probability and high-probability exposure; this model may therefore be more useful in practise. Given a harmonized sampling strategy, it should be possible to generate robust spatial models for fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe to be used as input for temporal models and for the detection of deviations in baseline probability. Further research is required for model output in areas outside the eco-climatic range investigated.

  7. The spatial distribution of infrared radiation from visible reflection nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ling; Werner, Michael W.; Dwek, Eli; Sellgren, Kris

    1989-01-01

    The emission at IRAS 12 and 25 micron bands of reflection nebulae is far in excess of that expected from the longer wavelength equilibrium thermal emission. The excess emission in the IRAS 12 micron band is a general phenomenon, seen in various components of interstellar medium such as IR cirrus clouds, H II regions, atomic and molecular clouds, and also normal spiral galaxies. This excess emission has been attributed to UV excited fluorescence in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules or to the effect of temperature fluctuations in very small grains. Results are presented of studies of IRAS data on reflection nebulae selected from the van den Bergh reflection nebulae sample. Detailed scans of flux ratio and color temperature across the nebulae were obtained in order to study the spatial distribution of IR emission. A model was used to predict the spatial distribution of IR emission from dust grains illuminated by a B type star. The model was also used to explore the excitation of the IRAS 12 micron band emission as a function of stellar temperature. The model predictions are in good agreement with the analysis of reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with stellar temperature ranging from 21,000 down to 3,000 K.

  8. Origin and spatial distribution of metals in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadpour, Gh.A.; Karbassi, A.R.; Baghvand, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presence of toxic metals in agricultural soils can impose adverse health impact on consumers. The main purpose of this study was to determine spatial distribution of elements Fe, Sb, Mn in agriculture soils and crops of Hamedan Province in Iran. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were collected from an area of 2831 km 2 . Iron, Antimony and Manganese in samples of soil and agricultural crops were extracted and their amount was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The spatial distribution map of the studied elements was developed using Kriging method. The main concentration of Fe, Sb and Mn in the soil of the study area is about 3.8%, 2.5 and 403 mg/kg, respectively. According to chemical partitioning studies, the anthropogenic share of Fe, Sb and Mn is about 28.51%, 34.83% and 30.35%, respectively. Results of comparison of heavy metals pollution intensity in the agricultural soil with geoaccumulation index and also pollution index, illustrated that iron and manganese are classified in the Non-polluted class and antimony is in the moderately polluted class. Analysis of zoning map of pollution index showed that Fe, Sb and Mn are of geological sources. In fact, these metals are naturally found in soil. However, anthropogenic activities have led to more accumulation of these metals in the soil. The obtained health risk for metals in agricultural crops is indicative of safe value for consumers.

  9. Measurement of spatial dose distribution for evaluation operator dose during nero-interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Chul; Hong, Dong Hee

    2016-01-01

    The spatial dose distribution was measured with ionization chamber as preliminary study to evaluate operator dose and to study dose reduction during neuro-interventional procedures. The zone of operators was divided into four area (45, 135, 225, and 315 degree).We supposed that operator exist on the four area and indicated location of critical organs(eyes, breast, gonad). The spatial doses were measured depending on distance( 80, 100, 120, and 140 cm) and location of critical organs. The spatial doses of area of 225 degree were 114.5 mR/h (eyes location), 143.1 mR/h (breast location) and 147 mR/h (gonad location) in 80 cm. When changed location of x-ray generator, spatial dose increased in 18.1±10.5%, averagely. We certified spatial dose in the operator locations, Using the results of this study, It is feasible to protect operator from radiation in neuro-interventional procedures

  10. Measurement of spatial dose distribution for evaluation operator dose during nero-interventional procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Chul [Division of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The spatial dose distribution was measured with ionization chamber as preliminary study to evaluate operator dose and to study dose reduction during neuro-interventional procedures. The zone of operators was divided into four area (45, 135, 225, and 315 degree).We supposed that operator exist on the four area and indicated location of critical organs(eyes, breast, gonad). The spatial doses were measured depending on distance( 80, 100, 120, and 140 cm) and location of critical organs. The spatial doses of area of 225 degree were 114.5 mR/h (eyes location), 143.1 mR/h (breast location) and 147 mR/h (gonad location) in 80 cm. When changed location of x-ray generator, spatial dose increased in 18.1±10.5%, averagely. We certified spatial dose in the operator locations, Using the results of this study, It is feasible to protect operator from radiation in neuro-interventional procedures.

  11. Assessing the spatial distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs in open-field tomato cultivation through geostatistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlio C; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Ricardo S; Gonring, Alfredo Hr; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting pest damage. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T. absoluta on open-field tomato cultivation remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution of T. absoluta in 22 commercial open-field tomato cultivations with plants at the three phenological development stages by using geostatistical analysis. Geostatistical analysis revealed that there was strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) T. absoluta eggs in 19 of the 22 sample tomato cultivations. The maps that were obtained demonstrated the aggregated structure of egg densities at the edges of the crops. Further, T. absoluta was found to accomplish egg dispersal along the rows more frequently than it does between rows. Our results indicate that the greatest egg densities of T. absoluta occur at the edges of tomato crops. These results are discussed in relation to the behavior of T. absoluta distribution within fields and in terms of their implications for improved sampling guidelines and precision targeting control methods that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Spatial structure and distribution of small pelagic fish in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bigot, Jean-Louis; Bourdeix, Jean-Hervé; Morfin, Marie; Roos, David; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Bez, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and anthropogenic drivers of population dynamics requires detailed studies on habitat selection and spatial distribution. Although small pelagic fish aggregate in large shoals and usually exhibit important spatial structure, their dynamics in time and space remain unpredictable and challenging. In the Gulf of Lions (north-western Mediterranean), sardine and anchovy biomasses have declined over the past 5 years causing an important fishery crisis while sprat abundance rose. Applying geostatistical tools on scientific acoustic surveys conducted in the Gulf of Lions, we investigated anchovy, sardine and sprat spatial distributions and structures over 10 years. Our results show that sardines and sprats were more coastal than anchovies. The spatial structure of the three species was fairly stable over time according to variogram outputs, while year-to-year variations in kriged maps highlighted substantial changes in their location. Support for the McCall's basin hypothesis (covariation of both population density and presence area with biomass) was found only in sprats, the most variable of the three species. An innovative method to investigate species collocation at different scales revealed that globally the three species strongly overlap. Although species often co-occurred in terms of presence/absence, their biomass density differed at local scale, suggesting potential interspecific avoidance or different sensitivity to local environmental characteristics. Persistent favourable areas were finally detected, but their environmental characteristics remain to be determined.

  13. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufin K. Assaré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis poses a considerable public health burden in sub- Saharan Africa and a sound understanding of the spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. The objectives of this study were i to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among school-aged children in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire; ii to determine demographic, climatic and environmental factors that influence the distribution of S. mansoni; and iii to map and predict the distribution of S. mansoni in non-sampled locations. Parasitological surveys were carried out in 264 schools from June to December 2011. In each school, we aimed to examine 50 children for S. mansoni infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Schools were georeferenced using a hand-held global positioning system receiver. Demographic data were obtained from readily available school lists, while climatic and environmental data were extracted from open-access remote sensing databases. Multivariable, binary non-spatial models and a Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression model were used to identify demographic, climatic and environmental risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Risk maps were developed based on observed S. mansoni prevalences and using Bayesian geostatistical models to predict prevalences at non-sampled locations. Overall, 12,462 children provided a sufficiently large stool sample to perform at least one Kato-Katz thick smear. The observed overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 39.9%, ranging from 0 to 100% at the unit of the school. Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and difference between land surface temperature at day and night were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The S. mansoni risk map presented here is being been used by the national schistosomiasis control programme for spatial targeting of praziquantel and other interventions.

