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Sample records for spatially defined operants

  1. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  2. Pointwise extensions of GSOS-defined operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, H.H.; Klin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Final coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor S over a behaviour functor F). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification formats. One such

  3. Pointwise Extensions of GSOS-Defined Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Hansen (Helle); B. Klin

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFinal coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor $\\FSig$ over a behaviour functor $F$). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification

  4. DEFINING SPATIAL VIOLENCE. BUCHAREST AS A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia GHYKA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the spatial manifestations of violence, aiming to define the category of spatial violence by focusing on the recent urban history of Bucharest; it establishes links with the longer history of natural and inflicted disasters that defined the city, and it explores the spatial, urban, social and symbolical conflicts that occured during the last 25 years, pointing at their consequences on the social and urban substance of the city.

  5. 3D GIS spatial operation based on extended Euler operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbo; Lu, Guonian; Sheng, Yehua; Zhou, Liangchen; Guo, Fei; Shang, Zuoyan; Wang, Jing

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of 3 dimensions spatial operations, based on certain data structure, has a lack of universality and is not able to treat with non-manifold cases, at present. ISO/DIS 19107 standard just presents the definition of Boolean operators and set operators for topological relationship query, and OGC GeoXACML gives formal definitions for several set functions without implementation detail. Aiming at these problems, based mathematical foundation on cell complex theory, supported by non-manifold data structure and using relevant research in the field of non-manifold geometry modeling for reference, firstly, this paper according to non-manifold Euler-Poincaré formula constructs 6 extended Euler operators and inverse operators to carry out creating, updating and deleting 3D spatial elements, as well as several pairs of supplementary Euler operators to convenient for implementing advanced functions. Secondly, we change topological element operation sequence of Boolean operation and set operation as well as set functions defined in GeoXACML into combination of extended Euler operators, which separates the upper functions and lower data structure. Lastly, we develop underground 3D GIS prototype system, in which practicability and credibility of extended Euler operators faced to 3D GIS presented by this paper are validated.

  6. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  7. Co-registration of pre-operative CT with ex vivo surgically excised ground glass nodules to define spatial extent of invasive adenocarcinoma on in vivo imaging: a proof-of-concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilkeson, Robert; Yang, Michael; Donatelli, Christopher; Linden, Philip [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Thawani, Rajat; Madabhushi, Anant [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Jacono, Frank J. [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To develop an approach for radiology-pathology fusion of ex vivo histology of surgically excised pulmonary nodules with pre-operative CT, to radiologically map spatial extent of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component of the nodule. Six subjects (age: 75 ± 11 years) with pre-operative CT and surgically excised ground-glass nodules (size: 22.5 ± 5.1 mm) with a significant invasive adenocarcinomatous component (>5 mm) were included. The pathologist outlined disease extent on digitized histology specimens; two radiologists and a pulmonary critical care physician delineated the entire nodule on CT (in-plane resolution: <0.8 mm, inter-slice distance: 1-5 mm). We introduced a novel reconstruction approach to localize histology slices in 3D relative to each other while using CT scan as spatial constraint. This enabled the spatial mapping of the extent of tumour invasion from histology onto CT. Good overlap of the 3D reconstructed histology and the nodule outlined on CT was observed (65.9 ± 5.2%). Reduction in 3D misalignment of corresponding anatomical landmarks on histology and CT was observed (1.97 ± 0.42 mm). Moreover, the CT attenuation (HU) distributions were different when comparing invasive and in situ regions. This proof-of-concept study suggests that our fusion method can enable the spatial mapping of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component from 2D histology slices onto in vivo CT. (orig.)

  8. Co-registration of pre-operative CT with ex vivo surgically excised ground glass nodules to define spatial extent of invasive adenocarcinoma on in vivo imaging: a proof-of-concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Gilkeson, Robert; Yang, Michael; Donatelli, Christopher; Linden, Philip; Thawani, Rajat; Madabhushi, Anant; Jacono, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    To develop an approach for radiology-pathology fusion of ex vivo histology of surgically excised pulmonary nodules with pre-operative CT, to radiologically map spatial extent of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component of the nodule. Six subjects (age: 75 ± 11 years) with pre-operative CT and surgically excised ground-glass nodules (size: 22.5 ± 5.1 mm) with a significant invasive adenocarcinomatous component (>5 mm) were included. The pathologist outlined disease extent on digitized histology specimens; two radiologists and a pulmonary critical care physician delineated the entire nodule on CT (in-plane resolution: <0.8 mm, inter-slice distance: 1-5 mm). We introduced a novel reconstruction approach to localize histology slices in 3D relative to each other while using CT scan as spatial constraint. This enabled the spatial mapping of the extent of tumour invasion from histology onto CT. Good overlap of the 3D reconstructed histology and the nodule outlined on CT was observed (65.9 ± 5.2%). Reduction in 3D misalignment of corresponding anatomical landmarks on histology and CT was observed (1.97 ± 0.42 mm). Moreover, the CT attenuation (HU) distributions were different when comparing invasive and in situ regions. This proof-of-concept study suggests that our fusion method can enable the spatial mapping of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component from 2D histology slices onto in vivo CT. (orig.)

  9. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  10. Operational Risk Defined Through a Complex Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    analysis . But the report noted that “CJTF-HOA’s presence in Africa offers benefits such as its ability to respond to contingencies, provide forces for...18 Analysis ...Development JOPP Joint Operations Planning Process NGO Non-Governmental Organization PRC Profitable Risk Control SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses

  11. OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit: Analyzing Spatially Defined Samples Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Raad, Markus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Rond, Tristan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rübel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Northen, Trent R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Bowen, Benjamin P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has primarily been applied in localizing biomolecules within biological matrices. Although well-suited, the application of MSI for comparing thousands of spatially defined spotted samples has been limited. One reason for this is a lack of suitable and accessible data processing tools for the analysis of large arrayed MSI sample sets. In this paper, the OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit (OMAAT) is a software package that addresses the challenges of analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI data sets. OMAAT is written in Python and is integrated with OpenMSI (http://openmsi.nersc.gov), a platform for storing, sharing, and analyzing MSI data. By using a web-based python notebook (Jupyter), OMAAT is accessible to anyone without programming experience yet allows experienced users to leverage all features. OMAAT was evaluated by analyzing an MSI data set of a high-throughput glycoside hydrolase activity screen comprising 384 samples arrayed onto a NIMS surface at a 450 μm spacing, decreasing analysis time >100-fold while maintaining robust spot-finding. The utility of OMAAT was demonstrated for screening metabolic activities of different sized soil particles, including hydrolysis of sugars, revealing a pattern of size dependent activities. Finally, these results introduce OMAAT as an effective toolkit for analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI. OMAAT runs on all major operating systems, and the source code can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/biorack/omaat.

  12. Spatial Thinking: Precept for Understanding Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region,” 236. 29 U.S. National Research Council, Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a... children and spatial language, the article focuses on the use of geospatial information systems (GIS) as a support mechanism for learning to think...Thinking, Cognition, Learning , Geospatial, Operating Environment, Space Perception 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  13. Use of plant operating history to define transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue and crack growth analyses of components subjected to transient loads have been under continuous development during the recent past to include effects of environment on the components. The accuracy of the evaluation method on the predicted reliability of the components in the operating environment has become a focus of attention. Methods have integrated available material/component test data to improve evaluation techniques. However, in the area of definition of thermal transient loads the analyst still has to remain conservative, because no realistic guidelines have been developed to define thermal transients and their sequences. Fatigue re-evaluations of components are becoming increasingly necessary in operating plants as they age due to two reasons: (1) Components show age related degradation and cannot be repaired/replaced due to economic/logistic reasons. (2) Components experience transient conditions which were not considered in the original design. In either case, the evaluation of remaining life of components involves definition of transients and their sequence from the time the component was put in service until the end of life. As a common practice, initial plant design transients are used in a conservative definition of sequences to obtain results unrealistic for the situation, which sometimes leads to inaccurate estimate of the remaining life of components. The objective of this paper is to use plant operating history and plant monitoring data to provide procedures and techniques to define realistic transients for evaluation

  14. Homogenization of variational inequalities and equations defined by pseudomonotone operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2008-01-01

    Results on the convergence of sequences of solutions of non-linear equations and variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities and equations are defined by a non-linear, pseudomonotone operator of the second order with periodic, rapidly oscillating coefficients and by sequences of functions characterizing the obstacles and the boundary conditions. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting problems for such variational inequalities and equations are obtained. Results on the relationship between solutions of these limiting problems are established and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of solutions are presented. Bibliography: 25 titles

  15. Federated software defined network operations for LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Byeon, Okhwan; Cho, Kihyeon

    2013-09-01

    The most well-known high-energy physics collaboration, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is based on e-Science, has been facing several challenges presented by its extraordinary instruments in terms of the generation, distribution, and analysis of large amounts of scientific data. Currently, data distribution issues are being resolved by adopting an advanced Internet technology called software defined networking (SDN). Stability of the SDN operations and management is demanded to keep the federated LHC data distribution networks reliable. Therefore, in this paper, an SDN operation architecture based on the distributed virtual network operations center (DvNOC) is proposed to enable LHC researchers to assume full control of their own global end-to-end data dissemination. This may achieve an enhanced data delivery performance based on data traffic offloading with delay variation. The evaluation results indicate that the overall end-to-end data delivery performance can be improved over multi-domain SDN environments based on the proposed federated SDN/DvNOC operation framework.

  16. Use of National Burden to Define Operative Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Olufajo, Olubode A; Brat, Gabriel A; Rose, John A; Zogg, Cheryl K; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2016-06-15

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) represents 11% of surgical admissions and 50% of surgical mortality in the United States. However, there is currently no established definition of the EGS procedures. To define a set of procedures accounting for at least 80% of the national burden of operative EGS. A retrospective review was conducted using data from the 2008-2011 National Inpatient Sample. Adults (age, ≥18 years) with primary EGS diagnoses consistent with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definition, admitted urgently or emergently, who underwent an operative procedure within 2 days of admission were included in the analyses. Procedures were ranked to account for national mortality and complication burden. Among ranked procedures, contributions to total EGS frequency, mortality, and hospital costs were assessed. The data query and analysis were performed between November 15, 2015, and February 16, 2016. Overall procedure frequency, in-hospital mortality, major complications, and inpatient costs calculated per 3-digit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. The study identified 421 476 patient encounters associated with operative EGS, weighted to represent 2.1 million nationally over the 4-year study period. The overall mortality rate was 1.23% (95% CI, 1.18%-1.28%), the complication rate was 15.0% (95% CI, 14.6%-15.3%), and mean cost per admission was $13 241 (95% CI, $12 957-$13 525). After ranking the 35 procedure groups by contribution to EGS mortality and morbidity burden, a final set of 7 operative EGS procedures were identified, which collectively accounted for 80.0% of procedures, 80.3% of deaths, 78.9% of complications, and 80.2% of inpatient costs nationwide. These 7 procedures included partial colectomy, small-bowel resection, cholecystectomy, operative management of peptic ulcer disease, lysis of peritoneal adhesions, appendectomy, and laparotomy. Only 7 procedures account

  17. An Operational Framework for Defining and Monitoring Forest Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest degradation is broadly defined as a reduction in the capacity of a forest to produce ecosystem services such as carbon storage and wood products as a result of anthropogenic and environmental changes. The main causes of degradation include unsustainable logging, agriculture, invasive species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. Forest degradation is widespread and has become an important consideration in global policy processes that deal with biodiversity, climate change, and forest management. There is, however, no generally recognized way to identify a degraded forest because perceptions of forest degradation vary depending on the cause, the particular goods or services of interest, and the temporal and spatial scales considered. Here, we suggest that there are types of forest degradation that produce a continuum of decline in provision of ecosystem services, from those in primary forests through various forms of managed forests to deforestation. Forest degradation must be measured against a desired baseline condition, and the types of degradation can be represented using five criteria that relate to the drivers of degradation, loss of ecosystem services and sustainable management, including: productivity, biodiversity, unusual disturbances, protective functions, and carbon storage. These criteria are not meant to be equivalent and some might be considered more important than others, depending on the local forest management objectives. We propose a minimum subset of seven indicators for the five criteria that should be assessed to determine forest degradation under a sustainable ecosystem management regime. The indicators can be remotely sensed (although improving calibration requires ground work and aggregated from stand to management unit or landscape levels and ultimately to sub-national and national scales.

  18. Methodology to Define Delivery Accuracy Under Current Day ATC Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Robinson, John E., III

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable arrival management concepts and solutions in a NextGen environment, ground- based sequencing and scheduling functions have been developed to support metering operations in the National Airspace System. These sequencing and scheduling algorithms as well as tools are designed to aid air traffic controllers in developing an overall arrival strategy. The ground systems being developed will support the management of aircraft to their Scheduled Times of Arrival (STAs) at flow-constrained meter points. This paper presents a methodology for determining the undelayed delivery accuracy for current day air traffic control operations. This new method analyzes the undelayed delivery accuracy at meter points in order to understand changes of desired flow rates as well as enabling definition of metrics that will allow near-future ground automation tools to successfully achieve desired separation at the meter points. This enables aircraft to meet their STAs while performing high precision arrivals. The research presents a possible implementation that would allow delivery performance of current tools to be estimated and delivery accuracy requirements for future tools to be defined, which allows analysis of Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) accuracy for Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) and the FAA's Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). TMA is a deployed system that generates scheduled time-of-arrival constraints for en- route air traffic controllers in the US. This new method of automated analysis provides a repeatable evaluation of the delay metrics for current day traffic, new releases of TMA, implementation of different tools, and across different airspace environments. This method utilizes a wide set of data from the Operational TMA-TBFM Repository (OTTR) system, which processes raw data collected by the FAA from operational TMA systems at all ARTCCs in the nation. The OTTR system generates daily reports concerning ATC status, intent and actions. Due to its

  19. Defining Criteria for Handover to Civilian Officials in Relief Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessler, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 3000.05 directs that the military shall be prepared to accomplish 'all tasks necessary to establish or maintain order when civilians are unable to do so,' but the metrics which define success...

  20. DEFINING RECOVERY GOALS AND STRATEGIES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES USING SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT POPULATION MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a spatially explicit population model of wolves (Canis lupus) to propose a framework for defining rangewide recovery priorities and finer-scale strategies for regional reintroductions. The model predicts that Yellowstone and central Idaho, where wolves have recently been ...

  1. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negliible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching, Hörmander and Parenti...

  2. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negligible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching andHörmander, type 1...

  3. Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, Mark; Mann, Jenna; Chapman, Tom; Thomas, Fran; Whitton, Claire; Floyd, Robin; Abebe, Eyualem

    2005-10-29

    The scale of diversity of life on this planet is a significant challenge for any scientific programme hoping to produce a complete catalogue, whatever means is used. For DNA barcoding studies, this difficulty is compounded by the realization that any chosen barcode sequence is not the gene 'for' speciation and that taxa have evolutionary histories. How are we to disentangle the confounding effects of reticulate population genetic processes? Using the DNA barcode data from meiofaunal surveys, here we discuss the benefits of treating the taxa defined by barcodes without reference to their correspondence to 'species', and suggest that using this non-idealist approach facilitates access to taxon groups that are not accessible to other methods of enumeration and classification. Major issues remain, in particular the methodologies for taxon discrimination in DNA barcode data.

  4. OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit: Analyzing Spatially Defined Samples Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raad, Markus; de Rond, Tristan; Rübel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    ://openmsinersc.gov), a platform for storing, sharing, and analyzing MSI data. By using a web-based python notebook (Jupyter), OMAAT is accessible to anyone without programming experience yet allows experienced users to leverage all features. OMAAT was :evaluated by analyzing an MSI data set of a high-throughput glycoside...... processing tools for the analysis of large arrayed MSI sample sets. The OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit (OMAAT) is a software package that addresses the challenges of analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI data sets. OMAAT is written in Python and is integrated with OpenMSI (http...

  5. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  6. Graph Theory Roots of Spatial Operators for Kinematics and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2011-01-01

    Spatial operators have been used to analyze the dynamics of robotic multibody systems and to develop novel computational dynamics algorithms. Mass matrix factorization, inversion, diagonalization, and linearization are among several new insights obtained using such operators. While initially developed for serial rigid body manipulators, the spatial operators and the related mathematical analysis have been shown to extend very broadly including to tree and closed topology systems, to systems with flexible joints, links, etc. This work uses concepts from graph theory to explore the mathematical foundations of spatial operators. The goal is to study and characterize the properties of the spatial operators at an abstract level so that they can be applied to a broader range of dynamics problems. The rich mathematical properties of the kinematics and dynamics of robotic multibody systems has been an area of strong research interest for several decades. These properties are important to understand the inherent physical behavior of systems, for stability and control analysis, for the development of computational algorithms, and for model development of faithful models. Recurring patterns in spatial operators leads one to ask the more abstract question about the properties and characteristics of spatial operators that make them so broadly applicable. The idea is to step back from the specific application systems, and understand more deeply the generic requirements and properties of spatial operators, so that the insights and techniques are readily available across different kinematics and dynamics problems. In this work, techniques from graph theory were used to explore the abstract basis for the spatial operators. The close relationship between the mathematical properties of adjacency matrices for graphs and those of spatial operators and their kernels were established. The connections hold across very basic requirements on the system topology, the nature of the component

  7. Spatially improved operators for excited hadrons on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Tommy; Gattringer, Christof; Schaefer, Andreas; Glozman, Leonid Ya.; Kleindl, Reinhard; Lang, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new approach for determining spatially optimized operators that can be used for lattice spectroscopy of excited hadrons. Jacobi smeared quark sources with different widths are combined to construct hadron operators with different spatial wave functions. We use the variational method to determine those linear combinations of operators that have optimal overlap with ground and excited states. The details of the new approach are discussed and we demonstrate the power of the method using examples from quenched baryon and meson spectroscopy. In particular, we study the Roper state and ρ(1450) and discuss some physical implications of our tests

  8. Using the Spatial Distribution of Installers to Define Solar Photovoltaic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Solar PV market research to date has largely relied on arbitrary jurisdictional boundaries, such as counties, to study solar PV market dynamics. This paper seeks to improve solar PV market research by developing a methodology to define solar PV markets. The methodology is based on the spatial distribution of solar PV installers. An algorithm is developed and applied to a rich dataset of solar PV installations to study the outcomes of the installer-based market definitions. The installer-based approach exhibits several desirable properties. Specifically, the higher market granularity of the installer-based approach will allow future PV market research to study the relationship between market dynamics and pricing with more precision.

  9. Some properties for integro-differential operator defined by a fractional formal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnaby, Zainab E; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Kılıçman, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of the fractional formal (operators, polynomials and classes of special functions) has been increased. This study not only in mathematics but extended to another topics. In this effort, we investigate a generalized integro-differential operator [Formula: see text] defined by a fractional formal (fractional differential operator) and study some its geometric properties by employing it in new subclasses of analytic univalent functions.

  10. Defining the Intrinsic Cardiac Risks of Operations to Improve Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason B; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Sweitzer, Bobbie J

    2018-02-01

    Current preoperative cardiac risk stratification practices group operations into broad categories, which might inadequately consider the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations. We sought to define the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations and to demonstrate how grouping operations might lead to imprecise estimates of perioperative cardiac risk. Elective operations (based on Common Procedural Terminology codes) performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were studied. A composite measure of perioperative adverse cardiac events was defined as either cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation or acute myocardial infarction. Operations' intrinsic cardiac risks were derived from mixed-effects models while controlling for patient mix. Resultant risks were sorted into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, and the most commonly performed operations within each category were identified. Intrinsic operative risks were also examined using a representative grouping of operations to portray within-group variation. Sixty-six low, 30 intermediate, and 106 high intrinsic cardiac risk operations were identified. Excisional breast biopsy had the lowest intrinsic cardiac risk (overall rate, 0.01%; odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.25) relative to the average, whereas aorto-bifemoral bypass grafting had the highest (overall rate, 4.1%; odds ratio, 6.61; 95% CI, 5.54 to 7.90). There was wide variation in the intrinsic cardiac risks of operations within the representative grouping (median odds ratio, 1.40; interquartile range, 0.88 to 2.17). A continuum of intrinsic cardiac risk exists among operations. Grouping operations into broad categories inadequately accounts for the intrinsic cardiac risk of individual operations.

  11. Defining spatial relations in a specific ontology for automated scene creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Contraş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach of building an ontology for automatic scene generation. Every scene contains various elements (backgrounds, characters, objects which are spatially interrelated. The article focuses on these spatial and temporal relationships of the elements constituting a scene.

  12. A New Class of Analytic Functions Defined by Using Salagean Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. El-Ashwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive some results for a new class of analytic functions defined by using Salagean operator. We give some properties of functions in this class and obtain numerous sharp results including for example, coefficient estimates, distortion theorem, radii of star-likeness, convexity, close-to-convexity, extreme points, integral means inequalities, and partial sums of functions belonging to this class. Finally, we give an application involving certain fractional calculus operators that are also considered.

  13. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  14. Inter-operator Variability in Defining Uterine Position Using Three-dimensional Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2013-01-01

    significantly larger inter-fractional uterine positional displacement, in some cases up to 20 mm, which outweighs the magnitude of current inter-operator variations. Thus, the current US-phantom-study suggests that the inter-operator variability in addressing uterine position is clinically irrelevant.......In radiotherapy the treatment outcome of gynecological (GYN) cancer patients is crucially related to reproducibility of the actual uterine position. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the inter-operator variability in addressing uterine position using a novel 3-D ultrasound (US) system....... The study is initiated by US-scanning of a uterine phantom (CIRS 404, Universal Medical, Norwood, USA) by seven experienced US operators. The phantom represents a female pelvic region, containing a uterus, bladder and rectal landmarks readily definable in the acquired US-scans. The organs are subjected...

  15. Spatiality of Derivations of Operator Algebras in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose that A is a transitive subalgebra of B(X and its norm closure A¯ contains a nonzero minimal left ideal I. It is shown that if δ is a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(X, then δ is spatial and implemented uniquely; that is, there exists T∈B(X such that δ(A=TA−AT for each A∈A, and the implementation T of δ is unique only up to an additive constant. This extends a result of E. Kissin that “if A¯ contains the ideal C(H of all compact operators in B(H, then a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(H is spatial and implemented uniquely.” in an algebraic direction and provides an alternative proof of it. It is also shown that a bounded reflexive transitive derivation from A into B(X is spatial and implemented uniquely, if X is a reflexive Banach space and A¯ contains a nonzero minimal right ideal I.

  16. Redefining the Indirect Approach, Defining Special Operations Forces (SOF Power, and the Global Networking of SOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current Defense Strategy assigns Special Operations Forces (SOF to play a central role in countering terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and irregular warfare. However, there has been little published that defines the role of Special Operations alongside air, land, and sea domains. The U.S. Special Operations Community struggles to define its own theoretical concepts such as direct approach and indirect approach. The U.S. SOF circles typically define direct approach with direct action and the indirect approach with foreign internal defense or security force assistance. Military theorist Liddell Hart viewed the indirect approach as a method to orient upon, target, and upset an adversary’s equilibrium in order to plan for and direct decisive blows. Today, the SOF indirect approach is arguable more applicable due to the prevalence of non-state threats and internal conflicts. Following Hart’s definition, precision raids are among the integral components of a broader application of the indirect approach. The approach also networks U.S. government power as a force when used in concert with allies and local partners. Global networking along with balanced precision raids will exponentially increase the utility of SOF power and position it to appropriately complement all domains to tackle 21st century challenges.

  17. Quantum theory with an energy operator defined as a quartic form of the momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezák, Viktor, E-mail: bezak@fmph.uniba.sk

    2016-09-15

    Quantum theory of the non-harmonic oscillator defined by the energy operator proposed by Yurke and Buks (2006) is presented. Although these authors considered a specific problem related to a model of transmission lines in a Kerr medium, our ambition is not to discuss the physical substantiation of their model. Instead, we consider the problem from an abstract, logically deductive, viewpoint. Using the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we focus attention on the imaginary-time propagator. We derive it as a functional of the Mehler kernel and, alternatively, as an exact series involving Hermite polynomials. For a statistical ensemble of identical oscillators defined by the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we calculate the partition function, average energy, free energy and entropy. Using the diagonal element of the canonical density matrix of this ensemble in the coordinate representation, we define a probability density, which appears to be a deformed Gaussian distribution. A peculiarity of this probability density is that it may reveal, when plotted as a function of the position variable, a shape with two peaks located symmetrically with respect to the central point.

