WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatial phase variations

  1. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question if the fimb......Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question...... if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  2. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  3. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  4. Characterising landscape variation through spatial folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Derungs, Curdin; Purves, Ross S

    2016-01-01

    Describing current, past and future landscapes for inventory and policy making purposes requires classifications capturing variation in, for example, land use and land cover. Typical land cover classifi- cations for such purposes result from a top-down process and rely on expert conceptualisations, and thus provide limited space for incorporating more widely held views of key landscape elements. In this paper we introduce the notion of spatial folksonomies, which we define as a tuple linking ...

  5. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  6. Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Xu, Nan; Chen, Xu

    2013-06-10

    This paper presents a simple spatial phase shift shearography based on the Michelson interferometer. The Michelson interferometer based shearographic system has been widely utilized in industry as a practical nondestructive test tool. In the system, the Michelson interferometer is used as a shearing device to generate a shearing distance by tilting a small angle in one of the two mirrors. In fact, tilting the mirror in the Michelson interferometer also generates spatial frequency shift. Based on this feature, we introduce a simple Michelson interferometer based spatial phase shift shearography. The Fourier transform (FT) method is applied to separate the spectrum on the spatial frequency domain. The phase change due to the loading can be evaluated using a properly selected windowed inverse-FT. This system can generate a phase map of shearography by using only a single image. The effects of shearing angle, spatial resolution of couple charge device camera, and filter methods are discussed in detail. The theory and the experimental results are presented.

  7. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  8. Spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, Marieke B A; van Strien, Robert T; van der Zee, Saskia C; Mallant, Sanne F; Fischer, Paul; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution episodes are associated with increased cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. Cohort studies showed associations of spatial variation in traffic-related air pollution with respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. Much less is known in particular about associations with

  9. Identification of basin characteristics influencing spatial variation of river flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Stein, A.

    2006-01-01

    The selection of basin characteristics that explain spatial variation of river flows is important for hydrological regionalization as this enables estimation of flow statistics of ungauged basins. A direct gradient analysis method, redundancy analysis, is used to identify basin characteristics,

  10. SPATIAL VARIATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYCYCLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    house dust [5], urban street dust [6] and plants [7]. Therefore, PAH .... length: 30 mL; phase ratio: 320 column ID: 0.32 mm; carrier gas: helium; inlet mode: splitless; ... where Cf = final sample concentration (µg/L), Area (p) = measured area of peak (peaks), Wi = ... in pine needles from Korea, Mexico, and United States [16].

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in shallow wetland groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schot, Paul P.; Pieber, Simone M.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryWetlands worldwide are threatened by environmental change. Differences in groundwater composition is one of the factors affecting wetland terrestrial floristic biodiversity. However, few studies discuss variations in wetland groundwater composition. This study presents an analysis of local-scale spatial and short-term temporal variations in 15 groundwater composition parameters of the 7 km2 Naardermeer wetland nature reserve in The Netherlands. Data is available from a network of 35 groundwater wells with 2-4 filters each, at depths between 50 and 800 cm, which were sampled about monthly over a 1-year period, totalling 1042 chemical analysis from 103 filter screens. Relative standard deviations indicate large differences in variation between parameters. Largest spatial and temporal variations were found for nutrients (NO3-, PO43-, NH4+) and redox sensitive parameters (Fe, Mn), and lowest variations for macroions and SiO2. A horizontal zonation in groundwater concentrations has been found related to soil type and soil wetness, with largest horizontal decrease in NO3- and SO42-, and largest increase in Fe and SiO2, going in the groundwater flow direction from dry sandy soils to wet peat/clay soils. No clear horizontal patterns have been found for the macroions. Spatial zonations in the north-south direction and with depth are absent for all parameters. Spatial and temporal variations were found to be related. 3D-maps indicate highest temporal fluctuations at filter screens with lowest median concentrations for NO3-, SO42- and Fe, but the reverse pattern for SiO2. High temporal variations of nutrients and redox sensitive parameters could not be traced back to a seasonal trend. The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters as presented in this study, together with their reported effects on different vegetation types, may be used to design efficient monitoring schemes by nature managers having set specific vegetation development targets

  12. Spatial Variation of Magnetotelluric Field Components in simple 2D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E-polarization mode electromagnetic field components were computed for different aspect ratios of the inhomogeneity and for different frequencies of the incident waves. The results show that as aspect ratio of the inhomogeneity is reduced the spatial variation of the electric field component Ex is reduced and that of the ...

  13. Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, van der F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Verweij, P.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  14. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  15. Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... However, little information of spatial variation of bacterial community ... GF/F glass fiber (0.45 µm, 47 mm diameter, Whatman Japan. Limited., Tokyo ... the research vessel using a CTD system (Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,. USA).

  16. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India. Ranjit Das H R ... Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978–2006 have been derived.

  17. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  18. Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon strait assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ... chain reaction (PCR)-amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gene fragments and interpreted the results; its relationship with physical and ...

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mogenic zones keeping in view the spatial variations in earthquake occurrence and prevalent tectonics. Mc, 'b' and 'a' values have been estimated with respect to each zone, and the ..... ing largely EW trends and deeper events depict relatively higher 'b' values of 0.88 and 0.78, respec- tively. Seismogenic zones, VII and ...

  20. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream. Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, m ay not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Super-Planckian spatial field variations and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaewer, Daniel; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    We study scenarios where a scalar field has a spatially varying vacuum expectation value such that the total field variation is super-Planckian. We focus on the case where the scalar field controls the coupling of a U(1) gauge field, which allows us to apply the Weak Gravity Conjecture to such configurations. We show that this leads to evidence for a conjectured property of quantum gravity that as a scalar field variation in field space asymptotes to infinity there must exist an infinite tower of states whose mass decreases as an exponential function of the scalar field variation. We determine the rate at which the mass of the states reaches this exponential behaviour showing that it occurs quickly after the field variation passes the Planck scale.

  2. Variational approach for spatial point process intensity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper

    is assumed to be of log-linear form β+θ⊤z(u) where z is a spatial covariate function and the focus is on estimating θ. The variational estimator is very simple to implement and quicker than alternative estimation procedures. We establish its strong consistency and asymptotic normality. We also discuss its...... finite-sample properties in comparison with the maximum first order composite likelihood estimator when considering various inhomogeneous spatial point process models and dimensions as well as settings were z is completely or only partially known....

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of rainfall erosivity in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Hsi; Lin, Huan-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Kuang

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion models are essential in developing effective soil and water resource conservation strategies. Soil erosion is generally evaluated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with an appropriate regional scale description. Among factors in the USLE model, the rainfall erosivity index (R) provides one of the clearest indications of the effects of climate change. Accurate estimation of rainfall erosivity requires continuous rainfall data; however, such data rarely demonstrate good spatial and temporal coverage. The data set consisted of 9240 storm events for the period 1993 to 2011, monitored by 27 rainfall stations of the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in southern Taiwan, was used to analyze the temporal-spatial variations of rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution map was plotted based on rainfall erosivity by the Kriging interpolation method. Results indicated that rainfall erosivity is mainly concentrated in rainy season from June to November typically contributed 90% of the yearly R factor. The temporal variations of monthly rainfall erosivity during June to November and annual rainfall erosivity have increasing trend from 1993 to 2011. There is an increasing trend from southwest to northeast in spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in southern Taiwan. The results further indicated that there is a higher relationship between elevation and rainfall erosivity. The method developed in this study may also be useful for sediment disasters on Climate Change.

  4. Water quality, Multivariate statistical techniques, submarine out fall, spatial variation, temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Francisco; Palacio, Carlos; Garcia, Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality at the Santa Marta coastal area where a submarine out fall that discharges 1 m3/s of domestic wastewater is located. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster and principal component analysis and Krigging interpolation were considered for this report. Temporal variation showed two heterogeneous periods. From December to April, and July, where the concentration of the water quality parameters is higher; the rest of the year (May, June, August-November) were significantly lower. The spatial variation reported two areas where the water quality is different, this difference is related to the proximity to the submarine out fall discharge.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of light inside peach trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genard, M.; Baret, F.

    1994-01-01

    Gap fractions measured with hemispherical photographs were used to describe spatial and temporal variations of diffuse and direct light fractions transmitted to shoots within peach trees. For both cultivars studied, spatial variability of daily diffuse and direct light transmitted to shoots was very high within the tree. Diffuse and daily direct light fractions transmitted to shoots increased with shoot height within the tree and for more erect shoots. Temporal variations of hourly direct light were also large among shoots. Hourly direct light fractions transmitted to shoots were analyzed using recent developments in multivariate exploratory analysis. A gradient was observed between shoots sunlit almost all day and other shoots almost never sunlit. Well sunlit shoots were mostly located at the top of the tree and were more erect. Shoots located in the outer parts of the tree crown were slightly but significantly more sunlit than others for one cultivar. Principal component analysis additionally discriminated shoots according to the time of the day they were sunlit. This classification was related to shoot compass position for one cultivar. Spatial location of the shoot in the tree explained only a small part of light climate variability. Consequences of modeling light climate within the tree are discussed

  6. Variation in estuarine littoral nematode populations over three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M.

    1990-04-01

    The population characteristics of the nematode fauna from five replicate cores taken over four seasons at nine sites within mangroves, at three different estuaries on the south-east coast of Australia, are compared. Using cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis and other statistical techniques, the variation in nematode populations is identified as arising from several sources: temperature changes between the more northerly and southerly estuaries (5%); changes in grain size and organic content of the sediment between sites (22%); changes between sites in the frequency of samples containing certain types of food, particularly associated with pools of water and surface topography (30%); stochastic changes in nematode populations within individual samples, probably caused by small scale spatial and temporal variability in food sources (35%); and seasonal changes at all the sites and estuaries (8%). The implications of this pattern of variation for the biology of the nematodes is discussed.

  7. Spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide in three European areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewne, Marie; Bellander, Tom; Cyrys, Josef; Gehring, Ulrike; Heinrich, Joachim; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brauer, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Fischer, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the spatial variation within well-defined study areas, nitrogen dioxide was measured with diffusion samplers (Palmes tube) in 40-42 sites each in Germany (Munich), the Netherlands and Sweden (Stockholm County). Each site was measured over four 2-week periods during 1 year (spring 1999 to summer 2000). In each country, one reference site was measured during all periods and the results were used to adjust for seasonal variability, to improve the estimates of the annual average. Comparisons between the chemiluminescence method (European reference method) and Palmes tube measurement indicated a good agreement in Germany (with a ratio of 1.0 for Palmes tube/chemiluminescence) but underestimation for Palmes tube measurement in the Netherlands and Sweden (0.8 for both countries). The r 2 values were between 0.86 and 0.90 for all three countries.The annual average values for NO 2 for different sampling sites were between 15.9 and 50.6 (mean 28.8 μg/m 3 ) in Germany, between 12.1 and 50.8 (mean 28.9 μg/m 3 ) in the Netherlands and between 6.1 and 44.7 (mean 18.5 μg/m 3 ) in Sweden. Comparing spatial variation between similar sites in the three countries, we did not find any significant differences between annual average levels for urban traffic sites. In Sweden, annual average levels in urban background and suburban backgrounds sites were about 8 μg/m 3 lower than comparable sites in Germany and the Netherlands. Comparing site types within each country only urban traffic sites and suburban background sites differed in Germany. In the Netherlands and Sweden, the urban traffic sites differed from all other sites and in Sweden also the urban background sites differed from the other background sites. The observed contribution from local traffic was similar in the Netherlands and Sweden (10 and 8 μg/m 3 , corresponding to 26-27% of the NO 2 concentration found in the urban traffic sites). In Germany, the contribution from local traffic was only 3

  8. A positivity preserving and conservative variational scheme for phase-field modeling of two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vaibhav; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2018-05-01

    We present a positivity preserving variational scheme for the phase-field modeling of incompressible two-phase flows with high density ratio. The variational finite element technique relies on the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation for capturing the phase interface on a fixed Eulerian mesh with mass conservative and energy-stable discretization. The mass conservation is achieved by enforcing a Lagrange multiplier which has both temporal and spatial dependence on the underlying solution of the phase-field equation. To make the scheme energy-stable in a variational sense, we discretize the spatial part of the Lagrange multiplier in the phase-field equation by the mid-point approximation. The proposed variational technique is designed to reduce the spurious and unphysical oscillations in the solution while maintaining the second-order accuracy of both spatial and temporal discretizations. We integrate the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for modeling a broad range of two-phase flow and fluid-fluid interface problems. The coupling of the implicit discretizations corresponding to the phase-field and the incompressible flow equations is achieved via nonlinear partitioned iterative procedure. Comparison of results between the standard linear stabilized finite element method and the present variational formulation shows a remarkable reduction of oscillations in the solution while retaining the boundedness of the phase-indicator field. We perform a standalone test to verify the accuracy and stability of the Allen-Cahn two-phase solver. We examine the convergence and accuracy properties of the coupled phase-field solver through the standard benchmarks of the Laplace-Young law and a sloshing tank problem. Two- and three-dimensional dam break problems are simulated to assess the capability of the phase-field solver for complex air-water interfaces involving topological changes on unstructured meshes. Finally, we demonstrate the phase

  9. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  10. Spatial-frequency spectrum of patterns changes the visibility of spatial-phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that spatial-frequency components over a 4-octave range affected the visibility of spatial-phase differences. Contrast thresholds were measured for discrimination between two (+45- and -45-deg) spatial phases of a sinusoidal test grating added to a background grating. The background could contain one or several sinusoidal components, all in 0-deg phase. Phase differences between the test and the background were visible at lower contrasts when test and background frequencies were harmonically related than when they were not, when test and background frequencies were within 1 octave than when they were farther apart, when the fundamental frequency of the background was low than when it was high, and for some discriminations more than for others, after practice. The visibility of phase differences was not affected by additional components in the background if the fundamental and difference frequencies of the background remained unchanged. Observers' reports of their strategies gave information about the types of attentive processing that were used to discriminate phase differences. Attentive processing facilitated phase discrimination for multifrequency gratings spanning a much wider range of spatial frequencies than would be possible by using only local preattentive processing. These results were consistent with the visibility of phase differences being processed by some combination of even- and odd-symmetric simple cells tuned to a wide range of different spatial frequencies.

  11. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  12. Spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm by pre-recomposing the interference fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Bingbo; Zhong, Liyun; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-07-24

    In the case that the phase distribution of interferogram is nonuniform and the background/modulation amplitude change rapidly, the current self-calibration algorithms with better performance like principal components analysis (PCA) and advanced iterative algorithm (AIA) cannot work well. In this study, from three or more phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase-shifts, we propose a spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm with high accuracy through using the spatial orthogonal property of interference fringe, in which a new sequence of fringe patterns with uniform phase distribution can be constructed by pre-recomposing original interferograms to determine their corresponding optimum combination coefficients, which are directly related with the phase shifts. Both simulation and experimental results show that using the proposed SDO algorithm, we can achieve accurate phase from the phase-shifting interferograms with nonuniform phase distribution, non-constant background and arbitrary phase shifts. Specially, it is found that the accuracy of phase retrieval with the proposed SDO algorithm is insensitive to the variation of fringe pattern, and this will supply a guarantee for high accuracy phase measurement and application.

  13. Phase rainbow refractometry for accurate droplet variation characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    We developed a one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer for the accurate trans-dimensional measurements of droplet size on the micrometer scale as well as the tiny droplet diameter variations at the nanoscale. The dependence of the phase shift of the rainbow ripple structures on the droplet variations is revealed. The phase-shifting rainbow image is recorded by a telecentric one-dimensional rainbow imaging system. Experiments on the evaporating monodispersed droplet stream show that the phase rainbow refractometer can measure the tiny droplet diameter changes down to tens of nanometers. This one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer is capable of measuring the droplet refractive index and diameter, as well as variations.

  14. Spatial variations in composition in high-critical-current-density Bi-2223 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holesinger, T. G.; Bingert, J. F.; Teplitsky, M.; Li, Q.; Parrella, R.; Rupich, M. P.; Riley, G. N. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed compositional analysis of high-critical-current-density (J c ) (55 and 65 kA/cm2 at 77 K) (Bi, Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (Bi-2223) tapes was undertaken by energy dispersive spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope. Structural features were coupled with characteristic compositions of the Bi-2223 phase. The average of all compositional measurements of the Bi-2223 phase was determined to be Bi 1.88 Pb 0.23 Sr 1.96 Ca 1.95 Cu 2.98 O y . However, spatial variations in the Bi-2223 composition and differing phase equilibria were found throughout the filament structure. In particular, a considerable range of Bi-2223 compositions can be found within a single tape, and the lead content of the Bi-2223 phase is significantly depressed in the vicinity of lead-rich phases. The depletion of lead in the Bi-2223 phase around the 3221 phases may be a current-limiting microstructure in these tapes. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  15. Spatial b-value variations in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.