  14. Spatial bedrock erosion distribution in a natural gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of morphological evolution both in terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions, bedrock channel formation as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion processes is fundamental for the entire surface evolution. Hence, the accurate description of bedrock channel development is important for landscape modelling. To verify existing concepts developed in the lab and to analyse how in situ channel erosion rates depend on the interrelations of discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data. We analyse bedrock erosion over two years in a bedrock gorge downstream of the Gorner glacier above the town of Zermatt, Switzerland. At the study site, the Gornera stream cuts through a roche moutonnée in serpentine rock of 25m length, 5m width and 8m depth. We surveyed bedrock erosion rates using repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with an average point spacing of 5mm. Bedrock erosion rates in direction of the individual surface normals were studied directly on the scanned point clouds applying the M3C2 algorithm (Lague et al., 2013, ISPRS). The surveyed erosion patterns were compared to a simple stream erosivity visualisation obtained from painted bedrock sections at the study location. Spatially distributed erosion rates on bedrock surfaces based on millions of scan points allow deduction of millimeter-scale mean annual values of lateral erosion, incision and downstream erosion on protruding streambed surfaces. The erosion rate on a specific surface point is shown to depend on the position of this surface point in the channel's cross section, its height above the streambed and its spatial orientation to the streamflow. Abrasion by impacting bedload was likely the spatially dominant erosion process, as confirmed by the observed patterns along the painted bedrock sections. However, a single plucking event accounted for the half

  15. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady J Mattsson

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  16. Predicting the Overall Spatial Quality of Automotive Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Daisuke

    The spatial quality of automotive audio systems is often compromised due to their unideal listening environments. Automotive audio systems need to be developed quickly due to industry demands. A suitable perceptual model could evaluate the spatial quality of automotive audio systems with similar reliability to formal listening tests but take less time. Such a model is developed in this research project by adapting an existing model of spatial quality for automotive audio use. The requirements for the adaptation were investigated in a literature review. A perceptual model called QESTRAL was reviewed, which predicts the overall spatial quality of domestic multichannel audio systems. It was determined that automotive audio systems are likely to be impaired in terms of the spatial attributes that were not considered in developing the QESTRAL model, but metrics are available that might predict these attributes. To establish whether the QESTRAL model in its current form can accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems, MUSHRA listening tests using headphone auralisation with head tracking were conducted to collect results to be compared against predictions by the model. Based on guideline criteria, the model in its current form could not accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems. To improve prediction performance, the QESTRAL model was recalibrated and modified using existing metrics of the model, those that were proposed from the literature review, and newly developed metrics. The most important metrics for predicting the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems included those that were interaural cross-correlation (IACC) based, relate to localisation of the frontal audio scene, and account for the perceived scene width in front of the listener. Modifying the model for automotive audio systems did not invalidate its use for domestic audio systems. The resulting model predicts the overall spatial

  17. [Interdependence of plankton spatial distribution and plancton biomass temporal oscillations: mathematical simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedinskiĭ, A B; Tikhonova, I A; Li, B L; Malchow, H

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of aquatic biological communities in a patchy environment is of great interest in respect to interrelations between phenomena at various spatial and time scales. To study the complex plankton dynamics in relation to variations of such a biologically essential parameter as the fish predation rate, we use a simple reaction-diffusion model of trophic interactions between phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish. We suggest that plankton is distributed between two habitats one of which is fish-free due to hydrological inhomogeneity, while the other is fish-populated. We show that temporal variations in the fish predation rate do not violate the strong correspondence between the character of spatial distribution of plankton and changes of plankton biomass in time: regular temporal oscillations of plankton biomass correspond to large-scale plankton patches, while chaotic oscillations correspond to small-scale plankton patterns. As in the case of the constant fish predation rate, the chaotic plankton dynamics is characterized by coexistence of the chaotic attractor and limit cycle.

  18. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  19. System Consolidation of Spatial Memories in Mice: Effects of Enriched Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Bonaccorsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is known to enhance learning and memory. Declarative memories are thought to undergo a first rapid and local consolidation process, followed by a prolonged process of system consolidation, which consist in a time-dependent gradual reorganization of brain regions supporting remote memory storage and crucial for the formation of enduring memories. At present, it is not known whether EE can affect the process of declarative memory system consolidation. We characterized the time course of hippocampal and cortical activation following recall of progressively more remote spatial memories. Wild-type mice either exposed to EE for 40 days or left in standard environment were subjected to spatial learning in the Morris water maze and to the probe test 1, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days after learning. Following the probe test, regional expression of the inducible immediate early gene c-Fos was mapped by immunohistochemistry, as an indicator of neuronal activity. We found that activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, suggested to have a privileged role in processing remote spatial memories, was evident at shorter time intervals after learning in EE mice; in addition, EE induced the progressive activation of a distributed cortical network not activated in non-EE mice. This suggests that EE not only accelerates the process of mPFC recruitment but also recruits additional cortical areas into the network supporting remote spatial memories.

  20. Fractal analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the Hellenic Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the most seismically active region in Europe. Many destructive earthquakes have taken place along the HSZ in the past. The evolution of such active regions is expressed through seismicity and is characterized by complex phenomenology. The understanding of the tectonic evolution process and the physical state of subducting regimes is crucial in earthquake prediction. In recent years, there is a growing interest concerning an approach to seismicity based on the science of complex systems (Papadakis et al., 2013; Vallianatos et al., 2012). In this study we calculate the fractal dimension of the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the HSZ and we aim to understand the significance of the obtained values to the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this area. We use the external seismic sources provided by Papaioannou and Papazachos (2000) to create a dataset regarding the subduction zone. According to the aforementioned authors, we define five seismic zones. Then, we structure an earthquake dataset which is based on the updated and extended earthquake catalogue for Greece and the adjacent areas by Makropoulos et al. (2012), covering the period 1976-2009. The fractal dimension of the spatial distribution of earthquakes is calculated for each seismic zone and for the HSZ as a unified system using the box-counting method (Turcotte, 1997; Robertson et al., 1995; Caneva and Smirnov, 2004). Moreover, the variation of the fractal dimension is demonstrated in different time windows. These spatiotemporal variations could be used as an additional index to inform us about the physical state of each seismic zone. As a precursor in earthquake forecasting, the use of the fractal dimension appears to be a very interesting future work. Acknowledgements Giorgos Papadakis wish to acknowledge the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY). References Caneva, A., Smirnov, V., 2004. Using the fractal dimension of earthquake distributions and the

  1. The spatial distribution of gender differences in obesity prevalence differs from overall obesity prevalence among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Danielle R; Taber, Daniel R; Hirsch, Jana A; Robinson, Whitney R

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate state-specific obesity prevalence and gender inequality measures. Global and local Moran's indices were calculated to determine spatial autocorrelation. Age-adjusted, state-specific obesity prevalence difference and ratio measures show spatial autocorrelation (z-score = 4.89, P-value obesity prevalence and obesity gender inequalities are not the same. High and low values of obesity prevalence and gender inequalities cluster in different areas of the United States. Clustering of gender inequality suggests that spatial processes operating at the state level, such as occupational or physical activity policies or social norms, are involved in the etiology of the inequality and necessitate further attention to the determinates of obesity gender inequality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Observation of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of MeV ions accelerated by the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Jinno, Satoshi; Sakaki, Hironao; Faenov, Anatoly Ya.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki; Sugiyama, Akira; Kondo, Kiminori; Matsui, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Scullion, Clare; Smyth, Ashley G.; Alejo, Aaron; Doria, Domenico; Kar, Satyabrata; Borghesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    An inhomogeneous spatial distribution of laser accelerated carbon/oxygen ions produced via the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of CO_2 clusters has been measured by using CR-39 detectors. An inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution has appeared on the etched CR-39 detector installed on the laser propagation direction, while homogeneous ones are appeared on those installed at 45° and 90° from the laser propagation direction. From the range of ions in CR-39 obtained by using the multi-step etching technique, the averaged energies of carbon/oxygen ions for all directions are determined as 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n. The number of ions in the laser propagation direction is about 1.5 times larger than those in other directions. The inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution in the laser propagation direction could originate from an ion beam collimation and modulation by the effect of electromagnetic structures created in the laser plasma. - Highlights: • A spatial distribution of ions due to hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion is measured. • The homogeneous ion energy distribution of 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n is measured by CR-39. • The number of ions in the laser axis is about 1.5 times larger than other directions.

  3. Spatial distribution of fluorescent light emitted from neon and nitrogen excited by low energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ulrich, A.; Wieser, J.

    2006-01-01

    Side-view intensity profiles of fluorescent light were measured for neon and nitrogen excited with 12 keV electron beams at gas pressures from 250 to 1400 hPa. The intensity profiles were compared with theoretical profiles calculated using the CASINO program which performs Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering. It was assumed that the spatial distribution of fluorescent intensity is directly proportional to the spatial distribution of energy loss by primary electrons. The comparison shows good correlation of experimental data and the results of numeric simulations

  4. Spatial network surrogates for disentangling complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    Networks with nodes embedded in a metric space have gained increasing interest in recent years. The effects of spatial embedding on the networks' structural characteristics, however, are rarely taken into account when studying their macroscopic properties. Here, we propose a hierarchy of null models to generate random surrogates from a given spatially embedded network that can preserve certain global and local statistics associated with the nodes' embedding in a metric space. Comparing the original network's and the resulting surrogates' global characteristics allows one to quantify to what extent these characteristics are already predetermined by the spatial embedding of the nodes and links. We apply our framework to various real-world spatial networks and show that the proposed models capture macroscopic properties of the networks under study much better than standard random network models that do not account for the nodes' spatial embedding. Depending on the actual performance of the proposed null models, the networks are categorized into different classes. Since many real-world complex networks are in fact spatial networks, the proposed approach is relevant for disentangling the underlying complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes in many fields, ranging from social systems over infrastructure and neurophysiology to climatology.