  18. Per-operative vibration analysis: a valuable tool for defining correct stem insertion: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulier, Michiel; Pastrav, Cesar; Van der Perre, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Defining the stem insertion end point during total hip replacement still relies on the surgeon's feeling. When a custom-made stem prosthesis with an optimal fit into the femoral canal is used, the risk of per-operative fractures is even greater than with standard prostheses. Vibration analysis is used in other clinical settings and has been tested as a means to detect optimal stem insertion in the laboratory. The first per-operative use of vibration analysis during non-cemented custom-made stem insertion in 30 patients is reported here. Thirty patients eligible for total hip replacement with uncemented stem prosthesis were included. The neck of the stem was connected with a shaker that emitted white noise as excitation signal and an impedance head that measured the frequency response. The response signal was sent to a computer that analyzed the frequency response function after each insertion phase. A technician present in the operating theatre but outside the laminated airflow provided feed-back to the surgeon. The correlation index between the frequency response function measured during the last two insertion hammering sessions was >0.99 in 86.7% of the cases. In four cases the surgeon stopped the insertion procedure because of a perceived risk of fracture. Two special cases illustrating the potential benefit of per-operative vibration analysis are described. The results of intra-operative vibration analysis indicate that this technique may be a useful tool assisting the orthopaedic surgeon in defining the insertion endpoint of the stem. The development of a more user-friendly device is therefore warranted.

  19. Ecosystem accounts define explicit and spatial trade-offs for managing natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Vardon, Michael; Stein, John A; Stein, Janet L; Lindenmayer, David

    2017-11-01

    Decisions about natural resource management are frequently complex and vexed, often leading to public policy compromises. Discord between environmental and economic metrics creates problems in assessing trade-offs between different current or potential resource uses. Ecosystem accounts, which quantify ecosystems and their benefits for human well-being consistent with national economic accounts, provide exciting opportunities to contribute significantly to the policy process. We advanced the application of ecosystem accounts in a regional case study by explicitly and spatially linking impacts of human and natural activities on ecosystem assets and services to their associated industries. This demonstrated contributions of ecosystems beyond the traditional national accounts. Our results revealed that native forests would provide greater benefits from their ecosystem services of carbon sequestration, water yield, habitat provisioning and recreational amenity if harvesting for timber production ceased, thus allowing forests to continue growing to older ages.

  20. Influences of spatial and temporal variation on fish-habitat relationships defined by regression quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Cade, B.S.; Terrell, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used regression quantiles to model potentially limiting relationships between the standing crop of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki and measures of stream channel morphology. Regression quantile models indicated that variation in fish density was inversely related to the width:depth ratio of streams but not to stream width or depth alone. The spatial and temporal stability of model predictions were examined across years and streams, respectively. Variation in fish density with width:depth ratio (10th-90th regression quantiles) modeled for streams sampled in 1993-1997 predicted the variation observed in 1998-1999, indicating similar habitat relationships across years. Both linear and nonlinear models described the limiting relationships well, the latter performing slightly better. Although estimated relationships were transferable in time, results were strongly dependent on the influence of spatial variation in fish density among streams. Density changes with width:depth ratio in a single stream were responsible for the significant (P 80th). This suggests that stream-scale factors other than width:depth ratio play a more direct role in determining population density. Much of the variation in densities of cutthroat trout among streams was attributed to the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (a possible competitor) or connectivity to migratory habitats. Regression quantiles can be useful for estimating the effects of limiting factors when ecological responses are highly variable, but our results indicate that spatiotemporal variability in the data should be explicitly considered. In this study, data from individual streams and stream-specific characteristics (e.g., the occurrence of nonnative species and habitat connectivity) strongly affected our interpretation of the relationship between width:depth ratio and fish density.

  1. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E.; Wiig, Øystein; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    1. Animal populations, defined by geographical areas within a species’ distribution where population dynamics are largely regulated by births and deaths rather than by migration from surrounding areas, may be the correct unit for wildlife management. However, in heterogeneous landscapes varying habitat quality may yield subpopulations with distinct patterns in resource use and demography significant to the dynamics of populations.2. To define the spatial population structure of polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic, and to assess the existence of a shared population between the two countries, we analysed satellite telemetry data obtained from 105 female polar bears over 12 years.3. Using both cluster analyses and home-range estimation methods, we identified five population units inhabiting areas with different sea-ice characteristics and prey availability.4. The continuous distribution of polar bear positions indicated that the different subpopulations formed one continuous polar bear population in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Hence, Norway and Russia have a shared management responsibility.5. The spatial population structure identified will provide a guide for evaluating geographical patterns in polar bear ecology, the dynamics of polar bear–seal relationships and the effects of habitat alteration due to climate change. The work illustrates the importance of defining population borders and subpopulation structure in understanding the dynamics and management of larger animals.

  2. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  3. Diagnostic efficacy for coronary in-stent patency with parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto-Sekine, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hounsfield CT values across coronary CT angiograms constitute CT value-spatial profile curves. These CT profile curves are independent of window settings, and therefore, parameters derived from the curves can be used for objective anatomic analyses. Applicability of parameters derived from the curves to quantification of coronary in-stent patency has not yet been evaluated. Methods: Twenty-five CT value-spatial profile curves were delineated from 10 consecutive coronary stents to test correlation between the curve derived parameter (i.e., the minimum extreme value normalized by dividing by the maximum value of the curves obtained at neighboring outside of stents) and three intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters. Results: Correlation coefficients between normalized minimum extreme value of CT value-spatial profile curves and three IVUS parameters (such as patent cross-sectional in-stent area, the percentage of patent cross-sectional in-stent area, and coronary artery intra-stent diameter) were 0.65 (p < 0.01), 0.44 (p < 0.05) and 0.51 (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: CT parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves correlated significantly with IVUS parameters for quantitative coronary in-stent patency. A new approach with CT coronary angiography is therefore indicated for the noninvasive assessment of in-stent re-stenosis

  4. Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Software-Defined Network Operations Scheme for Remote 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Gil, Joon-Min

    2015-03-01

    The recent wide expansion of applicable three-dimensional (3D) printing and software-defined networking (SDN) technologies has led to a great deal of attention being focused on efficient remote control of manufacturing processes. SDN is a renowned paradigm for network softwarization, which has helped facilitate remote manufacturing in association with high network performance, since SDN is designed to control network paths and traffic flows, guaranteeing improved quality of services by obtaining network requests from end-applications on demand through the separated SDN controller or control plane. However, current SDN approaches are generally focused on the controls and automation of the networks, which indicates that there is a lack of management plane development designed for a reliable and fault-tolerant SDN environment. Therefore, in addition to the inherent advantage of SDN, this paper proposes a new software-defined network operations center (SD-NOC) architecture to strengthen the reliability and fault-tolerance of SDN in terms of network operations and management in particular. The cooperation and orchestration between SDN and SD-NOC are also introduced for the SDN failover processes based on four principal SDN breakdown scenarios derived from the failures of the controller, SDN nodes, and connected links. The abovementioned SDN troubles significantly reduce the network reachability to remote devices (e.g., 3D printers, super high-definition cameras, etc.) and the reliability of relevant control processes. Our performance consideration and analysis results show that the proposed scheme can shrink operations and management overheads of SDN, which leads to the enhancement of responsiveness and reliability of SDN for remote 3D printing and control processes.

  5. Defining ecologically relevant scales for spatial protection with long-term data on an endangered seabird and local prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Botha, Philna; Underhill, Les G; Ryan, Peter G; van Zyl, Danie; Cockcroft, Andrew C; Crawford, Robert J M; Dyer, Bruce M; Cook, Timothée R

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of nontarget predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of nontarget predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically relevant areas for spatial protection. We investigated the local population response (number of breeders) of the Bank Cormorant (Phalacrocorax neglectus), a range-restricted endangered seabird, to the availability of its prey, the heavily fished west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii). Using Bayesian state-space modeled cormorant counts at 3 colonies, 22 years of fisheries-independent data on local lobster abundance, and generalized additive modeling, we determined the spatial scale pertinent to these relationships in areas with different lobster availability. Cormorant numbers responded positively to lobster availability in the regions with intermediate and high abundance but not where regime shifts and fishing pressure had depleted lobster stocks. The relationships were strongest when lobsters 20-30 km offshore of the colony were considered, a distance greater than the Bank Cormorant's foraging range when breeding, and may have been influenced by prey availability for nonbreeding birds, prey switching, or prey ecology. Our results highlight the importance of considering the scale of ecological relationships in marine spatial planning and suggest that designing spatial protection around focal species can benefit marine predators across their full life cycle. We propose the precautionary implementation of small-scale marine protected areas, followed by robust assessment and adaptive-management, to confirm population-level benefits for the cormorants, their prey, and the wider ecosystem, without

  6. Operational Meanings of Orders of Observables Defined through Quantum Set Theories with Different Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Ozawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In quantum logic there is well-known arbitrariness in choosing a binary operation for conditional. Currently, we have at least three candidates, called the Sasaki conditional, the contrapositive Sasaki conditional, and the relevance conditional. A fundamental problem is to show how the form of the conditional follows from an analysis of operational concepts in quantum theory. Here, we attempt such an analysis through quantum set theory (QST. In this paper, we develop quantum set theory based on quantum logics with those three conditionals, each of which defines different quantum logical truth value assignment. We show that those three models satisfy the transfer principle of the same form to determine the quantum logical truth values of theorems of the ZFC set theory. We also show that the reals in the model and the truth values of their equality are the same for those models. Interestingly, however, the order relation between quantum reals significantly depends on the underlying conditionals. We characterize the operational meanings of those order relations in terms of joint probability obtained by the successive projective measurements of arbitrary two observables. Those characterizations clearly show their individual features and will play a fundamental role in future applications to quantum physics.

  7. Quantifying the correlation between spatially defined oxygen gradients and cell fate in an engineered three-dimensional culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Amir G; Cheema, Umber; Brown, Robert A; Shipley, Rebecca J

    2014-09-06

    A challenge in three-dimensional tissue culture remains the lack of quantitative information linking nutrient delivery and cellular distribution. Both in vivo and in vitro, oxygen is delivered by diffusion from its source (blood vessel or the construct margins). The oxygen level at a defined distance from its source depends critically on the balance of diffusion and cellular metabolism. Cells may respond to this oxygen environment through proliferation, death and chemotaxis, resulting in spatially resolved gradients in cellular density. This study extracts novel spatially resolved and simultaneous data on tissue oxygenation, cellular proliferation, viability and chemotaxis in three-dimensional spiralled, cellular collagen constructs. Oxygen concentration gradients drove preferential cellular proliferation rates and viability in the higher oxygen zones and induced chemotaxis along the spiral of the collagen construct; an oxygen gradient of 1.03 mmHg mm(-1) in the spiral direction induced a mean migratory speed of 1015 μm day(-1). Although this movement was modest, it was effective in balancing the system to a stable cell density distribution, and provided insights into the natural cell mechanism for adapting cell number and activity to a prevailing oxygen regime.

  8. Spatial analyses of benthic habitats to define coral reef ecosystem regions and potential biogeographic boundaries along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Walker

    Full Text Available Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework

  9. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the partheno-genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency.

  10. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Yi, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the parthenogenetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Eigenvalue for Densely Defined Perturbations of Multivalued Maximal Monotone Operators in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2013-01-01

    maximal monotone with and . Using the topological degree theory developed by Kartsatos and Quarcoo we study the eigenvalue problem where the operator is a single-valued of class . The existence of continuous branches of eigenvectors of infinite length then could be easily extended to the case where the operator is multivalued and is investigated.

  12. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  13. What's Behind a "+" Sign? Perceiving an Arithmetic Operator Recruits Brain Circuits for Spatial Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Romain; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Sigovan, Monica; Breton, Audrey; Cheylus, Anne; Fayol, Michel; Thevenot, Catherine; Prado, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults. Activity in these regions was greater for "+" than for "×" signs, indicating that it is modulated by whether an operator reflects an operation that evokes numerical manipulation (rather than rote memorization). Finally, the degree to which subjects activated a spatial region in response to a "+" sign was correlated with the degree to which subjects benefited from being briefly presented with that sign before having to calculate a single-digit addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Therefore, not only are some arithmetic operators linked to spatial intuitions, but such intuitions might also have an important role during arithmetic calculation. More generally, our findings support the view that mathematical symbols inherently evoke spatial representations.

  14. Re-Defining the Radio Operator: Honing AFSOF’s Edge for the Joint IW Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    warfare vision is to equip the joint force with capabilities, doctrine, organization, training, leadership , and operating concepts needed to make it as...proper training on their use, key mission leadership did not know that the systems on the C-130s could not directly communicate with the systems on...Containment Before Korea. Westport, Connecticut. Greenwood Press. Daft , R. L. (2003). Essentials of Organization Theory and Design, Fourth

  15. Stability and Support Operations, Intervening Armed Forces and the Population They Serve: Defining a Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-24

    Chauvancy, Le moral du soldat occidental dans les nouveaux contextes d’intervention » (The Western Soldier Moral In The New Intervention Environment). MARS...Lawrence A. “Military Stability and Support Operations: Analogies, Patterns And Recurring Themes”. Military Review 4 (July-august 1997): 51. WEB SITES...And General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1967. BOOKS IN FRENCH Corvisier, André. Histoire militaire de la France, 4. de 1940 à nos jours

  16. Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawil, Abdel-Rahman H.; Taweel, Adel; Naeem, Usman; Montebello, Matthew; Bashroush, Rabih; Al-Nemrat, Ameer

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities relating to the grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, many scientific and commercial applications are highly dependent on Information Servers (ISs) for storage and organization of their data. A data-information system that supports operations on multiple information servers in a grid environment is referred to as an interoperable grid system. Different perceptions by end-users of interoperable systems in a grid ...

  17. Reconstitution of a eukaryotic replisome reveals suppression mechanisms that define leading/lagging strand operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Schauer, Grant D; Yao, Nina Y; Langston, Lance D; Yurieva, Olga; Zhang, Dan; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2015-01-01

    We have reconstituted a eukaryotic leading/lagging strand replisome comprising 31 distinct polypeptides. This study identifies a process unprecedented in bacterial replisomes. While bacteria and phage simply recruit polymerases to the fork, we find that suppression mechanisms are used to position the distinct eukaryotic polymerases on their respective strands. Hence, Pol ε is active with CMG on the leading strand, but it is unable to function on the lagging strand, even when Pol δ is not present. Conversely, Pol δ-PCNA is the only enzyme capable of extending Okazaki fragments in the presence of Pols ε and α. We have shown earlier that Pol δ-PCNA is suppressed on the leading strand with CMG (Georgescu et al., 2014). We propose that CMG, the 11-subunit helicase, is responsible for one or both of these suppression mechanisms that spatially control polymerase occupancy at the fork. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04988.001 PMID:25871847

  18. Fixed points for some non-obviously contractive operators defined in a space of continuous functions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Avramescu; Cristian Vladimirescu

    2004-01-01

    Let $X$ be an arbitrary (real or complex) Banach space, endowed with the norm $\\left| \\cdot \\right| .$ Consider the space of the continuous functions $C\\left( \\left[ 0,T\\right] ,X\\right) $ $\\left( T>0\\right) $, endowed with the usual topology, and let $M$ be a closed subset of it. One proves that each operator $A:M\\rightarrow M$ fulfilling for all $x,y\\in M$ and for all $t\\in \\left[ 0,T\\right] $ the condition \\begin{eqnarray*} \\left| \\left( Ax\\right) \\left( t\\right) -\\left( Ay\\right) \\l...

  19. Understanding Physiological and Degenerative Natural Vision Mechanisms to Define Contrast and Contour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fouquet, Yannick; Tayyab, Muhammad; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. Methodology First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. Conclusions We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery. PMID:19547712

  20. Understanding physiological and degenerative natural vision mechanisms to define contrast and contour operators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demongeot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. METHODOLOGY: First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery.

  1. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  2. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  3. Measurement of spatial dose distribution for evaluation operator dose during nero-interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Chul; Hong, Dong Hee

    2016-01-01

    The spatial dose distribution was measured with ionization chamber as preliminary study to evaluate operator dose and to study dose reduction during neuro-interventional procedures. The zone of operators was divided into four area (45, 135, 225, and 315 degree).We supposed that operator exist on the four area and indicated location of critical organs(eyes, breast, gonad). The spatial doses were measured depending on distance( 80, 100, 120, and 140 cm) and location of critical organs. The spatial doses of area of 225 degree were 114.5 mR/h (eyes location), 143.1 mR/h (breast location) and 147 mR/h (gonad location) in 80 cm. When changed location of x-ray generator, spatial dose increased in 18.1±10.5%, averagely. We certified spatial dose in the operator locations, Using the results of this study, It is feasible to protect operator from radiation in neuro-interventional procedures

  4. Measurement of spatial dose distribution for evaluation operator dose during nero-interventional procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Chul [Division of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The spatial dose distribution was measured with ionization chamber as preliminary study to evaluate operator dose and to study dose reduction during neuro-interventional procedures. The zone of operators was divided into four area (45, 135, 225, and 315 degree).We supposed that operator exist on the four area and indicated location of critical organs(eyes, breast, gonad). The spatial doses were measured depending on distance( 80, 100, 120, and 140 cm) and location of critical organs. The spatial doses of area of 225 degree were 114.5 mR/h (eyes location), 143.1 mR/h (breast location) and 147 mR/h (gonad location) in 80 cm. When changed location of x-ray generator, spatial dose increased in 18.1±10.5%, averagely. We certified spatial dose in the operator locations, Using the results of this study, It is feasible to protect operator from radiation in neuro-interventional procedures.

  5. Modeling spatial-temporal operations with context-dependent associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, Eduardo; Lin, Juan

    2015-10-01

    We organize our behavior and store structured information with many procedures that require the coding of spatial and temporal order in specific neural modules. In the simplest cases, spatial and temporal relations are condensed in prepositions like "below" and "above", "behind" and "in front of", or "before" and "after", etc. Neural operators lie beneath these words, sharing some similarities with logical gates that compute spatial and temporal asymmetric relations. We show how these operators can be modeled by means of neural matrix memories acting on Kronecker tensor products of vectors. The complexity of these memories is further enhanced by their ability to store episodes unfolding in space and time. How does the brain scale up from the raw plasticity of contingent episodic memories to the apparent stable connectivity of large neural networks? We clarify this transition by analyzing a model that flexibly codes episodic spatial and temporal structures into contextual markers capable of linking different memory modules.

  6. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  7. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  8. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831026; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141376074

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  9. Defining the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rustum, Reem S; Ziade, M Fouad; Abu-Rustum, Sameer E

    2012-09-01

    Our study aims at investigating the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus. This is a retrospective pilot study where three-dimensional and four-dimensional stored data sets were manipulated to retrieve eight anatomic planes starting from the midsagittal plane of the fetus. Standardization of volumes was performed at the level of the transverse abdominal circumference plane. Parallel shift was utilized and the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes were established. The median and the range were calculated for each of the planes, and they were evaluated as a function of the fetal crown-rump length. P planes were found to adhere to normal distribution curves, and most of the planes were in a definable relationship to each other with statistically significant correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the possible spatial relationships between eight two-dimensional anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus, utilizing a standardized approach. Defining these spatial relationships may serve as the first step for the potential future development of automation software for fetal anatomic assessment at 11+6 to 13+6 weeks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantifying the correlation between spatially defined oxygen gradients and cell fate in an engineered three-dimensional culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Ardakani, Amir G.; Cheema, Umber; Brown, Robert A.; Shipley, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in three-dimensional tissue culture remains the lack of quantitative information linking nutrient delivery and cellular distribution. Both in vivo and in vitro, oxygen is delivered by diffusion from its source (blood vessel or the construct margins). The oxygen level at a defined distance from its source depends critically on the balance of diffusion and cellular metabolism. Cells may respond to this oxygen environment through proliferation, death and chemotaxis, resulting in spat...

  11. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  12. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler J.; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26 μg kg− 1) ~ branches (26 μg kg− 1) > bark (16 μg kg− 1) > bole wood (1 μg kg− 1). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses.Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100 μg kg− 1, reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24 μg kg− 1 (A-horizon) and 22 μg kg− 1 (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100 μg kg− 1. Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland > planted/cultivated > herbaceous upland/shrubland > barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity — driven by water availability — with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands

  13. Considerations in the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize rumen methanogens and define their spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Edith R; Henderson, Gemma; Janssen, Peter H; Cox, Faith; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, methanogen-specific coenzyme F420 autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to identify rumen methanogens and define their spatial distribution in free-living, biofilm-, and protozoa-associated microenvironments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with temperature-controlled hybridization was used in an attempt to describe methanogen diversity. A heat pretreatment (65 °C, 1 h) was found to be a noninvasive method to increase probe access to methanogen RNA targets. Despite efforts to optimize FISH, 16S rRNA methanogen-specific probes, including Arch915, bound to some cells that lacked F420, possibly identifying uncharacterized Methanomassiliicoccales or reflecting nonspecific binding to other members of the rumen bacterial community. A probe targeting RNA from the methanogenesis-specific methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr) gene was shown to detect cultured Methanosarcina cells with signal intensities comparable to those of 16S rRNA probes. However, the probe failed to hybridize with the majority of F420-emitting rumen methanogens, possibly because of differences in cell wall permeability among methanogen species. Methanogens were shown to integrate into microbial biofilms and to exist as ecto- and endosymbionts with rumen protozoa. Characterizing rumen methanogens and defining their spatial distribution may provide insight into mitigation strategies for ruminal methanogenesis.

  14. Defining Spino-Pelvic Alignment Thresholds: Should Operative Goals in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery Account for Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Renaud; Schwab, Frank; Challier, Vincent; Henry, Jensen K; Gum, Jeffrey; Smith, Justin; Hostin, Richard; Shaffrey, Christopher; Kim, Han J; Ames, Christopher; Scheer, Justin; Klineberg, Eric; Bess, Shay; Burton, Douglas; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective review of prospective, multicenter database. The aim of the study was to determine age-specific spino-pelvic parameters, to extrapolate age-specific Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) values from published Short Form (SF)-36 Physical Component Score (PCS) data, and to propose age-specific realignment thresholds for adult spinal deformity (ASD). The Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab classification offers a framework for defining alignment in patients with ASD. Although age-specific changes in spinal alignment and patient-reported outcomes have been established in the literature, their relationship in the setting of ASD operative realignment has not been reported. ASD patients who received operative or nonoperative treatment were consecutively enrolled. Patients were stratified by age, consistent with published US-normative values (Norms) of the SF-36 PCS (75  y old). At baseline, relationships between between radiographic spino-pelvic parameters (lumbar-pelvic mismatch [PI-LL], pelvic tilt [PT], sagittal vertical axis [SVA], and T1 pelvic angle [TPA]), age, and PCS were established using linear regression analysis; normative PCS values were then used to establish age-specific targets. Correlation analysis with ODI and PCS was used to determine age-specific ideal alignment. Baseline analysis included 773 patients (53.7 y old, 54% operative, 83% female). There was a strong correlation between ODI and PCS (r = 0.814, P US-normative ODI by age group. Linear regression analysis (all with r > 0.510, P US-normative PCS values demonstrated that ideal spino-pelvic values increased with age, ranging from PT = 10.9 degrees, PI-LL = -10.5 degrees, and SVA = 4.1 mm for patients under 35 years to PT = 28.5 degrees, PI-LL = 16.7 degrees, and SVA = 78.1 mm for patients over 75 years. Clinically, older patients had greater compensation, more degenerative loss of lordosis, and were more pitched forward. This study demonstrated that

  15. Domain general sequence operations contribute to pre-SMA involvement in visuo-spatial processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles eLeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed mental rotation in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement.