    2012-04-01

    The natural seismicity of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is of growing interest for science and society, since the management of deep geothermal power plants requires local hazard assessment. The availability of new bulletin data and the combination of catalogues from Germany, France and Switzerland allows us to analyse the spatial changes in the magnitude-frequency distribution along the Graben axis in detail. We derive magnitude conversions between the different bulletins to obtain a uniform earthquake catalogue and decluster the data to extract fore- and aftershocks resulting in a Poissonian event distribution. Since the density of monitoring seismometers has improved over time, we determine several intervals of magnitude completeness. Generally, our catalogue is complete for magnitudes ML ≥ 2.0 since 1982 for the entire URG. To incorporate high magnitude events it is essential to use historic earthquake data. Those magnitudes are estimated by their macroseismic intensity distribution, and thus, they have a high uncertainty compared to instrumental magnitudes. We show that historic earthquake magnitudes are overestimated by 0.4 magnitude units in the URG. We apply a spatial window on the final dataset and move it along the Graben axis. For each set of 50 events we determine local variations of the magnitude frequency distribution after Gutenberg-Richter by a maximum likelihood estimation. The seismicity rate for ML ≥ 2.0 varies between 2 per year per 1000 km2 in the southern URG and 0.2 per year per 1000 km2 in the northern URG. The b-values vary between 0.8 and 1.4 with the highest values around Freiburg, showing a high variability of the magnitude distribution in the URG. Additionally, we examine the hypocentral depth distribution along the Graben, which results in a seismically active upper and lower crust in the southern and northern parts, separated by the central part with missing seismicity in the lower crust. According to the spatial distribution of b

  16. Spatial variation in atmospheric nitrogen deposition on low canopy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, Rene; Diggelen, Rudy van

    2006-01-01

    Current knowledge about the spatial variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on a local scale is limited, especially for vegetation with a low canopy. We measured nitrogen deposition on artificial vegetation at variable distances of local nitrogen emitting sources in three nature reserves in the Netherlands, differing in the intensity of agricultural practices in the surroundings. In the nature reserve located in the most intensive agricultural region nitrogen deposition decreased with increasing distance to the local farms, until at a distance of 1500 m from the local nitrogen emitting sources the background level of 15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 was reached. No such trend was observed in the other two reserves. Interception was considerably lower than in woodlands and hence affected areas were larger. The results are discussed in relation to the prospects for the conservation or restoration of endangered vegetation types of nutrient-poor soil conditions. - Areas with low canopy vegetation are affected over much larger distances by nitrogen deposition than woodlands

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in glacier hydrology on Storglaciaeren, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the current research project was to provide a framework of real conditions within which to interpret theory and extrapolate likely conditions beneath a future ice sheet over Fennoscandia. The purpose of this report is to summarize the experimental work on glacier hydrology and basal hydraulic conditions performed on Storglaciaeren, northern Sweden, during the years 1990-2006. Surface fed subglacial hydrological systems are extremely dynamic because the input rates of rain and temperature-controlled surface melt fluctuate, and the geometry of flow paths is constantly changing due to ice deformation which tends to open and close the flow paths. The hydrological system of a glacier is quite unusual because since liquid water flows through conduits made of its solid phase (ice). Understanding the expected dynamic range of a glacier's hydrological system is best studied by in situ measurements. The processes studied on Storglaciaeren can be expected to apply to ice sheet scale, albeit on different spatial scales. Since Storglaciaeren is a polythermal glacier with a large fraction of ice below freezing and at the melting point and with a surface-fed hydrological system of conduits and tunnels, results apply to the lower elevation regions where the surface is composed of ice (ablation zone) rather than composed of snow (accumulation zone) found at higher elevations of the glaciers and ice sheets, Therefore, our results apply to the ablation zone of the past Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. In this report we discuss the measurements made to assess the subglacial conditions that provide a potential analogue for conditions under the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. For this purpose field work was performed on from 2003 to 2006 yielding subglacial water pressure measurements. We have included a large quantity of unpublished data from Storglaciaeren from different research projects conducted since 1990. Together these data provide a picture of the temporal and spatial water

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in glacier hydrology on Storglaciaeren, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Naeslund, Jens-Ove (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of the current research project was to provide a framework of real conditions within which to interpret theory and extrapolate likely conditions beneath a future ice sheet over Fennoscandia. The purpose of this report is to summarize the experimental work on glacier hydrology and basal hydraulic conditions performed on Storglaciaeren, northern Sweden, during the years 1990-2006. Surface fed subglacial hydrological systems are extremely dynamic because the input rates of rain and temperature-controlled surface melt fluctuate, and the geometry of flow paths is constantly changing due to ice deformation which tends to open and close the flow paths. The hydrological system of a glacier is quite unusual because since liquid water flows through conduits made of its solid phase (ice). Understanding the expected dynamic range of a glacier's hydrological system is best studied by in situ measurements. The processes studied on Storglaciaeren can be expected to apply to ice sheet scale, albeit on different spatial scales. Since Storglaciaeren is a polythermal glacier with a large fraction of ice below freezing and at the melting point and with a surface-fed hydrological system of conduits and tunnels, results apply to the lower elevation regions where the surface is composed of ice (ablation zone) rather than composed of snow (accumulation zone) found at higher elevations of the glaciers and ice sheets, Therefore, our results apply to the ablation zone of the past Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. In this report we discuss the measurements made to assess the subglacial conditions that provide a potential analogue for conditions under the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. For this purpose field work was performed on from 2003 to 2006 yielding subglacial water pressure measurements. We have included a large quantity of unpublished data from Storglaciaeren from different research projects conducted since 1990. Together these data provide a picture of the temporal and spatial water

  19. A Global Survey of Cloud Thermodynamic Phase using High Spatial Resolution VSWIR Spectroscopy, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Kahn, B. H.; Green, R. O.; Chien, S.; Middleton, E.; Tran, D. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds' variable ice and liquid content significantly influences their optical properties, evolution, and radiative forcing potential (Tan and Storelvmo, J. Atmos. Sci, 73, 2016). However, most remote measurements of thermodynamic phase have spatial resolutions of 1 km or more and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes, such as spatial partitioning within mixed phase clouds, that carry outsize radiative forcing impacts. These uncertainties could shift Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future warming by over 1 degree Celsius (Tan et al., Science 352:6282, 2016). Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from the 1.4 - 1.8 μm shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral range can address this observational gap. These observations can distinguish ice and water absorption, providing a robust and sensitive measurement of cloud top thermodynamic phase including mixed phases. Imaging spectrometers can resolve variations at scales of tens to hundreds of meters (Thompson et al., JGR-Atmospheres 121, 2016). We report the first such global high spatial resolution (30 m) survey, based on data from 2005-2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's EO-1 spacecraft (Pearlman et al., Proc. SPIE 4135, 2001). Estimated seasonal and latitudinal distributions of cloud thermodynamic phase generally agree with observations made by other satellites such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Variogram analyses reveal variability at different spatial scales. Our results corroborate previously observed zonal distributions, while adding insight into the spatial scales of processes governing cloud top thermodynamic phase. Figure: Thermodynamic phase retrievals. Top: Example of a cloud top thermodynamic phase map from the EO-1/Hyperion. Bottom: Latitudinal distributions of pure and mixed phase clouds, 2005-2015, showing Liquid Thickness Fraction (LTF). LTF=0 corresponds to pure ice absorption, while LTF=1 is pure liquid. The

  20. Spatial variation in reproductive effort of a southern Australian seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; York, Paul H; Macreadie, Peter I; Keough, Michael J; Ross, D Jeff; Sherman, Craig D H

    2016-09-01

    In marine environments characterised by habitat-forming plants, the relative allocation of resources into vegetative growth and flowering is an important indicator of plant condition and hence ecosystem health. In addition, the production and abundance of seeds can give clues to local resilience. Flowering density, seed bank, biomass and epiphyte levels were recorded for the temperate seagrass Zostera nigricaulis in Port Phillip Bay, south east Australia at 14 sites chosen to represent several regions with different physicochemical conditions. Strong regional differences were found within the large bay. Spathe and seed density were very low in the north of the bay (3 sites), low in the centre of the bay (2 sites) intermediate in the Outer Geelong Arm (2 sites), high in Swan Bay (2 sites) and very high in the Inner Geelong Arm (3 sites). In the south (2 sites) seed density was low and spathe density was high. These regional patterns were largely consistent for the 5 sites sampled over the three year period. Timing of flowering was consistent across sites, occurring from August until December with peak production in October, except during the third year of monitoring when overall densities were lower and peaked in November. Seagrass biomass, epiphyte load, canopy height and stem density showed few consistent spatial and temporal patterns. Variation in spathe and seed density and morphology across Port Phillip Bay reflects varying environmental conditions and suggests that northern sites may be restricted in their ability to recover from disturbance through sexual reproduction. In contrast, sites in the west and south of the bay have greater potential to recover from disturbances due to a larger seed bank and these sites could act as source populations for sites where seed production is low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere - spatial and temporal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, Cecilia

    2001-05-01

    In this thesis I have studied the spatial and temporal variations of PCBs in the atmosphere and in precipitation in southern Sweden. Further, soil-air exchange processes of PCBs were investigated. Finally, the long-range transport of PCBs and DDT was studied in the Baltic Sea region and in a tropical vs. a temporal region. On the regional scale there were significant differences in PCB concentration in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in soil between nearby sampling-areas. Differences in PCB concentrations between areas probably originated from varying geographical and meteorological conditions that affected exchange processes between air and soil/vegetation surfaces. Temporal variations in PCB concentration in atmosphere and precipitation were also found. For PCBs in the air, a systematic pattern in the deviation from the yearly median value for the region was observed. Wind direction played an important role for PCB concentration in precipitation in coastal areas, while at the inland sites this variable seemed to have a minor influence. To examine the intensity of precipitation scavenging, the total washout ratios were calculated and the highest ratios were observed at the two sites where PCB concentration in the air was high. Further, high concentrations of PCB in precipitation correlated with a composition of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, as shown by principal component analysis. For most of the sites there was a significant negative relationship between PCB concentration and rain volume. Soil type and soil organic matter content was found to be important for the variations in PCB concentration between nearby areas. Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with an extremely high organic carbon content. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with site-specific congener patterns. No

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of evapotranspiration, groundwater and precipitation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J.; Riley, W. J.; Shen, C.; Melack, J. M.; Qiu, H.

    2017-12-01

    We used wavelet coherence analysis to investigate the effects of precipitation (P) and groundwater dynamics (total water storage anomaly, TWSA) on evapotranspiration (ET) at kilometer, sub-basin, and whole basin scales in the Amazon basin. The Amazon-scale averaged ET, P, and TWSA have about the same annual periodicity. The phase lag between ET and P (ΦET-P) is 1 to 3 months, and between ET and TWSA (ΦET-TWSA) is 3 to 7 months. The phase patterns have a south-north divide due to significant variation in climatic conditions. The correlation between ΦET-P and ΦET-TWSA is affected by the aridity index (the ratio between potential ET (PET) and P, PET / P), of each sub-basin, as determined using the Budyko framework at the sub-basin level. The spatial structure of ΦET-P is negatively correlated with the spatial structure of annual ET. At Amazon-scale during a drought year (e.g., 2010), both phases decreased, while in the subsequent years, ΦET-TWSA increased, indicating strong groundwater effects on ET immediately following dry years Amazon-wide.

  3. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion, and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gladilin, Evgeny; Eils, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with a...

  4. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny eGladilin; Roland eEils; Roland eEils

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with a...

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  6. [Study on phase correction method of spatial heterodyne spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Song; Zhang, Li-Juan; Xiong, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Phase distortion exists in collected interferogram because of a variety of measure reasons when spatial heterodyne spectrometers are used in practice. So an improved phase correction method is presented. The phase curve of interferogram was obtained through Fourier inverse transform to extract single side transform spectrum, based on which, the phase distortions were attained by fitting phase slope, so were the phase correction functions, and the convolution was processed between transform spectrum and phase correction function to implement spectrum phase correction. The method was applied to phase correction of actually measured monochromatic spectrum and emulational water vapor spectrum. Experimental results show that the low-frequency false signals in monochromatic spectrum fringe would be eliminated effectively to increase the periodicity and the symmetry of interferogram, in addition when the continuous spectrum imposed phase error was corrected, the standard deviation between it and the original spectrum would be reduced form 0.47 to 0.20, and thus the accuracy of spectrum could be improved.

  7. Spatial variation of particle number concentration in school microscale environments and its impact on exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Crilley, Leigh R; Laiman, Rusdin; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    It has not yet been established whether the spatial variation of particle number concentration (PNC) within a microscale environment can have an effect on exposure estimation results. In general, the degree of spatial variation within microscale environments remains unclear, since previous studies have only focused on spatial variation within macroscale environments. The aims of this study were to determine the spatial variation of PNC within microscale school environments, in order to assess the importance of the number of monitoring sites on exposure estimation. Furthermore, this paper aims to identify which parameters have the largest influence on spatial variation as well as the relationship between those parameters and spatial variation. Air quality measurements were conducted for two consecutive weeks at each of the 25 schools across Brisbane, Australia. PNC was measured at three sites within the grounds of each school, along with the measurement of meteorological and several other air quality parameters. Traffic density was recorded for the busiest road adjacent to the school. Spatial variation at each school was quantified using coefficient of variation (CV). The portion of CV associated with instrument uncertainty was found to be 0.3, and, therefore, CV was corrected so that only noninstrument uncertainty was analyzed in the data. The median corrected CV (CVc) ranged from 0 to 0.35 across the schools, with 12 schools found to exhibit spatial variation. The study determined the number of required monitoring sites at schools with spatial variability and tested the deviation in exposure estimation arising from using only a single site. Nine schools required two measurement sites and three schools required three sites. Overall, the deviation in exposure estimation from using only one monitoring site was as much as 1 order of magnitude. The study also tested the association of spatial variation with wind speed/direction and traffic density, using partial

  8. Spatial Variations of Values of Residential Land Use in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    There exist literature on urban land use values and environmental planning. They are .... intra-urban location bid-rent model and the concept of residential land value ... emerges an ordinary pattern of land use, spatially organized to perform.

  9. Variational random phase approximation for the anharmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Schuck, P.

    1990-04-01

    The recently derived Variational Random Phase Approximation is examined using the anharmonic oscillator model. Special attention is paid to the ground state RPA wave function and the convergence of the proposed truncation scheme to obtain the diagonal density matrix. Comparison with the standard Coupled Cluster method is made

  10. Comparison of Schwinger and Kohn variational phase shift calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, I.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the l = 0 phase shift for an attractive Yukawa potential are reported using Schwinger and Kohn (type) variational methods. Accurate values can be obtained from both procedures, but when the same basis set of short range functions is used, the Kohn procedure gives superior results. (orig.)

  11. Spatial heterogeneity in liquid–liquid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yun-Rui; Li Tao; Wu Wei-Kang; Li Jie; Zhou Xu-Yan; Liu Si-Da; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the liquid–liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the spatial heterogeneity in Al–Pb monotectic alloys. The results reveal that homogeneous liquid Al–Pb alloy undergoes an LLPT, separating into Al-rich and Pb-rich domains, which is quite different from the isocompositional liquid water with a transition between low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). With spatial heterogeneity becoming large, LLPT takes place correspondingly. The relationship between the cooling rate, relaxation temperature and percentage of Al and the spatial heterogeneity is also reported. This study may throw light on the relationship between the structure heterogeneity and LLPT, which provides novel strategies to control the microstructures in the fabrication of the material with high performance. (paper)

  12. Spatial Variations of Poloidal and Toroidal Mode Field Line Resonances Observed by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Kepko, L.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Field line resonances (FLRs) are magnetosphere's responses to solar wind forcing and internal instabilities generated by solar wind-magnetospheric interactions. They are standing waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines oscillating in either poloidal or toroidal modes. The two types of waves have their unique frequency characteristics. The eigenfrequency of FLRs is determined by the length of the field line and the plasma density, and thus gradually changes with L. For toroidal mode oscillations with magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, ideal MHD predicts that each field line oscillates independently with its own eigenfrequency. For poloidal mode waves with field lines oscillating radially, their frequency cannot change with L easily as L shells need to oscillate in sync to avoid efficient damping due to phase mixing. Observations, mainly during quiet times, indeed show that poloidal mode waves often exhibit nearly constant frequency across L shells. Our recent observations, on the other hand, reveal a clear L-dependent frequency trend for a long lasting storm-time poloidal wave event, indicating the wave can maintain its power with changing frequencies for an extended period [Le et al., 2017]. The spatial variation of the frequency shows discrete spatial structures. The frequency remains constant within each discrete structure that spans about 1 REalong L, and changes discretely. We present a follow-up study to investigate spatial variations of wave frequencies using the Wigner-Ville distribution. We examine both poloidal and toroidal waves under different geomagnetic conditions using multipoint observations from MMS, and compare their frequency and occurrence characteristics for insights into their generation mechanisms. Reference: Le, G., et al. (2017), Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3456-3464, doi:10.1002/2017GL073048.

  13. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladilin, Evgeny; Eils, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with analysis of the role of spatial phase in computational and biological vision, emergence of visual illusions and pattern recognition. We hypothesize that fundamental importance of phase information for invariant retrieval of structural image features and motion detection promoted development of phase-based mechanisms of neural image processing in course of evolution of biological vision. Using an extension of Fourier phase correlation technique, we show that the core functions of visual system such as motion detection and pattern recognition can be facilitated by the same basic mechanism. Our analysis suggests that emergence of visual illusions can be attributed to presence of coherently phase-shifted repetitive patterns as well as the effects of acuity compensation by saccadic eye movements. We speculate that biological vision relies on perceptual mechanisms effectively similar to phase correlation, and predict neural features of visual pattern (dis)similarity that can be used for experimental validation of our hypothesis of "cognition by phase correlation."

  14. On the role of spatial phase and phase correlation in vision, illusion and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny eGladilin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings indicate that spatial phase bears an important cognitive information. Distortion of phase affects topology of edge structures and makes images unrecognizable. In turn, appropriately phase-structured patterns give rise to various illusions of virtual image content and apparent motion. Despite a large body of phenomenological evidence not much is known yet about the role of phase information in neural mechanisms of visual perception and cognition. Here, we are concerned with analysis of the role of spatial phase in computational and biological vision, emergence of visual illusions and pattern recognition. We hypothesize that fundamental importance of phase information for invariant retrieval of structural image features and motion detection promoted development of phase-based mechanisms of neural image processing in course of evolution of biological vision. Using an extension of Fourier phase correlation technique, we show that the core functions of visual system such as motion detection and pattern recognition can be facilitated by the same basic mechanism. Our analysis suggests that emergence of visual illusions can be attributed to presence of coherently phase-shifted repetitive patterns as well as the effects of acuity compensation by saccadic eye movements. We speculate that biological vision relies on perceptual mechanisms effectively similar to phase correlation, and predict neural features of visual pattern (dissimilarity that can be used for experimental validation of our hypothesis of 'cognition by phase correlation'.

  15. Characterising phase variations in MALDI-TOF data and correcting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Fitzgerald

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a means of analyzing the proteome has been evaluated extensively in recent years. One of the limitations of this technique that has impeded the development of robust data analysis algorithms is the variability in the location of protein ion signals along the x-axis. We studied technical variations of MALDI-TOF measurements in the context of proteomics profiling. By acquiring a benchmark data set with five replicates, we estimated 76% to 85% of the total variance is due to phase variation. We devised a lobster plot, so named because of the resemblance to a lobster claw, to help detect the phase variation in replicates. We also investigated a peak alignment algorithm to remove the phase variation. This operation is analogous to the normalization step in microarray data analysis. Only after this critical step can features of biological interest be clearly revealed. With the help of principal component analysis, we demonstrated that after peak alignment, the differences among replicates are reduced. We compared this approach to peak alignment with a model-based calibration approach in which there was known information about peaks in common among all spectra. Finally, we examined the potential value at each point in an analysis pipeline of having a set of methods available that includes parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric methods; among such methods are those that benefit from the use of prior information.

  16. Phase separation in fluids exposed to spatially periodic external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, R L C; Archer, A J

    2012-03-01

    When a fluid is confined within a spatially periodic external field, the liquid-vapor transition is replaced by a different transition called laser-induced condensation (LIC) [Götze et al., Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. In d=3 dimensions, the periodic field induces an additional phase, characterized by large density modulations along the field direction. At the triple point, all three phases (modulated, vapor, and liquid) coexist. At temperatures slightly above the triple point and for low (high) values of the chemical potential, two-phase coexistence between the modulated phase and the vapor (liquid) is observed; by increasing the temperature further, both coexistence regions terminate in critical points. In this paper, we reconsider LIC using the Ising model to resolve a number of open issues. To be specific, we (1) determine the universality class of the LIC critical points and elucidate the nature of the correlations along the field direction, (2) present a mean-field analysis to show how the LIC phase diagram changes as a function of the field wavelength and amplitude, (3) develop a simulation method by which the extremely low tension of the interface between modulated and vapor or liquid phase can be measured, (4) present a finite-size scaling analysis to accurately extract the LIC triple point from finite-size simulation data, and (5) consider the fate of LIC in d=2 dimensions.

  17. Principal component analysis to evaluate the spatial variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discretisation of the particle sizes is highlighted as both a challenge and an opportunity and it is recommended that it be used as a tuning parameter in gauging kaolin variations across samples and in validating new predictive modeling applications. Successful applications will depend on how clay and data scientists keep ...

  18. The spatial and temporal variations of nematofauna of recovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-temporal variations in physical sediment characteristics and nematode community assemblages were investigated and compared between a natural, a 10-year reforested, and a degraded Rhizophora mucronata mangrove ecosystem in Gazi Bay, Kenya. PCA showed a clear separation of the degraded site from ...