  5. Spatial distribution of parasitism on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Efrom, C F

    2008-11-01

    Many species of microhymenopterous parasitoids have been registered on Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer. The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution pattern of the native and introduced parasitoids of P. citrella in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS. The new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees in each orchard were inspected at the bottom (0-1.5 m) and top (1.5-2.5 m) stratum and had their position relative to the quadrants (North, South, East and West) registered at every 15 days from July/2002 to June/2003. The leaves with pupae were collected and kept isolated until the emergence of parasitoids or of the leaf miner; so, the sampling was biased towards parasitoids that emerge in the host pupal phase. The horizontal spatial distribution was evaluated testing the fitness of data to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. In Montenegrina, there was no significant difference in the number of parasitoids and in the mean number of pupae found in the top and bottom strata (chi2 = 0.66; df = 1; P > 0.05) (chi2 = 0.27; df =1; P > 0.05), respectively. In relation to the quadrants, the highest average numbers of the leafminer pupae and of parasitoids were registered at the East quadrant (chi2 = 11.81; df = 3; P miners was registered at the North quadrant (chi2 = 19. 29; df = 3; P miners and parasitoids in the East and West quadrants would be influenced by the higher solar exposure of these quadrants. The data of the horizontal spatial distribution of the parasitism fit to the negative binomial distribution in all sampling occasions, indicating an aggregated pattern.

  6. MOLNs: A CLOUD PLATFORM FOR INTERACTIVE, REPRODUCIBLE, AND SCALABLE SPATIAL STOCHASTIC COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENTS IN SYSTEMS BIOLOGY USING PyURDME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawert, Brian; Trogdon, Michael; Toor, Salman; Petzold, Linda; Hellander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiments using spatial stochastic simulations have led to important new biological insights, but they require specialized tools and a complex software stack, as well as large and scalable compute and data analysis resources due to the large computational cost associated with Monte Carlo computational workflows. The complexity of setting up and managing a large-scale distributed computation environment to support productive and reproducible modeling can be prohibitive for practitioners in systems biology. This results in a barrier to the adoption of spatial stochastic simulation tools, effectively limiting the type of biological questions addressed by quantitative modeling. In this paper, we present PyURDME, a new, user-friendly spatial modeling and simulation package, and MOLNs, a cloud computing appliance for distributed simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion models. MOLNs is based on IPython and provides an interactive programming platform for development of sharable and reproducible distributed parallel computational experiments.

  7. Effect of Action Video Games on the Spatial Distribution of Visuospatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of action gaming on the spatial distribution of attention. The authors used the flanker compatibility effect to separately assess center and peripheral attentional resources in gamers versus nongamers. Gamers exhibited an enhancement in attentional resources compared with nongamers, not only in the periphery but…

  8. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-10-06

    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  9. Spatial distribution of vehicle emission inventories in the Federal District, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia, Weeberb João; Koutrakis, Petros; Roig, Henrique Llacer

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution poses an important public health risk, especially in large urban areas. Information about the spatial distribution of air pollutants can be used as a tool for developing public policies to reduce source emissions. Air pollution monitoring networks provide information about pollutant concentrations; however, they are not available in every urban area. Among the 5570 cities in Brazil, for example, only 1.7% of them have air pollution monitoring networks. In this study we assess vehicle emissions for main traffic routes of the Federal District (state of Brazil) and characterize their spatial patterns. Toward this end, we used a bottom-up method to predict emissions and to characterize their spatial patterns using Global Moran's (Spatial autocorrelation analysis) and Getis-Ord General G (High/Low cluster analysis). Our findings suggested that light duty vehicles are primarily responsible for the vehicular emissions of CO (68.9%), CH4 (93.6%), and CO2 (57.9%), whereas heavy duty vehicles are primarily responsible for the vehicular emissions of NMHC (92.9%), NOx (90.7%), and PM (97.4%). Furthermore, CO2 is the pollutant with the highest emissions, over 30 million tons/year. In the spatial autocorrelation analysis was identified cluster (p < 0.01) for all types of vehicles and for all pollutants. However, we identified high cluster only for the light vehicles.

  10. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  11. Spatial Distribution of b-value of the Copahue volcano during 2012-2014 eruptive period: Relationship between magmatic and hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Jonathan; Basualto, Daniel; Bengoa, Cintia; Cardona, Carlos; Franco, Luis; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Hernández, Erasmo; Lara, Luis; Lundgren, Paul; Medina, Roxana; Morales, Sergio; Peña, Paola; Quijada, Jonathan; Samsonov, Sergey; San Martin, Juan; Valderrama, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of b-value have been interpreted as regional stress changes on active tectonic zones or magma ascent and/or hydrothermal fluids mobilization that could affect to active volcanic arc. Increasing of fluids pressure, medium heterogeneities or temperature changes would be the cause of these variations. The Copahue volcano is a shield strato-volcano that has been edified on the western margin of the Caviahue Caldera, located in the international border between Chile and Argentina, which contain an important geothermic field and is located at a horse-tail structure of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone. The pre-fracture nature of its basement, as well as an extensive geothermic field, would be producing very complex conditions to fluids movement that could be exploring to use the 'b' value of the recorded seismicity between 2012 and 2014. Based in the database of VT seismic events, we used 2.073 events to calculate the b-value to obtain the 2D and 3D distribution maps. Results showed two anomalous zones: the first one located 9 Km to NE of the active crater, 3-6 Km depth, with high b-values (>1.2) that is associated with a very high production rate of small earthquakes that could suggest a brittle zone, located in the active geothermal field. The second zone, showed a low b-values (~ 0.7), located to east of the volcano edifice at volcano sitting on top of a geothermal system, the b-value offers a tool to understand the distribution of the seismic sources and hence a physical constrain for the coupled magmatic/hydrothermal system.

  12. Spatial distribution of radiation damage to crystalline proteins at 25–300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Matthew; Badeau, Ryan; Hopkins, Jesse B.; Thorne, Robert E., E-mail: ret6@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Dose-dependent atomic B factors are used to determine the average spatial distribution of radiation damage to crystalline thaumatin and urease. The spatial distribution of radiation damage (assayed by increases in atomic B factors) to thaumatin and urease crystals at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K is reported. The nature of the damage changes dramatically at approximately 180 K. Above this temperature the role of solvent diffusion is apparent in thaumatin crystals, as solvent-exposed turns and loops are especially sensitive. In urease, a flap covering the active site is the most sensitive part of the molecule and nearby loops show enhanced sensitivity. Below 180 K sensitivity is correlated with poor local packing, especially in thaumatin. At all temperatures, the component of the damage that is spatially uniform within the unit cell accounts for more than half of the total increase in the atomic B factors and correlates with changes in mosaicity. This component may arise from lattice-level, rather than local, disorder. The effects of primary structure on radiation sensitivity are small compared with those of tertiary structure, local packing, solvent accessibility and crystal contacts.

  13. Spatial distribution of seeds and seedlings of two tropical tree species: Is there correspondence between patterns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrado Rosselli, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution relative to parent trees (seed and seedling shadow, respectively) were studied for Dacryodes chimantensis (Burseraceae) and Brosimum utile (Moraceae), two common tree species of terra firme forests of Colombian Amazonia. The general objective was to assess whether the patterns imposed by seed dispersal change or persist in subsequent life stages occurring during the transition from seeds/saplings to adult stages. Seed and seedling shadows on the ground were characterized for each tree species along four 50-m radial transects from the base of the parent tree. Causes of seed and seedling predation as a function of distance to the parent tree were determined, as well as the spatial consistency between life stages. Results showed that seed density of both Dacryodes and Brosimum declined leptokurtically with distance, and it was skewed towards the parent tree. However, seed density was more skewed and leptokurtic in Dacryodes than in Brosimum. The overall trend was maintained in the seedling stage of both species and was positively correlated with the distribution patterns of seeds. Seed and seedling predation were positively correlated with density and negatively correlated with the distance from the parent tree. Factors that could be generating the high consistency between the spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution are discussed, as well as its implications in the population structure of both species and the debate on the factors that influence the spatial distribution of plant species in tropical rain forests.

  14. Non-monotonic spatial distribution of the interstellar dust in astrospheres: finite gyroradius effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.