  16. WE-H-207A-05: Spatial Co-Localization of F-18 NaF Vs. F-18 FDG Defined Disease Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjancic, P; Harmon, S; Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chen, S [1st Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Simoncic, U [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Both [F-18]NaF and [F-18]FDG show promise for quantitative PET/CT assessment in metastatic prostate cancer to bone. Broad agreement between the tracers has been shown but voxel-wise correspondence has not been explored in depth. This study evaluates the spatial co-localization of [F-18]NaF PET and [F-18]FDG PET in bone lesions. Methods: Seventy-three lesion contours were identified in six patients receiving dynamic NaF PET/CT and FDG PET/CT scans two hours apart using identical fields-of-view. Tracer uptake (SUV) reflecting 60 minutes post-injection was modeled from kinetic parameters. Lesions were segmented by a physician separately on NaF PET and FDG PET. PET images were rigidly aligned using skeletal references on CT images. Lesion size, degree of overlap, voxel-wise tracer uptake values (SUV), and CT density distributions were compared using Dice coefficient, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results: Across all patients, 42 lesions were identified on NaF PET (median 1.4 cm{sup 3}, range <1–204 cm{sup 3}) compared to 31 using FDG PET (median 1.8 cm{sup 3}, range <1–244 cm{sup 3}). Spatial cooccurrence was found in 25 lesion pairs. Lesions on NaF PET had PPV of 0.91 and on FDG a PPV of 0.65. Overall, NaF-defined lesions were 47% (±24%) larger by volume with moderate overlap to FDG, resulting in mean Dice coefficient of 34% (±22%). In areas of overlap, voxel-wise correlation of NaF and FDG SUV was moderate (ρ=0.56). Expanding to regions of non-spatial overlap, voxels contained in FDG-only contours were almost exclusively low HU (median 118), compared to dense regions of NaF-only voxels (median 250). In sclerotic sub-volumes (HU > 300) NaF-defined contours encompassed 83% of total FDG volume. Conclusion: Moderate voxel-wise correlation of FDG and NaF PET/CT uptake was observed. Spatial discrepancies in FDG and NaF PET/CT imaging of boney metastases could be influenced by poor sensitivity of FDG PET/CT in

  17. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Brade, T.K.; MacKenzie, A.R.; Whyatt, J.D.; Carruthers, D.J.; Stocker, J.; Cai, X.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness. -- Highlights: • Spatially variable roughness improved performance of an operational model. • Scenario modelling explored effect of reduced roughness on air pollution. • Reducing surface roughness can increase modelled ground-level pollution. • Damped vertical mixing outweighs increased horizontal advection in model study. • Result should hold for any model with a land-surface coupling based on roughness. -- Spatially varying roughness improves model simulations of urban air pollutant dispersion. Reducing roughness does not always decrease ground-level pollution concentrations

  18. Development of the operator training system using computer graphics. Pt. 1. Defining the system configuration and developing basic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takana, Kenchi; Sasou, Kunihide; Sano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Koichi; Noji, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and concurrent operator training seems to be crucial in near future because of an increase in operators to be trained due to generation alternations. Ever developed Man -Machine-Simulator (MMS) has several merits: (1) Operators' cognitive and behavioral activities among team in emergency could be simulated based on the concurrent mental model; (2) Simulated scenarios could be expanded to multiple malfunctions events, to all of which procedures could not be stipulated previously, (3) Standard behavior in coping with anomalies including communication and operations could be presented. This paper describes the development of an operator training system by applying this MMS. Three dimensional computer graphics (3D-CG) was adopted for improving the training effects and attracting operators' interest by visually presenting realistic operating team behavior in the main control room. Towards the completion of the operator training system, following designs of system configuration and developments of several basic techniques were availed: (1) Imaging the utilization of the operator training system, functions to be equipped and system configurations for realizing functions were determined. And three of scenarios were chosen in order to appeal the merits of the MMS and to raise training effects. (2) Knowledge base was completed to execute simulations. And connection between operator team model and plant simulator, that is the 2nd generation type simulator of the BTC -4, was executed to obtain simulation results (time sequential log data of plant dynamics and operating team behavior). (3) Operator's actions seen in VCR tapes in real training were classified for eighteen kinds of fundamental categories and those fundamental actions were modeled on 3D-CG using the People Shop software. The 3D-CG of main control panel was prepared using Multi Gen software. (author)

  19. Finite-volume effects due to spatially non-local operators arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.

    Spatially non-local matrix elements are useful lattice-QCD observables in a variety of contexts, for example in determining hadron structure. To quote credible estimates of the systematic uncertainties in these calculations, one must understand, among other things, the size of the finite-volume effects when such matrix elements are extracted from numerical lattice calculations. In this work, we estimate finite-volume effects for matrix elements of non-local operators, composed of two currents displaced in a spatial direction by a distance $\\xi$. We find that the finite-volume corrections depend on the details of the matrix element. If the external state is the lightest degree of freedom in the theory, e.g.~the pion in QCD, then the volume corrections scale as $ e^{-m_\\pi (L- \\xi)} $, where $m_\\pi$ is the mass of the light state. For heavier external states the usual $e^{- m_\\pi L}$ form is recovered, but with a polynomial prefactor of the form $L^m/|L - \\xi|^n$ that can lead to enhanced volume effects. These ...

  20. The Influence of Spatial Ability and Experience on Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eDu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  1. Parametric effect of a spatially periodic voltage depression on operation of Cerenkov sources of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G.S.; Vlasov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    In microwave sources of coherent Cerenkov radiation the electrons usually propagate near the rippled wall of a slow-wave structure. These ripples cause the periodic modulation of electron potential depression, and therefore, lead to periodic modulation of electron axial velocities. Since the period of this electrostatic pumping is the period of the slow-wave structure the parametric coupling of electrons to originally nonsynchronous spatial harmonics of the microwave field may occur. This effect can be especially important for backward-wave oscillators (BWO's) driven by high current, relativistic electron beams. In the paper both linear and nonlinear theories of the relativistic resonant BWO with periodic modulation of electron axial velocities are developed and results illustrating the evolution of the linear gain function and the efficiency of operation in the large-signal regime are presented

  2. Spectrum of the multigroup neutron transport operator for bounded spatial domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of the multigroup neutron transport operator A is studied for bounded spatial regions D which consist of a finite number of material subregions. Our main results provide simple conditions on the material cross sections which guarantee that (1) A possesses eigenvalues in the finite plane; (2) A possesses a ''leading'' eigenvalue lambda 0 which is real, not less than the real part of any other eigenvalue, and to which there corresponds at least one nonnegative eigenfunction psi/sub lambda/0; and (3) A possesses a ''dominant'' eigenvalue lambda 0 which is real, simple, greater than the real part of any other eigenvalue, and whose eigenfunction psi/sub lambda/0 satisfies psi/sub lambda/0> or =0 and ∫psi/sub lambda/0d 2 Ω>0. We give examples to illustrate the results and to show that a leading eigenvalue need not be simple, nor its eigenfunction(s) positive

  3. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  4. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-01-01

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice

  5. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Robin [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: enquiries@curvaceous.com; Thorpe, Richard [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom); Wilson, John [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  6. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  7. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  8. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Elizabeth; Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20-30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies.

  9. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20–30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies. PMID:29561901

  10. Data Updating Methods for Spatial Data Infrastructure that Maintain Infrastructure Quality and Enable its Sustainable Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, S.; Takemoto, T.; Ito, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The Japanese government, local governments and businesses are working closely together to establish spatial data infrastructures in accordance with the Basic Act on the Advancement of Utilizing Geospatial Information (NSDI Act established in August 2007). Spatial data infrastructures are urgently required not only to accelerate computerization of the public administration, but also to help restoration and reconstruction of the areas struck by the East Japan Great Earthquake and future disaster prevention and reduction. For construction of a spatial data infrastructure, various guidelines have been formulated. But after an infrastructure is constructed, there is a problem of maintaining it. In one case, an organization updates its spatial data only once every several years because of budget problems. Departments and sections update the data on their own without careful consideration. That upsets the quality control of the entire data system and the system loses integrity, which is crucial to a spatial data infrastructure. To ensure quality, ideally, it is desirable to update data of the entire area every year. But, that is virtually impossible, considering the recent budget crunch. The method we suggest is to update spatial data items of higher importance only in order to maintain quality, not updating all the items across the board. We have explored a method of partially updating the data of these two geographical features while ensuring the accuracy of locations. Using this method, data on roads and buildings that greatly change with time can be updated almost in real time or at least within a year. The method will help increase the availability of a spatial data infrastructure. We have conducted an experiment on the spatial data infrastructure of a municipality using those data. As a result, we have found that it is possible to update data of both features almost in real time.

  11. First field trial of Virtual Network Operator oriented network on demand (NoD) service provisioning over software defined multi-vendor OTN networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaosong; Chen, Haoran; Zhu, Ruijie; Zhou, Quanwei; Yu, Chenbei; Cui, Rui

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Network Operator (VNO) is a provider and reseller of network services from other telecommunications suppliers. These network providers are categorized as virtual because they do not own the underlying telecommunication infrastructure. In terms of business operation, VNO can provide customers with personalized services by leasing network infrastructure from traditional network providers. The unique business modes of VNO lead to the emergence of network on demand (NoD) services. The conventional network provisioning involves a series of manual operation and configuration, which leads to high cost in time. Considering the advantages of Software Defined Networking (SDN), this paper proposes a novel NoD service provisioning solution to satisfy the private network need of VNOs. The solution is first verified in the real software defined multi-domain optical networks with multi-vendor OTN equipment. With the proposed solution, NoD service can be deployed via online web portals in near-real time. It reinvents the customer experience and redefines how network services are delivered to customers via an online self-service portal. Ultimately, this means a customer will be able to simply go online, click a few buttons and have new services almost instantaneously.

  12. The Role of Spatial Ability in the Relationship Between Video Game Experience and Route Effectiveness Among Unmanned Vehicle Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Effective route planning is essential to the successful operation of unmanned vehicles. Video game experience has been shown to affect route planning...and execution, but why video game experience helps has not been addressed. One answer may be that spatial skills, necessary for route planning and...mediates the relationship between video game experience and route planning. Results indicated that this mediated relationship existed for the UGV

  13. Spatial optimization of operationally relevant large fire confine and point protection strategies: Model development and test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wei; Matthew P. Thompson; Jessica R. Haas; Gregory K. Dillon; Christopher D. O’Connor

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces a large fire containment strategy that builds upon recent advances in spatial fire planning, notably the concept of potential wildland fire operation delineations (PODs). Multiple PODs can be clustered together to form a “box” that is referred as the “response POD” (or rPOD). Fire lines would be built along the boundary of an rPOD to contain a...

  14. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  15. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  16. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  17. Dahl (S × R) rat congenic strain analysis confirms and defines a chromosome 17 spatial navigation quantitative trait locus to <10 Mbp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Tan, Glaiza A; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked with ability to find a platform in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) was located on chromosome 17 (Nav-5 QTL) using intercross between Dahl S and Dahl R rats. We developed two congenic strains, S.R17A and S.R17B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 17 segments into Dahl S chromosome 17 region spanning putative Nav-5 QTL. Performance analysis of S.R17A, S.R17B and Dahl S rats in the Morris water maze (MWM) task showed a significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R17B congenic rats when compared with Dahl S controls (P = 0.02). The S.R17A congenic segment did not affect MWM performance delimiting Nav-5 to the chromosome 17 65.02-74.66 Mbp region. Additional fine mapping is necessary to identify the specific gene variant accounting for Nav-5 effect on spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats.

  18. Dahl (S × R rat congenic strain analysis confirms and defines a chromosome 17 spatial navigation quantitative trait locus to <10 Mbp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available A quantitative trait locus (QTL linked with ability to find a platform in the Morris Water Maze (MWM was located on chromosome 17 (Nav-5 QTL using intercross between Dahl S and Dahl R rats. We developed two congenic strains, S.R17A and S.R17B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 17 segments into Dahl S chromosome 17 region spanning putative Nav-5 QTL. Performance analysis of S.R17A, S.R17B and Dahl S rats in the Morris water maze (MWM task showed a significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R17B congenic rats when compared with Dahl S controls (P = 0.02. The S.R17A congenic segment did not affect MWM performance delimiting Nav-5 to the chromosome 17 65.02-74.66 Mbp region. Additional fine mapping is necessary to identify the specific gene variant accounting for Nav-5 effect on spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats.

  19. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  20. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  1. A knowledge-based system for control of xenon-induced spatial power oscillations during load-follow operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Kyo; Danofsky, R.A.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    As is well known, large pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are subject to xenon-induced axial power oscillations at some time during a given cycle. Attention to this behavior is required during load-follow operations. A knowledge-based system for controlling xenon-induced spatial power oscillations is described. Experience with a limited set of load-follow patterns has demonstrated that the system is capable of providing advice on appropriate control actions. A simulation model, coupled with a rule-learning process, has been found to be a useful way for determining appropriate weights for the rules that relate power patterns and control actions

  2. A neuro-fuzzy controller for xenon spatial oscillations in load-following operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Upadhyaya, Belle R. [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A neuro-fuzzy control algorithm is applied for xenon spatial oscillations in a pressurized water reactor. The consequent and antecedent parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned by the gradient descent method. The reactor model used for computer simulations is a two-point xenon oscillation model. The reactor core is axially divided into two regions and each region has one input and one output and is coupled with the other region. The interaction between the regions of the reactor core is treated by a decoupling scheme. This proposed control method exhibits very responses to a step or a ramp change of target axial offest without any residual flux oscillations. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  3. Gray Scale Operation Of A Multichannel Optical Convolver Using The Semetex Magnetooptic Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A.; Day, Timothy; Lilly, Roger A.; Taber, Donald B.; Liu, Hua-Kuang; Davis, J. A.; Day, T.; Lilly, R. A.; Taber, D. B.; Liu, H.-K.

    1988-02-01

    We present a new multichannel optical correlator/convolver architecture which uses an acoustooptic light modulator (AOLM) for the input channel and a Semetex magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) for the set of parallel reference channels. Details of the anamorphic optical system are discussed. Experimental results illustrate use of the system as a convolver for performing digital multiplication by analog convolution (DMAC). A limited gray scale capability for data stored by the MOSLM is demonstrated by implementing this DMAC algorithm with trinary logic. Use of the MOSLM allows the number of parallel channels for the convolver to be increased significantly compared with previously reported techniques while retaining the capability for updating both channels at high speeds.

  4. A neuro-fuzzy controller for xenon spatial oscillations in load-following operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Upadhyaya, Belle R [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A neuro-fuzzy control algorithm is applied for xenon spatial oscillations in a pressurized water reactor. The consequent and antecedent parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned by the gradient descent method. The reactor model used for computer simulations is a two-point xenon oscillation model. The reactor core is axially divided into two regions and each region has one input and one output and is coupled with the other region. The interaction between the regions of the reactor core is treated by a decoupling scheme. This proposed control method exhibits very responses to a step or a ramp change of target axial offest without any residual flux oscillations. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  5. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J.; Comerford, N.B.; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E.; Vasquez, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. - Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly contribute to the spatial distribution of N and pitch canker disease in managed slash pine ecosystems

  6. Application of Spatial Neural Network Model for Optimal Operation of Urban Drainage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, B. J.; Lee, J. Y.; KIM, H. I.; Son, A. L.; Han, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The significance of real-time operation of drainage pump and warning system for inundation becomes recently increased in order to coping with runoff by high intensity precipitation such as localized heavy rain that frequently and suddenly happen. However existing operation of drainage pump station has been made a decision according to opinion of manager based on stage because of not expecting exact time that peak discharge occur in pump station. Therefore the scale of pump station has been excessively estimated. Although it is necessary to perform quick and accurate inundation in analysis downtown area due to huge property damage from flood and typhoon, previous studies contained risk deducting incorrect result that differs from actual result owing to the diffusion aspect of flow by effect on building and road. The purpose of this study is to develop the data driven model for the real-time operation of drainage pump station and two-dimensional inundation analysis that are improved the problems of the existing hydrology and hydrological model. Neuro-Fuzzy system for real time prediction about stage was developed by estimating the type and number of membership function. Based on forecasting stage, it was decided when pump machine begin to work and how much water scoop up by using penalizing genetic algorithm. It is practicable to forecast stage, optimize pump operation and simulate inundation analysis in real time through the methodologies suggested in this study. This study can greatly contribute to the establishment of disaster information map that prevent and mitigate inundation in urban drainage area. The applicability of the development model for the five drainage pump stations in the Mapo drainage area was verified. It is considered to be able to effectively manage urban drainage facilities in the development of these operating rules. Keywords : Urban flooding; Geo-ANFIS method; Optimal operation; Drainage system; AcknowlegementThis research was supported by a

  7. A spatial model to assess the effects of hydropower operations on Columbia River fall Chinook Salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Anglin, Donald R.; Haeseker, Steven L.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Schaller, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Priest Rapids Dam on the Columbia River produces large daily and hourly streamflow fluctuations throughout the Hanford Reach during the period when fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are selecting spawning habitat, constructing redds, and actively engaged in spawning. Concern over the detrimental effects of these fluctuations prompted us to quantify the effects of variable flows on the amount and persistence of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. Specifically, our goal was to develop a management tool capable of quantifying the effects of current and alternative hydrographs on predicted spawning habitat in a spatially explicit manner. Toward this goal, we modeled the water velocities and depths that fall Chinook salmon experienced during the 2004 spawning season, plus what they would probably have experienced under several alternative (i.e., synthetic) hydrographs, using both one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models. To estimate spawning habitat under existing or alternative hydrographs, we used cell-based modeling and logistic regression to construct and compare numerous spatial habitat models. We found that fall Chinook salmon were more likely to spawn at locations where velocities were persistently greater than 1 m/s and in areas where fluctuating water velocities were reduced. Simulations of alternative dam operations indicate that the quantity of spawning habitat is expected to increase as streamflow fluctuations are reduced during the spawning season. The spatial habitat models that we developed provide management agencies with a quantitative tool for predicting, in a spatially explicit manner, the effects of different flow regimes on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach. In addition to characterizing temporally varying habitat conditions, our research describes an analytical approach that could be applied in other highly variable aquatic systems.

  8. Utility of an airframe referenced spatial auditory display for general aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M. Hassan; Wigdahl, Alan J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off, and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.

  9. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  10. Spatial interpretation of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Operations Control Center using virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1993-01-01

    In its search for higher level computer interfaces and more realistic electronic simulations for measurement and spatial analysis in human factors design, NASA at MSFC is evaluating the functionality of virtual reality (VR) technology. Virtual reality simulation generates a three dimensional environment in which the participant appears to be enveloped. It is a type of interactive simulation in which humans are not only involved, but included. Virtual reality technology is still in the experimental phase, but it appears to be the next logical step after computer aided three-dimensional animation in transferring the viewer from a passive to an active role in experiencing and evaluating an environment. There is great potential for using this new technology when designing environments for more successful interaction, both with the environment and with another participant in a remote location. At the University of North Carolina, a VR simulation of a the planned Sitterson Hall, revealed a flaw in the building's design that had not been observed during examination of the more traditional building plan simulation methods on paper and on computer aided design (CAD) work station. The virtual environment enables multiple participants in remote locations to come together and interact with one another and with the environment. Each participant is capable of seeing herself and the other participants and of interacting with them within the simulated environment.

  11. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  12. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  14. An operational ensemble prediction system for catchment rainfall over eastern Africa spanning multiple temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, E. E.; Hopson, T. M.; Gebremichael, M.; Boehnert, J.; Broman, D.; Sampson, K. M.; Rostkier-Edelstein, D.; Collins, D. C.; Harshadeep, N. R.; Burke, E.; Havens, K.

    2017-12-01

    While it is not yet certain how precipitation patterns will change over Africa in the future, it is clear that effectively managing the available water resources is going to be crucial in order to mitigate the effects of water shortages and floods that are likely to occur in a changing climate. One component of effective water management is the availability of state-of-the-art and easy to use rainfall forecasts across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We present a web-based system for displaying and disseminating ensemble forecast and observed precipitation data over central and eastern Africa. The system provides multi-model rainfall forecasts integrated to relevant hydrological catchments for timescales ranging from one day to three months. A zoom-in features is available to access high resolution forecasts for small-scale catchments. Time series plots and data downloads with forecasts, recent rainfall observations and climatological data are available by clicking on individual catchments. The forecasts are calibrated using a quantile regression technique and an optimal multi-model forecast is provided at each timescale. The forecast skill at the various spatial and temporal scales will discussed, as will current applications of this tool for managing water resources in Sudan and optimizing hydropower operations in Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  15. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  16. Spatial and volumetric changes of retroperitoneal sarcomas during pre-operative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Philip; Dickie, Colleen; Lee, David; Chung, Peter; O’Sullivan, Brian; Letourneau, Daniel; Xu, Wei; Swallow, Carol; Gladdy, Rebecca; Catton, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the positional and volumetric changes of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) during pre-operative external beam radiotherapy (PreRT). Material and methods: After excluding 2 patients who received chemotherapy prior to PreRT and 15 RPS that were larger than the field-of-view of cone-beam CT (CBCT), the positional and volumetric changes of RPS throughout PreRT were characterized in 19 patients treated with IMRT using CBCT image guidance. Analysis was performed on 118 CBCT images representing one image per week of those acquired daily during treatment. Intra-fraction breathing motions of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and kidneys were measured in 22 RPS patients simulated using 4D-CT. Fifteen other patients were excluded whose tumors were incompletely imaged on CBCT or who received pre-RT chemotherapy. Results: A GTV volumetric increase (mean: 6.6%, p = 0.035) during the first 2 weeks (CBCT1 vs. CBCT2) of treatment was followed by GTV volumetric decrease (mean: 4%, p = 0.009) by completion of radiotherapy (CBCT1 vs. CBCT6). Internal margins of 8.6, 15 and 15 mm in the lateral, anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions would be required to account for inter-fraction displacements. The extent of GTV respiratory motion was significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with more superiorly positioned tumors. Conclusion: Inter-fraction CBCT provides important volumetric and positional information of RPS which may improve PreRT quality and prompt re-planning. Planning target volume may be reduced using online soft-tissue matching to account for interfractional displacements of GTVs. Important breathing motion occurred in superiorly placed RPS supporting the utility of 4D-CT planning

  17. The third dimension of reading the sugar code by lectins: design of glycoclusters with cyclic scaffolds as tools with the aim to define correlations between spatial presentation and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paul V; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2013-04-04

    Coding of biological information is not confined to nucleic acids and proteins. Endowed with the highest level of structural versatility among biomolecules, the glycan chains of cellular glycoconjugates are well-suited to generate molecular messages/signals in a minimum of space. The sequence and shape of oligosaccharides as well as spatial aspects of multivalent presentation are assumed to underlie the natural specificity/selectivity that cellular glycans have for endogenous lectins. In order to eventually unravel structure-activity profiles cyclic scaffolds have been used as platforms to produce glycoclusters and afford valuable tools. Using adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins and the pan-galectin ligand lactose as a model, emerging insights into the potential of cyclodextrins, cyclic peptides, calixarenes and glycophanes for this purpose are presented herein. The systematic testing of lectin panels with spatially defined ligand presentations can be considered as a biomimetic means to help clarify the mechanisms, which lead to the exquisite accuracy at which endogenous lectins select their physiological counterreceptors from the complexity of the cellular glycome.

  18. Single Spatial-Mode Room-Temperature-Operated 3.0 to 3.4 micrometer Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Soibel, Alexander; Belenky, Gregory; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela

    2010-01-01

    Compact, highly efficient, 3.0 to 3.4 m light emitters are in demand for spectroscopic analysis and identification of chemical substances (including methane and formaldehyde), infrared countermeasures technologies, and development of advanced infrared scene projectors. The need for these light emitters can be currently addressed either by bulky solid-state light emitters with limited power conversion efficiency, or cooled Interband Cascade (IC) semiconductor lasers. Researchers here have developed a breakthrough approach to fabrication of diode mid-IR lasers that have several advantages over IC lasers used for the Mars 2009 mission. This breakthrough is due to a novel design utilizing the strain-engineered quantum-well (QW) active region and quinternary barriers, and due to optimization of device material composition and growth conditions (growth temperatures and rates). However, in their present form, these GaSb-based laser diodes cannot be directly used as a part of sensor systems. The device spectrum is too broad to perform spectroscopic analysis of gas species, and operating currents and voltages are too high. In the current work, the emitters were fabricated as narrow-ridge waveguide index-guided lasers rather than broad stripe-gain guided multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers as was done previously. These narrow-ridge waveguide mid-IR lasers exhibit much lower power consumptions, and can operate in a single spatial mode that is necessary for demonstration of single-mode distributed feedback (DBF) devices for spectroscopic applications. These lasers will enable a new generation of compact, tunable diode laser spectrometers with lower power consumption, reduced complexity, and significantly reduced development costs. These lasers can be used for the detection of HCN, C2H2, methane, and ethane.

  19. Accuracy Enhancement with Processing Error Prediction and Compensation of a CNC Flame Cutting Machine Used in Spatial Surface Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghai Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the precision performance of the CNC flame-cutting machine used in spatial surface operating conditions and presents an accuracy enhancement method based on processing error modeling prediction and real-time compensation. Machining coordinate systems and transformation matrix models were established for the CNC flame processing system considering both geometric errors and thermal deformation effects. Meanwhile, prediction and compensation models were constructed related to the actual cutting situation. Focusing on the thermal deformation elements, finite element analysis was used to measure the testing data of thermal errors, the grey system theory was applied to optimize the key thermal points, and related thermal dynamics models were carried out to achieve high-precision prediction values. Comparison experiments between the proposed method and the teaching method were conducted on the processing system after performing calibration. The results showed that the proposed method is valid and the cutting quality could be improved by more than 30% relative to the teaching method. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used under any working condition by making a few adjustments to the prediction and compensation models.