  19. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  20. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in urban Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintar Mally Katja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations are regularly measured at only two monitoring stations in the city centre of Ljubljana, and such scanty data are inadequate for drawing conclusions about spatial patterns of pollution within the city, or to decide on effective measures to further improve air quality. In order to determine the spatial distribution of NO2 concentrations in different types of urban space in Ljubljana, two measuring campaigns throughout the city were carried out, during the summer of 2013 and during the winter of 2014. The main source of NO2 in Ljubljana is road transport. Accordingly, three types of urban space have been identified (urban background, open space along roads, and street canyon, and their NO2 pollution level was measured using Palmes diffusive samplers at a total of 108 measuring spots. This article analyses the results of both measuring campaigns and compares the pollution levels of different types of urban space.

  1. Explaining Spatial Variation in Real Estate Development Activity in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Alkay; Berna Keskin; Craig Watkins

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong policy discourse at local and national level in Turkey that ascribes considerable economic benefits to new construction activity. Critics, however, argue that this policy discourse has led to a mismatch between public policy and market fundamentals in many cities. It has been suggested that policy intentions might be driving construction levels above demand levels and could be contributing to uneven spatial development between regions. This paper seeks to shed light on this ...

  2. Spatial Variation of Magnitude Scaling Factors During the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Lake

    2016-01-01

    Magnitude Scaling Factors (MSF) account for the durational effects of strong ground shaking on the inducement of liquefaction within the simplified liquefaction evaluation procedure which is the most commonly used approach for assessing liquefaction potential worldwide. Within the context of the simplified procedure, the spatial variation in the seismic demand imposed on the soil traditionally has been assumed to be solely a function of the spatial variation of the peak amplitude of the groun...

  3. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  4. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(R p /R * ) 2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day /F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  5. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  6. Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)

  7. Relevant Spatial Scales of Chemical Variation in Aplysina aerophoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Sacristan-Soriano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the scale at which natural products vary the most is critical because it sheds light on the type of factors that regulate their production. The sponge Aplysina aerophoba is a common Mediterranean sponge inhabiting shallow waters in the Mediterranean and its area of influence in Atlantic Ocean. This species contains large concentrations of brominated alkaloids (BAs that play a number of ecological roles in nature. Our research investigates the ecological variation in BAs of A. aerophoba from a scale of hundred of meters to thousand kilometers. We used a nested design to sample sponges from two geographically distinct regions (Canary Islands and Mediterranean, over 2500 km, with two zones within each region (less than 50 km, two locations within each zone (less than 5 km, and two sites within each location (less than 500 m. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify multiple BAs and a spectrophotometer to quantify chlorophyll a (Chl a. Our results show a striking degree of variation in both natural products and Chl a content. Significant variation in Chl a content occurred at the largest and smallest geographic scales. The variation patterns of BAs also occurred at the largest and smallest scales, but varied depending on which BA was analyzed. Concentrations of Chl a and isofistularin-3 were negatively correlated, suggesting that symbionts may impact the concentration of some of these compounds. Our results underline the complex control of the production of secondary metabolites, with factors acting at both small and large geographic scales affecting the production of multiple secondary metabolites.

  8. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  10. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  11. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  12. EBSD spatial resolution for detecting sigma phase in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordín, S. Fernandez; Limandri, S. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Ranalli, J.M. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castellano, G. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, CONICET. M. Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    The spatial resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction signal is explored by Monte Carlo simulation for the sigma phase in steel at a typical instrumental set-up. In order to estimate the active volume corresponding to the diffracted electrons, the fraction of the backscattered electrons contributing to the diffraction signal was inferred by extrapolating the Kikuchi pattern contrast measured by other authors, as a function of the diffracted electron energy. In the resulting estimation, the contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size and the software capability to deconvolve patterns were included. A strong influence of the beam size on the lateral resolution was observed, resulting in 20 nm for the aperture considered. For longitudinal and depth directions the resolutions obtained were 75 nm and 16 nm, respectively. The reliability of this last result is discussed in terms of the survey of the last large-angle deflection undergone by the backscattered electrons involved in the diffraction process. Bearing in mind the mean transversal resolution found, it was possible to detect small area grains of sigma phase by EBSD measurements, for a stabilized austenitic AISI 347 stainless steel under heat treatments, simulating post welding (40 h at 600 °C) and aging (284 h at 484 °C) effects—as usually occurring in nuclear reactor pressure vessels. - Highlights: • EBSD spatial resolution is studied by Monte Carlo simulation for σ-phase in steel. • The contribution of the intrinsic incident beam size was included. • A stabilized austenitic stainless steel under heat treatments was measured by EBSD. • With the transversal resolution found, small area σ-phase grains could be identified.

  13. Spatial variation of AIA coronal Fourier power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J.; Mcateer, R. T. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a study of the spatial distribution of the properties of the Fourier power spectrum of time-series of AIA 171Å and 193Å data. The area studied includes examples of physically different components of the corona, such as coronal moss, a sunspot, quiet Sun and fan loop footpoints. We show that a large fraction of the power spectra are well modeled by a power spectrum that behaves like a power law f-n (n>0)at lower frequencies f, dropping to a constant value at higher frequencies. We also show that there are areas where the power spectra are better described by the above power spectrum model, plus a narrow band oscillatory feature, centered in the 3-5 minute oscillation range. These narrow-band spectral features are thought to be due to the propagation of oscillations from lower down in solar atmosphere to hotter. This allows us to produce maps of large areas of the corona showing where the propagation from one waveband to another does and does not occur. This is an important step in understanding wave propagation in different layers in the corona. We also show the 171Å and 193Å power spectrum power law indices are correlated, with 171Å power law indices in the range n = 1.8 to 2.8, and 193Å power law indices n = 2 to 3.5 approximately. Maps of the power law index show that different ranges of values of the power law indices occur in spatially contiguous parts of the corona, indicating that local spatial structure may play a role in defining the power law index value. Taken with our previous result from Ireland et al. (2015) that physically different parts of the corona have different mean values of the power law index, this new result strongly suggests that the same mechanism producing the observed power law power spectrum is operating everywhere across the corona. We discuss the nanoflare hypothesis as a possible explanation of these observations.

  14. Pollinator communities in strawberry crops - variation at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, E J; Klatt, B K; Arildsen, J; Trandem, N; Andersson, G K S; Tscharntke, T; Smith, H G; Sigsgaard, L

    2015-08-01

    Predicting potential pollination services of wild bees in crops requires knowledge of their spatial distribution within fields. Field margins can serve as nesting and foraging habitats for wild bees and can be a source of pollinators. Regional differences in pollinator community composition may affect this spill-over of bees. We studied how regional and local differences affect the spatial distribution of wild bee species richness, activity-density and body size in crop fields. We sampled bees both from the field centre and at two different types of semi-natural field margins, grass strips and hedges, in 12 strawberry fields. The fields were distributed over four regions in Northern Europe, representing an almost 1100 km long north-south gradient. Even over this gradient, daytime temperatures during sampling did not differ significantly between regions and did therefore probably not impact bee activity. Bee species richness was higher in field margins compared with field centres independent of field size. However, there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. In contrast, bee activity-density increased towards the southern regions, whereas the mean body size increased towards the north. In conclusion, our study revealed a general pattern across European regions of bee diversity, but not activity-density, declining towards the field interior which suggests that the benefits of functional diversity of pollinators may be difficult to achieve through spill-over effects from margins to crop. We also identified dissimilar regional patterns in bee diversity and activity-density, which should be taken into account in conservation management.

  15. Spatial variations of damage parameters in FMIT and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Simons, R.L.; Mann, F.M.; Carter, L.L.

    1978-12-01

    The major conclusion is that the variation in damage rates in FMIT will be dominated by changes in flux, not spectrum. Throughout the test region where the flux is greater than 10 14 n/cm 2 .s, the flux varies by a factor of about 20, while the spectral-averaged displacement and helium production cross sections for copper vary by less than factors of two and four, respectively. The corresponding helium-to-dpa ratios bracket a fusion reactor first wall value for copper (i.e., 7.7 appm He/dpa). With the Li(d,n) yields and copper damage energy and helium production cross sections used in this study, the test volumes for which the displacement and total helium production rates are greater than those at a D-T fusion reactor first wall, with a loading of 1.25 MW/m 2 , are about 100 and 130 cm 3 , respectively

  16. Estimating Transmitted-Signal Phase Variations for Uplink Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Vilntrotter, Victor; Cornish, Timothy; Lee, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A method of estimating phase drifts of microwave signals distributed to, and transmitted by, antennas in an array involves the use of the signals themselves as phase references. The method was conceived as part of the solution of the problem of maintaining precise phase calibration required for proper operation of an array of Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth used for communicating with distant spacecraft at frequencies between 7 and 8 GHz. The method could also be applied to purely terrestrial phased-array radar and other radio antenna array systems. In the DSN application, the electrical lengths (effective signal-propagation path lengths) of the various branches of the system for distributing the transmitted signals to the antennas are not precisely known, and they vary with time. The variations are attributable mostly to thermal expansion and contraction of fiber-optic and electrical signal cables and to a variety of causes associated with aging of signal-handling components. The variations are large enough to introduce large phase drifts at the signal frequency. It is necessary to measure and correct for these phase drifts in order to maintain phase calibration of the antennas. A prior method of measuring phase drifts involves the use of reference-frequency signals separate from the transmitted signals. A major impediment to accurate measurement of phase drifts over time by the prior method is the fact that although DSN reference-frequency sources separate from the transmitting signal sources are stable and accurate enough for most DSN purposes, they are not stable enough for use in maintaining phase calibrations, as required, to within a few degrees over times as long as days or possibly even weeks. By eliminating reliance on the reference-frequency subsystem, the present method overcomes this impediment. In a DSN array to which the present method applies (see figure), the microwave signals to be transmitted are generated by exciters in a signal

  17. Spatial variation of butyltins in an intermittent French River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahinian, N.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Brunel, V.; Tournoud, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    Organotins (OTs) have been increasingly used in industrial applications because of their thermoresistant and biocidal properties: in the 1970s and 1980s Tributyltin (TBT) based anti-fouling paints were used on ships and vessels of all kinds. However, studies pointed out the highly toxic nature of these compounds and their active role as an endoctrine perturbator. This lead the EU to ban the use of TBT paints in 2003. The toxicity of OTs combined to their widespread use has lead then to be included in the priority list of the EU water framework directive. Organotins are prone to adsorption, can bond easily to particulate matter and "migrate" from the water column unto the sediments where their half-life can extend to a few decades. Consequently sediments can become important organotin stores and release OT compounds during dredging operations, storms, tides or floods. The main objective of this work was to investigate the presence of organotin compounds in the sediments and water column of an intermittent river reach i.e. to establish the presence of organotins in regular flow conditions and assess their spatial variability. The study zone is a reach of the Vène River located in southern France. The Vène is a major tributary of the Thau lagoon which is an important shellfish farming site and thus very vulnerable to OT contamination. Butyltin, trace metal and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured on water and sediment samples collected over a 3 month period stretching from March to May 2008. The results revealed the presence of butyltins at concentrations exceeding the EU and French pollution limits. In terms of spatial variability, by combining the butyltin and the trace metal results at 16 locations along the reach, two point pollutions spots were identified, namely a sewage treatment plant and a drainage ditch. However, the later are not the only OT input sources, the results of the sediment analysis pointed out to a diffuse pollution

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of manganese concentrations in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability of manganese concentrations in drinking water (daily, seasonal, spatial) for eight communities who participated in an epidemiological study on neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to manganese in drinking water. We also assessed the performance of residential point-of-use and point-of-entry devices (POE) for reducing manganese concentrations in water. While the total Mn concentrations measured during this study were highly variable depending on the location (manganese concentration for 4 out of 5 sampling locations. The efficiency of reverse osmosis and ion exchange for total Mn removal was consistently high while activated carbon provided variable results. The four POE greensand filters investigated all increased (29 to 199%) manganese concentration, indicating deficient operation and/or maintenance practices. Manganese concentrations in the distribution system were equal or lower than at the inlet, indicating that sampling at the inlet of the distribution system is conservative. The decline in total Mn concentration was linked to higher water residence time in the distribution system.

  19. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  20. Spatial variations in nitrogen dioxide concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    Fortnightly average NO 2 concentrations have been measured at 49 sites in the small city of Lancaster, U.K., over a continuous 1-year period using passive diffusion tubes. At sampling sites on a congested main road in the city centre considerable spatial and temporal variability in concentrations was found. An annual mean concentration of 63 μgm -3 was found witha range of 12-222 μgm -3. The mean concentration in an adjacent main road was 58 μgm -3 with a range of 5-107 μgm -3. Rather less variability was seen in a suburban main road and in a suburban residential street, which had annual mean concentrations of 38 and 30 μm -3, respectively. Concentrations in a city centre pedestrian precinct decreased with distance from the main road, having an annual mean value of 30μm -3. The data suggest that the precise location of a sampling device may be crucial in determining whether or not a given NO 2, concentration or standard is exceeded.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Trace Species in Titan's Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Jennings, D.; Nixon, C.; Achterberg, R.; Vinatier, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Teanby, N.; Romani, P.; Carlson, R.; Flasar, F.

    2008-09-01

    Four years into the Cassini-Huygens mission, we present results obtained on Titan's chemical composition by analyzing CIRS data in the far-and mid-IR region. With respect to previous publications (Coustenis et al., 2007, Teanby et al., 2006, 2008; Vinatier et al., 2007) we improved our analysis by exploiting a considerably larger number of nadir spectra, in particular at high resolution (0.53 cm-1). The more complete coverage of Titan's disk, combined with the larger number of spectra at high resolution, allows for the inference of more precise abundances for the trace gases and for a more adequate definition of meridional variations, in particular in the northern regions. The retrievals of the meridional variations of the trace constituents show an enhancement for some of them towards the North pole. Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). To a lesser degree, acetylene and ethane also exhibit abundance increases by factors of 1.5-2. The results are tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models (Rannou et al., 2005; Lavvas et al., 2008a,b and references therein). The D/H ratio on Titan was also determined from the CH3D band at 8.6 micron and the C2HD band at 678 cm-1 (Coustenis et al., 2008). We compare our results with previous inferences from earlier CIRS and Voyager1/IRIS data and from ISO data taken in 1997. References Coustenis, A., et al., 2007, Icarus 189, 35-62 ; 2008 : DOI : 10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z. Lavvas, P. P., et al., 2008a. Plan. Space Sci. 56, 27-66 ; 2008b. Plan. Space Sci. 56, 67-99. Rannou, P., et al., 2005. Adv. Space Res. 36, 2194-2198. Teanby, N. A., et al., 2006. Icarus 181, 243-255; 2008. Icarus 193, 595-611. Vinatier, S., et al., 2007. Icarus 188, 120-138.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Climatic Variation in Coastal Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, R. V.; Ates, S.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Polito, M. J.; Midway, S. R.; Gold, A.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Uchida, E.; Suwa, M.; Mangora, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic controls are particularly important to the natural and human systems in coastal Tanzania, where mangrove vegetation is a major component of world-renowned biodiversity. This research provides an improved understanding of the climatic features and forcing mechanisms that support the critical mangroves of Tanzania and the livelihoods of its populace, using updated and complete datasets. Updated data confirm that coastal Tanzania falls in the tropical wet-dry Köppen-Geiger climatic type, except for the extreme north, where tropical rain forest exists north of Pangani. The northeast monsoon, known as the kaskazi, largely corresponds to the rainy November-December and March-May months. The southeast monsoon - known as the kusi - overlaps with the drier June-September. Results suggest that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are key modulators of precipitation variability in the entire area. More specifically, September-November positive precipitation anomalies occur during positive IOD, especially when combined with El Niño, with slightly negative anomalies during negative IOD, especially when combined with La Niña. The rest of the year tends to show similar precipitation during both IOD phases (March-August) or less precipitation during the positive phase (December-February). Because the literature suggests likelihood of more frequent positive IOD mode and a strengthened relationship of these events to warm-ENSO events, changes to the hydrologic cycle in east Africa may be likely in the future, with a potential for an expanded secondary rainy season and a drier "saddle" between the secondary and primary rainy seasons (i.e., December-February). Therefore, future research should investigate in more detail the influence of the IOD and ENSO on various components of the climatic water balance. Results may be useful to earth, environmental, and social scientists as they seek further understanding of the drivers of ecological and

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of body size among early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Stock, Jay T

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of body size among the earliest members of the genus Homo (2.4-1.5Myr [millions of years ago]) is central to interpretations of their biology. It is widely accepted that Homo ergaster possessed increased body size compared with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, and that this may have been a factor involved with the dispersal of Homo out of Africa. The study of taxonomic differences in body size, however, is problematic. Postcranial remains are rarely associated with craniodental fossils, and taxonomic attributions frequently rest upon the size of skeletal elements. Previous body size estimates have been based upon well-preserved specimens with a more reliable species assessment. Since these samples are small (n Koobi Fora after 1.7Myr, indicating regional size variation. The significant body size differences between specimens from Koobi Fora and Olduvai support the cranial evidence for at least two co-existing morphotypes in the Early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Titan's Stratospheric chemistry: Spatial And Temporal Variations Of Trace Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Vinatier, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Lavvas, P.; Teanby, N.; Lellouch, E.; Flasar, M.; Simon-Miller, A.