  15. Spatial distribution of conduction disorders during sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanters, Eva A H; Yaksh, Ameeta; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; van Marion, Denise M S; Brundel, Bianca J J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-12-15

    Length of lines of conduction block (CB) during sinus rhythm (SR) at Bachmann's bundle (BB) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether extensiveness of CB at BB represents CB elsewhere in the atria. We aim to investigate during SR 1) the spatial distribution and extensiveness of CB 2) whether there is a predilection site for CB and 3) the association between CB and incidence of post-operative AF. During SR, epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), BB and left atrium was performed in 209 patients with coronary artery disease. The amount of conduction delay (CD, Δlocal activation time ≥7ms) and CB (Δ≥12ms) was quantified as % of the mapping area. Atrial regions were compared to identify potential predilection sites for CD/CB. Correlations between CD/CB and clinical characteristics were tested. Areas with CD or CB were present in all patients, overall prevalence was respectively 1.4(0.2-4.0) % and 1.3(0.1-4.3) %. Extensiveness and spatial distribution of CD/CB varied considerably, however occurred mainly at the superior intercaval RA. Of all clinicalcharacteristics, CD/CB only correlated weakly with age and diabetes (P<0.05). A 1% increase in CD or CB caused a 1.1-1.5ms prolongation of the activation time (P<0.001). There was no correlation between CD/CB and post-operative AF. CD/CB during SR in CABG patients with electrically non-remodeled atria show considerable intra-atrial, but also inter-individual variation. Despite these differences, a predilection site is present at the superior intercaval RA. Extensiveness of CB at the superior intercaval RA or BB does not reflect CB elsewhere in the atria and is not associated with post-operative AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conjugate whole-body scanning system for quantitative measurement of organ distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Chen, C.T.; Yasillo, N.J.; Ortega, C.J.; Charleston, D.B.; Lathrop, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of accurate, quantitative, biokinetic distribution of an internally dispersed radionuclide in humans is important in making realistic radiation absorbed dose estimates, studying biochemical transformations in health and disease, and developing clinical procedures indicative of abnormal functions. In order to collect these data, a whole-body imaging system is required which provides both adequate spatial resolution and some means of absolute quantitation. Based on these considerations, a new whole-body scanning system has been designed and constructed that employs the conjugate counting technique. The conjugate whole-body scanning system provides an efficient and accurate means of collecting absolute quantitative organ distribution data of radioactivity in vivo

  17. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM. The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable.

  18. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Huang, Yaohuan; Dong, Pinliang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Honghui

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC) patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS) is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B) data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM) and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM). The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable. PMID:22399959

  19. Spatial distribution of the chemical properties of the soil and of soybean yield in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gazolla-Neto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial dependence between chemical properties of the soil and yield components in the soybean using precision farming techniques. Samples of the soil and plants were taken from georeferenced points to determine the chemical properties of the soil and the yield components. The results were submitted to Pearson correlation analysis, descriptive statistics and geostatistics. The coefficient of variation showed a wide range of distribution for the chemical attributes of the soil, with the highest indices being found for the levels of available phosphorus (102% and potassium (72.65%. Soil pH and organic matter showed a coefficient of variation of 5.96 and 15.93% respectively. Semivariogram analysis of the yield components (productivity, 1,000-seed weight and number of seeds and the chemical properties of the soil (organic matter, pH, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, manganese and zinc fitted the spherical model with moderate spatial dependence, with values ranging from 200 to 700 m. Spatial distribution by means of map interpolation was efficient in evaluating spatial variability, allowing the identification and quantification of regions of low and high productivity in the production area, together with the distribution of soil attributes and their respective levels of availability to the soybean plants.

  20. Spatial distribution of coefficients for determination of global radiation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a creation of the spatial distribution of the corresponding coefficients for the indirect determination of global radiation using all direct measurements data of this shortwave radiation balance component in Serbia in the standard climate period (1961-1990. Based on the global radiation direct measurements data recorded in the past and routine measurements/observations of cloudiness and sunshine duration, the spatial distribution coefficients maps required for calculation of global radiation were produced on the basis of sunshine/cloudiness in an arbitrary point on the territory of Serbia. Besides, a specific verification of the proposed empirical formula was performed. This paper contributes to a wide range of practical applications as direct measurements of global radiation are relatively rare, and are not carried out in Serbia today. Significant application is possible in the domain of renewable energy sources. The development of method for determination of the global radiation has an importance from the aspect of the environmental protection; however it also has an economic importance through applications in numerous commercial projects, as it does not require special measurements or additional financial investments.

  1. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Demirel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the

  2. Modelling the spatial distribution of SO2 and NO(x) emissions in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y.de; Aherne, J.; Farrell, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial distributions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions are essential inputs to models of atmospheric transport and deposition. Information of this type is required for international negotiations on emission reduction through the critical load approach.

  3. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  4. Research on the Spatial-Temporal Distribution Pattern of the Network Attention of Fog and Haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lingyan; Han, Xugao

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial-temporal distribution pattern of fog and haze is the base to deal with them by adjusting measures to local conditions. Taking 31 provinces in China mainland as the research areas, this paper collected data from Baidu index on the network attention of fog and haze in relevant areas from 2011 to 2016, and conducted an analysis of their spatial-temporal distribution pattern by using autocorrelation analysis. The results show that the network attention of fog and haze has an overall spatial distribution pattern of “higher in the eastern and central, lower in the western China”. There are regional differences in different provinces in terms of network attention. Network attention of fog and haze indicates an obvious geographical agglomeration phenomenon, which is a gradual enlargement of the agglomeration area of higher value with a slight shrinking of those lower value agglomeration areas.

  5. Comparison of alternative spatial resolutions in the application of a spatially distributed biogeochemical model over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D.P.; Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1996-01-01

    Spatially distributed biogeochemical models may be applied over grids at a range of spatial resolutions, however, evaluation of potential errors and loss of information at relatively coarse resolutions is rare. In this study, a georeferenced database at the 1-km spatial resolution was developed to initialize and drive a process-based model (Forest-BGC) of water and carbon balance over a gridded 54976 km2 area covering two river basins in mountainous western Oregon. Corresponding data sets were also prepared at 10-km and 50-km spatial resolutions using commonly employed aggregation schemes. Estimates were made at each grid cell for climate variables including daily solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, and precipitation. The topographic structure, water holding capacity, vegetation type and leaf area index were likewise estimated for initial conditions. The daily time series for the climatic drivers was developed from interpolations of meteorological station data for the water year 1990 (1 October 1989-30 September 1990). Model outputs at the 1-km resolution showed good agreement with observed patterns in runoff and productivity. The ranges for model inputs at the 10-km and 50-km resolutions tended to contract because of the smoothed topography. Estimates for mean evapotranspiration and runoff were relatively insensitive to changing the spatial resolution of the grid whereas estimates of mean annual net primary production varied by 11%. The designation of a vegetation type and leaf area at the 50-km resolution often subsumed significant heterogeneity in vegetation, and this factor accounted for much of the difference in the mean values for the carbon flux variables. Although area wide means for model outputs were generally similar across resolutions, difference maps often revealed large areas of disagreement. Relatively high spatial resolution analyses of biogeochemical cycling are desirable from several perspectives and may be particularly important in the

  6. Dynamic optimization of distributed biological systems using robust and efficient numerical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Carlos; Balsa-Canto, Eva; García, Maria-Sonia G; Banga, Julio R; Alonso, Antonio A

    2012-07-02

    Systems biology allows the analysis of biological systems behavior under different conditions through in silico experimentation. The possibility of perturbing biological systems in different manners calls for the design of perturbations to achieve particular goals. Examples would include, the design of a chemical stimulation to maximize the amplitude of a given cellular signal or to achieve a desired pattern in pattern formation systems, etc. Such design problems can be mathematically formulated as dynamic optimization problems which are particularly challenging when the system is described by partial differential equations.This work addresses the numerical solution of such dynamic optimization problems for spatially distributed biological systems. The usual nonlinear and large scale nature of the mathematical models related to this class of systems and the presence of constraints on the optimization problems, impose a number of difficulties, such as the presence of suboptimal solutions, which call for robust and efficient numerical techniques. Here, the use of a control vector parameterization approach combined with efficient and robust hybrid global optimization methods and a reduced order model methodology is proposed. The capabilities of this strategy are illustrated considering the solution of a two challenging problems: bacterial chemotaxis and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. In the process of chemotaxis the objective was to efficiently compute the time-varying optimal concentration of chemotractant in one of the spatial boundaries in order to achieve predefined cell distribution profiles. Results are in agreement with those previously published in the literature. The FitzHugh-Nagumo problem is also efficiently solved and it illustrates very well how dynamic optimization may be used to force a system to evolve from an undesired to a desired pattern with a reduced number of actuators. The presented methodology can be used for the efficient dynamic optimization of

  7. Spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, I.; Sosaoglu, B.

    2007-11-01

    The degree-day method is commonly used to estimate energy consumption for heating and cooling in residential, commercial and industrial buildings, as well as in greenhouses, livestock facilities, storage facilities and warehouses. This article presents monthly and yearly averages and spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days at the base temperatures of 18 °C and 20 °C, 18 °C and 24 °C, and 7 °C and 13 °C, respectively; as well as the corresponding number of days in Turkey. The findings presented here will facilitate the estimation of heating and cooling energy consumption for any residential, commercial and industrial buildings in Turkey, for any period of time (monthly, seasonal, etc.). From this analysis it will also be possible to compare and design alternative building systems in terms of energy efficiencies. If one prefers to use set point temperatures to indicate the resumption of the heating season would also be possible using the provided information in this article. In addition, utility companies and manufacturing/marketing companies of HVAC systems would be able to easily determine the demand, marketing strategies and policies based on the findings in this study.