  20. Assessment of an Operational System for Crop Type Map Production Using High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop area extent estimates and crop type maps provide crucial information for agricultural monitoring and management. Remote sensing imagery in general and, more specifically, high temporal and high spatial resolution data as the ones which will be available with upcoming systems, such as Sentinel-2, constitute a major asset for this kind of application. The goal of this paper is to assess to what extent state-of-the-art supervised classification methods can be applied to high resolution multi-temporal optical imagery to produce accurate crop type maps at the global scale. Five concurrent strategies for automatic crop type map production have been selected and benchmarked using SPOT4 (Take5 and Landsat 8 data over 12 test sites spread all over the globe (four in Europe, four in Africa, two in America and two in Asia. This variety of tests sites allows one to draw conclusions applicable to a wide variety of landscapes and crop systems. The results show that a random forest classifier operating on linearly temporally gap-filled images can achieve overall accuracies above 80% for most sites. Only two sites showed low performances: Madagascar due to the presence of fields smaller than the pixel size and Burkina Faso due to a mix of trees and crops in the fields. The approach is based on supervised machine learning techniques, which need in situ data collection for the training step, but the map production is fully automatic.

  1. A new approach to control of xenon spatial oscillation during load follow operation via robust servo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Hiroyuki; Iwazumi, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    The control problem of xenon-induced spatial oscillations of PWR in the axial direction during a load following operation is investigated. The system models are described by a one-group diffusion equation with xenon and temperature feed-backs, iodine and xenon dynamic equations, and heat conductions processes. Control is implemented by the full-length and the part-length control rods and the boron concentration. In order to achieve the control purpose, control models are formulated as the design problem of robust servo systems for distributed parameter reactor systems. The total thermal power and the axial offset are chosen as outputs to be controlled. The control systems consist of servo compensators and stabilizing compensators. They are designed based on the finite-dimensional systems which are constructed by linearizing around steady states, approximately by the Galerkin method, and reducing dimensions via the singular perturbation method. A new and simple computational algorithm to obtain an approximate solution of a steady-state neutron balance is developed via the perturbation method. Some results of numerical simulations are shown in order to discuss the effectiveness of the theory developed in this paper. In particular, it is shown that the designed servo systems are robust against model errors with linearization and modal truncation

  2. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  3. RELIABILITY OF THE DYNAMIC OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN (DOTCA-CH: THAI VERSION OF ORIENTATION, SPATIAL PERCEPTION, AND THINKING OPERATIONS SUBTESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitporn Lersilp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch is a tool for finding out about cognitive problems in school-aged children. However, the DOTCA-Ch was developed in English for Western children. For this reason, it’s not appropriate for Thai children because of the differences of culture and language. The objectives of this study were aimed at translating the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests to a Thai version with a World Health Organization back-translation process, and to examine its internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. The participants consisted of 38 intellectually impaired and learning disabled individuals between the ages of 6–12. Results from this study revealed high internal consistency in the Orientation subtest (α=.83 Spatial Perception subtest (α=.82 and Thinking Operations subtest (α=.82, high inter-rater reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.83, Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.84 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.74 and high test-retest reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.84 Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.86 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.85. These results indicate that the Thai version of the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests  might be used as an appropriate assessment tool for Thai children, based on psychometric evidence including internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. However, additional study of other psychometric properties, including, predictive validity, concurrent reliability, and inter-rater reliability during the mediation process of this assessment tool needs to be carried out.

  4. Defining the target volume for post-operative radiotherapy after D2 dissection in gastric cancer by CT-based vessel-guided delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hong In; Chang, Jee Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hyung, Woo Jin; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Yong Chan; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the recurrent nodal gross tumor volume (rnGTV) based on CT-guided vascular structure to refine the clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in postoperative radiotherapy for advanced gastric cancer following radical gastrectomy with D2 dissection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed follow-up images from 91 patients with their first regional recurrence after D2 dissection in stage III gastric cancer with N3 disease. We defined rnGTV as recurrent nodes shown in follow-up CT images, in which one diagnostic radiologist with specialty of gastrointestinal tract investigated. We drew rnGTVs at the equivalent location based on the same vessels of reference comparing CT images to recurrence CT images. Results: We propose vessel-based locations of rnGTVs on CT images with axial and coronal views. We show different patterns of regional recurrence according to the location of primary gastric cancer using CT and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images. Frequently recurred sites, overlapped by more than five rnGTVs, are depicted in a DRR image. Conclusions: This study suggests vessel-based delineations of rnGTVs on CT images depending on nodal recurrence sites from follow-up images after D2 lymphadenectomy. Our results could help reduce the inter-observer variation of CTV delineation after D2 dissection in gastric cancer

  5. Different methods for spatial interpolation of rainfall data for operational hydrology and hydrological modeling at watershed scale: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed management and hydrological modeling require data related to the very important matter of precipitation, often measured using raingages or weather stations. Hydrological models often require a preliminary spatial interpolation as part of the modeling process. The success of spatial interpolation varies according to the type of model chosen, its mode of geographical management and the resolution used. The quality of a result is determined by the quality of the continuous spatial rainfall, which ensues from the interpolation method used. The objective of this article is to review the existing methods for interpolation of rainfall data that are usually required in hydrological modeling. We review the basis for the application of certain common methods and geostatistical approaches used in interpolation of rainfall. Previous studies have highlighted the need for new research to investigate ways of improving the quality of rainfall data and ultimately, the quality of hydrological modeling.

  6. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    , techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...

  7. Theoretical characterization of the spatial resolution intra-operative probes; Caracterizacion teorica de la resolucion espacial de sondas intraoperatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt Chaler, S.; Jurado Bruggeman, D.; Munoz Montplet, C.

    2013-07-01

    This work intends to check that the characterization of the spatial profiles obtained by a an intraoperative probe in the presence of a point source is possible enough making use only of the parameters down time sensitivity and opening of the collimator. (Author)

  8. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  9. Spatial distribution patterns of illegal artisanal small scale gold mining (Galamsey) operations in Ghana: A focus on the Western Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Nimo, F; Mantey, J; Nyarko, K B; Appiah-Effah, Eugene; Aubynn, A

    2018-02-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by stakeholders to monitor illegal mining ( galamsey) activities, foster their formalization and reclaim the many abandoned wastelands in Ghana. However, limited information exists on the locations, abundance, scope and scale of galamsey types, which hinders the development of effective policy response. This study attempts to map and analyze the distribution patterns, abundance, activity statuses and the extents of nine (9) galamsey types within eleven (11) Municipal and District Assemblies (MDAs) of Ghana's Western Region. It explores the utility of field-based survey, using the Open Data Kit (ODK) system, ArcGIS and Google Earth Imagery to map and visualize different galamsey types under a hostile working environment. A total of 911 galamsey sightings, of which 547 were found in clusters (corresponding to approximately 7106 individual operational units) and 364 in stand-alone mode. Overall, a total of 7470 individual galamsey operations were encountered in 312 different communities (towns and villages). Operationally, the Alluvial Washing Board, Mill-House and Chamfi were found to be the three most popular and practiced galamsey types. The three main galamsey hotspot districts (out of the 11) are the Tarkwa Nsuaem (294 sightings and 3648 individual galamsey sites), Amenfi East (223 sightings and 1397 individual galamsey sites) and Prestea Huni-Valley Districts (156 sightings and 1130 individual galamsey sites). In terms of their activity statuses, 199 abandoned operations (entailing 1855 individual operations), 664 active (entailing 5055 individuals operations) and 48 semi-active (comprising 560 individuals within clusters) galamsey operations were sighted at the time of the study. While galamsey is generally acknowledged to be widespread in Ghana, the results suggest a scale that probably surpasses any previous estimate or expectation. The findings will adequately inform the prioritization of reclamation efforts.

  10. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  11. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, L.; Stern, J.; Ramos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  12. Monitoring Oilfield Operations and GHG Emissions Sources Using Object-based Image Analysis of High Resolution Spatial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J. G.; Brodrick, P. G.; Brandt, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction have become a greater concern with the recent increases in development of shale hydrocarbon resources. There are significant gaps in the tools and research used to estimate fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction. Two approaches exist for quantifying these emissions: atmospheric (or 'top down') studies, which measure methane fluxes remotely, or inventory-based ('bottom up') studies, which aggregate leakage rates on an equipment-specific basis. Bottom-up studies require counting or estimating how many devices might be leaking (called an 'activity count'), as well as how much each device might leak on average (an 'emissions factor'). In a real-world inventory, there is uncertainty in both activity counts and emissions factors. Even at the well level there are significant disagreements in data reporting. For example, some prior studies noted a ~5x difference in the number of reported well completions in the United States between EPA and private data sources. The purpose of this work is to address activity count uncertainty by using machine learning algorithms to classify oilfield surface facilities using high-resolution spatial imagery. This method can help estimate venting and fugitive emissions sources from regions where reporting of oilfield equipment is incomplete or non-existent. This work will utilize high resolution satellite imagery to count well pads in the Bakken oil field of North Dakota. This initial study examines an area of ~2,000 km2 with ~1000 well pads. We compare different machine learning classification techniques, and explore the impact of training set size, input variables, and image segmentation settings to develop efficient and robust techniques identifying well pads. We discuss the tradeoffs inherent to different classification algorithms, and determine the optimal algorithms for oilfield feature detection. In the future, the results of this work will be leveraged to be provide activity

  13. Cholera in Cameroon, 2000-2012: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at the Operational (Health District) and Sub Climate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Song; Kracalik, Ian T.; Morris, Lillian; Blackburn, Jason K.; Mbam, Leonard M.; Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Teboh, Andrew; Yang, Yang; Arabi, Mouhaman; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon’s climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level. Methods/Findings A unique health district level dataset of reported cholera case numbers and related deaths from 2000–2012, obtained from the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon and World Health Organization (WHO) country office, served as the basis for the analysis. During this time period, 43,474 cholera cases were reported: 1748 were fatal (mean annual case fatality ratio of 7.9%), with an attack rate of 17.9 reported cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Outbreaks occurred in three waves during the 13-year time period, with the highest case fatality ratios at the beginning of each wave. Seasonal patterns of illness differed strikingly between climate subzones (Sudano-Sahelian, Tropical Humid, Guinea Equatorial, and Equatorial Monsoon). In the northern Sudano-Sahelian subzone, highest number of cases tended to occur during the rainy season (July-September). The southern Equatorial Monsoon subzone reported cases year-round, with the lowest numbers during peak rainfall (July-September). A spatial clustering analysis identified multiple clusters of high incidence health districts during 2010 and 2011, which were the 2 years with the highest annual attack rates. A spatiotemporal autoregressive Poisson regression model fit to the 2010–2011 data identified significant associations between the risk of transmission and several factors, including the presence of major waterbody or highway, as well as the average daily maximum temperature and the precipitation levels over the preceding two weeks. The direction and/or magnitude of these associations differed between climate subzones, which, in turn, differed from national estimates that

  14. Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingchao; Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial characteristics and distributions of convection over the Pearl River Delta region of Guangzhou, China, during the May-September warm season, using, for the first time for such a purpose, 3 years of operational Doppler radar data in the region. Results show that convective features occur most frequently along the southern coast and the windward slope of the eastern mountainous area of Pearl River Delta, with the highest frequency occurring in June and the lowest in September among the 5 months. The spatial frequency distribution pattern also roughly matches the accumulated precipitation pattern. The occurrence of convection in this region also exhibits strong diurnal cycles. During May and June, the diurnal distribution is bimodal, with the maximum frequency occurring in the early afternoon and a secondary peak occurring between midnight and early morning. The secondary peak is much weaker in July, August, and September. Convection near the coast is found to occur preferentially on days when a southerly low-level jet (LLJ) exists, especially during the Meiyu season. Warm, moist, and unstable air is transported from the ocean to land by LLJs on these days, and the lifting along the coast by convergence induced by differential surface friction between the land and ocean is believed to be the primary cause for the high frequency along the coast. In contrast, the high frequency over mountainous area is believed to be due to orographic lifting of generally southerly flows during the warm season.

  15. Study of a particle detector with very high spatial precision (drift chambers), and analysis of the physical phenomena governing the operation of this detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Guy.

    1976-01-01

    The physical principles of drift chambers are studied and various measurements which can be performed with these chambers are described. The laws governing the passage of particles through matter are first reviewed and different transport coefficients, (velocity, scattering coefficient, characteristic energy ...) of the electrons under the influence of an electric field for different gases (argon, CO 2 , isobutane, methane, methylal) are studied. The theoretical predictions are then compared with the experimental results. The different amplification processes in the gas and the space charge effect of the positive ions on electron multiplication for large particle fluxes are also studied as well as the mobility of positive ions in different gases. After these results, the operating characteristics (efficiency, linearity of the space-time ratio, spatial resolution), with and without an external magnetic field are determined [fr

  16. Development of a low-budget, remote, solar powered, and self-operating rain gauge for spatial rainfall real time data monitoring in pristine and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei Shiva, J.; Chandler, D. G.; Nucera, K. J.; Valinski, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the main components of the hydrological cycle and simulations and it is generally stated as an average value for the study area. However, due to high spatial variability of precipitation in some situations, more precise local data is required. In order to acquire the precipitation data, interpolation of neighbor gauged precipitation data is used which is the most affordable technique for a watershed scale study. Moreover, novel spatial rain measurements such as Doppler radars and satellite image processing have been widely used in recent studies. Although, due to impediments in the radar data processing and the effect of the local setting on the accuracy of the interpolated data, the local measurement of the precipitation remains as one of the most reliable approaches in attaining rain data. In this regard, development of a low-budget, remote, solar powered, and self-operating rain gauge for spatial rainfall real time data monitoring for pristine and urban areas has been presented in this research. The proposed rain gauge consists of two main parts: (a) hydraulic instruments and (b) electrical devices. The hydraulic instruments will collect the rain fall and store it in a PVC container which is connected to the high sensitivity pressure transducer systems. These electrical devices will transmit the data via cellphone networks which will be available for further analysis in less than one minute, after processing. The above-mentioned real time rain fall data can be employed in the precipitation measurement and the evaporation estimation. Due to the installed solar panel for battery recharging and designed siphon system for draining cumulative rain, this device is considered as a self-operating rain gauge. At this time, more than ten rain gauges are built and installed in the urban area of Syracuse, NY. Furthermore, these data are also useful for calibration and validation of data obtained by other rain gauging devices and estimation techniques

  17. Improving Influence Operations by Defining Influence and Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    exclusive. The classical one views the threat or use of force as influence, while the contemporary excludes force in favor of marketing and advertising approaches...grounded within western principles of marketing and advertising —otherwise known as attitudinal messaging.89 Such an approach separates the physical

  18. High-resolution space-time characterization of convective rain cells: implications on spatial aggregation and temporal sampling operated by coarser resolution instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Morin, Efrat

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting the occurrence of flash floods and debris flows is fundamental to save lives and protect infrastructures and properties. These natural hazards are generated by high-intensity convective storms, on space-time scales that cannot be properly monitored by conventional instrumentation. Consequently, a number of early-warning systems are nowadays based on remote sensing precipitation observations, e.g. from weather radars or satellites, that proved effective in a wide range of situations. However, the uncertainty affecting rainfall estimates represents an important issue undermining the operational use of early-warning systems. The uncertainty related to remote sensing estimates results from (a) an instrumental component, intrinsic of the measurement operation, and (b) a discretization component, caused by the discretization of the continuous rainfall process. Improved understanding on these sources of uncertainty will provide crucial information to modelers and decision makers. This study aims at advancing knowledge on the (b) discretization component. To do so, we take advantage of an extremely-high resolution X-Band weather radar (60 m, 1 min) recently installed in the Eastern Mediterranean. The instrument monitors a semiarid to arid transition area also covered by an accurate C-Band weather radar and by a relatively sparse rain gauge network ( 1 gauge/ 450 km2). Radar quantitative precipitation estimation includes corrections reducing the errors due to ground echoes, orographic beam blockage and attenuation of the signal in heavy rain. Intense, convection-rich, flooding events recently occurred in the area serve as study cases. We (i) describe with very high detail the spatiotemporal characteristics of the convective cores, and (ii) quantify the uncertainty due to spatial aggregation (spatial discretization) and temporal sampling (temporal discretization) operated by coarser resolution remote sensing instruments. We show that instantaneous rain intensity

  19. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  20. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  1. The emergence of Islam through the theoretical prism of Max Weber: The role of spatial context, social actors and social strata in the process of defining and expansion of the Islamic religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber's theoretical legacy contains only fragments of thinking about Islam, primarily in the texts and monographs that as the main object of study did not have this religion. This fact is a big problem to contemporary researchers who want to reconstruct Weber's perception of Islam and positioning it in its theoretical and methodological coordinates. However, this barrier gives rise to modern researchers to engage in the challenge of reconstruction of the mentioned segment Weber's thoughts. This paper is an attempt of such a reconstruction. The paper analyzes the emergence of Islam, ie. spatial and social context of the founding of the Islamic religious dogma. The author starts from the hypothesis that in Weber's theoretical and analytical equation the importance of urban areas for the development and spread of Islam is absent. Also, in the paper author points to another error that Weber makes. Weber classified Islam in the category of warrior religion, and ignored the role of trade and commercial bed in the formulation of Islamic dogma and the (economic practices. In order to more adequately respond to the request 'placement' of Islam in the theoretical coordinates of Weber's sociology (of religion, author of the paper emphasizes the universality of the rationalization process, proving that Islam is one of the better examples of substantive rationality in the religious domain (because Islamic dogma implies a holistic approach to the believer and the high level of submission to the sacred text in all areas of its life.

  2. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  3. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  4. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  5. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  6. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  7. Linking water management to spatial development: impact from EU to local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The co-operation between water managers and spatial planners depends heavily on its basic element: competing interests. Aspects that shapes the co-operation and define its effectiveness are language (discipline related jargon), contracts, trust, personal competences, policy tuning & policy

  8. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  9. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  10. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  11. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  12. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  13. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  14. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  15. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  16. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  17. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  18. Spatial resolution requirements for digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Dallas, W.J.; Guillian, J.; Ovitt, T.; Standen, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes research to define the needed spatial resolution for maintaining diagnostic accuracy in digital systems. Posteroanterior images from 30 normal and 30 abnormal studies of patients with various stages of interstitial disease were digitized at 51 p/mm with 12 bits of gray level and then processed in a computer to reduce spatial resolution from 5.0 to 2.5, 1.875, and in 1.25 Ip/mm. A Kodak laser writer using a LUT devised to ensure the copies had equal densities to those measured from the original images was used to write the images back to film. These film images were then shown to radiologists (one resolution level per radiologist). They were asked to give their diagnosis and certainty for each image (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] paradigm) and also to rate each image on overall spatial and contrast resolution as well as the visibility of seven diagnostically important structures

  19. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  20. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  1. TOWARD SEMANTIC WEB INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SPATIAL FEATURES' INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arabsheibani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Web and its capabilities can be employed as a tool for data and information integration if comprehensive datasets and appropriate technologies and standards enable the web with interpretation and easy alignment of data and information. Semantic Web along with the spatial functionalities enable the web to deal with the huge amount of data and information. The present study investigate the advantages and limitations of the Spatial Semantic Web and compare its capabilities with relational models in order to build a spatial data infrastructure. An architecture is proposed and a set of criteria is defined for the efficiency evaluation. The result demonstrate that when using the data with special characteristics such as schema dynamicity, sparse data or available relations between the features, the spatial semantic web and graph databases with spatial operations are preferable.

  2. Spatially Defined Oligonucleotide Arrays. Technical Report for Phase II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Project is to sequence all 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. Progress in this has been rapid; GenBank(reg s ign) finished 1994 with 286 million bases of sequence and grew by 2470 in the first quarter of 1995. The challenge to the scientific community is to understand the biological relevance of this genetic information. In most cases the sequence being generated for any single region of the genome represents the genotype of a single individual. A complete understanding of the function of specific genes and other regions of the genome and their role in human disease and development will only become apparent when the sequence of many more individuals is known. Access to genetic information is ultimately limited by the ability to screen DNA sequence. Although the pioneering sequencing methods of Sanger et al. (15) and Maxam and Gilbert (11) have become standard in virtually all molecular biology laboratories, the basic protocols remain largely unchanged. The throughput of this sequencing technology is now becoming the rate-limiting step in both large-scale sequencing projects such as the Human Genome Project and the subsequent efforts to understand genetic diversity. This has inspired the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies (9), Incremental improvements to Sanger sequencing have been made in DNA labeling and detection. High-speed electrophoresis methods using ultrathin gels or capillary arrays are now being more widely employed. However, these methods are throughput-limited by their sequential nature and the speed and resolution of separations. This limitation will become more pronounced as the need to rapidly screen newly discovered genes for biologically relevant polymorphisms increases. An alternative to gel-based sequencing is to use high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays. Oligonucleotide probe arrays display specific oligonucleotide probes at precise locations in a high density, information-rich format (5,4,1 2). The hybridization pattern of a fluorescently labeled nucleic acid target is used to gain primary structure information of the target. This format can be applied to a broad range of nucleic acid sequence analysis problems including pathogen identification, polymorphism detection, human identification, mRNA expression monitoring and de novo sequencing. In this review, we briefly describe the method of light-directed chemid synthesis to create high-density arrays of oligonucleotide probes, the method of fluorescently labeling target nucleic acids for hybridization to the probe arrays, the detection of hybridized targets by epi-fluorescence confocal scanning and the data analysis procedures used to interpret the hybridization signals. To illustrate the use of specific high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays, we describe their application to screening the reverse transcriptase (rt) and protease (pro) genes of HIV-I for polymorphisms and drug-resistance conferring mutations

  3. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  4. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  5. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  6. Non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians defined by generalized Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H., E-mail: h-inoue@math.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takakura, M., E-mail: mayumi@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani [J. Math. Phys. 55, 033501 (2014)] investigated some operators defined by the Riesz bases. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics, and its relatives. In this paper, we introduce a notion of generalized Riesz bases which is a generalization of Riesz bases and investigate some operators defined by the generalized Riesz bases by changing the frameworks of the operators defined in the work of Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani.

  7. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  8. Defining Acquisition Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    34 National Contract Man- agement Journal, 23: 25-32 (1990) 34. Heizer , Jay, Barry Render and Ralph M. Stair, Jr. Production and Operations Methods...551. The FAR definition(s) furnish a useful explanation of "service contracl(s)" and give a comprehensive description of the types of services rendered ...other fa- cilities charge to be paid by the Government will be reduced or eliminated. (3) The utility service supplier refuses to render the desired

  9. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  10. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  11. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  12. Integrative STEM Education Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    “My work with integrative STEM education began in 1990 with the NSF-funded Technology, Science, Mathematics Integration Project… By 2008, I was convinced “STEM Education” was (and always would be) a hopelessly ambiguous phrase, and therefore felt we absolutely needed to rename our “STEM Education” graduate program and develop a tight operational definition of the central idea underlying our program, in hopes of preventing the sort of hopeless ambiguity that ruined the term “STEM education” fr...

  13. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2016-01-01

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patientspecific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduc...

  14. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  15. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  16. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  17. GCCS Spatial Data Base Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... JMTK is divided into three primary areas: (1) Visual, (2) Analysis (non-visual), and (3) Spatial Data Base (SDBM). The primary objective of the SDBM effort is to define, design, develop and test mapping, charting and geodesy...

  18. The inverse spatial Laplacian of spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Karan; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2017-01-01

    We derive the inverse spatial Laplacian for static, spherically symmetric backgrounds by solving Poisson’s equation for a point source. This is different from the electrostatic Green function, which is defined on the four dimensional static spacetime, while the equation we consider is defined on the spatial hypersurface of such spacetimes. This Green function is relevant in the Hamiltonian dynamics of theories defined on spherically symmetric backgrounds, and closed form expressions for the solutions we find are absent in the literature. We derive an expression in terms of elementary functions for the Schwarzschild spacetime, and comment on the relation of this solution with the known Green function of the spacetime Laplacian operator. We also find an expression for the Green function on the static pure de-Sitter space in terms of hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a discussion of the constraints of the electromagnetic field. (paper)

  19. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  20. Developing a modelling for the spatial data infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hjelmager, J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Commission on Spatial Data Standards of the International Cartographic Association (ICA) is working on defining spatial models and technical characteristics of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). To date, this work has been restricted...

  1. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  2. The WHO/PEPFAR collaboration to prepare an operations manual for HIV prevention, care, and treatment at primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings: defining laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Thomas; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Ferris, Robert; Habiyambere, Vincent; Ellerbrock, Tedd

    2009-06-01

    The expansion of HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has generally developed in a top-down manner. Further expansion will involve primary health centers where human and other resources are limited. This article describes the World Health Organization/President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief collaboration formed to help scale up HIV services in primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings. It reviews the contents of the Operations Manual developed, with emphasis on the Laboratory Services chapter, which discusses essential laboratory services, both at the center and the district hospital level, laboratory safety, laboratory testing, specimen transport, how to set up a laboratory, human resources, equipment maintenance, training materials, and references. The chapter provides specific information on essential tests and generic job aids for them. It also includes annexes containing a list of laboratory supplies for the health center and sample forms.