    2009-04-01

    Four years into the Cassini-Huygens mission, we present results obtained on Titan's chemical composition by analyzing CIRS data in the far-and mid-IR region. With respect to previous publications (Flasar et al., 2005; Coustenis et al., 2007, 2008b; Teanby et al., 2006, 2008; Vinatier et al., 2007) we improved our analysis by exploiting a considerably larger number of nadir spectra, in particular at high resolution (0.53 cm-1). The more complete coverage of Titan's disk, combined with the larger number of spectra at high resolution, allows for the inference of more precise abundances for the trace gases and for a more adequate definition of meridional variations, in particular in the northern regions. The retrievals of the meridional variations of the trace constituents show an enhancement for some of them towards the North pole. Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). To a lesser degree, acetylene and ethane also exhibit abundance increases by factors of 1.5-2. Isotopic ratios in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have been determined (Jennings et al., 2008, Nixon et al., 2008a,b). The D/H ratio on Titan was also determined from the CH3D band at 8.6 micron and the C2HD band at 678 cm-1 (Coustenis et al., 2008a). We compare our results with previous inferences from earlier CIRS and Voyager1/IRIS data and from ISO data taken in 1997. The results are tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models (Rannou et al., 2005; Lavvas et al., 2008a,b, Crespin et al., 2008 and references therein). Finally, we will present the case for future observations from space (e.g. with the TSSM mission, http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/cosmicvision/tssm/tssm-public/ which will comprise instruments such as a Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (TIRS) or a SubMillimeter Sounder (SMS)) or from the ground, which could improve our current understanding of Titan's neutral chemistry. References 1. Coustenis, A

  5. Seasonal and spatial variation in broadleaf forest model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, M.; van der Molen, M. K.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Process based, coupled ecosystem carbon, energy and water cycle models are used with the ultimate goal to project the effect of future climate change on the terrestrial carbon cycle. A typical dilemma in such exercises is how much detail the model must be given to describe the observations reasonably realistic while also be general. We use a simple vegetation model (5PM) with five model parameters to study the variability of the parameters. These parameters are derived from the observed carbon and water fluxes from the FLUXNET database. For 15 broadleaf forests the model parameters were derived for different time resolutions. It appears that in general for all forests, the correlation coefficient between observed and simulated carbon and water fluxes improves with a higher parameter time resolution. The quality of the simulations is thus always better when a higher time resolution is used. These results show that annual parameters are not capable of properly describing weather effects on ecosystem fluxes, and that two day time resolution yields the best results. A first indication of the climate constraints can be found by the seasonal variation of the covariance between Jm, which describes the maximum electron transport for photosynthesis, and climate variables. A general seasonality we found is that during winter the covariance with all climate variables is zero. Jm increases rapidly after initial spring warming, resulting in a large covariance with air temperature and global radiation. During summer Jm is less variable, but co-varies negatively with air temperature and vapour pressure deficit and positively with soil water content. A temperature response appears during spring and autumn for broadleaf forests. This shows that an annual model parameter cannot be representative for the entire year. And relations with mean annual temperature are not possible. During summer the photosynthesis parameters are constrained by water availability, soil water content and

  6. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  7. Community functional responses to soil and climate at multiple spatial scales: when does intraspecific variation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Siefert

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence of the importance of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities, its role in community trait responses to environmental variation, particularly along broad-scale climatic gradients, is poorly understood. We analyzed functional trait variation among early-successional herbaceous plant communities (old fields across a 1200-km latitudinal extent in eastern North America, focusing on four traits: vegetative height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA, and leaf dry matter content (LDMC. We determined the contributions of species turnover and intraspecific variation to between-site functional dissimilarity at multiple spatial scales and community trait responses to edaphic and climatic factors. Among-site variation in community mean trait values and community trait responses to the environment were generated by a combination of species turnover and intraspecific variation, with species turnover making a greater contribution for all traits. The relative importance of intraspecific variation decreased with increasing geographic and environmental distance between sites for SLA and leaf area. Intraspecific variation was most important for responses of vegetative height and responses to edaphic compared to climatic factors. Individual species displayed strong trait responses to environmental factors in many cases, but these responses were highly variable among species and did not usually scale up to the community level. These findings provide new insights into the role of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities and the factors controlling its relative importance. The contribution of intraspecific variation to community trait responses was greatest at fine spatial scales and along edaphic gradients, while species turnover dominated at broad spatial scales and along climatic gradients.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Occurrence and Foraging Activity of Coastal Dolphins in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Temple

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns in distribution, occurrence and behaviour is vital for the effective conservation of cetaceans. This study used cetacean click detectors (C-PODs to investigate spatial and temporal variation in occurrence and foraging activity of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins resident in the Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Occurrence was measured using detection positive minutes. Inter-click intervals were used to identify terminal buzz vocalisations, allowing for analysis of foraging activity. Data were analysed in relation to spatial (location and temporal (monsoon season, diel phase and tidal phase variables. Results showed significantly increased occurrence and foraging activity of dolphins in southern areas and during hours of darkness. Higher occurrence at night was not explained by diel variation in echolocation rate and so were considered representative of occurrence patterns. Both tidal phase and monsoon season influenced occurrence but results varied among sites, with no general patterns found. Foraging activity was greatest during hours of darkness, High water and Flood tidal phases. Comparisons of echolocation data among sites suggested differences in the broadband click spectra of MBCA dolphins, possibly indicative of species differences. These dolphin populations are threatened by unsustainable fisheries bycatch and tourism activities. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study have implications for future conservation and management actions with regards to these two threats. Further, the results indicate future potential for using passive acoustics to identify and monitor the occurrence of these two species in areas where they co-exist.

  9. Spatial and Ontogenetic Variation in Mercury in Lake Superior Basin Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Sara K; Polkinghorne, Christine N; Mattes, William P; Beesley, Kimberly M

    2018-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in eggs, larvae, and adult spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in tributaries of Lake Superior to investigate spatial and ontogenetic variation. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations between all three life stages, with levels highest in adults (mean = 3.01 µg/g), followed by eggs (mean = 0.942 µg/g), and lowest in larvae (mean = 0.455 µg/g). There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations by location for any life stage or by sex in adults. Mercury was not correlated with adult or larval lamprey length or mass. Mercury levels in adult lampreys exceeded U.S. and Canadian federal guidelines for human consumption. Mercury concentrations in all life stages exceeded criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, posing a threat to local fish, birds, and mammals. High mercury levels in adult lampreys combined with their semelparous life history make them a potential source of lake-derived mercury to spawning streams.

  10. Experimental study of coherence vortices: Local properties of phase singularities in a spatial coherence function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Duan, Z.H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2006-01-01

    By controlling the irradiance of an extended quasimonochromatic, spatially incoherent source, an optical field is generated that exhibits spatial coherence with phase singularities, called coherence vortices. A simple optical geometry for direct visualization of coherence vortices is proposed, an...

  11. Spatial variations of brightness, colour and polarization of dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbush, Vera K.; Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla O.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.

    2017-07-01

    We present post-perihelion photometric and polarimetric observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko performed at the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS in the g-sdss (465/65 nm), r-sdss (620/60 nm) and R filters. Observations in November and December 2015 and April 2016 covered the range of heliocentric distance 1.62-2.72 au and phase angle 33.2°-10.4°. The comet was very active. Two persistent jets and long dust tail were observed during the whole observing period; one more jet was detected only in December. The radial profiles of surface brightness, colour and polarization significantly differed for the coma, jets and tail, and changed with increasing heliocentric distance. The dust production Afρ decreased from 162 cm at r = 1.62 au to 51 cm at r = 2.72 au. The dust colour (g-r) gradually changed from 0.8 mag in the innermost coma to about 0.4 mag in the outer coma. The spectral slope was 8.2 ± 1.7 per cent/100 nm in the 465 to 620 nm wavelength domain. In November and December, the polarization in the near-nucleus area was about 8 per cent, dropped sharply to 2 per cent at the distance above 5000 km and then gradually increased with distance from the nucleus, reaching ˜8 per cent at 40 000 km. In April, at a phase angle 10.4°, the polarization varied between -0.6 per cent in the near-nucleus area and -4 per cent in the outer coma. Circular polarization was not detected in the comet. The spatial variations of brightness, colour and polarization in different structural features suggest some evolution of particle properties, most likely decreasing the size of dust particles.

  12. Explaining growth variation over large spatial scales: Effects of temperature and food on walleye growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Thomas; Venturelli, Paul; Lester, Nigel P.

    2012-01-01

    freshwater fish species in North America. We then use length at age data from yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to identify the mechanisms behind the remaining variation in the length at age – temperature relationship for walleye. A positive perch – walleye relationship indicates that the mechanism behind......Most fishes exhibit strong spatial variation in growth. Because fish growth and production are tightly linked, quantifying and explaining variation in growth can mean the difference between successful management and unforeseen collapse. However, disentangling the factors that are responsible...

  13. Spatial variation in growth, condition and maturation reaction norms of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainikka, A.; Mollet, F.M.; Casini, M.; Gardmark, A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of spatial patterns in life-history traits can help fisheries management focus on biologically and functionally relevant stock units. In the present study, we examined life-history variation in growth, condition and maturation of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras among

  14. Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay CA Using a Hindcast Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-10-01

    Spatial variability of sea states is an important consideration when performing wave resource assessments and wave resource characterization studies for wave energy converter (WEC) test sites and commercial WEC deployments. This report examines the spatial variation of sea states offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA, using the wave model SWAN . The effect of depth and shoaling on bulk wave parameters is well resolved using the model SWAN with a 200 m grid. At this site, the degree of spatial variation of these bulk wave parameters, with shoaling generally perpendicular to the depth contours, is found to depend on the season. The variation in wave height , for example, was higher in the summer due to the wind and wave sheltering from the protruding land on the coastline north of the model domain. Ho wever, the spatial variation within an area of a potential Tier 1 WEC test site at 45 m depth and 1 square nautical mile is almost negligible; at most about 0.1 m in both winter and summer. The six wave characterization parameters recommended by the IEC 6 2600 - 101 TS were compared at several points along a line perpendicular to shore from the WEC test site . As expected, these parameters varied based on depth , but showed very similar seasonal trends.

  15. Spatial variations of order parameter around Kondo impurity for T<=Tsub(c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Analytic expressions for the spatial variations of the order parameter around a Kondo impurity are obtained. The oscillatory contribution due to the impurity scattering is calculated using the t matrix of Matsuura which conveniently yields the general results below Tsub(c). Differences between our values and those of Schlottmann are reported. (author)

  16. Variations in the spatial distribution of gall bladder cancer: a call for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of gall bladder cancers in this part of the world is high and the spatial variation in occurrence of gall bladder cancers can be identified by using geographical information system. Materials and Methods: Data set containing the address information of gall bladder cancer patients from the District of ...

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in shallow waters along the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    We studied the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011 and 2012. Measured directional wave data at two shallow water locations and re-analysis datasets (ERA-Interim) at 0.751 intervals at four...

  18. Entrepreneurial Regions : Causes and Consequences of the Spatial Variation of Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modrego Benito, Felix Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the spatial variation in entrepreneurship, and its relationship with regional growth and development. The study is conducted using Chile as the empirical setting. The results indicate that conditions for general

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Soil Bacteria Richness, Composition, and Function in a Neotropical Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-01-01

    The high diversity of tree species has traditionally been considered an important controller of belowground processes in tropical rainforests. However, soil water availability and resources are also primary regulators of soil bacteria in many ecosystems. Separating the effects of these biotic and abiotic factors in the tropics is challenging because of their high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. To determine the drivers of tropical soil bacteria, we examined tree species effects using experimental tree monocultures and secondary forests at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. A randomized block design captured spatial variation and we sampled at four dates across two years to assess temporal variation. We measured bacteria richness, phylogenetic diversity, community composition, biomass, and functional potential. All bacteria parameters varied significantly across dates. In addition, bacteria richness and phylogenetic diversity were affected by the interaction of vegetation type and date, whereas bacteria community composition was affected by the interaction of vegetation type and block. Shifts in bacteria community richness and composition were unrelated to shifts in enzyme function, suggesting physiological overlap among taxa. Based on the observed temporal and spatial heterogeneity, our understanding of tropical soil bacteria will benefit from additional work to determine the optimal temporal and spatial scales for sampling. Understanding spatial and temporal variation will facilitate prediction of how tropical soil microbes will respond to future environmental change.

  20. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugyen Dorji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions in Bhutan. It assesses the spatial variation of temperature and precipitation across the country and evaluates the causes for this variation based on daily data from 70 meteorological stations that have been recording data for time spans ranging from 3 to 21 years. Temperature and precipitation show contrasting spatial variation, with temperature primarily affected by elevation and precipitation by latitude. Models were developed using mixed linear regression models to predict seasonal and annual mean temperature and precipitation based on geographical location. Using linear regression we found that temperatures changed by about 0.5°C for every 100 m of change in elevation, with lapse rates being highest in February, March, and November and lowest from June to August. The lapse rate was highest for minimum temperatures and lowest for maximum temperatures, with the greatest difference during winter. The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations.

  1. Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Czaran, Tamas

    2001-01-01

    Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P c above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Meteorological Drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar Basin, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Tamilmani, D.

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar basin, Tamil Nadu using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as an indicator of drought severity. The basin was divided into 97 grid-cells of 5 × 5 km with each grid correspondence to approximately 1.03 % of total area. Monthly rainfall data for the period of 40 years (1972-2011) from 28 rain gauge stations in the basin was spatially interpolated and gridded monthly rainfall was created. Regional representative of SPI values calculated from mean areal rainfall were used to analyse the temporal variation of drought at multiple time scales. Spatial variation of drought was analysed based on highest drought severity derived from the monthly gridded SPI values. Frequency analyse was applied to assess the recurrence pattern of drought severity. The temporal analysis of SPI indicated that moderate, severe and extreme droughts are common in the basin and spatial analysis of drought severity identified the areas most frequently affected by drought. The results of this study can be used for developing drought preparedness plan and formulating mitigation strategies for sustainable water resource management within the basin.

  4. Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, O J; Vekemans, X

    2001-05-01

    The extent and spatial patterns of genetic variation at allozyme markers were investigated within and between diploid and autotetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea L. sensu lato, Asteraceae) at contrasted geographic scales: (1) among populations sampled from a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in the northeastern part of the Belgian Ardennes, and (2) within mixed populations from that zone where diploids and tetraploids coexist. Our data were also compared with a published dataset by Sommer (1990) describing allozyme variation in separate diploid and tetraploid knapweeds populations collected throughout Europe. Genetic diversity was higher in tetraploids. In the Belgian Ardennes and within the mixed populations, both cytotypes had similar levels of spatial genetic structure, they were genetically differentiated, and their distributions of allele frequencies were not spatially correlated. In contrast, at the European scale, diploids and tetraploids did not show differentiated gene pools and presented a strong correlation between their patterns of spatial genetic variation. Numerical simulations showed that the striking difference in patterns observed at small and large geographic scales could be accounted for by a combination of (1) isolation by distance within cytotypes; and (2) partial reproductive barriers between cytotypes and/or recurrent formation of tetraploids. We suggest that this may explain the difficulty of the taxonomic treatment of knapweeds and of polyploid complexes in general.

  5. Temporal-spatial variation and the influence factors of precipitation in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Precipitation is a key factor in the water cycle.At the same time,precipitation is the focus of study in meteorology and climatology,ecological environmental assessment,non-point source pollution and so on.Understanding the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding factors of precipitation has become the object of hydrology and environmentology.Based on the annual precipitation data,we analyzed the spatial distribution of precipitation in Sichuan Province in China as well as the temporal-spatial variation and the corresponding influence factors involved.The results show that the amount of precipitation was abundant,but the spatial distribution was not consistent with it and the amount of precipitation gradually declined from the south-east to the north-west in Sichuan Province,China.Moreover,the spatial distribution was different throughout the years.The result of correlation analysis indicated that elevation,temperature and air pressure were three key factors affecting the amount and distribution of precipitation,and the correlation coefficients were -0.56,0.38 and 0.45 respectively.Notably,the relationship between the slope of topography and precipitation were significantly negative and the average correlation coefficient was -0.28.

  6. Temporal and spatial variations of travel-time residuals in central California for Novaya Zemlya events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.; Iyer, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Eight large nuclear explosions in Novaya Zemlya from October 1969 through November 1974 were used to monitor long-term variations in crustal seismic velocity near the San Andreas fault in central California. Relative P-wave travel-time residuals appear to be accurate to approximately +-0.1 sec. Of the over 100 stations used, none show clearly significant temporal variations in residual greater than this amount, corresponding to about a 4 percent change in velocity in the upper crust. Average relative residuals at individual stations show a large spatial variation of about 1.5 sec. These variations reflect both a complex crustal geology and changes in crustal thickness and provide a potentially powerful tool for studying crustal structure

  7. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Jianguo Du; Xin Wang; Xiaocheng Zhou; Chao Xie; Yueju Cui

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon ...

  8. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of tri-trophic interactions: Spatial variation and effects of plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Moreira, Xoaquín; Ramos-Zapata, José

    2017-02-01

    The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora . We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant. We established common gardens at two sites in Yucatan, Mexico, and planted R. nudiflora at two densities in each garden. We recorded fruit output and SP and parasitoid attack; calculated relative fitness (seed number) under scenarios of three trophic levels (accounting for SP and parasitoid effects), two trophic levels (accounting for SP but not parasitoid effects), and one trophic level (no consumer effects); and compared selection strength on fruit number under these scenarios across sites and densities. There was spatial variation in SP recruitment, whereby the SP functional response was negatively density-dependent at one site but density-independent at the other; parasitoid responses were density-independent and invariant across sites. Site variation in SP attack led, in turn, to differences in SP selection on fruit output, and parasitoids did not alter SP selection. There were no significant effects of density at either site. Our results provide a link between consumer functional responses and consumer selection on plants, which deepens our understanding of geographic variation in the evolutionary outcomes of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Topography induced spatial variations in diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Raspor, K.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explain topography induced spatial variations in the diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest. Spatial variations of the fluxes are caused by variations in weather conditions and in vegetation characteristics. Weather conditions reflect short-term effects of climate, whereas vegetation characteristics, through adaptation and acclimation, long-term effects of climate. In this study measurements of plant physiology and weather conditions are used to explain observed differences in the fluxes. A model is used to study which part of the differences in the fluxes is caused by weather conditions and which part by vegetation characteristics. Data were collected at four experimental sub-Mediterranean deciduous forest plots in a heterogeneous terrain with contrasting aspect, soil water availability, humidity and temperature. We used a sun-shade model to scale fluxes from leaf to canopy, and calculated the canopy energy balance. Parameter values were derived from measurements of light interception, leaf chamber photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen content and 13C isotope discrimination in leaf material. Leaf nitrogen content is a measure of photosynthetic capacity, and 13C isotope discrimination of water use efficiency. For validation, sap-flux based measurements of transpiration were used. The model predicted diurnal cycles of transpiration and stomatal conductance, both their magnitudes and differences in afternoon stomatal closure between slopes of different aspect within the confidence interval of the validation data. Weather conditions mainly responsible for the shape of the diurnal cycles, and vegetation parameters for the magnitude of the fluxes. Although the data do not allow for a quantification of the two effects, the differences in vegetation parameters and weather among the plots and the sensitivity of the fluxes to them suggest that the diurnal cycles were more strongly affected by spatial variations in

  10. Topography induced spatial variations in diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Tol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain topography induced spatial variations in the diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest. Spatial variations of the fluxes are caused by variations in weather conditions and in vegetation characteristics. Weather conditions reflect short-term effects of climate, whereas vegetation characteristics, through adaptation and acclimation, long-term effects of climate. In this study measurements of plant physiology and weather conditions are used to explain observed differences in the fluxes. A model is used to study which part of the differences in the fluxes is caused by weather conditions and which part by vegetation characteristics. Data were collected at four experimental sub-Mediterranean deciduous forest plots in a heterogeneous terrain with contrasting aspect, soil water availability, humidity and temperature. We used a sun-shade model to scale fluxes from leaf to canopy, and calculated the canopy energy balance. Parameter values were derived from measurements of light interception, leaf chamber photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen content and 13C isotope discrimination in leaf material. Leaf nitrogen content is a measure of photosynthetic capacity, and 13C isotope discrimination of water use efficiency. For validation, sap-flux based measurements of transpiration were used. The model predicted diurnal cycles of transpiration and stomatal conductance, both their magnitudes and differences in afternoon stomatal closure between slopes of different aspect within the confidence interval of the validation data. Weather conditions mainly responsible for the shape of the diurnal cycles, and vegetation parameters for the magnitude of the fluxes. Although the data do not allow for a quantification of the two effects, the differences in vegetation parameters and weather among the plots and the sensitivity of the fluxes to them suggest that the diurnal cycles were more strongly affected by spatial

  11. Flagellar-phase variation: isolation of the rh1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, M.; Zieg, J.; Simon, M.

    1979-01-01

    In Salmonella, expression of flagellar antigen alternates between two serotypes (phases) encoded by two genes, H1 and H2. The mechanism which controls the alternative expression of the H1 and H2 genes was examined by cloning these genes and the genetic elements which control their activity on hybrid vehicles in Escherichia coli. H2 gene activity was shown to be controlled by a recombinational switch located adjacent to the H2 gene. Activity of the H1 gene is thought to be repressed, when the H2 gene is expressed, by the product of another gene, rhl (repressor of H1), which is controlled coordinately with the H2 gene. In this report, we describe the construction of hybrid lambda vehicles which contain, in addition to the H2 gene, a genetic activity corresponding to rhl. Variation of flagellar antigens analogous to that observed in Salmonella was observed when E. coli strains were transduced with the hybrid lambda. By using the lambda H2rhl hybrid to program protein syntheis in uv-irradiated cells, the synthesis of a polypeptide was correlated with rhl gene product activity. We conclude that the H2 region consists of two cotranscribed genes, H2 and rhl. The expression of both gene products is regulated by the same recombinational event

  12. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Coveropen access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2016-01-01

    Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions....... The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being...... a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations....