  8. Applying Spatially Distributed Rainfall to a Hydrological Model in a Tropical Watershed, Manoa Watershed, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. F.; Tsang, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Rainfall in Hawaii is characterized with high spatial and temporal variability. In the south side of Oahu, the Manoa watershed, with an area of 11 km2, has the annual maximum rainfall of 3900mm and the minimum rainfall of 1000 mm. Despite this high spatial heterogeneity, the rain gage network seems insufficiently capture this pattern. When simulating stream flow and predicting floods with hydrological models in Hawaii, the model performance is often unsatisfactory because of inadequate representation of rainfall data. Longman et al. (in prep.) have developed the spatially distributed daily rainfall across the Hawaiian Islands by applying ordinary kriging, yet these data have not been applied to hydrological models. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to assess the streamflow simulation by applying spatially-distributed rainfall in the Manoa watershed. We first used point daily-rainfall at Lyon Arboretum from National Center of Environmental Information (NCEI) as the uniform rainfall input. Secondly, we summarized sub-watershed mean rainfall from the daily spatial-statistical rainfall. Both rainfall data are available from 1999 to 2014. The SWAT was set up for five-year warm-up, nine-year calibration, and two-year validation. The model parameters were calibrated and validated with four U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. We compared the calibrated watershed parameters, characteristics, and assess the streamflow hydrographs from these two rainfall inputs. The differences and improvement of using spatially distributed rainfall input in SWAT were discussed. In addition to improving the model by the representation of rainfall, this study helped us having a better understanding of the watershed hydrological response in Hawaii.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton Diversity across Temporary Pools in a Semiarid Intermittent River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís X. Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the richness and density of zooplankton across temporary pools in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and evaluates the partitioning of diversity across different spatial scales during the wet and dry periods. Given the highly patchy nature of these pools it is hypothesized that the diversity is not homogeneously distributed across different spatial scales but concentrated at lower levels. The plankton fauna was composed of 37 species. Of these 28 were Rotifera, 5 were Cladocera, and 4 were Copepoda (nauplii of Copepoda were also recorded. We showed that the zooplankton presents a spatially segregated pattern of species composition across river reaches and that at low spatial scales (among pools or different habitats within pools the diversity of species is likely to be affected by temporal changes in physical and chemical characteristics. As a consequence of the drying of pool habitats, the spatial heterogeneity within the study river reaches has the potential to increase β diversity during the dry season by creating patchier assemblages. This spatial segregation in community composition and the patterns of partition of the diversity across the spatial scales leads to a higher total diversity in intermittent streams, compared to less variable environments.

  10. Heterogeneous game resource distributions promote cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yan-Cun; Tian, Sheng-Wen; Yue, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In social networks, individual abilities to establish interactions are always heterogeneous and independent of the number of topological neighbors. We here study the influence of heterogeneous distributions of abilities on the evolution of individual cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. First, we introduced a prisoner's dilemma game, taking into account individual heterogeneous abilities to establish games, which are determined by the owned game resources. Second, we studied three types of game resource distributions that follow the power-law property. Simulation results show that the heterogeneous distribution of individual game resources can promote cooperation effectively, and the heterogeneous level of resource distributions has a positive influence on the maintenance of cooperation. Extensive analysis shows that cooperators with large resource capacities can foster cooperator clusters around themselves. Furthermore, when the temptation to defect is high, cooperator clusters in which the central pure cooperators have larger game resource capacities are more stable than other cooperator clusters.

  11. Spatial distribution of cavitation-shock-pressure around a jet-flow gate-valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Risaburo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Yukio; Miyakura, Hideto; Nozaki, Satoru; Ishige, Tadashi; Sonoda, Shuji; Sakamoto, Kenji.

    1987-01-01

    To make clear the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the spatial distribution of cavitation shock pressures were quantitatively measured by a pressure sensitive sheet in the 1/10 scale model of a jet-flow gate-valve, for various valve-openings and cavitation numbers. The dynamic pressure response of the sheet was corrected by the shock wave generated from detonation explosives. It is made clear that the erosive shock pressures are distributed in a limited part of the whole cavitation region, and the safety region without the fatal cavitation erosion is defined. (author)

  12. Chromatic-free spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics for microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liguo; Chen Wencong; Zhu Ximing; Pu Yikang; Li Zeren

    2009-01-01

    A chromatic-free spatially resolved diagnostic system for microplasma measurement is proposed and demonstrated, which consists of an optical chromatic-free microscope mirror system, an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD), and bandpass filters. The diagnostic system free of chromatic aberrations with a spatial resolution of about 6 μm is achieved. The factors that limit the resolution of this diagnostic system have been analyzed, which are optical diffraction, the pixel size of the EMCCD, and the thickness of the microplasma. In this paper, the optimal condition for achieving a maximum resolution power has been analyzed. With this diagnostic system, we revealed the spatial nonuniformity of a microwave atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the time-averaged effective electron temperature has been estimated from the intensity distributions of 750.4 and 415.8 nm emissions.

  13. Spatial Distribution of the Coefficient of Variation for the Paleo-Earthquakes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, S.; Ogata, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Renewal processes, point prccesses in which intervals between consecutive events are independently and identically distributed, are frequently used to describe this repeating earthquake mechanism and forecast the next earthquakes. However, one of the difficulties in applying recurrent earthquake models is the scarcity of the historical data. Most studied fault segments have few, or only one observed earthquake that often have poorly constrained historic and/or radiocarbon ages. The maximum likelihood estimate from such a small data set can have a large bias and error, which tends to yield high probability for the next event in a very short time span when the recurrence intervals have similar lengths. On the other hand, recurrence intervals at a fault depend on the long-term slip rate caused by the tectonic motion in average. In addition, recurrence times are also fluctuated by nearby earthquakes or fault activities which encourage or discourage surrounding seismicity. These factors have spatial trends due to the heterogeneity of tectonic motion and seismicity. Thus, this paper introduces a spatial structure on the key parameters of renewal processes for recurrent earthquakes and estimates it by using spatial statistics. Spatial variation of mean and variance parameters of recurrence times are estimated in Bayesian framework and the next earthquakes are forecasted by Bayesian predictive distributions. The proposal model is applied for recurrent earthquake catalog in Japan and its result is compared with the current forecast adopted by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.

  14. New method for reconstruction of star spatial distribution in globular clusters and its application to flare stars in Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosarev, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new method to reconstruct spatial star distribution in globular clusters is presented. The method gives both the estimation of unknown spatial distribution and the probable reconstruction error. This error has statistical origin and depends only on the number of stars in a cluster. The method is applied to reconstruct the spatial density of 441 flare stars in Pleiades. The spatial density has a maximum in the centre of the cluster of about 1.6-2.5 pc -3 and with increasing distance from the center smoothly falls down to zero approximately with the Gaussian law with a scale parameter of 3.5 pc

  15. Methods and apparatus for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The spatial distribution of a radioactive material is determined by locating the positions of and energy losses resulting from Compton interactions which occur in a detector as a result of gamma photons emitted by the radioactive material, which may, for example, have been administered to a patient for medical diagnostic investigation. (auth)

  16. Contamination and Spatial Variation of Heavy Metals in the Soil-Rice System in Nanxun County, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Keli; Fu, Weijun; Ye, Zhengqian; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing concern about heavy metal contamination in farmland in China and worldwide. In order to reveal the spatial features of heavy metals in the soil-rice system, soil and rice samples were collected from Nanxun, Southeastern China. Compared with the guideline values, elevated concentrations of heavy metals in soils were observed, while heavy metals in rice still remained at a safe level. Heavy metals in soils and rice had moderate to strong spatial dependence (nugget/sill ratios: 13.2% to 49.9%). The spatial distribution of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in soils illustrated that their high concentrations were located in the southeast part. The high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in soils were observed in the northeast part. The accumulation of all the studied metals is related to the long-term application of agrochemicals and industrial activities. Heavy metals in rice showed different spatial distribution patterns. Cross-correlograms were produced to quantitatively determine the spatial correlation between soil properties and heavy metals composition in rice. The pH and soil organic matter had significant spatial correlations with the concentration of heavy metals in rice. Most of the selected variables had clear spatial correlation ranges for heavy metals in rice, which could be further applied to divide agricultural management zones. PMID:25635917

  17. Contamination and Spatial Variation of Heavy Metals in the Soil-Rice System in Nanxun County, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing concern about heavy metal contamination in farmland in China and worldwide. In order to reveal the spatial features of heavy metals in the soil-rice system, soil and rice samples were collected from Nanxun, Southeastern China. Compared with the guideline values, elevated concentrations of heavy metals in soils were observed, while heavy metals in rice still remained at a safe level. Heavy metals in soils and rice had moderate to strong spatial dependence (nugget/sill ratios: 13.2% to 49.9%. The spatial distribution of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in soils illustrated that their high concentrations were located in the southeast part. The high concentrations of cadmium (Cd in soils were observed in the northeast part. The accumulation of all the studied metals is related to the long-term application of agrochemicals and industrial activities. Heavy metals in rice showed different spatial distribution patterns. Cross-correlograms were produced to quantitatively determine the spatial correlation between soil properties and heavy metals composition in rice. The pH and soil organic matter had significant spatial correlations with the concentration of heavy metals in rice. Most of the selected variables had clear spatial correlation ranges for heavy metals in rice, which could be further applied to divide agricultural management zones.