  3. Operator substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Substitution of an operator into an operator-valued map is defined and studied. A Bezout-type remainder theorem is used to derive a number of results. The tensor map is used to formulate solvability conditions for linear matrix equations. Some applications to system theory are given, in particular

  4. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  5. Geomorphology and spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Zorn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of geomorphological knowledge for prevention against some natural disasters, also known as geomorphological disasters, is presented. Some home and foreign experience of applicability of this knowledge are introduced. It is known that the ratio between means put into sanitation of, for example, landslides and savings with prevention measures, are from 1:10 to 1:2.000. The use of geomorpholgical knowledge and corresponding cartographic works in Slovene spatial planning legislation is defined, but it is not carried out consistently. We recommend municipalities and spatial planners that they should also take in account geomorphic processes and characteristic of the relief.

  6. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  7. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  8. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  9. High-sucrose diets in male rats disrupt aspects of decision making tasks, motivation and spatial memory, but not impulsivity measured by operant delay-discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alanna; Dogra, Vimi R; Reichelt, Amy C

    2017-06-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation. We observed deficits in place recognition memory and T-maze forced choice alternation, indicative of hippocampal deficits in rats with a history of sucrose consumption. Moreover, rats with a history of sucrose consumption were less motivated to lever press for rewards on a progressive ratio schedule. However, rats with a history of sucrose consumption performed equally to control animals during the delay-discounting task, suggesting that they discounted for reward size over a delay in a manner comparable to control animals. These findings indicate that high-sucrose diets impact on spatial and working memory processes, but do not induce impulsive-like choice behaviours in rats, suggesting that unhealthy diet choices may not influence this aspect of decision-making behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  11. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  12. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  13. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas - Part 1: Ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, B.; Reffray, G.; Greiner, E.; Nugroho, D.; Koch-Larrouy, A.; Gaspar, P.

    2015-08-01

    INDO12, a 1/12° regional version of the NEMO physical ocean model covering the whole Indonesian EEZ has been developed and is now running every week in the framework of the INDESO project (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) implemented by the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The initial hydrographic conditions as well as open boundary conditions are derived from the operational global ocean forecasting system at 1/4° operated by Mercator Ocean. Atmospheric forcing fields (3 hourly ECMWF analyses) are used to force the regional model. INDO12 is also forced by tidal currents and elevations, and by the inverse barometer effect. The turbulent mixing induced by internal tides is taken into account through a specific parameterization. In this study we evaluate the model skill through comparisons with various datasets including outputs of the parent model, climatologies, in situ temperature and salinity measurements, and satellite data. The simulated and altimeter-derived Eddy Kinetic Energy fields display similar patterns and confirm that tides are a dominant forcing in the area. The volume transport of the Indonesian ThroughFlow is in good agreement with the INSTANT current meter estimates while the transport through Luzon Strait is, on average, westward but probably too weak. Significant water mass transformation occurs along the main routes of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and compares well with observations. Vertical mixing is able to erode the South and North Pacific subtropical waters salinity maximum as seen in TS diagrams. Compared to satellite data, surface salinity and temperature fields display marked biases in the South China Sea. Altogether, INDO12 proves to be able to provide a very realistic simulation of the ocean circulation and water mass transformation through the Indonesian Archipelago. A few weaknesses are also detected. Work is on-going to reduce or eliminate these problems in the second INDO12 version.

  14. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  15. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However......, the queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query......'s keywords and such that objects are nearest to the query location and have the lowest inter-object distances. Specifically, we study two variants of this problem, both of which are NP-complete. We devise exact solutions as well as approximate solutions with provable approximation bounds to the problems. We...

  16. Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...

  17. Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) - Part 1: Ocean physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Benoît; Reffray, Guillaume; Greiner, Eric; Nugroho, Dwiyoga; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    INDO12 is a 1/12° regional version of the NEMO physical ocean model covering the whole Indonesian EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone). It has been developed and is now running every week in the framework of the INDESO (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) project implemented by the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The initial hydrographic conditions as well as open-boundary conditions are derived from the operational global ocean forecasting system at 1/4° operated by Mercator Océan. Atmospheric forcing fields (3-hourly ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) analyses) are used to force the regional model. INDO12 is also forced by tidal currents and elevations, and by the inverse barometer effect. The turbulent mixing induced by internal tides is taken into account through a specific parameterisation. In this study we evaluate the model skill through comparisons with various data sets including outputs of the parent model, climatologies, in situ temperature and salinity measurements, and satellite data. The biogeochemical model results assessment is presented in a companion paper (Gutknecht et al., 2015). The simulated and altimeter-derived Eddy Kinetic Energy fields display similar patterns and confirm that tides are a dominant forcing in the area. The volume transport of the Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is in good agreement with the INSTANT estimates while the transport through Luzon Strait is, on average, westward but probably too weak. Compared to satellite data, surface salinity and temperature fields display marked biases in the South China Sea. Significant water mass transformation occurs along the main routes of the ITF and compares well with observations. Vertical mixing is able to modify the South and North Pacific subtropical water-salinity maximum as seen in T-S diagrams. In spite of a few weaknesses, INDO12 proves to be able to provide a very realistic simulation of the ocean circulation and water mass

  18. Development and operation of a Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B based cryogenic permanent magnet undulator for a high spatial resolution x-ray beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Benabderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Short period, high field undulators are used to produce hard x-rays on synchrotron radiation based storage ring facilities of intermediate energy and enable short wavelength free electron laser. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE_{2}Fe_{14}B (Rare Earth based magnets at low temperatures for achieving short period, high magnetic field and high coercivity. Using Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B instead of Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, which is generally employed for undulators, avoids the limitation caused by the spin reorientation transition phenomenon, and simplifies the cooling system by allowing the working temperature of the undulator to be directly at the liquid nitrogen one (77 K. We describe here the development of a full scale (2 m, 18 mm period Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (U18. The design, construction and optimization, as well as magnetic measurements and shimming at low temperature are presented. The commissioning and operation of the undulator with the electron beam and spectrum measurement using the Nanoscopmium beamline at SOLEIL are also reported.

  19. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    following 13 years of a pro-expedition- ary Labour Government. Fiscal pressures across all government departments have encouraged a debate as to...disarmament. Repatriation and reintegration . Mine clearance. Post- conflict relief and humanitarian aid rehabilitation. Confidence building measures

  20. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  1. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: strong N2O hotspots at the working face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborth, Peter; Fuss, Roland; Münnich, Kai; Flessa, Heinz; Fricke, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH4) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N2O emissions of 20-200gCO2eq.m(-2)h(-1) magnitude (up to 428mgNm(-2)h(-1)) were observed within 20m of the working face. CH4 emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30-40m from the working face, where they reached about 10gCO2eq.m(-2)h(-1). The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N2O was 24.000ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N2O and CH4 concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N2O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH4 mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N2O emissions, especially at MBT landfills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  3. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  4. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  5. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  6. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N2O hotspots at the working face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harborth, Peter; Fuß, Roland; Münnich, Kai; Flessa, Heinz; Fricke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First measurements of N 2 O and CH 4 emissions from an MBT landfill. ► High N 2 O emissions from recently deposited material. ► N 2 O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ► Strong negative correlation between CH 4 and N 2 O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH 4 ) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N 2 O emissions of 20–200 g CO 2 eq. m −2 h −1 magnitude (up to 428 mg N m −2 h −1 ) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH 4 emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO 2 eq. m −2 h −1 . The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N 2 O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N 2 O and CH 4 concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N 2 O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH 4 mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N 2 O emissions, especially at MBT landfills

  7. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ► High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ► N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ► Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup −2} h{sup −1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup −2} h{sup −1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  8. An Innovative Metric to Evaluate Satellite Precipitation's Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Chu, W.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to its capability to cover the mountains, where ground measurement instruments cannot reach, satellites provide a good means of estimating precipitation over mountainous regions. In regions with complex terrains, accurate information on high-resolution spatial distribution of precipitation is critical for many important issues, such as flood/landslide warning, reservoir operation, water system planning, etc. Therefore, in order to be useful in many practical applications, satellite precipitation products should possess high quality in characterizing spatial distribution. However, most existing validation metrics, which are based on point/grid comparison using simple statistics, cannot effectively measure satellite's skill of capturing the spatial patterns of precipitation fields. This deficiency results from the fact that point/grid-wised comparison does not take into account of the spatial coherence of precipitation fields. Furth more, another weakness of many metrics is that they can barely provide information on why satellite products perform well or poor. Motivated by our recent findings of the consistent spatial patterns of the precipitation field over the western U.S., we developed a new metric utilizing EOF analysis and Shannon entropy. The metric can be derived through two steps: 1) capture the dominant spatial patterns of precipitation fields from both satellite products and reference data through EOF analysis, and 2) compute the similarities between the corresponding dominant patterns using mutual information measurement defined with Shannon entropy. Instead of individual point/grid, the new metric treat the entire precipitation field simultaneously, naturally taking advantage of spatial dependence. Since the dominant spatial patterns are shaped by physical processes, the new metric can shed light on why satellite product can or cannot capture the spatial patterns. For demonstration, a experiment was carried out to evaluate a satellite

  9. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  10. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10 -6 or 10 -7 /yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4 /yr (health detriment), 2x10 -6 /yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10 -7 /yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD 50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent

  11. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  12. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  13. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  14. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  15. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  16. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  17. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  18. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  19. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  20. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  1. Software defined radios from smart(er) to cognitive

    CERN Document Server

    Pollin, Sofie; Van der Perre, Liesbet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Radios presents a systematic approach to dealing with the complexity of wireless systems with varying standards. The text aims to enable smart operation of radios with impressive efficiency gains, without hampering the quality of service.

  2. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  3. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  4. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device defined. As used in this part, a radiofrequency device is any device which in its operation is capable of...

  5. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  6. GCCS Spatial Data Base Module Extensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... JMTK is divided into three primary areas: (1) Visual, (2) Analysis (nonvisual), and (3) Spatial Data Base (SDBM). The primary objective of the SDBM effort is to define, design, develop and test mapping, charting and geodesy...

  7. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  8. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  9. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building......This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...

  11. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  12. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  14. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  15. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  16. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...

  17. Spatial Structure of Modern Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Goloukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the spatial structure of modern Moscow and features distinguishing it from the cities of Western Europe and the US. The city has hybrid spatial structure combining elements which emerged on different stages of the city development. In the 14th century two tendencies appeared: the prestige of the city centre and opposition of Western districts as more prestigious to Eastern districts as less prestigious. Crucial spatial characteristics emerged in the Soviet era and up to now they define the image of Moscow. Firstly, it's a peculiar density profile. Population density in post-socialist cities tends to increase as we move further from the city centre while in Western European cities population density is the highest in central districts. Secondly, elementary units of Moscow spatial structure are so called micro-districts (neighbourhoods. The concept of a microdistrict was very popular with Soviet urban planners and widely applied in the residential construction. Another peculiarity of Moscow spatial structure is social heterogeneity of districts and absence of ethnic quarters or ghettos. Furthermore, significant part of the city area is occupied by former industrials zones which are not used anymore and need to be reconstructed. With transition to market economy a number of spatial changes emerged. They were partly related to the large-scale privatization, infill construction and lack of effective urban planning policy. In conclusion the article states the need for the new model of spatial organization which would take into account the specifics of Russian reality.

  18. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  19. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  20. The 3-D global spatial data model foundation of the spatial data infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholder, Earl F

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for handling spatial data are encumbered by the assumption of separate origins for horizontal and vertical measurements. Modern measurement systems operate in a 3-D spatial environment. The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model: Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure offers a new model for handling digital spatial data, the global spatial data model or GSDM. The GSDM preserves the integrity of three-dimensional spatial data while also providing additional benefits such as simpler equations, worldwide standardization, and the ability to track spatial data accuracy with greater specificity and convenience. This groundbreaking spatial model incorporates both a functional model and a stochastic model to connect the physical world to the ECEF rectangular system. Combining horizontal and vertical data into a single, three-dimensional database, this authoritative monograph provides a logical development of theoretical concepts and practical tools that can be used to handle spatial data mo...

  1. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  2. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  3. Composite operators in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    1992-01-01

    We give a formula for the derivatives of a correlation function of composite operators with respect to the parameters (i.e. the strong fine structure constant and the quark mass) of QCD in four- dimensional euclidean space. The formula is given as spatial integration of the operator conjugate to a parameter. The operator product of a composite operator and a conjugate operator has an unintegrable part, and the formula requires divergent subtractions. By imposing consistency conditions we drive a relation between the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators and the unintegrable part of the operator product coefficients. (orig.)

  4. Spherical Process Models for Global Spatial Statistics

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-11-28

    Statistical models used in geophysical, environmental, and climate science applications must reflect the curvature of the spatial domain in global data. Over the past few decades, statisticians have developed covariance models that capture the spatial and temporal behavior of these global data sets. Though the geodesic distance is the most natural metric for measuring distance on the surface of a sphere, mathematical limitations have compelled statisticians to use the chordal distance to compute the covariance matrix in many applications instead, which may cause physically unrealistic distortions. Therefore, covariance functions directly defined on a sphere using the geodesic distance are needed. We discuss the issues that arise when dealing with spherical data sets on a global scale and provide references to recent literature. We review the current approaches to building process models on spheres, including the differential operator, the stochastic partial differential equation, the kernel convolution, and the deformation approaches. We illustrate realizations obtained from Gaussian processes with different covariance structures and the use of isotropic and nonstationary covariance models through deformations and geographical indicators for global surface temperature data. To assess the suitability of each method, we compare their log-likelihood values and prediction scores, and we end with a discussion of related research problems.

  5. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  7. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  8. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Defining Medical Capabilities for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Antonsen, E.; Blue, R.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Kerstman, E.; Bayuse, T.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration-class missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will require a significant change in medical capability from today's low earth orbit centric paradigm. Significant increases in autonomy will be required due to differences in duration, distance and orbital mechanics. Aerospace medicine and systems engineering teams are working together within ExMC to meet these challenges. Identifying exploration medical system needs requires accounting for planned and unplanned medical care as defined in the concept of operations. In 2017, the ExMC Clinicians group identified medical capabilities to feed into the Systems Engineering process, including: determining what and how to address planned and preventive medical care; defining an Accepted Medical Condition List (AMCL) of conditions that may occur and a subset of those that can be treated effectively within the exploration environment; and listing the medical capabilities needed to treat those conditions in the AMCL. This presentation will discuss the team's approach to addressing these issues, as well as how the outputs of the clinical process impact the systems engineering effort.

  10. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Various Views on Spatial Prepositions

    OpenAIRE

    Retz-Schmidt, Gudula

    1988-01-01

    In this article, principles involving the intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use of spatial prepositions are examined from linguistic, psychological, and AI approaches. First, I define some important terms. Second, those prepositions which permit intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use are specified. Third, I examine how the frame of reference is determined for all three cases. Fourth, I look at ambiguities in the use of prepositions and how they can be resolved. Finally, I introduce the natural...

  12. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  13. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  14. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  15. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Eason, Tarsha; Nelson, R. John; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Gunderson, Lance; Knutson, Melinda; Nash, Kirsty L.; Spanbauer, Trisha; Stow, Craig A.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory-based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (U.S. Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps and multivariate analyses such as nMDS and cluster analysis. We successfully detected spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change.

  16. Radiotherapy for brain metastases: defining palliative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezjak, Andrea; Adam, Janice; Panzarella, Tony; Levin, Wilfred; Barton, Rachael; Kirkbride, Peter; McLean, Michael; Mason, Warren; Wong, Chong Shun; Laperriere, Normand

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Most patients with brain metastases are treated with palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). There is no established definition of palliative response. The aim of this study was to develop and test clinically useful criteria for response following palliative WBRT. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted of patients with symptomatic brain metastases treated with WBRT (20 Gy/5 fractions) and standardised steroid tapering. Assessments included observer rating of neurological symptoms, patient-completed symptom checklist and performance status (PS). Response criteria were operationally defined based on a combination of neurological symptoms, PS and steroid dose. Results: Seventy-five patients were accrued. At 1 month, presenting neurological symptoms were improved in 14 patients, stable in 17, and worse in 21; 23 patients were not assessed, mainly due to death or frailty. Using response criteria defined a priori, 15% (95% CI 7-23%) of patients were classified as having a response to RT, 25% no response, and 29% progression; 27% were deceased at or soon after 1 month. A revised set of criteria was tested, with less emphasis on complete tapering of steroids: they increased the proportion of patients responding to 39% (95% CI 27-50%) but didn't change the large proportion who did not benefit (44%). Conclusions: Clinical response to RT of patients with brain metastases is multifactorial, comprising symptoms, PS and other factors. Assessment of degree of palliation depend on the exact definition used. More research is needed in this important area, to help validate criteria for assessing palliation after WBRT

  17. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  18. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population. 68.30 Section 68.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle...

  19. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  20. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  1. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  2. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  3. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  4. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  5. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  6. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  7. Languages for Software-Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration inter- faces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change...how- ever, have seen growing interest in software - defined networks ( SDNs ), in which a logically-centralized controller manages the packet-processing...switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration interfaces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change this

  8. How to define, plan and implant infrastructure for operation and maintenance of large power plants. Salto Caxias - the Parana Electricity Company, Brazil - experience; Como definir, planejar e implantar infraestrutura para operacao e manutencao de grandes usinas. Experiencia de Salto Caxias (COPEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Faisal Ali; Potenza, Luiz Frederico [Usina Hidreletrica de Salto Caxias, Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: faisal@copel.br; potenza@mail.copel.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the evolutional process which has been adopted by COPEL along the hydroelectric undertaking, focusing the Salto Caxias operation staff experience, during the pre-commissioning, commissioning and beginning of the plant commercial operation.

  9. A new methodology of spatial cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran's index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China's urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes.

  10. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China’s urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes. PMID:25993120

  11. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  12. Differentiating Spatial Memory from Spatial Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Whitney N.; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2014-01-01

    The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain…

  13. Spatial Statistical Data Fusion (SSDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Amy J.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Cressie, Noel

    2013-01-01

    As remote sensing for scientific purposes has transitioned from an experimental technology to an operational one, the selection of instruments has become more coordinated, so that the scientific community can exploit complementary measurements. However, tech nological and scientific heterogeneity across devices means that the statistical characteristics of the data they collect are different. The challenge addressed here is how to combine heterogeneous remote sensing data sets in a way that yields optimal statistical estimates of the underlying geophysical field, and provides rigorous uncertainty measures for those estimates. Different remote sensing data sets may have different spatial resolutions, different measurement error biases and variances, and other disparate characteristics. A state-of-the-art spatial statistical model was used to relate the true, but not directly observed, geophysical field to noisy, spatial aggregates observed by remote sensing instruments. The spatial covariances of the true field and the covariances of the true field with the observations were modeled. The observations are spatial averages of the true field values, over pixels, with different measurement noise superimposed. A kriging framework is used to infer optimal (minimum mean squared error and unbiased) estimates of the true field at point locations from pixel-level, noisy observations. A key feature of the spatial statistical model is the spatial mixed effects model that underlies it. The approach models the spatial covariance function of the underlying field using linear combinations of basis functions of fixed size. Approaches based on kriging require the inversion of very large spatial covariance matrices, and this is usually done by making simplifying assumptions about spatial covariance structure that simply do not hold for geophysical variables. In contrast, this method does not require these assumptions, and is also computationally much faster. This method is

  14. Enhancing discovery in spatial data infrastructures using a search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Corti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A spatial data infrastructure (SDI is a framework of geospatial data, metadata, users and tools intended to provide an efficient and flexible way to use spatial information. One of the key software components of an SDI is the catalogue service which is needed to discover, query and manage the metadata. Catalogue services in an SDI are typically based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW standard which defines common interfaces for accessing the metadata information. A search engine is a software system capable of supporting fast and reliable search, which may use ‘any means necessary’ to get users to the resources they need quickly and efficiently. These techniques may include full text search, natural language processing, weighted results, fuzzy tolerance results, faceting, hit highlighting, recommendations and many others. In this paper we present an example of a search engine being added to an SDI to improve search against large collections of geospatial datasets. The Centre for Geographic Analysis (CGA at Harvard University re-engineered the search component of its public domain SDI (Harvard WorldMap which is based on the GeoNode platform. A search engine was added to the SDI stack to enhance the CSW catalogue discovery abilities. It is now possible to discover spatial datasets from metadata by using the standard search operations of the catalogue and to take advantage of the new abilities of the search engine, to return relevant and reliable content to SDI users.

  15. Mental map and spatial thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella Castellar, Sonia Maria; Cristiane Strina Juliasz, Paula

    2018-05-01

    The spatial thinking is a central concept in our researches at the Faculty of Education of University of São Paulo (FE-USP). The cartography is fundamental to this kind of thinking, because it contributes to the development of the representation of space. The spatial representations are the drawings - mental maps - maps, chart, aerial photos, satellite images, graphics and diagrams. To think spatially - including the contents and concepts geographical and their representations - also corresponds to reason, defined by the skills the individual develops to understand the structure, function of a space, and describe your organization and relation to other spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of mental maps in the development of concepts of city and landscape - structuring concepts for school geography. The purpose is to analyze how students in Geography and Pedagogy - future teachers - and young children in Early Childhood Education think, feel, and appropriate these concepts. The analys is indicates the importance of developing mental map in activities with pedagogy and geography graduate student to know that students at school can be producers of maps. Cartography is a language and allows the student to develop the spatial and temporal relationships and notions such as orientation, distance and location, learning the concepts of geographical science. Mental maps present the basic features of the location such as the conditions - the features verified in one place - and the connections that is to understand how this place connects to other places.

  16. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  17. Organizing for Information Operations Within The Joint Task Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaughlin, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    .... Joint doctrine defines information operations as a broad range of capabilities and related activities that include operations security, psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack...

  18. Towards defining restlessness in individuals with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Natalie G; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-01

    Most individuals with dementia develop significant behavioral problems. Restlessness is a behavioral symptom frequently endorsed by caregivers as distressing, yet is variably defined and measured. Lack of conceptual and operational clarity hinders an understanding of this common behavioral type, its prevalence, and development of effective interventions. We advance a systematic definition and understanding of restlessness from which to enhance reporting and intervention development. We reviewed the literature for existing definitions and measures of restlessness, identified common elements across existing definitions, assessed fit with relevant theoretical frameworks, and explored the relationship between restlessness and other behavioral symptoms in a data set of 272 community-dwelling persons with dementia. Twenty-five scales assessing restlessness were identified. Shared components included motor/neurological, psychiatric, and needs-based features. Exploratory analyses suggest that restlessness may co-occur primarily with argumentation, anxiety, waking the caregiver, delusions/hallucinations, and wandering. We propose that restlessness consists of three key attributes: diffuse motor activity or motion subject to limited control, non-productive or disorganized behavior, and subjective distress. Restlessness should be differentiated from and not confused with wandering or elopement, pharmacological side effects, a (non-dementia) mental or movement disorder, or behaviors occurring in the context of a delirium or at end-of-life. Restlessness appears to denote a distinct set of behaviors that have overlapping but non-equivalent features with other behavioral symptoms. We propose that it reflects a complex behavior involving three key characteristics. Understanding its specific manifestations and which components are present can enhance tailoring interventions to specific contexts of this multicomponent behavioral type.

  19. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis

  20. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions [sr

  1. Purge ventilation operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marella, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A determination of minimum requirements for purge exhaust ventilation system operability has been performed. HLWE and HLW Regulatory Program personnel have evaluated the various scenarios of equipment conditions and HLWE has developed the requirements for purge exhaust systems. This report is provided to document operability requirements to assist Tank Farm personnel to determine whether a system is operable/inoperable and to define required compensatory actions

  2. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  3. Defining the cortical visual systems: "what", "where", and "how"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creem, S. H.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The visual system historically has been defined as consisting of at least two broad subsystems subserving object and spatial vision. These visual processing streams have been organized both structurally as two distinct pathways in the brain, and functionally for the types of tasks that they mediate. The classic definition by Ungerleider and Mishkin labeled a ventral "what" stream to process object information and a dorsal "where" stream to process spatial information. More recently, Goodale and Milner redefined the two visual systems with a focus on the different ways in which visual information is transformed for different goals. They relabeled the dorsal stream as a "how" system for transforming visual information using an egocentric frame of reference in preparation for direct action. This paper reviews recent research from psychophysics, neurophysiology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging to define the roles of the ventral and dorsal visual processing streams. We discuss a possible solution that allows for both "where" and "how" systems that are functionally and structurally organized within the posterior parietal lobe.