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Najla Syed Hashim, Syarifah; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Salleh Abustan, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month) and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17) sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50).

  14. Spatial glass transition temperature variations in polymer glass: application to a maltodextrin-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sleeuwen, Rutger M T; Zhang, Suying; Normand, Valéry

    2012-03-12

    A model was developed to predict spatial glass transition temperature (T(g)) distributions in glassy maltodextrin particles during transient moisture sorption. The simulation employed a numerical mass transfer model with a concentration dependent apparent diffusion coefficient (D(app)) measured using Dynamic Vapor Sorption. The mass average moisture content increase and the associated decrease in T(g) were successfully modeled over time. Large spatial T(g) variations were predicted in the particle, resulting in a temporary broadening of the T(g) region. Temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that the variation in T(g) in nonequilibrated samples was larger than in equilibrated samples. This experimental broadening was characterized by an almost doubling of the T(g) breadth compared to the start of the experiment. Upon reaching equilibrium, both the experimental and predicted T(g) breadth contracted back to their initial value.

  15. High spatial variation in terrestrial arthropod species diversity and composition near the Greenland ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Reisner; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds; Bowden, Joseph James

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods form a major part of the terrestrial species diversity in the Arctic, and are particularly sensitive to temporal changes in the abiotic environment. It is assumed that most Arctic arthropods are habitat generalists and that their diversity patterns exhibit low spatial variation....... The empirical basis for this assumption, however, is weak. We examine the degree of spatial variation in species diversity and assemblage structure among five habitat types at two sites of similar abiotic conditions and plant species composition in southwest Greenland, using standardized field collection...... methods for spiders, beetles and butterflies. We employed non-metric multidimensional scaling, species richness estimation, community dissimilarity and indicator species analysis to test for local (within site)- and regional (between site)-scale differences in arthropod communities. To identify specific...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Syarifah Intan Najla Syed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17 sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50.

  17. Spatial variation and prediction of forest biomass in a heterogeneous landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Lamsal; D.M.Rizzo; R.K.Meentemeyer

    2012-01-01

    Large areas assessments of forest biomass distribution are a challenge in heterogeneous landscapes,where variations in tree growth and species composition occur over short distances.In this study,we use statistical and geospatial modeling on densely sampled forest biomass data to analyze the relative importance of ecological and physiographic variables as determinants of spatial variation of forest biomass in the environmentally heterogeneous region of the Big Sur,California.We estimated biomass in 280 forest plots (one plot per 2.85 km2) and measured an array of ecological (vegetation community type,distance to edge,amount of surrounding non-forest vegetation,soil properties,fire history) and physiographic drivers (elevation,potential soil moisture and solar radiation,proximity to the coast) of tree growth at each plot location.Our geostatistical analyses revealed that biomass distribution is spatially structured and autocorrelated up to 3.1 km.Regression tree (RT) models showed that both physiographic and ecological factors influenced biomass distribution.Across randomly selected sample densities (sample size 112 to 280),ecological effects of vegetation community type and distance to forest edge,and physiographic effects of elevation,potentialsoil moisture and solar radiation were the most consistent predictors of biomass.Topographic moisture index and potential solar radiation had a positive effect on biomass,indicating the importance of topographicallymediated energy and moisture on plant growth and biomass accumulation.RT model explained 35% of the variation in biomass and spatially autocorrelated variation were retained in regession residuals.Regression kriging model,developed from RT combined with kriging of regression residuals,was used to map biomass across the Big Sur.This study demonstrates how statistical and geospatial modeling can be used to discriminate the relative importance of physiographic and ecologic effects on forest biomass and develop

  18. New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan De Martino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ∼2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum and from galaxy clusters, respectively.

  19. Effects of spatial variation in cohesion over the concrete-rock interface on dam sliding stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Krounis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The limit equilibrium method (LEM is widely used for sliding stability evaluation of concrete gravity dams. Failure is then commonly assumed to occur along the entire sliding surface simultaneously. However, the brittle behaviour of bonded concrete-rock contacts, in combination with the varying stress over the interface, implies that the failure of bonded dam-foundation interfaces occurs progressively. In addition, the spatial variation in cohesion may introduce weak spots where failure can be initiated. Nonetheless, the combined effect of brittle failure and spatial variation in cohesion on the overall shear strength of the interface has not been studied previously. In this paper, numerical analyses are used to investigate the effect of brittle failure in combination with spatial variation in cohesion that is taken into account by random fields with different correlation lengths. The study concludes that a possible existence of weak spots along the interface has to be considered since it significantly reduces the overall shear strength of the interface, and implications for doing so are discussed.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations in fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure in Mad Island Marsh estuary, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, S.; Winemiller, K. O.; Gelwick, F. P.

    2003-05-01

    Fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient at Mad Island Marsh (MIM), Matagorda Bay, TX, during March 1998-August 1999. Eight estuarine-dependent fish species accounted for 94% of the individual fishes collected, and three species accounted for 96% of macrocrustacean abundance. Consistent with evidence from other Gulf of Mexico estuarine studies, species richness and abundance were highest during late spring and summer, and lowest during winter and early spring. Sites near the bay supported the most individuals and species. Associations between fish abundance and environmental variables were examined with canonical correspondence analysis. The dominant gradient was associated with water depth and distance from the bay. The secondary gradient reflected seasonal variation and was associated with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and vegetation cover. At the scales examined, estuarine biota responded to seasonal variation more than spatial variation. Estuarine-dependent species dominated the fauna and were common throughout the open waters of the shallow lake during winter-early spring when water temperature and salinity were low and dissolved oxygen high. During summer-early fall, sub-optimal environmental conditions (high temperature, low DO) in upper reaches accounted for strong spatial variation in assemblage composition. Small estuarine-resident fishes and the blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) were common in warm, shallow, vegetated inland sites during summer-fall. Estuarine-dependent species were common at deeper, more saline locations near the bay during this period. During summer, freshwater species, such as gizzard shad ( Dorosoma cepedianum) and gars ( Lepisosteus spp.), were positively associated with water depth and proximity to the bay. The distribution and abundance of fishes in MIM appear to result from the combined effects of endogenous, seasonal patterns of reproduction and migration operating on large

  1. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  2. Spatial variation in nutrient and water color effects on lake chlorophyll at macroscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, C. Emi; Finley, Andrew O.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient-water color paradigm is a framework to characterize lake trophic status by relating lake primary productivity to both nutrients and water color, the colored component of dissolved organic carbon. Total phosphorus (TP), a limiting nutrient, and water color, a strong light attenuator, influence lake chlorophyll a concentrations (CHL). But, these relationships have been shown in previous studies to be highly variable, which may be related to differences in lake and catchment geomorphology, the forms of nutrients and carbon entering the system, and lake community composition. Because many of these factors vary across space it is likely that lake nutrient and water color relationships with CHL exhibit spatial autocorrelation, such that lakes near one another have similar relationships compared to lakes further away. Including this spatial dependency in models may improve CHL predictions and clarify how well the nutrient-water color paradigm applies to lakes distributed across diverse landscape settings. However, few studies have explicitly examined spatial heterogeneity in the effects of TP and water color together on lake CHL. In this study, we examined spatial variation in TP and water color relationships with CHL in over 800 north temperate lakes using spatially-varying coefficient models (SVC), a robust statistical method that applies a Bayesian framework to explore space-varying and scale-dependent relationships. We found that TP and water color relationships were spatially autocorrelated and that allowing for these relationships to vary by individual lakes over space improved the model fit and predictive performance as compared to models that did not vary over space. The magnitudes of TP effects on CHL differed across lakes such that a 1 μg/L increase in TP resulted in increased CHL ranging from 2–24 μg/L across lake locations. Water color was not related to CHL for the majority of lakes, but there were some locations where water color had a

  3. Spatial and Temporal Stress Drop Variations of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, H.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake sequence consists of foreshocks, mainshock, aftershocks, and repeating earthquakes. To quantify spatial and temporal stress drop variations is important for understanding M9-class megathrust earthquakes. Variability and spatial and temporal pattern of stress drop is a basic information for rupture dynamics as well as useful to source modeling. As pointed in the ground motion prediction equations by Campbell and Bozorgnia [2008, Earthquake Spectra], mainshock-aftershock pairs often provide significant decrease of stress drop. We here focus strong motion records before and after the Tohoku earthquake, and analyze source spectral ratios considering azimuth- and distance dependency [Miyake et al., 2001, GRL]. Due to the limitation of station locations on land, spatial and temporal stress drop variations are estimated by adjusting shifts from the omega-squared source spectral model. The adjustment is based on the stochastic Green's function simulations of source spectra considering azimuth- and distance dependency. We assumed the same Green's functions for event pairs for each station, both the propagation path and site amplification effects are cancelled out. Precise studies of spatial and temporal stress drop variations have been performed [e.g., Allmann and Shearer, 2007, JGR], this study targets the relations between stress drop vs. progression of slow slip prior to the Tohoku earthquake by Kato et al. [2012, Science] and plate structures. Acknowledgement: This study is partly supported by ERI Joint Research (2013-B-05). We used the JMA unified earthquake catalogue and K-NET, KiK-net, and F-net data provided by NIED.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of particulate matter characteristics within office buildings - The OFFICAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Tamás; Dunster, Christina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Spinazzè, Andrea; Mandin, Corinne; Le Ponner, Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Ventura, Gabriela; Saraga, Dikaia E; Sakellaris, Ioannis A; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Cornelissen, Eric; Bartzis, John G; Kelly, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    In the frame of the OFFICAIR project, office buildings were investigated across Europe to assess how the office workers are exposed to different particulate matter (PM) characteristics (i.e. PM 2.5 mass concentration, particulate oxidative potential (OP) based on ascorbate and reduced glutathione depletion, trace element concentration and total particle number concentration (PNC)) within the buildings. Two offices per building were investigated during the working hours (5 consecutive days; 8h per day) in two campaigns. Differences were observed for all parameters across the office buildings. Our results indicate that the monitoring of the PM 2.5 mass concentration in different offices within a building might not reflect the spatial variation of the health relevant PM characteristics such as particulate OP or the concentration of certain trace elements (e.g., Cu, Fe), since larger differences were apparent within a building for these parameters compared to that obtained for the PM 2.5 mass concentration in many cases. The temporal variation was larger for almost all PM characteristics (except for the concentration of Mn) than the spatial differences within the office buildings. These findings indicate that repeated or long-term monitoring campaigns are necessary to have information about the temporal variation of the PM characteristics. However, spatial variation in exposure levels within an office building may cause substantial differences in total exposure in the long term. We did not find strong associations between the investigated indoor activities such as printing or windows opening and the PNC values. This might be caused by the large number of factors affecting PNC indoors and outdoors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  6. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roy

    Full Text Available The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012. I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  7. Potential Mechanisms Driving Population Variation in Spatial Memory and the Hippocampus in Food-caching Chickadees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Branch, Carrie L; Kozlovsky, Dovid Y; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Freas, Cody A; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-09-01

    Harsh environments and severe winters have been hypothesized to favor improvement of the cognitive abilities necessary for successful foraging. Geographic variation in winter climate, then, is likely associated with differences in selection pressures on cognitive ability, which could lead to evolutionary changes in cognition and its neural mechanisms, assuming that variation in these traits is heritable. Here, we focus on two species of food-caching chickadees (genus Poecile), which rely on stored food for survival over winter and require the use of spatial memory to recover their stores. These species also exhibit extensive climate-related population level variation in spatial memory and the hippocampus, including volume, the total number and size of neurons, and adults' rates of neurogenesis. Such variation could be driven by several mechanisms within the context of natural selection, including independent, population-specific selection (local adaptation), environment experience-based plasticity, developmental differences, and/or epigenetic differences. Extensive data on cognition, brain morphology, and behavior in multiple populations of these two species of chickadees along longitudinal, latitudinal, and elevational gradients in winter climate are most consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection drives the evolution of local adaptations associated with spatial memory differences among populations. Conversely, there is little support for the hypotheses that environment-induced plasticity or developmental differences are the main causes of population differences across climatic gradients. Available data on epigenetic modifications of memory ability are also inconsistent with the observed patterns of population variation, with birds living in more stressful and harsher environments having better spatial memory associated with a larger hippocampus and a larger number of hippocampal neurons. Overall, the existing data are most consistent with the

  8. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN FUJIAN PROVINCE FROM 2001 TO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an essential parameter in the physics of land surface processes. The spatiotemporal variations of LST on the Fujian province were studied using AQUA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer LST data. Considering the data gaps in remotely sensed LST products caused by cloud contamination, the Savitzky-Golay (S-G filter method was used to eliminate the influence of cloud cover and to describe the periodical signals of LST. Observed air temperature data from 27 weather stations were employed to evaluate the fitting performance of the S-G filter method. Results indicate that S-G can effectively fit the LST time series and remove the influence of cloud cover. Based on the S-G-derived result, Spatial and temporal Variations of LST in Fujian province from 2001 to 2015 are analysed through slope analysis. The results show that: 1 the spatial distribution of annual mean LST generally exhibits consistency with altitude in the study area and the average of LST was much higher in the east than in the west. 2 The annual mean temperature of LST declines slightly among 15 years in Fujian. 3 Slope analysis reflects the spatial distribution characteristics of LST changing trend in Fujian.Improvement areas of LST are mainly concentrated in the urban areas of Fujian, especially in the eastern urban areas. Apparent descent areas are mainly distributed in the area of Zhangzhou and eastern mountain area.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Land Surface Temperature in Fujian Province from 2001 TO 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Ding, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an essential parameter in the physics of land surface processes. The spatiotemporal variations of LST on the Fujian province were studied using AQUA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer LST data. Considering the data gaps in remotely sensed LST products caused by cloud contamination, the Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter method was used to eliminate the influence of cloud cover and to describe the periodical signals of LST. Observed air temperature data from 27 weather stations were employed to evaluate the fitting performance of the S-G filter method. Results indicate that S-G can effectively fit the LST time series and remove the influence of cloud cover. Based on the S-G-derived result, Spatial and temporal Variations of LST in Fujian province from 2001 to 2015 are analysed through slope analysis. The results show that: 1) the spatial distribution of annual mean LST generally exhibits consistency with altitude in the study area and the average of LST was much higher in the east than in the west. 2) The annual mean temperature of LST declines slightly among 15 years in Fujian. 3) Slope analysis reflects the spatial distribution characteristics of LST changing trend in Fujian.Improvement areas of LST are mainly concentrated in the urban areas of Fujian, especially in the eastern urban areas. Apparent descent areas are mainly distributed in the area of Zhangzhou and eastern mountain area.

  10. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aerosol Optical Properties during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Redemann, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the KORUS-AQ campaign, Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) Cimel sunphotometers were deployed at more than 20 sites over Korea including the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) and rural/background areas. We analyzed hourly mean values of fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depths (AODs), and fine mode fraction (FMF) from spectral deconvolution algorithm retrievals. The AERONET sites over Korea were classified into four groups - those in SMA, southeastern and southwestern parts of Korea, and background sites, which distribute similar results from particulate matter (PM) stations in Korea. Temporal and spatial variations of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) from the four groups were further examined using AODs from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), which can provide denser spatial resolution than AERONET sites and PM stations. AOPs from more than 30 flights over SMA were also investigated to distinguish the characteristics of diurnal variations upwind and downwind of SMA. The spatial and temporal homogeneity and/or heterogeneity of AOPs are discussed in terms of meteorological variables, other pollutants and nearby emission sources.

  12. Influences of spatial and temporal variation on fish-habitat relationships defined by regression quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Cade, B.S.; Terrell, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used regression quantiles to model potentially limiting relationships between the standing crop of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki and measures of stream channel morphology. Regression quantile models indicated that variation in fish density was inversely related to the width:depth ratio of streams but not to stream width or depth alone. The spatial and temporal stability of model predictions were examined across years and streams, respectively. Variation in fish density with width:depth ratio (10th-90th regression quantiles) modeled for streams sampled in 1993-1997 predicted the variation observed in 1998-1999, indicating similar habitat relationships across years. Both linear and nonlinear models described the limiting relationships well, the latter performing slightly better. Although estimated relationships were transferable in time, results were strongly dependent on the influence of spatial variation in fish density among streams. Density changes with width:depth ratio in a single stream were responsible for the significant (P 80th). This suggests that stream-scale factors other than width:depth ratio play a more direct role in determining population density. Much of the variation in densities of cutthroat trout among streams was attributed to the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (a possible competitor) or connectivity to migratory habitats. Regression quantiles can be useful for estimating the effects of limiting factors when ecological responses are highly variable, but our results indicate that spatiotemporal variability in the data should be explicitly considered. In this study, data from individual streams and stream-specific characteristics (e.g., the occurrence of nonnative species and habitat connectivity) strongly affected our interpretation of the relationship between width:depth ratio and fish density.

  13. Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Pinho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work by Webb et al. has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, α, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: 8.1±1.7 ppm for the full dataset, versus 9.4±2.2 ppm for the Webb et al. data alone, both at the 68.3% confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence.

  14. Reference free phasing and representation of complex variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2017-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has revolutionized our ability to interrogate genomes and entire human genomes are sequenced daily across the world. Mapping of short reads to a reference genome has enhanced our ability to detect genetic variation and is currently the most widely used technology....... Therefore, new methods for detecting variation that reduce reference bias are needed including ways of representing genomes that account for the variability within and between populations. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is one of the most diverse and complex regions of the human genome...... to detect and call variation in humans. However, it has become evident that mapping of short reads to a single reference genome is subject to ascertainment bias (reference bias). This bias is especially pronounced in complex regions of the genome and particularly hampers detection of structural variation...

  15. Spatial Distribution of the Coefficient of Variation for the Paleo-Earthquakes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, S.; Ogata, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Renewal processes, point prccesses in which intervals between consecutive events are independently and identically distributed, are frequently used to describe this repeating earthquake mechanism and forecast the next earthquakes. However, one of the difficulties in applying recurrent earthquake models is the scarcity of the historical data. Most studied fault segments have few, or only one observed earthquake that often have poorly constrained historic and/or radiocarbon ages. The maximum likelihood estimate from such a small data set can have a large bias and error, which tends to yield high probability for the next event in a very short time span when the recurrence intervals have similar lengths. On the other hand, recurrence intervals at a fault depend on the long-term slip rate caused by the tectonic motion in average. In addition, recurrence times are also fluctuated by nearby earthquakes or fault activities which encourage or discourage surrounding seismicity. These factors have spatial trends due to the heterogeneity of tectonic motion and seismicity. Thus, this paper introduces a spatial structure on the key parameters of renewal processes for recurrent earthquakes and estimates it by using spatial statistics. Spatial variation of mean and variance parameters of recurrence times are estimated in Bayesian framework and the next earthquakes are forecasted by Bayesian predictive distributions. The proposal model is applied for recurrent earthquake catalog in Japan and its result is compared with the current forecast adopted by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.

  16. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon and carbon dioxide is highlighted which indicates that carbon dioxide acts as the carrier gas for radon in this area. Two geochemical anomaly zones of soil gas were found in the area wherein all the studied gases exhibited anomalies or high values, related to the faults and earthquakes.