  18. Contamination and spatial variation of heavy metals in the soil-rice system in Nanxun County, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Keli; Fu, Weijun; Ye, Zhengqian; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-01-28

    There is an increasing concern about heavy metal contamination in farmland in China and worldwide. In order to reveal the spatial features of heavy metals in the soil-rice system, soil and rice samples were collected from Nanxun, Southeastern China. Compared with the guideline values, elevated concentrations of heavy metals in soils were observed, while heavy metals in rice still remained at a safe level. Heavy metals in soils and rice had moderate to strong spatial dependence (nugget/sill ratios: 13.2% to 49.9%). The spatial distribution of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in soils illustrated that their high concentrations were located in the southeast part. The high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in soils were observed in the northeast part. The accumulation of all the studied metals is related to the long-term application of agrochemicals and industrial activities. Heavy metals in rice showed different spatial distribution patterns. Cross-correlograms were produced to quantitatively determine the spatial correlation between soil properties and heavy metals composition in rice. The pH and soil organic matter had significant spatial correlations with the concentration of heavy metals in rice. Most of the selected variables had clear spatial correlation ranges for heavy metals in rice, which could be further applied to divide agricultural management zones.

  19. Assessing modelled spatial distributions of ice water path using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, S.; Buehler, S. A.; Milz, M.; Eriksson, P.; John, V. O.

    2010-05-01

    The climate models used in the IPCC AR4 show large differences in monthly mean cloud ice. The most valuable source of information that can be used to potentially constrain the models is global satellite data. For this, the data sets must be long enough to capture the inter-annual variability of Ice Water Path (IWP). PATMOS-x was used together with ISCCP for the annual cycle evaluation in Fig. 7 while ECHAM-5 was used for the correlation with other models in Table 3. A clear distinction between ice categories in satellite retrievals, as desired from a model point of view, is currently impossible. However, long-term satellite data sets may still be used to indicate the climatology of IWP spatial distribution. We evaluated satellite data sets from CloudSat, PATMOS-x, ISCCP, MODIS and MSPPS in terms of monthly mean IWP, to determine which data sets can be used to evaluate the climate models. IWP data from CloudSat cloud profiling radar provides the most advanced data set on clouds. As CloudSat data are too short to evaluate the model data directly, it was mainly used here to evaluate IWP from the other satellite data sets. ISCCP and MSPPS were shown to have comparatively low IWP values. ISCCP shows particularly low values in the tropics, while MSPPS has particularly low values outside the tropics. MODIS and PATMOS-x were in closest agreement with CloudSat in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution, with MODIS being the best of the two. As PATMOS-x extends over more than 25 years and is in fairly close agreement with CloudSat, it was chosen as the reference data set for the model evaluation. In general there are large discrepancies between the individual climate models, and all of the models show problems in reproducing the observed spatial distribution of cloud-ice. Comparisons consistently showed that ECHAM-5 is the GCM from IPCC AR4 closest to satellite observations.

  20. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, S. N. M.; Asmat, A.; Sumari, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    PM10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM10) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM10 distribution.

  1. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarmizi, S N M; Asmat, A; Sumari, S M

    2014-01-01

    PM 10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM 10 ) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM 10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM 10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM 10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM 10 distribution

  2. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin N. Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  3. Monofractal or multifractal: a case study of spatial distribution of mining-induced seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eneva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Using finite data sets and limited size of study volumes may result in significant spurious effects when estimating the scaling properties of various physical processes. These effects are examined with an example featuring the spatial distribution of induced seismic activity in Creighton Mine (northern Ontario, Canada. The events studied in the present work occurred during a three-month period, March-May 1992, within a volume of approximate size 400 x 400 x 180 m3. Two sets of microearthquake locations are studied: Data Set 1 (14,338 events and Data Set 2 (1654 events. Data Set 1 includes the more accurately located events and amounts to about 30 per cent of all recorded data. Data Set 2 represents a portion of the first data set that is formed by the most accurately located and the strongest microearthquakes. The spatial distribution of events in the two data sets is examined for scaling behaviour using the method of generalized correlation integrals featuring various moments q. From these, generalized correlation dimensions are estimated using the slope method. Similar estimates are made for randomly generated point sets using the same numbers of events and the same study volumes as for the real data. Uniform and monofractal random distributions are used for these simulations. In addition, samples from the real data are randomly extracted and the dimension spectra for these are examined as well. The spectra for the uniform and monofractal random generations show spurious multifractality due only to the use of finite numbers of data points and limited size of study volume. Comparing these with the spectra of dimensions for Data Set 1 and Data Set 2 allows us to estimate the bias likely to be present in the estimates for the real data. The strong multifractality suggested by the spectrum for Data Set 2 appears to be largely spurious; the spatial distribution, while different from uniform, could originate from a monofractal process. The spatial

  4. Macular pigment spatial distribution effects on glare disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Christopher M; Bassi, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    This project explored the relationship of the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profile with measures of glare disability (GD) across the macula. A novel device was used to measure MPOD across the central 16° of retina along four radii using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP)at eccentricities of 0°, 2°, 4°, 6° and 8°. MPOD was measured as discrete and integrated values at all measured retinal loci. GD was calculated as a difference in contrast sensitivity (CS) between no glare and glare conditions using identical stimuli presented at the same eccentricities. GD was defined as [(CSNo Glare-CSGlare)/CSNo Glare] in order to isolate the glare attenuation effects of MPOD by controlling for CS variability among the subject sample. Correlations of the discrete and integrated MPOD with GD were compared. The cHFP identified reliable MPOD spatial distribution maps demonstrating a 1st-order exponential decay as a function of increasing eccentricity. There was a significant negative correlation between both measures of foveal MPOD and GD using 6 cycles per degree (cpd) and 9 cpd stimuli. Significant correlations were found between corresponding parafoveal MPOD measures and GD at 2 and 4° of eccentricity using 9 cpd stimuli with greater MPOD associated with less glare disability. These results are consistent with the glare attenuation effects of MP at higher spatial frequencies and support the hypothesis that discrete and integrated measures of MPOD have similar correlations with glare attenuation effects across the macula. Additionally, peak foveal MPOD appears to influence GD across the macula. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting the spatial distribution of Lonicera japonica, based on species occurrence data from two watersheds in Western Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....

  6. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  7. STRUCTURE, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SEED YIELD FOR ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl. IN SOUTH RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir R. Ruschel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba is one of the Amazon species with great potential of exploration for timber and non-timberforest products (NFTPs. This work was carried out with the objective of studying the population structure,spatial distribution and seed yield in a native forest of andiroba in the south of Roraima state. A permanentsample plot of 300 x 300 m (9 ha was installed and all the trees with DBH equal or superior to 10 cm wereidentified, mapped and measured. In each tree, the light climate, crown form and lianas load were appraised.To identify the spatial distribution, the medium variance/average rate and the Morisita’s Index were used.The seed yield data were obtained by the seed weighing, being 145 trees monitored during 2006. Thepopulation presented a diametric distribution of the j inverted type, and a seed yield of 65,4 kg.ha-1 withaverage of 8,3 kg.tree-1 was observed. DBH ≥ 30 cm was considered as borderline for commercial seed yield,allowing stratifying the population in juveniles (DBH ≤ 30 cm and adults (DBH > 30 cm. The spatialdistribution analysis showed that adult individuals presented random distribution and the juveniles tendencyof grouping.

  8. Spatial distribution of scientific activities: An exploratory analysis of Brazil, 2000–10

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Chiarini; Vanessa Parreiras Oliveira; Fabio Chaves do Couto e Silva Neto

    2014-01-01

    The literature analyzing the spatial distribution of scientific and technological production in Brazil identifies differences in the regional distribution of scientific and technological resources. In this paper, we contribute to this discussion, by analyzing the dynamics of the production of new scientific knowledge in the states that contributed the most to national scientific production in the period 2000–10: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, also known as the ...