  4. Instrument-induced spatial crosstalk deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Valerie G.; Evans, Nathan L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed which reduces the effects of (deconvolves) instrument-induced spatial crosstalk in satellite image data by several orders of magnitude where highly precise radiometry is required. The algorithm is based upon radiance transfer ratios which are defined as the fractional bilateral exchange of energy betwen pixels A and B.

  5. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36... Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of... recognized in another jurisdiction. Documents which may require authentication include legal instruments...

  6. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  7. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  8. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  9. Spatial Data Services for Interdisciplinary Applications from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.; Yetman, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), one of 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) in the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), has developed a variety of operational spatial data services aimed at providing online access, visualization, and analytic functions for geospatial socioeconomic and environmental data. These services include: open web services that implement Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS), and Web Coverage Service (WCS); spatial query services that support Web Processing Service (WPS) and Representation State Transfer (REST); and web map clients and a mobile app that utilize SEDAC and other open web services. These services may be accessed from a variety of external map clients and visualization tools such as NASA's WorldView, NOAA's Climate Explorer, and ArcGIS Online. More than 200 data layers related to population, settlements, infrastructure, agriculture, environmental pollution, land use, health, hazards, climate change and other aspects of sustainable development are available through WMS, WFS, and/or WCS. Version 2 of the SEDAC Population Estimation Service (PES) supports spatial queries through WPS and REST in the form of a user-defined polygon or circle. The PES returns an estimate of the population residing in the defined area for a specific year (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, or 2020) based on SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World version 4 (GPWv4) dataset, together with measures of accuracy. The SEDAC Hazards Mapper and the recently released HazPop iOS mobile app enable users to easily submit spatial queries to the PES and see the results. SEDAC has developed an operational virtualized backend infrastructure to manage these services and support their continual improvement as standards change, new data and services become available, and user needs evolve. An ongoing challenge is to improve the reliability and performance

  10. Defining Process Performance Indicators By Using Templates and Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Río Ortega, Adela del; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel; Durán Toro, Amador; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Process Performance Indicators (PPIs) are a key asset for the mea- 2 surement of the achievement of strategic and operational goals in process–oriented 3 organisations. Ideally, the definition of PPIs should not only be unambiguous, 4 complete, and understandable to non–technical stakeholders, but also traceable 5 to business processes and verifiable by means of automated analysis. in practice, 6 PPIs are defined either informally in natural language, with its well–known prob- 7 lems, or at a...

  11. Traffic Policing in Dynamic Military Networks Using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Skappel, Hans Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...

  12. Spatially defined InsP3-mediated signaling in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kapoor

    Full Text Available The functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 signaling in cardiomyocytes is not entirely understood but it was linked to an increased propensity for triggered activity. The aim of this study was to determine how InsP3 receptors can translate Ca(2+ release into a depolarization of the plasma membrane and consequently arrhythmic activity. We used embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESdCs as a model system since their spontaneous electrical activity depends on InsP3-mediated Ca(2+ release. [InsP3]i was monitored with the FRET-based InsP3-biosensor FIRE-1 (Fluorescent InsP3 Responsive Element and heterogeneity in sub-cellular [InsP3]i was achieved by targeted expression of FIRE-1 in the nucleus (FIRE-1nuc or expression of InsP3 5-phosphatase (m43 localized to the plasma membrane. Spontaneous activity of ESdCs was monitored simultaneously as cytosolic Ca(2+ transients (Fluo-4/AM and action potentials (current clamp. During diastole, the diastolic depolarization was paralleled by an increase of [Ca(2+]i and spontaneous activity was modulated by [InsP3]i. A 3.7% and 1.7% increase of FIRE-1 FRET ratio and 3.0 and 1.5 fold increase in beating frequency was recorded upon stimulation with endothelin-1 (ET-1, 100 nmol/L or phenylephrine (PE, 10 µmol/L, respectively. Buffering of InsP3 by FIRE-1nuc had no effect on the basal frequency while attenuation of InsP3 signaling throughout the cell (FIRE-1, or at the plasma membrane (m43 resulted in a 53.7% and 54.0% decrease in beating frequency. In m43 expressing cells the response to ET-1 was completely suppressed. Ca(2+ released from InsP3Rs is more effective than Ca(2+ released from RyRs to enhance INCX. The results support the hypothesis that in ESdCs InsP3Rs form a functional signaling domain with NCX that translates Ca(2+ release efficiently into a depolarization of the membrane potential.

  13. Spatial Identification of Passive Radio Frequency Identification Tags Using Software Defined Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    75 3.4 Experiment Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1 Simulation Enviromental Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79...tabletop zReader 20cm Tag vertical offset from reader z 10 cm 3dB angle of sensor antenna theat3db 0.698 radians Table 4.1: Simulation Enviromental

  14. Spatially defined disruption of motor imagery performance in people with osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanton, T.R.; Lin, C.W.; Smeets, R.J.P.; Taylor, D.; Law, R.; Lorimer Moseley, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether motor imagery performance is disrupted in patients with painful knee OA and if this disruption is specific to the location of the pain. METHODS: Twenty patients with painful knee OA, 20 patients with arm pain and 20 healthy pain-free controls undertook a motor

  15. Defining the spatial scale in modern regional analysis new challenges from data at local level

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Vázquez, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the concept of region, including techniques of ecological inference applied to estimating disaggregated data from observable aggregates. The final part presents applications in line with the functional areas definition in regional analysis.

  16. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  17. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  18. Campbell and moment measures for finite sequential spatial processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe define moment and Campbell measures for sequential spatial processes, prove a Campbell-Mecke theorem, and relate the results to their counterparts in the theory of point processes. In particular, we show that any finite sequential spatial process model can be derived as the vector

  19. Retrieval of Spatial Join Pattern Instances from Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Bakiras, Spiridon

    2009-01-01

    We study the continuous evaluation of spatial join queries and extensions thereof, defined by interesting combinations of sensor readings (events) that co-occur in a spatial neighborhood. An example of such a pattern is "a high temperature reading in the vicinity of at least four high-pressure re...

  20. Young children's spatial structuring ability and emerging number sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents research into the role of young children’s spatial structuring ability in the development of number sense, particularly in terms of insight into numerical relations. We take Battista and Clements’ (1996, p. 503) definition to define the act of spatial structuring as “the mental

  1. Using greenhouse gas fluxes to define soil functional types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, Sandra; Barba, Josep; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2017-12-04

    Soils provide key ecosystem services and directly control ecosystem functions; thus, there is a need to define the reference state of soil functionality. Most common functional classifications of ecosystems are vegetation-centered and neglect soil characteristics and processes. We propose Soil Functional Types (SFTs) as a conceptual approach to represent and describe the functionality of soils based on characteristics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) flux dynamics. We used automated measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forested area to define SFTs following a simple statistical framework. This study supports the hypothesis that SFTs provide additional insights on the spatial variability of soil functionality beyond information represented by commonly measured soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature, litter biomass). We discuss the implications of this framework at the plot-scale and the potential of this approach at larger scales. This approach is a first step to provide a framework to define SFTs, but a community effort is necessary to harmonize any global classification for soil functionality. A global application of the proposed SFT framework will only be possible if there is a community-wide effort to share data and create a global database of GHG emissions from soils.

  2. Coexistence of Named Data Networking (NDN) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    COD) for deploying the data found by CL at optimal node, and c) Path Optimizer (PO) for balancing network traffic in both spatial and temporal...and software- defined networking with big data . Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Library; 2016 Nov 19. arXiv: 1611.06299v1 [cs.NI]. Approved for...ARL-TN-0845 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Coexistence of Named Data Networking (NDN) and Software-Defined Networking

  3. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-01

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  4. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-19

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  5. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  6. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  7. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  8. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  9. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  10. Deficient motion-defined and texture-defined figure-ground segregation in amblyopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Ho, Cindy S; Giaschi, Deborah E

    2007-01-01

    Motion-defined form deficits in the fellow eye and the amblyopic eye of children with amblyopia implicate possible direction-selective motion processing or static figure-ground segregation deficits. Deficient motion-defined form perception in the fellow eye of amblyopic children may not be fully accounted for by a general motion processing deficit. This study investigates the contribution of figure-ground segregation deficits to the motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia. Performances of 6 amblyopic children (5 anisometropic, 1 anisostrabismic) and 32 control children with normal vision were assessed on motion-defined form, texture-defined form, and global motion tasks. Performance on motion-defined and texture-defined form tasks was significantly worse in amblyopic children than in control children. Performance on global motion tasks was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Faulty figure-ground segregation mechanisms are likely responsible for the observed motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia.

  11. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  12. Spatial quality, location theory and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, Mathijs; Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with spatial quality as a possible factor in location choices made by companies. Actual location decisions as well as location theory have changed over time. In the industrial era primary “hard” cost factors were dominant, to be supplemented by agglomeration factors ever since the

  13. Seniority in projection operator formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of seniority can be introduced in projection operator formalism through the use of the operator Q, which has been defined by de-Shalit and Talmi. The usefulness of seniority concept in projection operator formalism is discussed. An example of four nucleons in j=3/2 configuration is given for illustrative purposes

  14. In-network adaptation of SHVC video in software-defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose Maria; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN), when combined with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) represents a paradigm shift in how future networks will behave and be managed. SDN's are expected to provide the underpinning technologies for future innovations such as 5G mobile networks and the Internet of Everything. The SDN architecture offers features that facilitate an abstracted and centralized global network view in which packet forwarding or dropping decisions are based on application flows. Software Defined Networks facilitate a wide range of network management tasks, including the adaptation of real-time video streams as they traverse the network. SHVC, the scalable extension to the recent H.265 standard is a new video encoding standard that supports ultra-high definition video streams with spatial resolutions of up to 7680×4320 and frame rates of 60fps or more. The massive increase in bandwidth required to deliver these U-HD video streams dwarfs the bandwidth requirements of current high definition (HD) video. Such large bandwidth increases pose very significant challenges for network operators. In this paper we go substantially beyond the limited number of existing implementations and proposals for video streaming in SDN's all of which have primarily focused on traffic engineering solutions such as load balancing. By implementing and empirically evaluating an SDN enabled Media Adaptation Network Entity (MANE) we provide a valuable empirical insight into the benefits and limitations of SDN enabled video adaptation for real time video applications. The SDN-MANE is the video adaptation component of our Video Quality Assurance Manager (VQAM) SDN control plane application, which also includes an SDN monitoring component to acquire network metrics and a decision making engine using algorithms to determine the optimum adaptation strategy for any real time video application flow given the current network conditions. Our proposed VQAM application has been implemented and

  15. Farm elders define health as the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah B; Rayens, Mary Kay; Conley, Christina K; Westneat, Susan; Adkins, Sarah M

    2012-08-01

    Thirty percent of America's 2.2 million farms are operated by individuals older than 65 years. This study examined how older farmers define health and determined whether demographic characteristics, farm work, and physical and mental health status predict health definition. Data were collected via telephone and mailed surveys during the baseline wave of data collection in a longitudinal study of family farmers residing in two southern states (n=1,288). Nearly 42% defined health as the "ability to work" compared to a physical health-related definition. Predictors of defining health as the ability to work included being White, performing more farm tasks in the past week, taking prescription medications daily, and having minimal health-related limitations to farm work. Health behaviors are centered on the individual's perception of health. Understanding the defining attributes of health can support better approaches to health care and health promotion, particularly among rural subcultures such as farmers, whose identity is rooted in their work. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user-sup...... different kinds of functionality as well as the ideas underlying their definition....

  17. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  18. Theory of spatial networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1983-01-01

    A new framework of synchronous parallel processing systems called spatial networks is examined, in which the family of all cellular automata is included perfectly. This framework is free from the two restrictions of cellular automata of which one is the finiteness of the set of states of a cell and the other is the countability of an array space. Throughout this article, the relationships between function and structure of spatial networks are considered. First, the necessary and sufficient condition for spatial networks to be uniformly interconnected is given. That for spatial networks to be finitely interconnected is also given with a topological approach. The characterization theorem of cellular automata comes from these results. Second, it is shown that finitely and uniformly interconnected linear spatial networks can be characterized by the convolution form. Last, the conditions for their global mappings to be injective or surjective are discussed. 10 references.

  19. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  20. Evaluation of Device-Independent Internet Spatial Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Komosny

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Device-independent Internet spatial location is needed for many purposes, such as data personalisation and social behaviour analysis. Internet spatial databases provide such locations based the IP address of a device. The free to use databases are natively included into many UNIX and Linux operating systems. These systems are predominantly used for e-shops, social networks, and cloud data storage. Using a constructed ground truth dataset, we comprehensively evaluate these databases for null responses, returned country/region/city, and distance error. The created ground truth dataset differs from others by covering cities with both low and high populations and maintaining only devices that follow the rule of one IP address per ISP (Internet Service Provider and per city. We define two new performance metrics that show the effect of city population and trustworthiness of the results. We also evaluate the databases against an alternative measurement-based approach. We study the reasons behind the results. The data evaluated comes from Europe. The results may be of use for engineers, developers and researchers that use the knowledge of geographical location for related data processing and analysis, such as marketing.

  1. Defining and determining the significance of impacts: concepts and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The term impact is conceptually and mathematically defined to be the difference in the state or value of an ecosystem with versus without the source of impact. Some resulting problems associated with the measurement of impacts based on comparisons of baseline and operational data are discussed briefly. The concept of a significant adverse impact on a biological system is operationally defined in terms of an adverse impact which, according to a proposed decision-tree, justifies rejection of a project or a change in its site, design, or mode of operation. A gradient of increasing difficulty in the prediction of impacts exists as the scope of the assessment is expanded to consider long-term, far-field impacts with respect to higher levels of biological organization (e.g., communities or ecosystems). The analytical methods available for predicting short-term, near-field impacts are discussed. Finally, the role of simulation modeling as an aid to professional judgment in predicting the long-term, far-field consequences of impacts is considered, and illustrated with an example. (U.S.)

  2. Definability and stability of multiscale decompositions for manifold-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp; Wallner, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    are based on upscaling operators which are either interpolating or midpoint-interpolating. For definable multiscale decompositions we obtain a stability result. © 2012 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  4. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  5. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model

  6. Parallel Education and Defining the Fourth Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessell, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Parallel to the primary, secondary, postsecondary, and adult/community education sectors is education not associated with formal programs--learning in arts and cultural sites. The emergence of cultural and educational tourism is an opportunity for adult/community education to define itself by extending lifelong learning opportunities into parallel…

  7. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  8. 7 CFR 28.950 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Definitions § 28.950 Terms defined. As used... Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (c) Administrator. The Administrator of...

  9. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this subpart, Lifeline means a retail local service offering: (1) That is available only to qualifying low-income consumers; (2) For which qualifying low-income consumers pay reduced charges as a result of...

  10. How Should Energy Be Defined throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two…

  11. Big data and software defined networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Big Data Analytics and Software Defined Networking (SDN) are helping to drive the management of data usage of the extraordinary increase of computer processing power provided by Cloud Data Centres (CDCs). This new book investigates areas where Big-Data and SDN can help each other in delivering more efficient services.

  12. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  13. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  14. Spaces defined by the Paley function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashkin, S V [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation); Semenov, E M [Voronezh State University, Faculty of Mathematics, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    The paper is concerned with Haar and Rademacher series in symmetric spaces, and also with the properties of spaces defined by the Paley function. In particular, the symmetric hull of the space of functions with uniformly bounded Paley function is found. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  15. Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality as a particular type of experience (in terms of "presence" and "telepresence") rather than as a collection of hardware. Maintains that media technologies can be classified and studied in terms of vividness and interactivity, two attributes on which virtual reality ranks very high. (SR)

  16. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  17. Slovenian spatial planning system: Key changes of past decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrenčić Valentina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning has a long tradition in Slovenia. It was always a part of the integrated planning process, first institutionalized in 1968. The planning system was quite unique, combining economic, social, and spatial aspects in one, a so called long-term and medium-term social plan. At the national level its spatial part consisted of the national spatial plan, the defining concept for settlement management and growth, public service delivery, use of space and landscape transformation, protection of the environment, and guidelines for conflict management. Today, this form of planning is substituted by the national strategies and programs of each sector.

  18. Children's Spatial Thinking: Does Talk about the Spatial World Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruden, Shannon M.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relations between parent spatial language input, children's own production of spatial language, and children's later spatial abilities. Using a longitudinal study design, we coded the use of spatial language (i.e. words describing the spatial features and properties of objects; e.g. big, tall, circle, curvy, edge) from…

  19. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  20. Spatial separation and entanglement of identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; di Martino, Sara; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    We reconsider the effect of indistinguishability on the reduced density operator of the internal degrees of freedom (tracing out the spatial degrees of freedom) for a quantum system composed of identical particles located in different spatial regions. We explicitly show that if the spin measurements are performed in disjoint spatial regions then there are no constraints on the structure of the reduced state of the system. This implies that the statistics of identical particles has no role from the point of view of separability and entanglement when the measurements are spatially separated. We extend the treatment to the case of n particles and show the connection with some recent criteria for separability based on subalgebras of observables.

  1. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-05-03

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes.

  2. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  3. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  4. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  5. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  6. Mining and information: defining the need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Peck, J. [AQUILA Mining Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Some of the current technologies at surface mining operations are discussed. The information system and communication system requirements needed to integrate these components are considered. A plan of a new mine that uses operating information, optimization through planning, monitoring, and locating systems, data processing and analysis, and integration of monitored data and information via the Total Mining System (TMS) is described. The TMS will allow integration of a network of stand-alone modules. There is an immediate requirement for setting standards in surface mining operations to prevent duplication of effort. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Spatially modulated imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    Noncoherent radiation, such as x-rays, is spatially coded, directed through an object and spatially detected to form a spatially coded pattern, from which an image of the object may be reconstructed. The x-ray source may be formed by x-ray fluorescence and substration of the holographic images formed by two sources having energy levels predominantly above and below the maximum absorption range of an agent in the object may be used to enhance contrast in the reproduced image. (Patent Office Record)

  8. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  9. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  10. The Spatial Dimension of House Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Gong

    2017-04-01

    This research underlines market forces in the operation of Chinese interurban housing markets in the post-reform era, and contributes to the understanding of spatial dimension of house prices, not only in China, but also in other market-oriented economies.

  11. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  12. The Laplace-Cazimir operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Laplace-Cazimir operators on the Lie supergroups are defined, and their radial parts are calculated under some general assumptions on supergroup. Under the same assumptions the characters of nondegenerate irreducible finite-dimensional representations are found

  13. The geography of spatial synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan A; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Anderson, Thomas L; Kastens, Jude H; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Liebhold, Andrew M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2017-07-01

    Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to detailed spatial variation in patterns of synchrony, can be leveraged to understand ecological processes including identification of drivers of synchrony, a long-standing challenge. We focus on three main objectives: (1) showing conceptually and theoretically four mechanisms that can generate geographies of synchrony; (2) documenting complex and pronounced geographies of synchrony in two important study systems; and (3) demonstrating a variety of methods capable of revealing the geography of synchrony and, through it, underlying organism ecology. For example, we introduce a new type of network, the synchrony network, the structure of which provides ecological insight. By documenting the importance of geographies of synchrony, advancing conceptual frameworks, and demonstrating powerful methods, we aim to help elevate the geography of synchrony into a mainstream area of study and application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Stochastic and Spatial Equivalences for PALOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Piho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We concentrate our study on a recent process algebra – PALOMA – intended to capture interactions between spatially distributed agents, for example in collective adaptive systems. New agent-based semantic rules for deriving the underlying continuous time Markov chain are given in terms of State to Function Labelled Transition Systems. Furthermore we define a bisimulation with respect to an isometric transformation of space allowing us to compare PALOMA models with respect to their relative rather than absolute locations.

  15. Characterising landscape variation through spatial folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Derungs, Curdin; Purves, Ross S

    2016-01-01

    Describing current, past and future landscapes for inventory and policy making purposes requires classifications capturing variation in, for example, land use and land cover. Typical land cover classifi- cations for such purposes result from a top-down process and rely on expert conceptualisations, and thus provide limited space for incorporating more widely held views of key landscape elements. In this paper we introduce the notion of spatial folksonomies, which we define as a tuple linking ...

  16. Some topics in the spatial bispectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E. [NUWC, Newport, RI (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The bispectrum can be defined as the triple fourier transform of the third order cumulant of a data series. Up to the present, except in image analysis, most work on the bispectrum has treated time series. Recently, however, there has been interest in using the bispectrum in acoustic array processing. After a look at some issues involving sampling frequencies and symmetries of the bispectrum in general, two applications of the spatial bispectrum to underwater acoustic array processing will be discussed. One is a method of processing against loss of spatial coherence in towed arrays, which takes the form of a one-dimensional image, and the other is a look at the role of spatial bispectra in matched-field processing, which is a form of model-based processing used for the localization of acoustic sound sources.

  17. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  18. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  19. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...... elementary component. On static images the intra-observer reliability showed a high degree of variability for the detection of elementary lesions with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.14 - 1. The inter-observer kappa value was variable with the lowest kappa for enthesophytes (0.24) and the best for Doppler...... activity at the enthesis (0.63). Conclusion: This is the first consensus based definition of US enthesitis and its elementary components and the first step performed to ensure a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability of results between studies and in daily clinical work. Defining Enthesitis...

  20. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  2. Exploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  4. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunev, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  5. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  6. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  7. On Undefined and Meaningless in Lambda Definability

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Fer-Jan

    2016-01-01

    We distinguish between undefined terms as used in lambda definability of partial recursive functions and meaningless terms as used in infinite lambda calculus for the infinitary terms models that generalise the Bohm model. While there are uncountable many known sets of meaningless terms, there are four known sets of undefined terms. Two of these four are sets of meaningless terms. In this paper we first present set of sufficient conditions for a set of lambda terms to se...

  8. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  9. Defining functional distances over Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pozo Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental problem when trying to define the functional relationships between proteins is the difficulty in quantifying functional similarities, even when well-structured ontologies exist regarding the activity of proteins (i.e. 'gene ontology' -GO-. However, functional metrics can overcome the problems in the comparing and evaluating functional assignments and predictions. As a reference of proximity, previous approaches to compare GO terms considered linkage in terms of ontology weighted by a probability distribution that balances the non-uniform 'richness' of different parts of the Direct Acyclic Graph. Here, we have followed a different approach to quantify functional similarities between GO terms. Results We propose a new method to derive 'functional distances' between GO terms that is based on the simultaneous occurrence of terms in the same set of Interpro entries, instead of relying on the structure of the GO. The coincidence of GO terms reveals natural biological links between the GO functions and defines a distance model Df which fulfils the properties of a Metric Space. The distances obtained in this way can be represented as a hierarchical 'Functional Tree'. Conclusion The method proposed provides a new definition of distance that enables the similarity between GO terms to be quantified. Additionally, the 'Functional Tree' defines groups with biological meaning enhancing its utility for protein function comparison and prediction. Finally, this approach could be for function-based protein searches in databases, and for analysing the gene clusters produced by DNA array experiments.

  10. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2) to 30 cm(2), whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  11. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  12. The Spatial Distribution of Thermal Emission from Baghdad Sulcus, Enceladus, at 100 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Albright, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been observing endogenic thermal emission from the south pole of Enceladus since 2005. Best spatial resolution from conventional scans is about 1km, usually from distances > 2000 km. When Cassini is closer to Enceladus, the spacecraft cannot rotate fast enough to track the surface, and the 5 seconds required to obtain a CIRS spectrum produces many kilometers of smear. However, higher-resolution mapping can be done from much closer range by exploiting the 20 msec sampling of the CIRS raw interferograms. On April 14th 2012, Cassini made a gravity pass of Enceladus at a range of 74 km. Spacecraft orientation was inertially fixed, and chosen so that the active tiger stripe Baghdad Sulcus passed through the CIRS and VIMS fields of view during the flyby. In the 7 to 17 µm region, CIRS uses linear arrays of ten detectors with IFOV of 0.29 mrad, which were oriented roughly perpendicular to the groundtrack and operated in pairs, giving five cross-track spatial resolution elements, each 43 meters wide. Along-track spatial resolution, defined by the 20 msec interferogram sampling time and the flyby speed of 7.5 km/sec, was 150 meters. At longer wavelengths, CIRS obtained a single-detector scan with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. The brief passage of the intense tiger stripe thermal emission through the field of view produced complex spikes in the CIRS interferograms. Though spectra cannot be reconstructed, we can use knowledge of the interferogram temporal response to reconstruct the time history of the incoming radiation and thus its spatial distribution. The resulting image will map tiger stripe thermal emission along a small part of Baghdad Sulcus at about ten times the spatial resolution of the best previous Cassini thermal images.