  17. Curvature-induced stiffness and the spatial variation of wavelength in wrinkled sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Hohlfeld, Evan; King, Hunter; Huang, Jiangshui; Qiu, Zhanlong; Russell, Thomas P; Menon, Narayanan; Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny

    2016-02-02

    Wrinkle patterns in compressed thin sheets are ubiquitous in nature and technology, from the furrows on our foreheads to crinkly plant leaves, from ripples on plastic-wrapped objects to the protein film on milk. The current understanding of an elementary descriptor of wrinkles--their wavelength--is restricted to deformations that are parallel, spatially uniform, and nearly planar. However, most naturally occurring wrinkles do not satisfy these stipulations. Here we present a scheme that quantitatively explains the wrinkle wavelength beyond such idealized situations. We propose a local law that incorporates both mechanical and geometrical effects on the spatial variation of wrinkle wavelength. Our experiments on thin polymer films provide strong evidence for its validity. Understanding how wavelength depends on the properties of the sheet and the underlying liquid or elastic subphase is crucial for applications where wrinkles are used to sculpt surface topography, to measure properties of the sheet, or to infer forces applied to a film.

  18. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  19. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird

  20. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  1. Spatial variation in near-ground radiation and low temperature. Interactions with forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, K.

    1997-10-01

    Low temperature has a large impact on the survival and distribution of plants. Interactive effects with high irradiance lead to cold-induced photo inhibition, which may impact on the establishment and growth of tree seedlings. In this thesis, novel approaches are applied for relating the spatial variability in low temperature and irradiance to photosynthetic performance and growth of tree seedlings, and for modelling the micro- and local-scale spatial variations in low temperature for heterogeneous terrain. The methodologies include the development and use of a digital image analysis system for hemispherical photographs, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical methods, field data acquisition of meteorological elements, plant structure, growth and photosynthetic performance. Temperature and amounts of intercepted direct radiant energy for seedlings on clear days (IDRE) were related to chlorophyll a fluorescence, and the dry weight of seedlings. The combination of increased IDRE with reduced minimum temperatures resulted in persistent and strong photo inhibition as the season progressed, with likely implications for the establishment of tree seedlings at forest edges, and within shelter wood. For models of spatial distribution of low air temperature, the sky view factor was used to parameterize the radiative cooling, whilst drainage, ponding and stagnation of cold air, and thermal properties of the ground were all considered. The models hint at which scales and processes govern the development of spatial variations in low temperature for the construction of corresponding mechanistic models. The methodology is well suited for detecting areas that will be frost prone after clearing of forest and for comparing the magnitudes of impacts on low air temperature of forest management practices, such as shelter wood and soil preparation. The results can be used to formulate ground rules for use in practical forestry 141 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Canceling the momentum in a phase-shifting algorithm to eliminate spatially uniform errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Kenichi; Kim, Yangjin

    2016-08-10

    In phase-shifting interferometry, phase modulation nonlinearity causes both spatially uniform and nonuniform errors in the measured phase. Conventional linear-detuning error-compensating algorithms only eliminate the spatially variable error component. The uniform error is proportional to the inertial momentum of the data-sampling weight of a phase-shifting algorithm. This paper proposes a design approach to cancel the momentum by using characteristic polynomials in the Z-transform space and shows that an arbitrary M-frame algorithm can be modified to a new (M+2)-frame algorithm that acquires new symmetry to eliminate the uniform error.

  3. Spatial Solitons and Induced Kerr Effects in Quasi-Phase-Matched Quadratic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yu.S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the evolution of the average intensity of cw beams in a quasi-phase-matched quadratic (or chi((2))) medium is strongly influenced by induced Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation. We prove the existence of rapidly oscillating solitary waves (a spatial analog of the g......We show that the evolution of the average intensity of cw beams in a quasi-phase-matched quadratic (or chi((2))) medium is strongly influenced by induced Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation. We prove the existence of rapidly oscillating solitary waves (a spatial analog...

  4. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  5. Equilibrium of phases with interfacial energy : a variational approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-2 (2011), s. 271-303 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase transitions * phase interface * interface polyconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4p16v37t032v632/

  6. Measurement of in-plane strain with dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Chen, Xu; Li, Junrui; Yang, Lianxiang; Wang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Full-field in-plane strain measurement under dynamic loading by digital shearography remains a big challenge in practice. A phase measurement for in-plane strain information within one time frame has to be achieved to solve this problem. This paper presents a dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography system with the capacity to measure phase distribution corresponding to in-plane strain information within a single time frame. Two laser beams with different wavelengths are symmetrically arranged to illuminate the object under test, and two cameras with corresponding filters, which enable simultaneous recording of two shearograms, are utilized for data acquisition. The phase information from the recorded shearograms, which corresponds to the in-plane strain, is evaluated by the spatial phase-shift method. The spatial phase-shift shearography system realizes a measurement of the in-plane strain through the introduction of the spatial phase-shift technique, using one frame after the loading and one frame before loading. This paper presents the theory of the spatial phase-shift digital shearography for in-plane strain measurement and its derivation, experimental results, and the technique’s potential. (paper)

  7. Constraining spatial variations of the fine-structure constant in symmetron models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Pinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to test models with spatial variations of the fine-structure constant α, based on the calculation of the angular power spectrum of these measurements. This methodology enables comparisons of observations and theoretical models through their predictions on the statistics of the α variation. Here we apply it to the case of symmetron models. We find no indications of deviations from the standard behavior, with current data providing an upper limit to the strength of the symmetron coupling to gravity (log⁡β2<−0.9 when this is the only free parameter, and not able to constrain the model when also the symmetry breaking scale factor aSSB is free to vary.

  8. Genetic mechanisms of Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul A; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Long, Carrie M; Martens, Craig M; Heinzen, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage. Semi-rough intermediate forms are also observed. Here, the genetic basis of LPS phase conversion was investigated to obtain a more complete understanding of C. burnetii pathogenesis. Whole genome sequencing of strains producing intermediate and/or phase II LPS identified several common mutations in predicted LPS biosynthesis genes. After passage in broth culture for 30 weeks, phase I strains from different genomic groups exhibited similar phase transition kinetics and elevation of mutations in LPS biosynthesis genes. Targeted mutagenesis and genetic complementation using a new C. burnetii nutritional selection system based on lysine auxotrophy confirmed that six of the mutated genes were necessary for production of phase I LPS. Disruption of two of these genes in a C. burnetii phase I strain resulted in production of phase II LPS, suggesting inhibition of the encoded enzymes could represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of Q fever. Additionally, targeted mutagenesis of genes encoding LPS biosynthesis enzymes can now be used to construct new phase II strains from different genomic groups for use in pathogen-host studies at a risk group 2 level.

  9. Scalable multi-segment phase mask for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-segment Phase Mask (MSPM) designs for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing are verified through simulation and experiments. Coupler insertion loss and mode dependent loss are calculated. A spatial light modulator is used to emulate the proposed MSPMs.

  10. Spatial variation in herbicide leaching from a marine clay soil via subsurface drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro M; Larsbo, Mats; Kreuger, Jenny K; Svanbäck, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsurface transport via tile drains can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface waters. The spatial variation in subsurface leaching of normally applied herbicides was examined together with phosphorus losses in 24 experimental plots with water sampled flow-proportionally. The study site was a flat, tile-drained area with 60% marine clay in the topsoil in southeast Sweden. The objectives were to quantify the leaching of frequently used herbicides from a tile drained cracking clay soil and to evaluate the variation in leaching within the experimental area and relate this to topsoil management practices (tillage method and structure liming). Results In summer 2009, 0.14, 0.22 and 1.62%, respectively, of simultaneously applied amounts of MCPA, fluroxypyr and clopyralid were leached by heavy rain five days after spraying. In summer 2011, on average 0.70% of applied bentazone was leached by short bursts of intensive rain 12 days after application. Peak flow concentrations for 50% of the treated area for MCPA and 33% for bentazone exceeded the Swedish no-effect guideline values for aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 0.08% of the glyphosate applied was leached in dissolved form in the winters of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Based on measurements of glyphosate in particulate form, total glyphosate losses were twice as high (0.16%) in the second winter. The spatial inter-plot variation was large (72–115%) for all five herbicides studied, despite small variations (25%) in water discharge. Conclusions The study shows the importance of local scale soil transport properties for herbicide leaching in cracking clay soils. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23658148

  11. Satellite-based studies of maize yield spatial variations and their causes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Maize production in China has been expanding significantly in the past two decades, but yield has become relatively stagnant in the past few years, and needs to be improved to meet increasing demand. Multiple studies found that the gap between potential and actual yield of maize is as large as 40% to 60% of yield potential. Although a few major causes of yield gap have been qualitatively identified with surveys, there has not been spatial analysis aimed at quantifying relative importance of specific biophysical and socio-economic causes, information which would be useful for targeting interventions. This study analyzes the causes of yield variation at field and village level in Quzhou county of North China Plain (NCP). We combine remote sensing and crop modeling to estimate yields in 2009-2012, and identify fields that are consistently high or low yielding. To establish the relationship between yield and potential factors, we gather data on those factors through a household survey. We select targeted survey fields such that not only both extremes of yield distribution but also all soil texture categories in the county is covered. Our survey assesses management and biophysical factors as well as social factors such as farmers' access to agronomic knowledge, which is approximated by distance to the closest demonstration plot or 'Science and technology backyard'. Our survey covers 10 townships, 53 villages and 180 fields. Three to ten farmers are surveyed depending on the amount of variation present among sub pixels of each field. According to survey results, we extract the amount of variation within as well as between villages and or soil type. The higher within village or within field variation, the higher importance of management factors. Factors such as soil type and access to knowledge are more represented by between village variation. Through regression and analysis of variance, we gain more quantitative and thorough understanding of causes to yield variation at

  12. Geographic variations in cervical cancer risk in San Luis Potosí state, Mexico: A spatial statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Hernández, Mónica; Ramis-Prieto, Rebeca; Calderón-Hernández, Jaqueline; Garrocho-Rangel, Carlos Félix; Campos-Alanís, Juan; Ávalos-Lozano, José Antonio; Aguilar-Robledo, Miguel

    2016-09-29

    Worldwide, Cervical Cancer (CC) is the fourth most common type of cancer and cause of death in women. It is a significant public health problem, especially in low and middle-income/Gross Domestic Product (GDP) countries. In the past decade, several studies of CC have been published, that identify the main modifiable and non-modifiable CC risk factors for Mexican women. However, there are no studies that attempt to explain the residual spatial variation in CC incidence In Mexico, i.e. spatial variation that cannot be ascribed to known, spatially varying risk factors. This paper uses a spatial statistical methodology that takes into account spatial variation in socio-economic factors and accessibility to health services, whilst allowing for residual, unexplained spatial variation in risk. To describe residual spatial variations in CC risk, we used generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) with both spatially structured and unstructured random effects, using a Bayesian approach to inference. The highest risk is concentrated in the southeast, where the Matlapa and Aquismón municipalities register excessive risk, with posterior probabilities greater than 0.8. The lack of coverage of Cervical Cancer-Screening Programme (CCSP) (RR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.12-1.22), Marginalisation Index (RR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03-1.08), and lack of accessibility to health services (RR 1.01, 95 % CI 1.00-1.03) were significant covariates. There are substantial differences between municipalities, with high-risk areas mainly in low-resource areas lacking accessibility to health services for CC. Our results clearly indicate the presence of spatial patterns, and the relevance of the spatial analysis for public health intervention. Ignoring the spatial variability means to continue a public policy that does not tackle deficiencies in its national CCSP and to keep disadvantaging and disempowering Mexican women in regard to their health care.

  13. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  14. A spatial assessment of ecosystem services in Europe - Phase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, Joachim; Hauck, Jennifer; Paracchini,, Maria Luisa

    forests several times per year and they expressed their willingness to pay to continue doing so. The visitor statistics that were used in this study confirmed the usefulness of the ROS approach (Recreation Opportunity Spectrum) to identify areas in terms of their accessibility and potential to provide......, mapping and valuation. Linking the maps of ecosystem service supply to monetary valuation allowed an analysis of the expected impact of policy measures on benefits derived from ecosystem services. The recreation case, which Marianne participated in, presents evidence that millions of people visited...... recreation services. In addition, PRESS-2 presents a spatial analysis of city population density and green urban areas....

  15. Quantitative measurement of phase variation amplitude of ultrasonic diffraction grating based on diffraction spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Meiyan, E-mail: yphantomohive@gmail.com; Zeng, Yingzhi; Huang, Zuohua, E-mail: zuohuah@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    A new method based on diffraction spectral analysis is proposed for the quantitative measurement of the phase variation amplitude of an ultrasonic diffraction grating. For a traveling wave, the phase variation amplitude of the grating depends on the intensity of the zeroth- and first-order diffraction waves. By contrast, for a standing wave, this amplitude depends on the intensity of the zeroth-, first-, and second-order diffraction waves. The proposed method is verified experimentally. The measured phase variation amplitude ranges from 0 to 2π, with a relative error of approximately 5%. A nearly linear relation exists between the phase variation amplitude and driving voltage. Our proposed method can also be applied to ordinary sinusoidal phase grating.

  16. Spatial variation of natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Lai, K.K.; Manato, S.; Kodaira, K.

    1998-01-01

    A carbon survey of natural terrestrial gamma-rat dose rates along the main roads of the western part of Brunei Darussalam was carried out using two portable type 1.5 φ x 4 NaI(TI) and 1 φ x 2 NaI(TI) scintillation counters. A series of semicontinuous count rates measurements were performed inside a moving vehicle. This yielded equal-distance data which were analysed statistically to obtain the spatial variation of the natural terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates. The equal-distance data of dose rates were obtained by correcting for shielding effect of the car. The thickness of the pavement and the contribution from the pavement material were estimated from a correlation curve between the dose rates measured on pavements and on the nearby soils. A spectral analysis of the equal-distance data enabled us to clarify the structure of the spatial variation in dose rates. The data could be reasonably smoothened by removing the random noise components in a higher wave number region. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Spatial variation of natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates in Brunei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Lai, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    A carborne survey of natural terrestrial y-ray dose rates along the main roads of the western part of Brunei Darussalam was carried out using two portable type 1.5'φx4' NaI(T1) and 1'φx2' NaI(T1) scintillation counters. A series of semicontinuous count rates measurements were performed inside a moving vehicle. This yielded equal-distance data which were analysed statistically to obtain the spatial variation of the natural terrestrial γ-ray dose rates. The equal-distance data of dose rates were obtained by correcting for shielding effect of the car. The thickness of the pavement and the contribution from the pavement material were estimated from a correlation curve between the dose rates measured on pavements and on the nearby soils. A spectral analysis of the equal-distance data enabled us to clarify the structure of the spatial variation in dose rates. The data could be reasonably smoothened by removing the random noise components in a higher wave number region

  18. Spatial distribution and vertical variation of arsenic in Guangdong soil profiles, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.H.; Yuan, H.X.; Hu, Y.G.; Wu, Z.F.; Zhu, L.A.; Zhu, L.; Li, F.B.; LI, D.Q.

    2006-01-01

    Total of 260 soil profiles were reported to investigate the arsenic spatial distribution and vertical variation in Guangdong province. The arsenic concentration followed an approximately lognormal distribution. The arsenic geometric mean concentration of 10.4 mg/kg is higher than that of China. An upper baseline concentration of 23.4 mg/kg was estimated for surface soils. The influence of soil properties on arsenic concentration was not important. Arsenic spatial distributions presented similar patterns that high arsenic concentration mainly located in limestone, and sandshale areas, indicating that soil arsenic distribution was dependent on bedrock properties than anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, from A- to C-horizon arsenic geometric mean concentrations had an increasing tendency of 10.4, 10.7 to 11.3 mg/kg. This vertical variation may be related to the lower soil organic matter and soil degradation and erosion. Consequently, the soil arsenic export into surface and groundwaters would reach 1040 t year -1 in the study area. - Soil arsenic movement export is a potential threat to the water quality of the study area

  19. Spatial variation in carrier dynamics along a single CdSSe nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Jolie C.; Eldridge, Peter S.; Gundlach, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Femtosecond Kerr-gate microscopy allows ultrafast fluorescence measurements along different positions of a single nanowire. • Amplified spontaneous emission observed at high fluences can be used to calculate recombination rates. • Observation of ASE at different locations along a single CdSSe nanowire provides the ability to extract defect densities. - Abstract: Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics along individual CdS x Se 1−x nanowires has been measured. The use of an improved ultrafast Kerr-gated microscope allows for spatially resolved luminescence measurements along a single nanowire. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed at high excitation fluences. Position dependent variations of ultrafast ASE dynamics were observed. SEM and colorimetric measurements showed that the difference in dynamics can be attributed to variations in non-radiative recombination rates along the wire. The dominant Shockley-Read recombination rate can be extracted from ASE dynamics and can be directly related to charge carrier mobility and defect density. Employing ASE as a probe for defect densities provides a new sub-micron spatially resolved, contactless method for measurements of charge carrier mobility

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of the callus mechanical properties during bone transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)

  1. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  2. Mapping spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature in the upper Esopus Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; McGlinn, L.

    2017-12-01

    The upper Esopus Creek and its tributary streams located in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State provide habitats for cold-adapted aquatic species. However, ongoing global warming may change the stream water temperature within a watershed and disturb the persistence of coldwater habitats. Characterizing thermal regimes within the upper Esopus Creek watershed is important to provide information of thermally suitable habitats for aquatic species. The objectives of this study are to measure stream water temperature and map thermal variability among tributaries to the Esopus Creek and within Esopus Creek. These objectives will be achieved by measuring stream water temperature for at least two years. More than 100 water temperature data loggers have been placed in the upper Esopus Creek and their tributaries to collect 30-minute interval water temperatures. With the measured water temperature, we will use spatial interpolation in ArcGIS to create weekly and monthly water temperature surface maps to evaluate the thermal variation over time and space within the upper Esopus Creek watershed. We will characterize responsiveness of water temperature in tributary streams to air temperature as well. This information of spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature will assist stream managers with prioritizing management practices that maintain or enhance connectivity of thermally suitable habitats in high priority areas.

  3. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2017-06-06

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  4. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Maha T; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals . All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  5. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha T. Khalil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in evacuee risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeneck, Laura K; Cova, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Developing effective evacuation and return-entry plans requires understanding the spatial and temporal dimensions of risk perception experienced by evacuees throughout a disaster event. Using data gathered from the 2008 Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood, this article explores how risk perception and location influence evacuee behavior during the evacuation and return-entry process. Three themes are discussed: (1) the spatial and temporal characteristics of risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process, (2) the relationship between risk perception and household compliance with return-entry orders, and (3) the role social influences have on the timing of the return by households. The results indicate that geographic location and spatial variation of risk influenced household risk perception and compliance with return-entry plans. In addition, sociodemographic characteristics influenced the timing and characteristics of the return groups. The findings of this study advance knowledge of evacuee behavior throughout a disaster and can inform strategies used by emergency managers throughout the evacuation and return-entry process. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  8. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  9. Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Forbes, Valery E.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man Moshøj, C.M, M.C.Forchhammer and V.E. Forbes Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man...... and mammals display distinct population fluctuations of varying temporal and spatial scale. In Greenland, historical records, archaeological findings and oral accounts passed on from Inuit elders all document that the presence of wildlife species and their population sizes have undergone pronounced....... The results of this study will model future predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate variables and human hunting pressure....