  9. Soft-linking energy systems and GIS models to investigate spatial hydrogen infrastructure development in a low-carbon UK energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Neil; Hughes, Nick; Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye; McGeevor, Kate; Joffe, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative modelling approach focusing on linking spatial (GIS) modelling of hydrogen (H 2 ) supply, demands and infrastructures, anchored within a economy-wide energy systems model (MARKAL). The UK government is legislating a groundbreaking climate change mitigation target for a 60% CO 2 reduction by 2050, and has identified H 2 infrastructures and technologies as potentially playing a major role, notably in the transport sector. An exploratory set of linked GIS-MARKAL model scenarios generate a range of nuanced insights including spatial matching of supply and demand for optimal zero-carbon H 2 deployment, a crucial finding on successive clustering of demand centres to enable economies of scale in H 2 supply and distribution, the competitiveness of imported liquid H 2 and of liquid H 2 distribution, and sectoral competition for coal with carbon sequestration between electricity and H 2 production under economy-wide CO 2 constraints. (author)

  10. Spatial distribution of lead concentrations in urban surface soils of New Orleans, Louisiana USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Michael T; Suedel, Burton; Presley, Steven M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; McDaniel, Les N; Rigdon, Richard; Goebel, Timothy; Zartman, Richard; Leftwich, Blair D; Anderson, Todd A; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2010-10-01

    Immediately following hurricane Katrina concern was raised over the environmental impact of floodwaters on the city of New Orleans, especially in regard to human health. Several studies were conducted to determine the actual contaminant distribution throughout the city and surrounding wetlands by analyzing soil, sediment, and water for a variety of contaminants including organics, inorganics, and biologics. Preliminary investigations by The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University concluded that soils and sediments contained pesticides, semi-volatiles, and metals, specifically arsenic, iron, and lead, at concentrations that could pose a significant risk to human health. Additional studies on New Orleans floodwaters revealed similar constituents as well as compounds commonly found in gasoline. More recently, it has been revealed that lead (Pb), arsenic, and vanadium are found intermittently throughout the city at concentrations greater than the human health soil screening levels (HHSSLs) of 400, 22 (non-cancer endpoint) and 390 μg/g, respectively. Of these, Pb appears to present the greatest exposure hazard to humans as a result of its extensive distribution in city soils. In this study, we spatially evaluated Pb concentrations across greater New Orleans surface soils. We established 128 sampling sites throughout New Orleans at approximately half-mile intervals. A soil sample was collected at each site and analyzed for Pb by ICP-AES. Soils from 19 (15%) of the sites had Pb concentrations exceeding the HHSSL threshold of 400 μg/g. It was determined that the highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south and west portions of the city. Pb concentrations found throughout New Orleans in this study were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model that can be further used to predict Pb exposure to humans in the city.

  11. The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intraspecific growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bailey; Grant, James W A; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-07-01

    How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering the equitability of resource accessibility and thereby the effective number of competitors. While much work has investigated the influence of morphology on competitive ability for different resource types, less is known regarding the phenotypic characteristics conferring relative ability for a single resource type, particularly when exploitative competition predominates. Here we used young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to test whether and how the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density interact to influence the level and variance of individual growth, as well as if functional morphology relates to competitive ability. Feeding trials were conducted within stream channels under three spatial distributions of nine resource patches (distributed, semi-clumped and clumped) at two density levels (9 and 27 individuals). Average trial growth was greater in high-density treatments with no effect of resource distribution. Within-trial growth variance had opposite patterns across resource distributions. Here, variance decreased at low-population, but increased at high-population densities as patches became increasingly clumped as the result of changes in the levels of interference vs. exploitative competition. Within-trial growth was related to both pre- and post-trial morphology where competitive individuals were those with traits associated with swimming capacity and efficiency: larger heads/bodies/caudal fins

  12. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Lagrab; Noura AKNIN

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facil...

  13. Spatial relationships of levees and wetland systems within floodplains of the Wabash Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Morrison, R. R.; Nardi, F.; Annis, A.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Given the unique biogeochemical, physical, and hydrologic services provided by floodplain wetlands, proper management of river systems should include an understanding of how floodplain modifications influences wetland ecosystems. The construction of levees can reduce river-floodplain connectivity, yet it is unclear how levees affect wetlands within a river system, let alone the cumulative impacts within an entire watershed. This paper explores spatial relationships between levee and floodplain wetland systems in the Wabash basin, United States. We used a hydrogeomorphic floodplain delineation technique to map floodplain extents and identify wetlands that may be hydrologically connected to river networks. We then spatially examined the relationship between levee presence, wetland area, and other river network attributes within discrete HUC-12 sub-basins. Our results show that cumulative wetland area is relatively constant in sub-basins that contain levees, regardless of maximum stream order within the sub-basin. In sub-basins that do not contain levees, cumulative wetland area increases with maximum stream order. However, we found that wetland distributions around levees can be complex, and further studies on the influence of levees on wetland habitat may need to be evaluated at finer-resolution spatial scales.

  14. GSHR-Tree: a spatial index tree based on dynamic spatial slot and hash table in grid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanlong; Wu, Xin-cai; Wu, Liang

    2008-12-01

    Computation Grids enable the coordinated sharing of large-scale distributed heterogeneous computing resources that can be used to solve computationally intensive problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Grid spatial applications are made possible by high-speed networks and a new generation of Grid middleware that resides between networks and traditional GIS applications. The integration of the multi-sources and heterogeneous spatial information and the management of the distributed spatial resources and the sharing and cooperative of the spatial data and Grid services are the key problems to resolve in the development of the Grid GIS. The performance of the spatial index mechanism is the key technology of the Grid GIS and spatial database affects the holistic performance of the GIS in Grid Environments. In order to improve the efficiency of parallel processing of a spatial mass data under the distributed parallel computing grid environment, this paper presents a new grid slot hash parallel spatial index GSHR-Tree structure established in the parallel spatial indexing mechanism. Based on the hash table and dynamic spatial slot, this paper has improved the structure of the classical parallel R tree index. The GSHR-Tree index makes full use of the good qualities of R-Tree and hash data structure. This paper has constructed a new parallel spatial index that can meet the needs of parallel grid computing about the magnanimous spatial data in the distributed network. This arithmetic splits space in to multi-slots by multiplying and reverting and maps these slots to sites in distributed and parallel system. Each sites constructs the spatial objects in its spatial slot into an R tree. On the basis of this tree structure, the index data was distributed among multiple nodes in the grid networks by using large node R-tree method. The unbalance during process can be quickly adjusted by means of a dynamical adjusting algorithm. This tree structure has considered the

  15. Local multiplicity adjustment for the spatial scan statistic using the Gumbel distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnon, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    The spatial scan statistic is an important and widely used tool for cluster detection. It is based on the simultaneous evaluation of the statistical significance of the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic over a large collection of potential clusters. In most cluster detection problems, there is variation in the extent of local multiplicity across the study region. For example, using a fixed maximum geographic radius for clusters, urban areas typically have many overlapping potential clusters, whereas rural areas have relatively few. The spatial scan statistic does not account for local multiplicity variation. We describe a previously proposed local multiplicity adjustment based on a nested Bonferroni correction and propose a novel adjustment based on a Gumbel distribution approximation to the distribution of a local scan statistic. We compare the performance of all three statistics in terms of power and a novel unbiased cluster detection criterion. These methods are then applied to the well-known New York leukemia dataset and a Wisconsin breast cancer incidence dataset. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  17. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  18. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  19. Concentration, spatial and size distribution of airborne aerobic mesophilic bacteria in broiler farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adell, E.; Moset, V.; Yang Zhao, Yang; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In livestock houses, particulate matter (PM) and airborne microorganism are two of the most relevant air pollutants. Particulate matter may carry microorganisms, the inhalation of which can cause detrimental health effects. The aim of this study was to study the spatial distribution of airborne

  20. Model for spatial synthesis of automated control system of the GCR type reactor; Model za prostornu sintezu sistema automatskog upravljanja reaktora GCR tipa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, B; Matausek, M [Institut za nuklearne nauke ' Boris Kidric' , Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-07-01

    This paper describes the model which was developed for synthesis of spatial distribution of automated control elements in the reactor. It represents a general reliable mathematical model for analyzing transition states and synthesis of the automated control and regulation systems of GCR type reactors. One-dimensional system was defined under assumption that the time dependence of parameters of the neutron diffusion equation are identical in the total volume of the reactor and that spatial distribution of neutrons is time independent. It is shown that this assumption is satisfactory in case of short term variations which are relevant for safety analysis.

  1. Mechanism of formation and spatial distribution of lead atoms in quartz tube atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Baxter, D. C.; Ohlsson, K. E. A.; Frech, W.