  13. Spatial Search, Position Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB

    2014-01-01

    The Spatial Search specialist meeting in Santa Barbara (December 2014) brought together 35 academic and industry representatives from computational, geospatial, and cognitive sciences with interest in focused discussions on the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda to advance spatial search from scientific and engineering viewpoints. The position papers from participants represent the shared expertise that guided discussions and the formulation of research questions about proces...

  14. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  15. Figure/ground segregation from temporal delay is best at high spatial frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of spatial frequency in performance of a figure/ground segregation task based on temporal cues. Figure orientation was much easier to judge when figure and ground portions of the target were defined exclusively by random texture composed entirely of high spatial frequencies. When target components were defined by low spatial frequencies only, the task was nearly impossible except with long temporal delay between figure and ground. These results are incons...

  16. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  17. Transient performance of integrated SOFC system including spatial temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F; Fardadi, M; Shaffer, B; Brouwer, J; Jabbari, F

    2010-01-01

    Spatial temperature feedback control has been developed for a simulated integrated non-pressurized simple cycle solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The fuel cell spatial temperature feedback controller is based on (1) feed-forward set-points that minimize temperature variation in the fuel cell electrode-electrolyte solid temperature profile for the system operating power range, and (2) decentralized proportional-integral based feedback to maintain the fuel cell spatial temperature profile du...

  18. Defining Disability: Understandings of and Attitudes Towards Ableism and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity.  Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.

  19. Research on a Rotating Machinery Fault Prognosis Method Using Three-Dimensional Spatial Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process models and parameters are two critical steps for fault prognosis in the operation of rotating machinery. Due to the requirement for a short and rapid response, it is important to study robust sensor data representation schemes. However, the conventional holospectrum defined by one-dimensional or two-dimensional methods does not sufficiently present this information in both the frequency and time domains. To supply a complete holospectrum model, a new three-dimensional spatial representation method is proposed. This method integrates improved three-dimensional (3D holospectra and 3D filtered orbits, leading to the integration of radial and axial vibration features in one bearing section. The results from simulation and experimental analysis on a complex compressor show that the proposed method can present the real operational status and clearly reveal early faults, thus demonstrating great potential for condition-based maintenance prediction in industrial machinery.

  20. Configuration-defined control algorithms with the ASDEX Upgrade DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf Germany (Germany); Gräter, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf Germany (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Control algorithm built from combination of pre-fabricated standard function blocks. • Seamless integration in multi-threaded computation context. • Block composition defined by configuration data, only. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a distributed real-time control system executing complex control and monitoring tasks. Up to now, DCS control algorithms have been implemented by coding dedicated application processes with the C++ programming language. Algorithm changes required code modification, compilation and commissioning which only experienced programmers could perform. This was a significant constraint of flexibility for both control system operation and design. The new approach extends DCS with the capability of configuration-defined control algorithms. These are composed of chains of small, configurable standard function blocks providing general purpose functions like algebraic operations, filters, feedback controllers, output limiters and decision logic. In a later phase a graphical editor could help to compose and modify such configuration in a Simulink-like fashion. Building algorithms from standard functions can result in a high number of elements. In order to achieve a similar performance as with C++ coding, it is essential to avoid administrative bottlenecks by design. As a consequence, DCS executes a function block chain in the context of a single real-time thread of an application process. No concurrency issues as in a multi-threaded context need to be considered resulting in strongly simplified signal handling and zero performance overhead for inter-block communication. Instead of signal-driven synchronization, a block scheduler derives the execution sequence automatically from the block dependencies as defined in the configuration. All blocks and connecting signals are instantiated dynamically, based on definitions in a configuration file. Algorithms thus are not defined in the code but only in

  1. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...

  2. Effective spatial database support for acquiring spatial information from remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.

  3. Spatial transformation abilities and their relation to later mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea

    2018-04-10

    Using a longitudinal approach, this study investigated the relational structure of different spatial transformation skills at kindergarten age, and how these spatial skills relate to children's later mathematics performance. Children were tested at three time points, in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 119). Exploratory factor analyses revealed two subcomponents of spatial transformation skills: one representing egocentric transformations (mental rotation and spatial scaling), and one representing allocentric transformations (e.g., cross-sectioning, perspective taking). Structural equation modeling suggested that egocentric transformation skills showed their strongest relation to the part of the mathematics test tapping arithmetic operations, whereas allocentric transformations were strongly related to Numeric-Logical and Spatial Functions as well as geometry. The present findings point to a tight connection between early mental transformation skills, particularly the ones requiring a high level of spatial flexibility and a strong sense for spatial magnitudes, and children's mathematics performance at the beginning of their school career.

  4. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  5. How do pediatric anesthesiologists define intraoperative hypotension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Morris, Michelle; Chimbira, Wilson T; Malviya, Shobha; Reynolds, Paul I; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-11-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) monitoring is a recommended standard of care by the ASA, and pediatric anesthesiologists routinely monitor the BP of their patients and when appropriate treat deviations from 'normal', there is no robust definition of hypotension in any of the pediatric anesthesia texts or journals. Consequently, what constitutes hypotension in pediatric anesthesia is currently unknown. We designed a questionnaire-based survey of pediatric anesthesiologists to determine the BP ranges and thresholds used to define intraoperative hypotension (IOH). Members of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) of Great Britain and Ireland were contacted through e-mail to participate in this survey. We asked a few demographic questions and five questions about specific definitions of hypotension for different age groups of patients undergoing inguinal herniorraphy, a common pediatric surgical procedure. The overall response rate was 56% (483/860), of which 76% were SPA members. Majority of the respondents (72%) work in academic institutions, while 8.9% work in institutions with fewer than 1000 annual pediatric surgical caseload. About 76% of respondents indicated that a 20-30% reduction in baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) indicates significant hypotension in children under anesthesia. Most responders (86.7%) indicated that they use mean arterial pressure or SBP (72%) to define IOH. The mean SBP values for hypotension quoted by SPA members was about 5-7% lower across all pediatric age groups compared to values quoted by APA members (P = 0.001 for all age groups). There is great variability in the BP parameters used and the threshold used for defining and treating IOH among pediatric anesthesiologists. The majority of respondents considered a 20-30% reduction from baseline in SBP as indicative of significant hypotension. Lack of a consensus definition for a common clinical condition like IOH could have

  6. Some criteria for two new integral operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stanciu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Hadamard product, we define two new integral operators. The main object of the present paper is to discuss some univalence conditions for these operators. Several corollaries of the main results are also considered.

  7. Internal operating plan (P.O.I.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the POI (internal operating plan) which defines the management measures, the intervention methods and the required means that the operator must implement to protect the personnel, the population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Gyroaveraging operations using adaptive matrix operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock

    2018-05-01

    A new adaptive scheme to be used in particle-in-cell codes for carrying out gyroaveraging operations with matrices is presented. This new scheme uses an intermediate velocity grid whose resolution is adapted to the local thermal Larmor radius. The charge density is computed by projecting marker weights in a field-line following manner while preserving the adiabatic magnetic moment μ. These choices permit to improve the accuracy of the gyroaveraging operations performed with matrices even when strong spatial variation of temperature and magnetic field is present. Accuracy of the scheme in different geometries from simple 2D slab geometry to realistic 3D toroidal equilibrium has been studied. A successful implementation in the gyrokinetic code XGC is presented in the delta-f limit.

  9. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  10. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  11. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Goransson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  12. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  13. Defining the Strategy of Nuclear Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents nuclear activity as defined within the field of the nuclear industry, which is studied from its capacity to generate electric power to its application in industry and medicine as well as a source for weapons of mass destruction. These fields of analysis introduce some problems that the nuclear activity itself must know how to confront employing action strategies aimed at becoming an activity to be kept in mind when making use of the benefits that its peaceful use contributes to human life. (Author)

  14. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Arjmand, M.; Gennity, I.; Winkler, R.; Struble, C.B.; Aschbacher, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U- 14 C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of ∼66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the [ring-U- 14 C]chloroaniline/lignin metabolites

  15. DEFINING THE CHEMICAL SPACE OF PUBLIC GENOMIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current project aims to chemically index the genomics content of public genomic databases to make these data accessible in relation to other publicly available, chemically-indexed toxicological information. By defining the chemical space of public genomic data, it is possible to identify classes of chemicals on which to develop methodologies for the integration of chemogenomic data into predictive toxicology. The chemical space of public genomic data will be presented as well as the methodologies and tools developed to identify this chemical space.

  16. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  17. Software defined networking applications in distributed datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides essential insights on the SDN application designing and deployment in distributed datacenters. In this book, three key problems are discussed: SDN application designing, SDN deployment and SDN management. This book demonstrates how to design the SDN-based request allocation application in distributed datacenters. It also presents solutions for SDN controller placement to deploy SDN in distributed datacenters. Finally, an SDN management system is proposed to guarantee the performance of datacenter networks which are covered and controlled by many heterogeneous controllers. Researchers and practitioners alike will find this book a valuable resource for further study on Software Defined Networking. .

  18. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  19. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  20. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

  1. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    rps requests per second RTT Round-Trip Time SDN Software Defined Networking SOM Self-Organizing Map STP Spanning Tree Protocol TRW-CB Threshold Random...Protocol ( STP ) updates), in which case the frame will be “punted” from the forwarding lookup process and processed by the route processor [9]. The act of...environment 20 to accomplish the needs of B4. In addition to Google, the SDN market is expected to grow beyond $35 billion by April 2018 [31]. The rate

  2. Re-defining the inbound logistics strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozhnov, Vsevolod

    2008-01-01

    The project was conducted at the Procter and Gamble (P&G) plant located in Amiens, France, and it specifically deals with the Material Management Organization Department's operations, especially Packing Materials supply. New brand launches and production line installations forced drastic growth in

  3. Evaluation of the Spatial Disorientation Sortie in Training Aviators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braithwaite, Malcolm

    1997-01-01

    .... In order to reinforce instruction in spatial disorientation (SD) within the environment in which they operate, British Army Air Corps helicopter pilots also receive an airborne demonstration of the limitations of their orientation senses...

  4. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume

  5. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (US Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps, and multivariate analysis such as nMDS (non-metric Multidimensional Scaling) and cluster analysis. We successfully detect spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change. Use an information theory based method to identify ecological boundaries and compare our results to traditional early warning

  6. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  7. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

  9. How Do You Define an Internship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2017-12-01

    According to the American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Student Exit Survey, internship participation rates over the past four years have been low, particularly among bachelor's and doctoral graduates. In 2016, 65% of bachelor's graduates, 44% of master's graduates, and 57% of doctoral graduates did not participate in an internship while working on their degree. When asked if they submitted applications for internship opportunities, 42% of bachelor's graduates, 23% of master's graduates, and 46% of doctoral graduates claimed to not submit any applications. These statistics have raised concern at AGI because internships provide experiences that help develop critical professional skills and industry connections that can lead to jobs after graduation. However, when internships are discussed among various representatives in geoscience industries, there are disagreements in how an internship experience is defined. For example, opinions differ on whether REUs or other research experiences count as an internship. Clear definitions of internship opportunities may help academic faculty and advisors direct students towards these opportunities and help develop a collection of resources for finding future internships. This presentation will present some of the recent statistics on internship participation among geoscience graduates and present a series of questions to ascertain defining features of internships among AGU attendees and where help is needed to increase participation in internships among current geoscience students.

  10. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  11. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... and ethnification of job categories. However, the same spatial structures allows for a variety of opposition and conciliation strategies among minority employees, even though the latter tend to prevail in a reproduction rather than a transformation of the organizational opportunity structures. Research limitations...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...

  12. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  13. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    , examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...... maps showing representations of applied legal norms, to maps build on datasets that have legal authority. That will integrate legal and geographic information systems, and improve the legal accountability of decision support systems used in e-Government services based on spatio-legal data....

  14. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  15. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  16. Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wu, Dingming

    2013-01-01

    Geo-textual indices play an important role in spatial keyword query- ing. The existing geo-textual indices have not been compared sys- tematically under the same experimental framework. This makes it difficult to determine which indexing technique best supports specific functionality. We provide...... an all-around survey of 12 state- of-the-art geo-textual indices. We propose a benchmark that en- ables the comparison of the spatial keyword query performance. We also report on the findings obtained when applying the bench- mark to the indices, thus uncovering new insights that may guide index...

  17. Development of a Software-Defined Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    disrupt desired radar operation. The cognitive radar system discussed herein mitigates the effects of RFI by sensing and adapting the transmitted...present received data, and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to...and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to missed

  18. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  19. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  20. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  1. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  2. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  3. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2011-01-01

    of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical...... immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation...... companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed...

  4. Just caring: defining a basic benefit package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2011-12-01

    What should be the content of a package of health care services that we would want to guarantee to all Americans? This question cannot be answered adequately apart from also addressing the issue of fair health care rationing. Consequently, as I argue in this essay, appeal to the language of "basic," "essential," "adequate," "minimally decent," or "medically necessary" for purposes of answering our question is unhelpful. All these notions are too vague to be useful. Cost matters. Effectiveness matters. The clinical circumstances of a patient matters. But what we must ultimately determine is what we mutually agree are the just claims to needed health care of each American in a relatively complex range of clinical circumstances. Answering this question will require a public moral conversation, a fair process of rational democratic deliberation aimed at defining both just claims to needed health care and just limits.

  5. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...

  7. Defining Service and Education in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Debra; Gagne, Josh; Kesselheim, Jennifer C

    2017-11-01

    Program directors (PDs) and trainees are often queried regarding the balance of service and education during pediatric residency training. We aimed to use qualitative methods to learn how pediatric residents and PDs define service and education and to identify activities that exemplify these concepts. Focus groups of pediatric residents and PDs were performed and the data qualitatively analyzed. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes from focus group data: (1) misalignment of the perceived definition of service; (2) agreement about the definition of education; (3) overlapping perceptions of the value of service to training; and (4) additional suggestions for improved integration of education and service. Pediatric residents hold positive definitions of service and believe that service adds value to their education. Importantly, the discovery of heterogeneous definitions of service between pediatric residents and PDs warrants further investigation and may have ramifications for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and those responsible for residency curricula.

  8. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-25

    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  10. Computing platforms for software-defined radio

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmi, Jari; Isoaho, Jouni; Garzia, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses Software-Defined Radio (SDR) baseband processing from the computer architecture point of view, providing a detailed exploration of different computing platforms by classifying different approaches, highlighting the common features related to SDR requirements and by showing pros and cons of the proposed solutions. Coverage includes architectures exploiting parallelism by extending single-processor environment (such as VLIW, SIMD, TTA approaches), multi-core platforms distributing the computation to either a homogeneous array or a set of specialized heterogeneous processors, and architectures exploiting fine-grained, coarse-grained, or hybrid reconfigurability. Describes a computer engineering approach to SDR baseband processing hardware; Discusses implementation of numerous compute-intensive signal processing algorithms on single and multicore platforms; Enables deep understanding of optimization techniques related to power and energy consumption of multicore platforms using several basic a...

  11. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  12. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  13. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  14. Operator bosonization on Riemann surfaces: new vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new formalism is proposed for the construction of an operator theory of generalized ghost systems (bc theories of spin J) on Riemann surfaces (loop diagrams of the theory of closed strings). The operators of the bc system are expressed in terms of operators of the bosonic conformal theory on a Riemann surface. In contrast to the standard bosonization formulas, which have meaning only locally, operator Baker-Akhiezer functions, which are well defined globally on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, are introduced. The operator algebra of the Baker-Akhiezer functions generates explicitly the algebraic-geometric τ function and correlation functions of bc systems on Riemann surfaces

  15. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  16. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group

  17. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  18. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  19. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  20. Spatial organization of drumlins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Chris D.; Ely, Jeremy; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Ice-sheets flowing over soft sediments produce undulations in the bed, typically of metres in relief, of which drumlins are the most abundant and widely investigated. Consensus regarding their mechanism of formation has yet to be achieved. In this paper we examine the spatial organization of drum...

  1. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  2. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  3. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  4. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  5. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  6. GIS Application to Define Biomass Collection Points as Sources for Linear Programming of Delivery Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2009-01-01

    Much bio-energy can be obtained from wood pruning operations in forests and fruit orchards. Several spatial studies have been carried out for biomass surveys, and many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models can assist in determining

  7. Defining obstructive ventilatory defect in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Affes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no clear consensus as to what constitutes an obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD: Is it FEV1/FVCoperational definitions? Aim: To determine, according to the two definitions, the percentage of subjects having an OVD among them explored in a lung function exploration laboratory. Population and methods: This is a retrospective study including 4,730 subjects aged 17–85 years. Subjects were divided according to the presence [physio (+ or operat (+] or absence [physio (− or operat (−] of an OVD, and into younger (<45 years, n=2,076, older (≥45 years, n=2,654, smokers (n=1,208, and non-smokers (n=3,522 groups. Results: For the total sample, the younger and older groups [mean±SD of age (years, respectively, 46.7±14.1; 33.9±7.4, and 56.8±9.1], the ‘physiological definition’ detected, respectively, 13.46, 43.22, and 5.09% more OVD than the ‘operational one’ (p<0.05. In addition, the operational definition, compared with the physiological one, overdiagnosed OVD in 2.33 and 0.44% of smokers and non-smokers, respectively, and underdiagnosed it in 4.46% and 29.72% of smokers and non-smokers, respectively (p<0.05. Compared with the group ‘physio (−, operat (+’, the ‘physio (+, operat (−’ one was younger (74.2±4.7 years vs. 40.9±10.3 years and had significantly higher FEV1 (62±13% vs. 78±17% and FVC (71±15% vs. 93±19%. Conclusion: The frequency of OVD much depends on the criteria used for its definition.

  8. General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, general logic-systems are investigated. It is shown that there are infinitely many finite consequence operators defined on a fixed language L that cannot be generated from a finite logic-system. It is shown that a set map is a finite consequence operator iff it is defined by a general logic-system.

  9. Software defined networking with OpenFlow

    CERN Document Server

    Azodolmolky, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide which will help you gain hands-on experience with the platforms and debugging tools on OpenFlow.If you are a network engineer, architect, junior researcher or an application developer, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have some level of network experience, knowledge of broad networking concepts, and some familiarity with day- to- day operation of computer networks. Ideally, you should also be familiar with programing scripting/languages (especially Python and Java), and system virtualization.

  10. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  11. Organisational aspects of spatial information infrastructure in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Elzbieta; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    One of the more important elements of spatial information infrastructure is the organisational structure defining the obligations and dependencies between stakeholders that are responsible for the infrastructure. Many SDI practitioners and theoreticians emphasise that its influence on the success or failure of activities undertaken is significantly greater than that of technical aspects. Being aware of the role of the organisational structure in the creating, operating and maintenance of spatial information infrastructure (SII), Polish legislators placed appropriate regulations in the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act, being the transposition of the INSPIRE Directive into Polish Law. The principal spatial information infrastructure stakeholders are discussed in the article and also the scope of cooperation between them. The tasks and relationships between stakeholders are illustrated in UML, in both the use case and the class diagram. Mentioned also are the main problems and obstructions resulting from imprecise legal regulations. Jednym z istotniejszych komponentów infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej (IIP) jest struktura organizacyjna określająca m.in. zależności pomiędzy organizacjami tworzącymi infrastrukturę. Wielu praktyków i teoretyków SDI podkreśla, że wpływ aspektów organizacyjnych na sukces lub porażkę SDI jest dużo większy niż elementów technicznych. Mając świadomość znaczącej roli struktury organizacyjnej w tworzeniu, funkcjonowaniu i zarządzaniu infrastrukturą przestrzenną w Polsce, legislatorzy umieścili odpowiednie zapisy w ustawie z dnia 4 marca 2010 r. o infrastrukturze informacji przestrzennej, będącej transpozycją dyrektywy INSPIRE do prawa polskiego. W artykule omówiono strukturę organizacyjną IIP w Polsce, podając (m.in. w postaci diagramów UML) obowiązki poszczególnych organów administracji zaangażowanych w jej budowę i rozwój, a także omówiono zależności i zakres współpracy pomi

  12. 'Just Do Something' Measuring and Achieving Operational Success in Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    .... Determining the mission, translating political objectives, defining and measuring success delineating termination criteria and developing an exit strategy are made much more difficult then in combat military operations...

  13. Towards Effective Intra-flow Network Coding in Software Defined Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Donghai Zhu; Xinyu Yang Yang; Peng Zhao; Wei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have potential to provide convenient broadband wireless Internet access to mobile users.With the support of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm that separates control plane and data plane, WMNs can be easily deployed and managed. In addition, by exploiting the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the spatial diversity of multi-hop wireless networks, intra-flow network coding has shown a greater benefit in comparison with traditional routing paradigm...

  14. Between morphology and function: How syntactic centers of the Beijing city are defined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of big data provides a new angle of view on investigating whether, and if so, how to define the urban center through analyzing urban spatial morphology intrinsically interacts with its functions. This article, using empirical research of the Beijing city, first seeking to explore spatial configuration-the complex relation between any pair of individual spaces regarding other contextual spaces – of urban network collected from Baidu. And then, focusing on conducting a statistical correlation between the configurational patterns of urban network and the aggregation patterns of functions. Based on the different patterns of aggregation or dispersion of those functions we discussed, as well as the multi-scale syntactic location choice underlying those patterns, it then can be identified four types of centers in the Beijing city, which may be called active center, ordinary center, brand centers and specified center, as well as the extent to which spatial layout influences functional distribution.

  15. Spatially Explicit Estimation of Optimal Light Use Efficiency for Improved Satellite Data Driven Ecosystem Productivity Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) models, including the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD17 algorithm are commonly used for regional estimation and monitoring of vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and photosynthetic carbon (CO2) uptake. A common model assumption is that plants in a biome matrix operate at their photosynthetic capacity under optimal climatic conditions. A prescribed biome maximum light use efficiency parameter defines the maximum photosynthetic carbon conversion rate under prevailing climate conditions and is a large source of model uncertainty. Here, we used tower (FLUXNET) eddy covariance measurement based carbon flux data for estimating optimal LUE (LUEopt) over a North American domain. LUEopt was first estimated using tower observed daily carbon fluxes, meteorology and satellite (MODIS) observed fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). LUEopt was then spatially interpolated over the domain using empirical models derived from independent geospatial data including global plant traits, surface soil moisture, terrain aspect, land cover type and percent tree cover. The derived LUEopt maps were then used as primary inputs to the MOD17 LUE algorithm for regional GPP estimation; these results were evaluated against tower observations and alternate MOD17 GPP estimates determined using Biome-specific LUEopt constants. Estimated LUEopt shows large spatial variability within and among different land cover classes indicated from a sparse North American tower network. Leaf nitrogen content and soil moisture are two important factors explaining LUEopt spatial variability. GPP estimated from spatially explicit LUEopt inputs shows significantly improved model accuracy against independent tower observations (R2 = 0.76; Mean RMSE plant trait information can explain spatial heterogeneity in LUEopt, leading to improved GPP estimates from satellite based LUE models.

  16. Nanometer CMOS Sigma-Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, Alonso; Rosa, José M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions for the implementation of Sigma-Delta Modulation (SDM) based Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), required for the next generation of wireless hand-held terminals. These devices will be based on the so-called multistandard transceiver chipsets, integrated in nanometer CMOS technologies. One of the most challenging and critical parts in such transceivers is the analog-digital interface, because of the assorted signal bandwidths and dynamic ranges that can be required to handle the A/D conversion for several operation modes.   This book describes new adaptive and reconfigurable SDM ADC topologies, circuit strategies and synthesis methods, specially suited for multi-standard wireless telecom systems and future Software-defined-radios (SDRs) integrated in nanoscale CMOS. It is a practical book, going from basic concepts to the frontiers of SDM architectures and circuit implementations, which are explained in a didactical and systematic way. It gives a comprehensive overview...

  17. SONEP: A Software-Defined Optical Network Emulation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azodolmolky, Siamak; Petersen, Martin Nordal; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2014-01-01

    Network emulation has been one of the tools of choice for conducting experiments on commodity hardware. In the absence of an easy to use optical network test-bed, researchers can significantly benefit from the availability of a flexible/programmable optical network emulation platform. Exploiting...... the lightweight system virtualization, which is recently supported in modern operating systems, in this work we present the architecture of a Software-Defined Network (SDN) emulation platform for transport optical networks and investigate its usage in a use-case scenario. To the best of our knowledge......, this is for the first time that an SDN-based emulation platform is proposed for modeling and performance evaluation of optical networks. Coupled with recent trend of extension of SDN towards transport (optical) networks, the presented tool can facilitate the evaluation of innovative idea before actual implementations...