  10. Global spectroscopic survey of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Kahn, Brian H.; Green, Robert O.; Chien, Steve A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Tran, Daniel Q.

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of ice, liquid, and mixed phase clouds is important for Earth's planetary radiation budget, impacting cloud optical properties, evolution, and solar reflectivity. Most remote orbital thermodynamic phase measurements observe kilometer scales and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes with outsize radiative forcing impact, such as spatial partitioning in mixed phase clouds. To date, the fine spatial structure of cloud phase has not been measured at global scales. Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from 1.4 to 1.8 µm can address this gap: it directly measures ice and water absorption, a robust indicator of cloud top thermodynamic phase, with spatial resolution of tens to hundreds of meters. We report the first such global high spatial resolution survey based on data from 2005 to 2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. Seasonal and latitudinal distributions corroborate observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For extratropical cloud systems, just 25 % of variance observed at GCM grid scales of 100 km was related to irreducible measurement error, while 75 % was explained by spatial correlations possible at finer resolutions.

  11. Spatial Evolution of the Thickness Variations over a CFRP Laminated Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-10-01

    Ply thickness is one of the main drivers of the structural performance of a composite part. For stress analysis calculations (e.g., finite element analysis), composite plies are commonly considered to have a constant thickness compared to the reality (coefficients of variation up to 9% of the mean ply thickness). Unless this variability is taken into account reliable property predictions cannot be made. A modelling approach of such variations is proposed using parameters obtained from a 16-ply quasi-isotropic CFRP plate cured in an autoclave. A discrete Fourier transform algorithm is used to analyse the frequency response of the observed ply and plate thickness profiles. The model inputs, obtained by a mathematical representation of the ply thickness profiles, permit the generation of a representative stratification considering the spatial continuity of the thickness variations that are in good agreement with the real ply profiles spread over the composite part. A residual deformation FE model of the composite plate is used to illustrate the feasibility of the approach.

  12. Implications of spatial data variations for protected areas management: an example from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km(2)), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  13. Forest anisotropy assessment by means of spatial variations analysis of PolSAR backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dmitriev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to synthesize polarization response from earth covers at any desired combination of transmit and receive antenna polarizations is the significant advantage of polarimetric radar. It permits better identification of dominant scattering mechanisms especially when analyzing polarization signatures. These signatures depict more details of physical information from target backscattering in various polarization bases. However, polarization signatures cannot reveal spatial variations of the radar backscattering caused by volume heterogeneity of a target. This paper proposes a new approach for estimating volume target heterogeneity from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images. The approach is based on the analysis of a novel type of polarization signature, which we call fractal polarization signature (FPS. This signature is a result of polarization synthesis of initial fully polarimetric data and subsequent fractal analysis of synthesized images. It is displayed as a 3D plot and can be produced for each point in an image. It is shown that FPS describes backscattering variations or image roughness at different states of polarization. Fully polarimetric data of SIR-C and ALOS PALSAR at ascending/descending orbits were used for testing the proposed approach. The azimuthal dependence of the radar backscattering variations is discovered when analyzing backscattering from a pine forest. It correlates with the results of a field survey of trees branch distribution.

  14. Measurement of spatial and temporal variation in volatile hazardous air pollutants in Tacoma, Washington, using a mobile membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Nicholas G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Etzkorn, Jacob M; Martinsen, Morten; Crampton, Robert S; Onstad, Gretchen D; Larson, Timothy V; Yost, Michael G; Krogh, Erik T; Gilroy, Michael; Himes, Kathy H; Saganić, Erik T; Simpson, Christopher D; Gill, Christopher G

    2014-09-19

    The objective of this study was to use membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), implemented on a mobile platform, in order to provide real-time, fine-scale, temporally and spatially resolved measurements of several hazardous air pollutants. This work is important because there is now substantial evidence that fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations are important determinants of exposure to air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The study took place in Tacoma, WA during periods of impaired air quality in the winter and summer of 2008 and 2009. Levels of fine particles were higher in winter compared to summer, and were spatially uniform across the study area. Concentrations of vapor phase pollutants measured by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS), notably benzene and toluene, had relatively uniform spatial distributions at night, but exhibited substantial spatial variation during the day-daytime levels were up to 3-fold higher at traffic-impacted locations compared to a reference site. Although no direct side-by-side comparison was made between the MIMS system and traditional fixed site monitors, the MIMS system typically reported higher concentrations of specific VOCs, particularly benzene, ethylbenzene and naphthalene, compared to annual average concentrations obtained from SUMA canisters and gas chromatographic analysis at the fixed sites.

  15. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  16. Bayesian spatial semi-parametric modeling of HIV variation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ngesa

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics has seen rapid application in many fields, especially epidemiology and public health. Many studies, nonetheless, make limited use of the geographical location information and also usually assume that the covariates, which are related to the response variable, have linear effects. We develop a Bayesian semi-parametric regression model for HIV prevalence data. Model estimation and inference is based on fully Bayesian approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (McMC. The model is applied to HIV prevalence data among men in Kenya, derived from the Kenya AIDS indicator survey, with n = 3,662. Past studies have concluded that HIV infection has a nonlinear association with age. In this study a smooth function based on penalized regression splines is used to estimate this nonlinear effect. Other covariates were assumed to have a linear effect. Spatial references to the counties were modeled as both structured and unstructured spatial effects. We observe that circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection. The results also indicate that men in the urban areas were more likely to be infected by HIV as compared to their rural counterpart. Men with higher education had the lowest risk of HIV infection. A nonlinear relationship between HIV infection and age was established. Risk of HIV infection increases with age up to the age of 40 then declines with increase in age. Men who had STI in the last 12 months were more likely to be infected with HIV. Also men who had ever used a condom were found to have higher likelihood to be infected by HIV. A significant spatial variation of HIV infection in Kenya was also established. The study shows the practicality and flexibility of Bayesian semi-parametric regression model in analyzing epidemiological data.

  17. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  18. Sources of variation in under-5 mortality across sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Heft-Neal, Sam; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-12-01

    Detailed spatial understanding of levels and trends in under-5 mortality is needed to improve the targeting of interventions to the areas of highest need, and to understand the sources of variation in mortality. To improve this understanding, we analysed local-level information on child mortality across sub-Saharan Africa between 1980-2010. We used data from 82 Demographic and Health Surveys in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, including the location and timing of 3·24 million childbirths and 393 685 deaths, to develop high-resolution spatial maps of under-5 mortality in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. These estimates were at a resolution of 0·1 degree latitude by 0·1 degree longitude (roughly 10 km × 10 km). We then analysed this spatial information to distinguish within-country versus between-country sources of variation in mortality, to examine the extent to which declines in mortality have been accompanied by convergence in the distribution of mortality, and to study localised drivers of mortality differences, including temperature, malaria burden, and conflict. In our sample of sub-Saharan African countries from the 1980s to the 2000s, within-country differences in under-5 mortality accounted for 74-78% of overall variation in under-5 mortality across space and over time. Mortality differed significantly across only 8-15% of country borders, supporting the role of local, rather than national, factors in driving mortality patterns. We found that by the end of the study period, 23% of the eligible children in the study countries continue to live in mortality hotspots-areas where, if current trends continue, the Sustainable Developent Goals mortality targets will not be met. In multivariate analysis, within-country mortality levels at each pixel were significantly related to local temperature, malaria burden, and recent history of conflict. Our findings suggest that sub-national determinants explain a greater portion of under-5 mortality than do country

  19. Phase-and-amplitude recovery from a single phase-contrast image using partially spatially coherent x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Mario A.; Paganin, David M.; Pelliccia, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    A simple method of phase-and-amplitude extraction is derived that corrects for image blurring induced by partially spatially coherent incident illumination using only a single intensity image as input. The method is based on Fresnel diffraction theory for the case of high Fresnel number, merged with the space-frequency description formalism used to quantify partially coherent fields and assumes the object under study is composed of a single-material. A priori knowledge of the object’s complex refractive index and information obtained by characterizing the spatial coherence of the source is required. The algorithm was applied to propagation-based phase-contrast data measured with a laboratory-based micro-focus x-ray source. The blurring due to the finite spatial extent of the source is embedded within the algorithm as a simple correction term to the so-called Paganin algorithm and is also numerically stable in the presence of noise.

  20. Variation in the macrofaunal community over large temporal and spatial scales in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sui, Jixing; Yang, Mei; Sun, Yue; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-09-01

    To detect large, temporal- and spatial-scale variations in the macrofaunal community in the southern Yellow Sea, data collected along the western, middle and eastern regions of the southern Yellow Sea from 1958 to 2014 were organized and analyzed. Statistical methods such as cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied. The abundance of polychaetes increased in the western region but decreased in the eastern region from 1958 to 2014, whereas the abundance of echinoderms showed an opposite trend. For the entire macrofaunal community, Margalef's richness (d), the Shannon-Wiener index (H‧) and Pielou's evenness (J‧) were significantly lower in the eastern region when compared with the other two regions. No significant temporal differences were found for d and H‧, but there were significantly lower values of J‧ in 2014. Considerable variation in the macrofaunal community structure over the past several decades and among the geographical regions at the species, genus and family levels were observed. The species, genera and families that contributed to the temporal variation in each region were also identified. The most conspicuous pattern was the increase in the species Ophiura sarsii vadicola in the eastern region. In the western region, five polychaetes (Ninoe palmata, Notomastus latericeus, Paralacydonia paradoxa, Paraprionospio pinnata and Sternaspis scutata) increased consistently from 1958 to 2014. The dominance curves showed that both the species diversity and the dominance patterns were relatively stable in the western and middle regions. Environmental parameters such as depth, temperature and salinity could only partially explain the observed biological variation in the southern Yellow Sea. Anthropogenic activities such as demersal fishing and other unmeasured environmental variables

  1. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  2. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  3. Spatial variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Shawn M

    2007-01-01

    I present data on variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities as well as tree characteristics (height, diameter and stem frequency) between edge and interior forest habitats in southeastern Madagascar. Line transect surveys were conducted from June 2003 to November 2005 in edge and interior forest habitats in the Vohibola III Classified Forest. Although E. f. rufus densities were significantly lower in edge habitats than in interior habitats, density estimates for L. mustelinus did not differ significantly between habitats. Trees in edge habitats were significantly shorter, had smaller diameters and had lower stem frequencies (for those >25 cm in diameter) than trees in interior habitats. Spatial characteristics of food abundance and quality may explain lemur density patterns in Vohibola III. Low E. f. rufus densities may reduce seed dispersal in edge habitats, which has important consequences for the long-term viability of forest ecosystems in Madagascar. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The importance of spatial variation of benthic invertebrates for the ecological assessment of European lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solimini, Angelo G.; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    variability. However, littoral and profundal invertebrate communities are constrained by different drivers of change and may respond unevenly to distinct human disturbances. How human disturbances determined by different pressures interact in modifying the distribution of benthic invertebrate species......, funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme), we collated several case studies with the aim to increase our understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages. The set of papers includes a variety of different European lakes, habitat types and human...... pressures from the Nordic, Central, Atlantic, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. All papers have an obvious applied objective and suggest which factors need to be considered when designing invertebrate-based classification tools....

  5. Study on temporal and spatial variations of urban land use based on land change data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Liu, Yanfang; Fan, Min; Zhang, Yang

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, demands of urban land increase in succession, hence, to analyze temporal and spatial variations of urban land use becomes more and more important. In this paper, the principle of trend surface analysis and formula of urban land sprawl index ( ULSI) are expatiated at first, and then based on land change data of Jiayu county, the author fits quadratic trend surface by choosing urban land area as dependent variable and urbanization and GDP as independent variables from 1996 to 2006, draws isoline of trend surface and residual values; and then urban land sprawl indexes of towns are calculated on the basis of urban land area of 1996 and 2006 and distribution map of ULSI is plotted. After analyzing those results, we can conclude that there is consanguineous relationship between urban land area and urbanization, economic level etc.

  6. SO2 columns over China: Temporal and spatial variations using OMI and GOME-2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanhuan, Yan; Liangfu, Chen; Lin, Su; Jinhua, Tao; Chao, Yu

    2014-03-01

    Enhancements of SO2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources over China were shown in this paper by using OMI and GOME-2 observations. The temporal and spatial variations of SO2 columns over China were analyzed for the time period 2005-2010. Beijing and Chongqing showed a high concentration in the SO2 columns, attributable to the use of coal for power generation in China and the characteristic of terrain and meteorology. The reduction of SO2 columns over Beijing and surrounding provinces in 2008 was observed by OMI, which confirms the effectiveness of strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic before and during 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The SO2 columns over China from GOME-2 (0.2-0.5 DU) were lower than those from OMI (0.6-1 DU), but both showed a decrease in SO2 columns over northern China since 2008 (except an increase in OMI SO2 in 2010).

  7. Temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M.; Kosugi, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Kanemitsu, S.; Osaka, K.; Tani, M.; Nik, A. R.

    2010-09-01

    To clarify the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, we investigated these gas fluxes and environmental factors in a tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal variation of CO2 flux in a 2-ha plot was positively related to soil water condition and rainfall history. Spatially, CO2 flux was negatively related to soil water condition. When CO2 flux hotspots were included, no other environmental factors such as soil C or N concentrations showed any significant correlation. Although the larger area sampled in the present study complicates explanations of spatial variation of CO2 flux, our results support a previously reported bipolar relationship between the temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 flux and soil water condition observed at the study site in a smaller study plot. Flux of CH4 was usually negative with little variation, resulting in the soil at our study site functioning as a CH4 sink. Both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux were positively related to the soil water condition. Soil N concentration was also related to the spatial distribution of CH4 flux. Some hotspots were observed, probably due to CH4 production by termites, and these hotspots obscured the relationship between both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux and environmental factors. Temporal variation of N2O flux and soil N2O concentration was large and significantly related to the soil water condition, or in a strict sense, to rainfall history. Thus, the rainfall pattern controlled wet season N2O production in soil and its soil surface flux. Spatially, large N2O emissions were detected in wet periods at wetter and anaerobic locations, and were thus determined by soil physical properties. Our results showed that, even in Southeast Asian rainforests where distinct dry and wet seasons do not exist, variation in the soil water condition related to rainfall history controlled the

  8. Spatial-temporal variation of ecosystem water use efficiency in Beijing’s suburban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, F.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Yuan, S. B.; Lu, N.; Yan, N. Na

    2017-08-01

    Suburban ecosystem has multiple functions such as soil conservation and water regulation, which are critical for the welfare of human beings in the city. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem function that represents the amount of productivity per unit mass of evapotranspiration (ET). Improving WUE of suburban ecosystem is significant to climate regulation by carbon sequestration and water consumption, especially for cities with severe water shortage like Beijing, the capital of China. Based on remote sensing data, this paper examined the spatial and temporal variations in WUE in Beijing’s suburban region from 2002 to 2010. The results showed that the average annual WUE was 0.868 g C mm-1 m-2. It has large spatial variation with the minimum of 0.500 g C mm-1 m-2 in the Miyun District. During the study periods, the area with significant increasing trend of WUE was 63.2% of the total suburban region. In terms of ecosystem type, the value of WUE was following the sequence, deciduous coniferous forest (0.921g C mm-1 m-2) > mixed forest (0.887g C mm-1 m-2) > deciduous broadleaf forest (0.884 g C mm-1 m-2) > shrubland (0.860 g C mm-1 m-2) > evergreen coniferous forest (0.836 g C mm-1 m-2) > grassland (0.830 g C mm-1 m-2). As ET was similar among the ecosystems, the difference in WUE was mainly due to the discrepancy of NPP. We found that NPP significantly correlated with the diversity of ecosystem type (represented by Shannon-Wiener index). Our results suggest that ecological engineering construction, scientific ecosystem type selection, ecosystem diversity improvement and drought-resistant species cultivation are conductive to improve ecosystem WUE in Beijing’s suburban region.

  9. Large-scale spatial variation in mercury concentrations in cattle in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alonso, M.; Benedito, J.L.; Miranda, M.; Fernandez, J.A.; Castillo, C.; Hernandez, J.; Shore, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study quantifies the spatial scale over which major point and diffuse sources of anthropogenic mercury emission affect mercury accumulation by cattle in northwest Spain. - Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant and man-made emissions account for between a quarter and a third of total atmospheric levels. Point discharges, particularly coal-burning power stations, are major sources of atmospheric Hg and can result in marked spatial variation in mercury deposition and subsequent uptake by biota. The aims of this study were to quantify the extent to which major point and diffuse sources of atmospheric Hg emissions affected accumulation of Hg by biota throughout Galicia and Asturias, two of the major regions in northwest Spain. We did this by relating renal Hg concentrations in locally reared cattle (n=284) to the proximity of animals to point and diffuse sources of Hg emissions. Mercury residues in calf kidneys ranged between non-detected and 89.4 μg/kg wet weight. Point discharges from coal-fired power plants in Galicia had the most dominant impact on Hg accumulation by calves in Galicia, affecting animals throughout the region and explaining some two-thirds of the variation in renal residues between animals located directly downwind from the plants. The effects of more diffuse emission sources on Hg accumulation in calves were not distinguishable in Galicia but were detected in cattle from neighbouring Asturias. The impact of both point and diffuse sources in elevating environmental levels of bioavailable Hg and subsequent accumulation by cattle extended to approximately 140-200 km downwind from source

  10. Regionalization based on spatial and seasonal variation in ground-level ozone concentrations across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linjun; Wang, Shuai; Gong, Zhengyu; Li, Hong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Yeyao

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the vast territory of China and strong regional characteristic of ozone pollution, it's desirable for policy makers to have a targeted and prioritized regulation and ozone pollution control strategy in China based on scientific evidences. It's important to assess its current pollution status as well as spatial and temporal variation patterns across China. Recent advances of national monitoring networks provide an opportunity to insight the actions of ozone pollution. Here, we present rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis that was used on studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of daily ozone concentrations. Based on results of REOF analysis in pollution seasons for 3years' observations, twelve regions with clear patterns were identified in China. The patterns of temporal variation of ozone in each region were separated well and different from each other, reflecting local meteorological, photochemical or pollution features. A rising trend in annual averaged Eight-hour Average Ozone Concentrations (O 3 -8hr) from 2014 to 2016 was observed for all regions, except for the Tibetan Plateau. The mean values of annual and 90 percentile concentrations for all 338 cities were 82.6±14.6 and 133.9±25.8μg/m 3 , respectively, in 2015. The regionalization results of ozone were found to be influenced greatly by terrain features, indicating significant terrain and landform effects on ozone spatial correlations. Among 12 regions, North China Plain, Huanghuai Plain, Central Yangtze River Plain, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin were realized as priority regions for mitigation strategies, due to their higher ozone concentrations and dense population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimating spatial and temporal components of variation in count data using negative binomial mixed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Wagner, Tyler; Bence, James R.; Kepler, Megan V.; Liu, Weihai; Hayes, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning total variability into its component temporal and spatial sources is a powerful way to better understand time series and elucidate trends. The data available for such analyses of fish and other populations are usually nonnegative integer counts of the number of organisms, often dominated by many low values with few observations of relatively high abundance. These characteristics are not well approximated by the Gaussian distribution. We present a detailed description of a negative binomial mixed-model framework that can be used to model count data and quantify temporal and spatial variability. We applied these models to data from four fishery-independent surveys of Walleyes Sander vitreus across the Great Lakes basin. Specifically, we fitted models to gill-net catches from Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior; Oneida Lake, New York; Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan; and Ohio waters of Lake Erie. These long-term monitoring surveys varied in overall sampling intensity, the total catch of Walleyes, and the proportion of zero catches. Parameter estimation included the negative binomial scaling parameter, and we quantified the random effects as the variations among gill-net sampling sites, the variations among sampled years, and site × year interactions. This framework (i.e., the application of a mixed model appropriate for count data in a variance-partitioning context) represents a flexible approach that has implications for monitoring programs (e.g., trend detection) and for examining the potential of individual variance components to serve as response metrics to large-scale anthropogenic perturbations or ecological changes.