    1997-05-01

    The cross-sectional and longitudinal spatial distributions of lead atoms in a quartz tube (QT) atomizers coupled to a gas chromatograph have been investigated. A uniform analyte atom distribution over the cross-section was found in a QT having an inner diameter (i.d.) of 7 mm, whereas a 10 mm i.d. QT showed an inhomogeneous distribution. These results accentuate the importance of using QTs with i.d.s below 10 mm to fulfil the prerequirement of the Beer—Lambert law to avoid bent calibration curves. The influence of the make up gas on the formation of lead atoms from alkyllead compounds has been studied, and carbon monoxide was found equally efficient in promoting free atom formation as hydrogen. This suggests that hydrogen radicals are not essential for mediating the atomization of alkyllead in QT atomizers at ˜ 1200 K. Furthermore, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations describing the investigated system were performed supporting the experimental results. Based on the presented data, a mechanism for free lead atom formation in continuously heated QT atomizers is proposed; thermal atomization occurs under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in a reducing gas. The longitudinal atom distribution has been further investigated applying other make up gases, N 2 and He. These results show the effect of the influx of atmospheric oxygen on the free lead atom formation. Calculations of the partial pressure of oxygen in the atomizer gas phase assuming thermodynamic equilibrium have been undertaken using a convective-diffusional model.

  2. On the distributions of annual and seasonal daily rainfall extremes in central Arizona and their spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    This study uses daily rainfall records of a dense network of 240 gauges in central Arizona to gain insights on (i) the variability of the seasonal distributions of rainfall extremes; (ii) how the seasonal distributions affect the shape of the annual distribution; and (iii) the presence of spatial patterns and orographic control for these distributions. For this aim, recent methodological advancements in peak-over-threshold analysis and application of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) were used to assess the suitability of the GPD hypothesis and improve the estimation of its parameters, while limiting the effect of short sample sizes. The distribution of daily rainfall extremes was found to be heavy-tailed (i.e., GPD shape parameter ξ > 0) during the summer season, dominated by convective monsoonal thunderstorms. The exponential distribution (a special case of GPD with ξ = 0) was instead showed to be appropriate for modeling wintertime daily rainfall extremes, mainly caused by cold fronts transported by westerly flow. The annual distribution exhibited a mixed behavior, with lighter upper tails than those found in summer. A hybrid model mixing the two seasonal distributions was demonstrated capable of reproducing the annual distribution. Organized spatial patterns, mainly controlled by elevation, were observed for the GPD scale parameter, while ξ did not show any clear control of location or orography. The quantiles returned by the GPD were found to be very similar to those provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14, which used the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. Results of this work are useful to improve statistical modeling of daily rainfall extremes at high spatial resolution and provide diagnostic tools for assessing the ability of climate models to simulate extreme events.

  3. Using geomorphological variables to predict the spatial distribution of plant species in agricultural drainage networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Gabrielle; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Vinatier, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    To optimize ecosystem services provided by agricultural drainage networks (ditches) in headwater catchments, we need to manage the spatial distribution of plant species living in these networks. Geomorphological variables have been shown to be important predictors of plant distribution in other ecosystems because they control the water regime, the sediment deposition rates and the sun exposure in the ditches. Whether such variables may be used to predict plant distribution in agricultural drainage networks is unknown. We collected presence and absence data for 10 herbaceous plant species in a subset of a network of drainage ditches (35 km long) within a Mediterranean agricultural catchment. We simulated their spatial distribution with GLM and Maxent model using geomorphological variables and distance to natural lands and roads. Models were validated using k-fold cross-validation. We then compared the mean Area Under the Curve (AUC) values obtained for each model and other metrics issued from the confusion matrices between observed and predicted variables. Based on the results of all metrics, the models were efficient at predicting the distribution of seven species out of ten, confirming the relevance of geomorphological variables and distance to natural lands and roads to explain the occurrence of plant species in this Mediterranean catchment. In particular, the importance of the landscape geomorphological variables, ie the importance of the geomorphological features encompassing a broad environment around the ditch, has been highlighted. This suggests that agro-ecological measures for managing ecosystem services provided by ditch plants should focus on the control of the hydrological and sedimentological connectivity at the catchment scale. For example, the density of the ditch network could be modified or the spatial distribution of vegetative filter strips used for sediment trapping could be optimized. In addition, the vegetative filter strips could constitute

  4. Spatial distribution of excitatory synapses on the dendrites of ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Excitatory glutamatergic inputs from bipolar cells affect the physiological properties of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. The spatial distribution of these excitatory synapses on the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells thus may shape their distinct functions. To visualize the spatial pattern of excitatory glutamatergic input into the ganglion cells in the mouse retina, particle-mediated gene transfer of plasmids expressing postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent fusion protein (PSD95-GFP was used to label the excitatory synapses. Despite wide variation in the size and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells, the expression of PSD95 puncta was found to follow two general rules. Firstly, the PSD95 puncta are regularly spaced, at 1-2 µm intervals, along the dendrites, whereby the presence of an excitatory synapse creates an exclusion zone that rules out the presence of other glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Secondly, the spatial distribution of PSD95 puncta on the dendrites of diverse retinal ganglion cells are similar in that the number of excitatory synapses appears to be less on primary dendrites and to increase to a plateau on higher branch order dendrites. These observations suggest that synaptogenesis is spatially regulated along the dendritic segments and that the number of synaptic contacts is relatively constant beyond the primary dendrites. Interestingly, we also found that the linear puncta density is slightly higher in large cells than in small cells. This may suggest that retinal ganglion cells with a large dendritic field tend to show an increased connectivity of excitatory synapses that makes up for their reduced dendrite density. Mapping the spatial distribution pattern of the excitatory synapses on retinal ganglion cells thus provides explicit structural information that is essential for our understanding of how excitatory glutamatergic inputs shape neuronal responses.

  5. Using geographical semi-variogram method to quantify the difference between NO2 and PM2.5 spatial distribution characteristics in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Zhilin; Tang, Deliang

    2018-08-01

    Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO 2 and PM 2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO 2 and PM 2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network. The results showed that the total spatial variance of NO 2 is 38.5% higher than that of PM 2.5 . The random spatial variance of NO 2 was 1.6 times than that of PM 2.5 . The nugget effect (i.e., random to total spatial variance ratio) values of NO 2 and PM 2.5 were 29.7 and 20.9%, respectively. This indicates that urban NO 2 distribution was affected by both local and regional influencing factors, while urban PM 2.5 distribution was dominated by regional influencing factors. NO 2 had a larger seasonally averaged spatial autocorrelation distance (48km) than that of PM 2.5 (33km). The spatial range of NO 2 autocorrelation was larger in winter than the other seasons, and PM 2.5 has a smaller range of spatial autocorrelation in winter than the other seasons. Overall, the geographical semi-variogram analysis is a very effective method to enrich the understanding of NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions. It can provide scientific evidences for the buffering radius selection of spatial predictors for land use regression models. It will also be beneficial for developing the targeted policies and measures to reduce NO 2 and PM 2.5 pollution levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Indirect effects of ecosystem engineering combine with consumer behaviour to determine the spatial distribution of herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Riley, Megan E; Cannizzo, Zachary J; Feller, Ilka C

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystem engineers alter environments by creating, modifying or destroying habitats. The indirect impacts of ecosystem engineering on trophic interactions should depend on the combination of the spatial distribution of engineered structures and the foraging behaviour of consumers that use these structures as refuges. In this study, we assessed the indirect effects of ecosystem engineering by a wood-boring beetle in a neotropical mangrove forest system. We identified herbivory patterns in a dwarf mangrove forest on the archipelago of Twin Cays, Belize. Past wood-boring activity impacted more than one-third of trees through the creation of tree holes that are now used, presumably as predation or thermal refuge, by the herbivorous mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii. The presence of these refuges had a significant impact on plant-animal interactions; herbivory was more than fivefold higher on trees influenced by tree holes relative to those that were completely isolated from these refuges. Additionally, herbivory decreased exponentially with increasing distance from tree holes. We use individual-based simulation modelling to demonstrate that the creation of these herbivory patterns depends on a combination of the use of engineered tree holes for refuge by tree crabs, and the use of two behaviour patterns in this species-site fidelity to a "home tree," and more frequent foraging near their home tree. We demonstrate that understanding the spatial distribution of herbivory in this system depends on combining both the use of ecosystem engineering structures with individual behavioural patterns of herbivores. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  7. Sub-hour solar data for power system modeling from static spatial variability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa R.; Ibanez, Eduardo; Brinkman, Gregory; Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. For instance, as additional solar power sites are added, the relative amount of variability should decrease due to spatial averaging of localized irradiance fluctuations. This presentation will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km. During each hour, the observed GHI value for the grid cell of interest and the surrounding grid cells is related, via probability distributions, to one of live temporal cloud coverage classifications (class I, II, III, IV, V). Synthesis algorithms are used to select one-minute time step GHI values based on the classification of the grid cell of interest in a particular hour. Three primary statistical measures of the dataset are demonstrated: reduction in ramps as a function of aggregation; coherence of GHI values across sites ranging from 6 to 400 km apart over time scales from one minute to three hours; and ramp magnitude and duration distributions as a function of time of day and day o