  18. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  19. Interpretation of Spirometry: Selection of Predicted Values and Defining Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S K

    2015-01-01

    Spirometry is the most frequently performed investigation to evaluate pulmonary function. It provides clinically useful information on the mechanical properties of the lung and the thoracic cage and aids in taking management-related decisions in a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. Few measurements in medicine are so dependent on factors related to equipment, operator and the patient. Good spirometry requires quality assured measurements and a systematic approach to interpretation. Standard guidelines on the technical aspects of equipment and their calibration as well as the test procedure have been developed and revised from time-to-time. Strict compliance with standardisation guidelines ensures quality control. Interpretation of spirometry data is based only on two basic measurements--the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and their ratio, FEV1/FVC. A meaningful and clinically useful interpretation of the measured data requires a systematic approach and consideration of several important issues. Central to interpretation is the understanding of the development and application of prediction equations. Selection of prediction equations that are appropriate for the ethnic origin of the patient is vital to avoid erroneous interpretation. Defining abnormal values is a debatable but critical aspect of spirometry. A statistically valid definition of the lower limits of normal has been advocated as the better method over the more commonly used approach of defining abnormality as a fixed percentage of the predicted value. Spirometry rarely provides a specific diagnosis. Examination of the flow-volume curve and the measured data provides information to define patterns of ventilatory impairment. Spirometry must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical information including results of other investigations.

  20. Defining recovery in chronic fatigue syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jenna L; Caikauskaite, Indre; Friedberg, Fred

    2014-11-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), the lack of consensus on how recovery should be defined or interpreted has generated controversy and confusion. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review, compare, and evaluate the definitions of recovery reported in the CFS literature and to make recommendations about the scope of recovery assessments. A search was done using the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for peer review papers that contained the search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "recovery," "reversal," "remission," and/or "treatment response." From the 22 extracted studies, recovery was operationally defined by reference with one or more of these domains: (1) pre-morbid functioning; (2) both fatigue and function; (3) fatigue (or related symptoms) alone; (4) function alone; and/or (5) brief global assessment. Almost all of the studies measuring recovery in CFS did so differently. The brief global assessment was the most common outcome measure used to define recovery. Estimates of recovery ranged from 0 to 66 % in intervention studies and 2.6 to 62 % in naturalistic studies. Given that the term "recovery" was often based on limited assessments and less than full restoration of health, other more precise and accurate labels (e.g., clinically significant improvement) may be more appropriate and informative. In keeping with common understandings of the term recovery, we recommend a consistent definition that captures a broad-based return to health with assessments of both fatigue and function as well as the patient's perceptions of his/her recovery status.

  1. On spatial spillover in feedforward and feedback noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Antai; Bernstein, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Active feedback noise control for rejecting broadband disturbances must contend with the Bode integral constraint, which implies that suppression over some frequency range gives rise to amplification over another range at the performance microphone. This is called spectral spillover. The present paper deals with spatial spillover, which refers to the amplification of noise at locations where no microphone is located. A spatial spillover function is defined, which is valid for both feedforward and feedback control with scalar and vector control inputs. This function is numerically analyzed and measured experimentally. Obstructions are introduced in the acoustic space to investigate their effect on spatial spillover.

  2. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems' capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  3. Defining meridians: a modern basis of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C

    2010-06-01

    Acupuncture, one of the primary methods of treatment in traditional Oriental medicine, is based on a system of meridians. Along the meridians lie acupuncture points or acupoints, which are stimulated by needling, pressure or heat to resolve a clinical problem. A number of methods have been used to identify meridians and to explain them anatomically. Thus, tendinomuscular structures, primo-vessels (Bonghan ducts), regions of increased temperature and low skin resistance have been suggested to represent meridians or as methods to identify them. However, none of these methods have met the criteria for a meridian, an entity that, when stimulated by acupuncture can result in clinical improvement. More recently, modern physiologists have put forward the "neural hypothesis" stating that the clinical influence of acupuncture is transmitted primarily through stimulation of sensory nerves that provide signals to the brain, which processes this information and then causes clinical changes associated with treatment. Although additional research is warranted to investigate the role of some of the structures identified, it seems clear that the peripheral and central nervous system can now be considered to be the most rational basis for defining meridians. The meridian maps and associated acupoints located along them are best viewed as road maps that can guide practitioners towards applying acupuncture to achieve optimal clinical results. Copyright 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  4. Software Defined Networks in Wireless Sensor Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different protocols coexist in Internet that provides services to users. Unfortunately, control decisions and distributed management make it hard to control networks. These problems result in an inefficient and unpredictable network behaviour. Software Defined Networks (SDN is a new concept of network architecture. It intends to be more flexible and to simplify the management in networks with respect to traditional architectures. Each of these aspects are possible because of the separation of control plane (controller and data plane (switches in network devices. OpenFlow is the most common protocol for SDN networks that provides the communication between control and data planes. Moreover, the advantage of decoupling control and data planes enables a quick evolution of protocols and also its deployment without replacing data plane switches. In this survey, we review the SDN technology and the OpenFlow protocol and their related works. Specifically, we describe some technologies as Wireless Sensor Networks and Wireless Cellular Networks and how SDN can be included within them in order to solve their challenges. We classify different solutions for each technology attending to the problem that is being fixed.

  5. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  6. Defining functional dyspepsia Definiendo la dispepsia funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia represent a highly significant public health issue. A good definition of dyspepsia is key for helping us to better approach symptoms, decision making, and therapy indications. During the last few years many attempts were made at establishing a definition of dyspepsia. Results were little successful on most occasions, and clear discrepancies arose on whether symptoms should be associated with digestion, which types of symptoms were to be included, which anatomic location should symptoms have, etc. The Rome III Committee defined dyspepsia as "a symptom or set of symptoms that most physicians consider to originate from the gastroduodenal area", including the following: postprandial heaviness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning. Two new entities were defined: a food-induced dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial distress syndrome; and b epigastric pain (epigastric pain syndrome. These and other definitions have shown both strengths and weaknesses. At times they have been much too complex, at times much too simple; furthermore, they have commonly erred on the side of being inaccurate and impractical. On the other hand, some (the most recent ones are difficult to translate into the Spanish language. In a meeting of gastroenterologists with a special interest in digestive functional disorders, the various aspects of dyspepsia definition were discussed and put to the vote, and the following conclusions were arrived at: dyspepsia is defined as a set of symptoms, either related or unrelated to food ingestion, localized on the upper half of the abdomen. They include: a epigastric discomfort (as a category of severity or pain; b postprandial heaviness; and c early satiety. Associated complaints include: nausea, belching, bloating, and epigastric burn (heartburn. All these must be scored according to severity and frequency. Furthermore, psychological factors may be involved in the origin of functional dyspepsia. On the

  7. [Defining AIDS terminology. A practical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locutura, Jaime; Almirante, Benito; Berenguer, Juan; Muñoz, Agustín; Peña, José María

    2003-01-01

    Since the appearance of AIDS, the study of this disease has generated a large amount of information and an extensive related vocabulary comprised of new terms or terms borrowed from other scientific fields. The urgent need to provide names for newly described phenomena and concepts in this field has resulted in the application of terms that are not always appropriate from the linguistic and scientific points of view. We discuss the difficulties in attempting to create adequate AIDS terminology in the Spanish language, considering both the general problems involved in building any scientific vocabulary and the specific problems inherent to this activity in a field whose defining illness has important social connotations. The pressure exerted by the predominance of the English language in reporting scientific knowledge is considered, and the inappropriate words most often found in a review of current literature are examined. Finally, attending to the two most important criteria for the creation of new scientific terms, accuracy and linguistic correction, we propose some well thought-out alternatives that conform to the essence of the Spanish language.

  8. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks. PMID:27828969

  9. Medical device software: defining key terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Gutorova, Nataliya; Harkusha, Andrii

    one of the areas of significant growth in medical devices has been the role of software - as an integral component of a medical device, as a standalone device and more recently as applications on mobile devices. The risk related to a malfunction of the standalone software used within healthcare is in itself not a criterion for its qualification or not as a medical device. It is therefore, necessary to clarify some criteria for the qualification of stand-alone software as medical devices Materials and methods: Ukrainian, European Union, United States of America legislation, Guidelines developed by European Commission and Food and Drug Administration's, recommendations represented by international voluntary group and scientific works. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. the legal regulation of software which is used for medical purpose in Ukraine limited to one definition. In European Union and United States of America were developed and applying special guidelines that help developers, manufactures and end users to difference software on types standing on medical purpose criteria. Software becomes more and more incorporated into medical devices. Developers and manufacturers may not have initially appreciated potential risks to patients and users such situation could have dangerous results for patients or users. It is necessary to develop and adopt the legislation that will intend to define the criteria for the qualification of medical device software and the application of the classification criteria to such software, provide some illustrative examples and step by step recommendations to qualify software as medical device.

  10. Software-defined Quantum Networking Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The software enables a user to perform modeling and simulation of software-defined quantum networks. The software addresses the problem of how to synchronize transmission of quantum and classical signals through multi-node networks and to demonstrate quantum information protocols such as quantum teleportation. The software approaches this problem by generating a graphical model of the underlying network and attributing properties to each node and link in the graph. The graphical model is then simulated using a combination of discrete-event simulators to calculate the expected state of each node and link in the graph at a future time. A user interacts with the software by providing an initial network model and instantiating methods for the nodes to transmit information with each other. This includes writing application scripts in python that make use of the software library interfaces. A user then initiates the application scripts, which invokes the software simulation. The user then uses the built-in diagnostic tools to query the state of the simulation and to collect statistics on synchronization.

  11. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  12. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  13. Methodologies for defining quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-10

    Quality of life as a concept has been used in many ways in the public policy arena. It can be used in summative evaluations to assess the impacts of policies or programs. Alternatively, it can be applied to formative evaluations to provide input to the formation of new policies. In short, it provides the context for the understanding needed to evaluate the results of choices that have been made in the public policy arena, or the potential of choices yet to be made. In either case, the public policy question revolves around the positive or negative impact the choice will have on quality of life, and the magnitude of that impact. This discussion will develop a conceptual framework that proposes that an assessment of quality of life is based on a comparison of expectations with experience. The framework defines four basic components from which these expectations arise: natural conditions, social conditions, the body, and the mind. Each one of these components is generally described, and associated with a general policy or rhetorical category which gives it its policy vocabulary--environmental quality, economic well-being, human health, and self-fulfillment.

  14. Quad channel software defined receiver for passive radar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pető Tamás

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the growing utilization of the electromagnetic environment brings the passive radar researches more and more to the fore. For the utilization of the wide range of illuminators of opportunity the application of wideband radio receivers is required. At the same time the multichannel receiver structure has also critical importance in target direction finding and interference suppression. This paper presents the development of a multichannel software defined receiver specifically for passive radar applications. One of the relevant feature of the developed receiver platform is its up-to-date SoC (System on hip based structure, which greatly enhance the integration and signal processing capacity of the system, all while keeping the costs low. The software defined operation of the discussed receiver system is demonstrated with using DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcast – Terrestrial signal as illuminator of opportunity. During this demonstration the multichannel capabilities of the realized system are also tested with real data using direction finding and beamforming algorithms.

  15. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  16. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes.

  17. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  18. Considerations for Software Defined Networking (SDN): Approaches and use cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, K.

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an evolutionary approach to network design and functionality based on the ability to programmatically modify the behavior of network devices. SDN uses user-customizable and configurable software that's independent of hardware to enable networked systems to expand data flow control. SDN is in large part about understanding and managing a network as a unified abstraction. It will make networks more flexible, dynamic, and cost-efficient, while greatly simplifying operational complexity. And this advanced solution provides several benefits including network and service customizability, configurability, improved operations, and increased performance. There are several approaches to SDN and its practical implementation. Among them, two have risen to prominence with differences in pedigree and implementation. This paper's main focus will be to define, review, and evaluate salient approaches and use cases of the OpenFlow and Virtual Network Overlay approaches to SDN. OpenFlow is a communication protocol that gives access to the forwarding plane of a network's switches and routers. The Virtual Network Overlay relies on a completely virtualized network infrastructure and services to abstract the underlying physical network, which allows the overlay to be mobile to other physical networks. This is an important requirement for cloud computing, where applications and associated network services are migrated to cloud service providers and remote data centers on the fly as resource demands dictate. The paper will discuss how and where SDN can be applied and implemented, including research and academia, virtual multitenant data center, and cloud computing applications. Specific attention will be given to the cloud computing use case, where automated provisioning and programmable overlay for scalable multi-tenancy is leveraged via the SDN approach.

  19. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively......-fold higher latest CD4 cell count was associated with a halving of the risk of ADM mortality. Other predictors of an increased risk of ADM mortality were homosexual risk group, older age, a previous (non-malignancy) AIDS diagnosis and earlier calendar years. Predictors of an increased risk of nADM mortality...

  20. Protecting location privacy for outsourced spatial data in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Gui, Xiaolin; An, Jian; Yang, Pan; Zhao, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    As cloud computing services and location-aware devices are fully developed, a large amount of spatial data needs to be outsourced to the cloud storage provider, so the research on privacy protection for outsourced spatial data gets increasing attention from academia and industry. As a kind of spatial transformation method, Hilbert curve is widely used to protect the location privacy for spatial data. But sufficient security analysis for standard Hilbert curve (SHC) is seldom proceeded. In this paper, we propose an index modification method for SHC (SHC(∗)) and a density-based space filling curve (DSC) to improve the security of SHC; they can partially violate the distance-preserving property of SHC, so as to achieve better security. We formally define the indistinguishability and attack model for measuring the privacy disclosure risk of spatial transformation methods. The evaluation results indicate that SHC(∗) and DSC are more secure than SHC, and DSC achieves the best index generation performance.

  1. Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-10-11

    We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.

  2. The conversion of spatial planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Danish spatial planning has been increasingly subjected to significant structural, functional and conceptual reorientations over the past two decades. The comprehensive hierarchical framework wherein planning policies and practices used to operate became considerably modified after the implementa......Danish spatial planning has been increasingly subjected to significant structural, functional and conceptual reorientations over the past two decades. The comprehensive hierarchical framework wherein planning policies and practices used to operate became considerably modified after...... the implementation of a local government reform back in 2007. The reform abolished the county level, which implied the re-scaling of planning policies, functions and responsibilities to municipal and national levels. This situation brought about radical shifts concerning the implementation of land-use tasks...

  3. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  4. Spatial Thinking in Atmospheric Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, P. M.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ellis, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric science is a STEM discipline that involves the visualization of three-dimensional processes from two-dimensional maps, interpretation of computer-generated graphics and hand plotting of isopleths. Thus, atmospheric science draws heavily upon spatial thinking. Research has shown that spatial thinking ability can be a predictor of early success in STEM disciplines and substantial evidence demonstrates that spatial thinking ability is improved through various interventions. Therefore, identification of the spatial thinking skills and cognitive processes used in atmospheric science is the first step toward development of instructional strategies that target these skills and scaffold the learning of students in atmospheric science courses. A pilot study of expert and novice meteorologists identified mental animation and disembedding as key spatial skills used in the interpretation of multiple weather charts and images. Using this as a starting point, we investigated how these spatial skills, together with expertise, domain specific knowledge, and working memory capacity affect the ability to produce an accurate forecast. Participants completed a meteorology concept inventory, experience questionnaire and psychometric tests of spatial thinking ability and working memory capacity prior to completing a forecasting task. A quantitative analysis of the collected data investigated the effect of the predictor variables on the outcome task. A think-aloud protocol with individual participants provided a qualitative look at processes such as task decomposition, rule-based reasoning and the formation of mental models in an attempt to understand how individuals process this complex data and describe outcomes of particular meteorological scenarios. With our preliminary results we aim to inform atmospheric science education from a cognitive science perspective. The results point to a need to collaborate with the atmospheric science community broadly, such that multiple

  5. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  6. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... that ‘the involvement of the international community’ is at best an unhelpful criterion when it comes to resolving questions, e.g. regarding the immunity of state officials and the relevance of domestic law, that require a determination of the legal system in which the court operates. Instead, it is argued...

  7. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  8. Analog model for analysis of spatial instability of neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanovic, Lj.

    1964-12-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a model for analysing spatial instability of the neutron flux and defining the optimum number and position of regulating rods. The developed model enables calculation of higher harmonics to be taken into account for each type of reactor, to define zones for regulation rods, position and number of points for detecting reactor state, and number and position of the regulating rods

  9. How Do Women Entrepreneurs Define Success? A Qualitative Study of Differences Among Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards...

  10. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  11. Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors for Quantitative Spatial Imaging of Chemical Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinobu, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Ko-Ichiro; Werner, Carl Frederik; Poghossian, Arshak; Wagner, Torsten; Schöning, Michael J

    2017-06-12

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a semiconductor-based chemical sensor, in which a measurement site on the sensing surface is defined by illumination. This light addressability can be applied to visualize the spatial distribution of pH or the concentration of a specific chemical species, with potential applications in the fields of chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. In this review, the features of this chemical imaging sensor technology are compared with those of other technologies. Instrumentation, principles of operation, and various measurement modes of chemical imaging sensor systems are described. The review discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art technologies, especially with regard to the spatial resolution and measurement speed; for example, a high spatial resolution in a submicron range and a readout speed in the range of several tens of thousands of pixels per second have been achieved with the LAPS. The possibility of combining this technology with microfluidic devices and other potential future developments are discussed.

  12. Defining Drought Characteristics for Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Senay, G. B.; McNeeley, S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    In the north central region of the US, on-going drought studies are investigating factors determining how drought impacts various ecosystem services and challenge natural resource management decisions. The effort reported here stems from research sponsored by the USGS North Central Climate Science Center, to deal with ecosystem response to drought with the goal to see if there are indicators of drought emerging from the ecosystem interactions with various weather patterns, soil moisture dynamics, and the structural aspects of the ecosystem in question. The North Central domain covers a region from the headwaters of the Missouri River Basin to the northern Great Plains. Using spatial and temporal analysis of remote sensing products and mechanistic daily time-step ecosystem model simulations across the northern Great Plains and northern Rockies, analysis of recent drought conditions over the region will be provided. Drought characteristics will be analyzed related to resource management targets, such as water supply, landscape productivity, or habitat needs for key species. Analysis of ecosystem and landscape patterns of drought relative to net primary productivity, surface temperatures, soil moisture content, evaporation, transpiration, and water use efficiency from 2000 through 2014 will be analyzed for different drought and non-drought events. Comparisons between satellite-derived ET and NPP of different Great Plains ecosystems related to simulated ET and NPP will be presented. These comparisons provide indications of the role that soil moisture dynamics, groundwater recharge and rooting depth of different ecosystems have on determining the sensitivity to water stress due to seasonal warming and reduced precipitation across the region. In addition, indications that average annual rainfall levels over certain ecosystems may result in reduced production due to higher rates of water demand under the observed warmer temperatures and the prolonged warming in the spring

  13. Spatial Harmonic Decomposition as a tool for unsteady flow phenomena analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duparchy, A; Guillozet, J; De Colombel, T; Bornard, L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is already the largest single renewable electricity source today but its further development will face new deployment constraints such as large-scale projects in emerging economies and the growth of intermittent renewable energy technologies. The potential role of hydropower as a grid stabilizer leads to operating hydro power plants in ''off-design'' zones. As a result, new methods of analyzing associated unsteady phenomena are needed to improve the design of hydraulic turbines. The key idea of the development is to compute a spatial description of a phenomenon by using a combination from several sensor signals. The spatial harmonic decomposition (SHD) extends the concept of so-called synchronous and asynchronous pulsations by projecting sensor signals on a linearly independent set of a modal scheme. This mathematical approach is very generic as it can be applied on any linear distribution of a scalar quantity defined on a closed curve. After a mathematical description of SHD, this paper will discuss the impact of instrumentation and provide tools to understand SHD signals. Then, as an example of a practical application, SHD is applied on a model test measurement in order to capture and describe dynamic pressure fields. Particularly, the spatial description of the phenomena provides new tools to separate the part of pressure fluctuations that contribute to output power instability or mechanical stresses. The study of the machine stability in partial load operating range in turbine mode or the comparison between the gap pressure field and radial thrust behavior during turbine brake operation are both relevant illustrations of SHD contribution

  14. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RUMLIG KULTUR / SPATIAL CULTURE præsenterer et humanvidenskabeligt livtag med storbyens erfaringsverden. Emnerne for 21 kapitler spænder fra billedhuggeren Bjørn Nørgaard og boligbyggeriet Bispebjerg Bakke til stedsopfattelsen i moderne guidebøger. Undervjs inddrages bykulturens tænkere såsom Steen...... artikler et forskningsfelt for rumlig kultur, hvori alskens sanse- og refleksionsformer finder sammen. Based in humanistic urban studies as practiced in the Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, SPATIAL CULTURE outlines a novel framework for understanding the social...... and cultural environments of the modern and contemporary metropolis. The contributions focus on urban and suburban cultures of Copenhagen, New York, Hong Kong, Berlin and anderswo, demonstrating how the precise analysis of cultural and artistic phenomena informs a multilayered understanding...

  15. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  16. Defining malnutrition: A plea to rethink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeters, P; Bozzetti, F; Cynober, L; Forbes, A; Shenkin, A; Sobotka, L

    2017-06-01

    In a recent consensus report in Clinical Nutrition the undernourished category of malnutrition was proposed to be defined and diagnosed on the basis of a low BMI or unintentional weight loss combined with low BMI or FFMI with certain cut off points. The definition was endorsed by ESPEN despite recent endorsement of a very different definition. The approach aims to assess whether nutritional intake is sufficient but is imprecise because a low BMI does not always indicate malnutrition and individuals with increasing BMI's may have decreasing FFM's. The pathophysiology of individuals, considered to be malnourished in rich countries and in areas with endemic malnutrition, results predominantly from deficient nutrition combined with infection/inflammation. Both elements jointly determine body composition and function and consequently outcome of disease, trauma or treatment. When following the consensus statement only an imprecise estimate is acquired of nutritional intake without knowing the impact of inflammation. Most importantly, functional abilities are not assessed. Consequently it will remain uncertain how well the individual can overcome stressful events, what the causes are of dysfunction, how to set priorities for treatment and how to predict the effect of nutritional support. We therefore advise to consider the pathophysiology of malnourished individuals leading to inclusion of the following elements in the definition of malnutrition: a disordered nutritional state resulting from a combination of inflammation and a negative nutrient balance, leading to changes in body composition, function and outcome. A precise diagnosis of malnutrition should be based on assessment of these elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  18. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  19. Defining food literacy: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Emily; Lane, Daniel; Elliott, Charlene

    2017-09-01

    The term "food literacy" describes the idea of proficiency in food related skills and knowledge. This prevalent term is broadly applied, although its core elements vary from initiative to initiative. In light of its ubiquitous use-but varying definitions-this article establishes the scope of food literacy research by identifying all articles that define 'food literacy', analysing its key conceptualizations, and reporting outcomes/measures of this concept. A scoping review was conducted to identify all articles (academic and grey literature) using the term "food literacy". Databases included Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Of 1049 abstracts, 67 studies were included. From these, data was extracted on country of origin, study type (methodological approach), primary target population, and the primary outcomes relating to food literacy. The majority of definitions of food literacy emphasize the acquisition of critical knowledge (information and understanding) (55%) over functional knowledge (skills, abilities and choices) (8%), although some incorporate both (37%). Thematic analysis of 38 novel definitions of food literacy reveals the prevalence of six themes: skills and behaviours, food/health choices, culture, knowledge, emotions, and food systems. Study outcomes largely focus on knowledge generating measures, with very few focusing on health related outcome measures. Current definitions of food literacy incorporate components of six key themes or domains and attributes of both critical and functional knowledge. Despite this broad definition of the term, most studies aiming to improve food literacy focus on knowledge related outcomes. Few articles address health outcomes, leaving an important gap (and opportunity) for future research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Future Scenarios for Software-Defined Metro and Access Networks and Software-Defined Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Muciaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, architectures, devices, and components in telecommunication networks have been challenged by evolutionary and revolutionary factors which are drastically changing the traffic features. Most of these changes imply the need for major re-configurability and programmability not only in data-centers and core networks, but also in the metro-access segment. In a wide variety of contexts, this necessity has been addressed by the proposed introduction of the innovative paradigm of software-defined networks (SDNs. Several solutions inspired by the SDN model have been recently proposed also for metro and access networks, where the adoption of a new generation of software-defined reconfigurable integrated photonic devices is highly desirable. In this paper, we review the possible future application scenarios for software-defined metro and access networks and software-defined photonics (SDP, on the base of analytics, statistics, and surveys. This work describes the reasons underpinning the presented radical change of paradigm and summarizes the most significant solutions proposed in literature, with a specific emphasis to physical-layer reconfigurable networks and a focus on both architectures and devices.