  12. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  13. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  14. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly C Wu

    Full Text Available Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.. Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups-the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%. L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40% on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts.

  15. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shelly C.; Bergey, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina) across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.). Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups–the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas) than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%). L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40%) on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts. PMID:28192469

  16. Model development for spatial variation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Q, Tian; Peng Gong; Qian Yu; Radke, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research result of spatially quantifying and allocating the potential activity of residential wood burning (RWB) by using demographic, hypsographic, climatic and topographic information as independent variables. We also introduce the method for calculating PM 2.5 emission from residential wood combustion with the potential activity as primary variable. A linear regression model was generated to describe spatial and temporal distribution of the potential activity of wood burning as primary heating source. In order to improve the estimation, the classifications of urban, suburban and rural were redefined to meet the specifications of this application. Also, a unique way of defining forest accessibility is found useful in estimating the activity potential of RWB. The results suggest that the potential activity of wood burning is mostly determined by elevation of a location, forest accessibility, urban/non-urban position, climatic conditions and several demographic variables. The analysis results were validated using survey data collected through face-to-face and telephone interviews over the study area in central California. The linear regression model can explain approximately 86% of the variation of surveyed wood burning activity potential. The total PM 2.5 emitted from woodstoves and fireplaces is analyzed for the study region at county level. (Author)

  17. Empirical Mode Decomposition on the sphere: application to the spatial scales of surface temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fauchereau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD is applied here in two dimensions over the sphere to demonstrate its potential as a data-adaptive method of separating the different scales of spatial variability in a geophysical (climatological/meteorological field. After a brief description of the basics of the EMD in 1 then 2 dimensions, the principles of its application on the sphere are explained, in particular via the use of a zonal equal area partitioning. EMD is first applied to an artificial dataset, demonstrating its capability in extracting the different (known scales embedded in the field. The decomposition is then applied to a global mean surface temperature dataset, and we show qualitatively that it extracts successively larger scales of temperature variations related, for example, to topographic and large-scale, solar radiation forcing. We propose that EMD can be used as a global data-adaptive filter, which will be useful in analysing geophysical phenomena that arise as the result of forcings at multiple spatial scales.

  18. Identification of a potential toxic hot spot associated with AVS spatial and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, O; Rodríguez, A; Blasco, J

    2009-04-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the difference between acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) as indicators of metal availability. Ten representative sampling sites were selected along the estuary of the Guadalete River. Surficial sediments were sampled in winter and summer to better understand SEM and AVS spatial and seasonal distributions and to establish priority risk areas. Total SEM concentration (SigmaSEM) ranged from 0.3 to 4.7 micromol g(-1). It was not significantly different between seasons, however, it showed a significant difference between sampling stations. AVS concentrations were much more variable, showing significant spatial and temporal variations. The values ranged from 0.8 to 22.4 micromol g(-1). The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be <1 at all except one station located near the mouth of the estuary. The results provided information on a potential pollution source near the mouth of the estuary, probably associated with vessel-related activities carried out in a local harbor area located near the station.

  19. Investigation of the spatial generalization of Kato's theorem by a variational density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csavinszky, P.

    1990-01-01

    In a recent work, March has considered the quantum-mechanical system of an arbitrary number of closed electronic shells around an atomic nucleus of charge Z a e. March has assumed that the shells are filled by noninteracting electrons, moving in the bare Coulomb potential energy of V(r) = -Z a e 2 /r. In this framework, the basic quantity is the total electron (number) density ρ(r), built by summing the (number) density ρ n (r) of the nth closed electronic shell over the principal quantum number n. March has shown that Kato's theorem, (∂ρ(r)/∂r) r=0 = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ (r = 0), with a 0 = ℎ 2 /me 2 , is amenable to a spatially dependent generalization that can be expressed by ∂ρ(r)/∂r = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ s (r), where ρ s (r) is the s-state contribution from the n closed electronic shells to ρ(r). The present work investigates the spatially dependent generalization of Kato's theorem for the Ne atom by making use of a variational density-functional approach and adopting several expressions for the kinetic-energy functional of the electrons. The intriguing question of identifying the best kinetic-energy functional is raised and discussed

  20. Spatially resolved modelling of inhomogeneous materials with a first order magnetic phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian; Smith, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of regions each having a uniform and defined through a Voronoi-map. We show that demagnetising effects, caused by a finite sample size, and spatial variation in can account for the previously experimentally observed 'virgin' effects in the adiabatic temperature change and isothermal entropy change...

  1. Atmospheric mechanisms governing the spatial and temporal variability of phenological phases in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Menzel, Annette; Koch, Elisabeth; Peter, Christian; Ahas, Rein

    2002-11-01

    A data set of 17 phenological phases from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia spanning the time period from 1951 to 1998 has been made available for analysis together with a gridded temperature data set (1° × 1° grid) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index time series. The disturbances of the westerlies constitute the main atmospheric source for the temporal variability of phenological events in Europe. The trend, the standard deviation and the discontinuity of the phenological time series at the end of the 1980s can, to a great extent, be explained by the NAO. A number of factors modulate the influence of the NAO in time and space. The seasonal northward shift of the westerlies overlaps with the sequence of phenological spring phases, thereby gradually reducing its influence on the temporal variability of phenological events with progression of spring (temporal loss of influence). This temporal process is reflected by a pronounced decrease in trend and standard deviation values and common variability with the NAO with increasing year-day. The reduced influence of the NAO with increasing distance from the Atlantic coast is not only apparent in studies based on the data set of the International Phenological Gardens, but also in the data set of this study with a smaller spatial extent (large-scale loss of influence). The common variance between phenological and NAO time series displays a discontinuous drop from the European Atlantic coast towards the Alps. On a local and regional scale, mountainous terrain reduces the influence of the large-scale atmospheric flow from the Atlantic via a proposed decoupling mechanism. Valleys in mountainous terrain have the inclination to harbour temperature inversions over extended periods of time during the cold season, which isolate the valley climate from the large-scale atmospheric flow at higher altitudes. Most phenological stations reside at valley bottoms and are thus largely decoupled in their temporal

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Atmospheric Aerosol in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonoyo Mukai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the aerosol distribution in Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in Asian urban cities are important. In this work, we focus on the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric particles around Higashi-Osaka in Japan. Higashi-Osaka is located in the eastern part of Osaka, the second-largest city in Japan, and is famous for small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. For this study, we placed various ground measurement devices around the Higashi-Osaka campus of Kinki University including a Cimel sunphotometer supported by NASA/AERONET (Aerosol robotics network, suspended particulate matter (SPM sampler and LIDAR (light detection and ranging. Individual particle analyses with a SEM (scanning electron microscope/EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer show the temporal variations of particle properties, such as size, shape and components, during a dust event on 21 March 2010. The simultaneous measurement using a portable sun photometer with AERONET was conducted from April to November 2011. A comparison of the data at each site and the combination of the observed LIDAR data and model simulations indicate the difference in the transportation processes between dust and anthropogenic particles. We suppose this difference is attributed to the differences in the vertical aerosol profiles, where one aerosol is transported over Mount Ikoma and the other is blocked by it.

  3. Spatial and temporal snowpack variation in the crown of the continent ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Reardon, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Snowpack related ecosystem changes such as glacier recession and alpine treeline advance have been documented in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) over the course of the previous 150 years. Using data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service's SNOTEL sites and snow course surveys, we examined the spatial and temporal variation in snowpack in the region. SNOTEL data suggest CCE snowpacks are larger and more persistent than in most regions of the Western U.S., and that water year precipitation, rather than mean temperature, is the primary control on April 1 snow water equivalent (SWE). Snow course data indicate a statistically significant downward trend in mean April 1 SWE for the period 1950-2001 but no statistically significant trend in mean May 1 SWE for the longer period 1922-2001. Further analysis reveals that variations in both April 1 and May 1 mean SWE are closely tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, an ENSO-like interdecadal pattern of Pacific Ocean climate variability. Despite no significant trend in mean May 1 SWE between 1922-2001, glaciers in Glacier National Park receded steadily during this period, implying changing climatic conditions crossed a threshold for glacier mass balance maintenace sometime between the Little Ice Age glacial maxima and 1922.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in isotopic composition of atmospheric lead in Norwegian moss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Ly, C.; Steinnes, E.

    1998-01-01

    Earlier studies using moss as a biomonitor of pollution have shown that long-range transport is a major source of pollution in Norway. Until now, the origin of these pollutants has been inferred from concentration measurements of various elements in moss and the climatology at each sampling site. Lead isotopes provide an opportunity to identify the sources and to quantify the contribution of each. This preliminary study reports measurements of lead isotopes in moss from selected sites along the full extent of Norway that reveal significant spatial and temporal variations. There are significant north-south trends that differ at coastal and inland sites and differ between sampling periods (1974--1994). These variations reflect the changing contributions from the different source regions as the regulation of pollution from automobiles and industry takes effect. Identifiable sources are the U.K. and possibly France, which is noticeable at coastal sites; western Europe at the southern end; and eastern Europe and Russia influencing the inland and northernmost sites

  5. Temporal and spatial variation in the fouling of silicone coatings in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E R; Nedved, B T; Phillips, N; Deangelis, K L; Hadfield, M G; Smith, C M

    2000-01-01

    An antifouling or foul-release coating cannot be globally effective if it does not perform well in a range of environmental conditions, against a diversity of fouling organisms. From 1996 to 1998, the field test sites participating in the United States Navy's Office of Naval Research 6.2 Biofouling program examined global variation in the performance of 3 silicone foul-release coatings, viz. GE RTV11, Dow Corning RTV 3140, and Intersleek (International Coatings Ltd), together with a control anticorrosive coating (Ameron Protective Coatings F-150 series). At the University of Hawaii's test site in Pearl Harbor, significant differences were observed among the coatings in the rate of accumulation of fouling. The control coating failed rapidly; after 180-220 d immersion a community dominated by molluscs and sponges developed that persisted for the remainder of the experiment. Fouling of the GE and Dow Corning silicone coatings was slower, but eventually reached a similar community structure and coverage as the control coatings. The Intersleek coating remained lightly fouled throughout the experiment. Spatial variation in the structure of the community fouling the coatings was observed, but not in the extent of fouling. The rate of accumulation of fouling reflected differences among the coatings in adhesion of the tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The surface properties of these coatings may have affected the rate of fouling and the structure of the fouling community through their influence on larval settlement and subsequent interactions with other residents, predators, and the physical environment.

  6. Spatial variation in pollinator communities and reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Sajjad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an effort to understand the effects of spatial variations in pollinator assemblage due to habitat isolation on the reproductive performance of perennial plant species. Variations in pollinator assemblage structure (abundance, diversity and Shannon-Wiener index were studied at three widely isolated (100 to 200 km apart nature reserves of Southern Punjab, Pakistan, in order to explore its effects on reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora. Species richness and abundance were highest in Pirowal Sanctuary followed by Chichawatni Sanctuary and Chak Katora forest reserve. The pollination system of P. juliflora was highly generalized with 77 insect visitor species in four orders among all the three sites. However, pollinator assemblage varied significantly in composition among the sites. Out of the four reproductive parameters considered, the number of pods per raceme and germination varied significantly among the three locations. The reproductive performance of P. juliflora in terms of number of pods per raceme and germination improved with abundance of pollinators.

  7. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0.58). The high levels of noise observed in NYC often exceed recommended guidelines for outdoor and personal exposures, suggesting unhealthy levels in many locations

  8. Phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh O.; Saini, L. K.; Prasad Bahuguna, Bhagwati

    2018-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater–Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at . As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s   =  20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s   Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.

  9. analysis of spatial-temporal variations and driving force of low cloud in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu

    2015-04-01

    Cloud plays a crucial role in the climate system, and better understanding of its characteristics and formation mechanism are essential to study the climate system, improve the performance of climate models, and to provide scientific basis on conducting weather modification activities and better using water resources for the purpose of improving the local climate and ecological environment. During 1961 to 2005, decrease trend is detected for the total cloud amount over most parts of northern China, while increase trend is found for the low cloud amount with significant regionality. Both station and ISCCP D2 datasets present similar spatial distributions and interdecadal variation of high cloud. However two datasets show different characters for those of low cloud. Three typical sub-regions are chosen considering their underlying surface features and the temporal trend of low cloud amount, over which the interdecadal variations of low cloud amount in three regions are systematically investigated. The analyses show the strong regionality and seasonality in low cloud amount's temporal variations and trend, and quasi-biannual oscillations are observed in low cloud amount in three regions in the past 45 years. The relationships between 500 hPa circulation indexes and low cloud over the three regions are examined by means of singular value decomposition (SVD). The results show that the summer low cloud amount in Xinjiang is closely related with the Subtropical High, the Tibetan Plateau and Polar Vortex, and the autumn low cloud amount in North China is affected by the area of Subtropical High and intensity of Polar Vortex. For northeast China the controlling factor that affects the spring low cloud amount is the area of Polar Vortex in quadrant ⅳ(30°W-60°E).

  10. [Spatial-temporal variations of spring maize potential yields in a changing climate in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Juan; Yang, Xiao Guang; Lyu, Shuo; Wang, Jing; Lin, Xiao Mao

    2018-01-01

    Based on meteorological data, agro-meteorological observations, and agricultural statistical data in Northeast China (NEC), by using the validated Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM-maize), the potential, attainable, potential farmers' and actual farmers' yields of spring maize during the period 1961 to 2015 were analyzed, and the effects of climate variation on maize potential yield in NEC were quantified. Results indicated that the potential yield of spring maize was 12.2 t·hm -2 during the period 1961 to 2015, with those in northeast being lower than southwest within the study region. The attainable yield of spring maize was 11.3 t·hm -2 , and showed a similar spatial distribution with potential yield. Under the current farmers' management practices, mean simulated potential and actual farmers' yields were 6.5 and 4.5 t·hm -2 , respectively. Assuming there were no changes in cultivars and management practices in NEC, the mean potential, attainable, and potential farmers' yields of spring maize would decrease by 0.34, 0.25 and 0.10 t·hm -2 per decade in NEC. However, the actual farmers' yields increased with the value of 1.27 t·hm -2 per decade averaged over NEC. Due to climate variation, year-to-year variations of spring maize potential, attainable, and potential farmers' yields were significant, ranging from 10.0 to 14.4, 9.8 to 13.3, 4.4 to 8.5 t·hm -2 , respectively.

  11. Theory of coherent quantum phase slips in Josephson junction chains with periodic spatial modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of the ichthyoplankton in the Laguna El Quelele, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Rodríguez, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine systems are the most important natural aquatic resources because, from the perspective of the fish community, they include a large number of individuals and biomass, where larvae and juveniles are especially abundant. Thanks to the implementation of Ichthyoplanktonic studies, the areas of concentration of adults in reproductive stage and potentially exploitable species are detected and evaluated, generating the basis for establishing measures for rational use and conservation. This paper analyzes the composition of fish larvae in the lagoon El Quelele in Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit. 20 daytime superficial zooplanktonic trawls were conducted by using a standard “Zeppelin” net seasonally from spring to winter 2002. From the 20 samples obtained, larvae density was 573.51 org/1000 m3. Its ichthyoplanktonic group was represented by 11 families with 12 genres and 10 species, where Engraulis mordax (40.21 %, Eucinostomus sp. (22.68 %, Trachurus sp. (15.46 % and Dormitator latifrons (13.14 % presented greater percentage of relative abundance, while in the rest of the organisms, relative abundance was represented between 7.47 to 0.25 %. Regarding temporal variation, the highest relative abundance was presented in fall with 44.74 and the lowest during the winter with 4.85 %, with moderate average temperature records of 29.1 and 30.8 °C respectively, and low salinity (24.2 psu. While spatial variation was better represented in site 3 with relative abundance 29.41 % and site 4 with the lower value during the study period (9.2 % at temperatures ranging from 22 °C to 35 °C and salinity of 24 psu to 34 psu. On the other hand, in spring and fall they showed greater diversity, greater richness and therefore these are the seasons with greatest equity in summer and winter. Cluster analysis applied to the species-variable sampling sites showed greater similarity or affinity between sites 3 and 5 (72.2 %, similarly, variables season – species along

  13. Identification of two-phase flow pattern by using specific spatial frequency of differential pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong

    1992-11-01

    It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given

  14. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  15. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang

    2014-01-01

    The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balanc...

  16. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  18. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  19. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  20. Spatial variation in the flux of atmospheric deposition and its ecological effects in arid Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Linlin; Wang, Xunming; Li, Danfeng

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition is one of the key land surface processes, and plays important roles in regional ecosystems and global climate change. Previous studies have focused on the magnitude of and the temporal and spatial variations in the flux of atmospheric deposition, and the composition of atmospheric deposition on a local scale. However, there have been no comprehensive studies of atmospheric deposition on a regional scale and its ecological effects in arid Asia. The temporal and spatial patterns, composition of atmospheric deposition, and its potential effects on regional ecosystems in arid Asia are investigated in this study. The results show that the annual deposition flux is high on the Turan Plain, Aral Sea Desert, and Tarim Basin. The seasonal deposition flux also varies remarkably among different regions. The Tarim Basin shows higher deposition flux in both spring and summer, southern Mongolian Plateau has a higher deposition flux in spring, and the deposition flux of Iran Plateau is higher in summer. Multiple sources of elements in deposited particles are identified. Calcium, iron, aluminum, and magnesium are mainly derived from remote regions, while zinc, copper and lead have predominantly anthropogenic sources. Atmospheric deposition can provide abundant nutrients to vegetation and consequently play a role in the succession of regional ecosystems by affecting the structure, function, diversity, and primary production of the vegetation, especially the exotic or short-lived opportunistic species in arid Asia. Nevertheless, there is not much evidence of the ecological effects of atmospheric deposition on the regional and local scale. The present results may help in further understanding the mechanism of atmospheric deposition as well as providing a motivation for the protection of the ecological environment in arid Asia.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice variations in Vilkitsky strait, Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, T.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation.Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared to the traditional route via the Suez Canal. Vilkitsky strait is the narrowest and northest portion of the Northern Sea Route with heaviest traffic between the Taimyr Peninsular and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The preliminary results of sea ice variations are presented by using moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer(MODIS) data with 250-m resolution in the Vilkitsky strait during 2009-2012. Temporally, the first rupture on sea ice in Vilkitsky strait usually comes up in April and sea ice completely break into pieces in early June. The strait would be ice-free between August and late September. The frequency of ice floes grows while temperature falls down in October. There are always one or two months suitable for transport. Spatially, Sea ice on Laptev sea side breaks earlier than that of Kara sea side while sea ice in central of strait breaks earlier than in shoreside. The phenomena are directly related with the direction of sea wind and ocean current. In summmary, study on Spatial and temporal patterns in this area is significant for the NSR. An additional research issue to be tackled is to seeking the trends of ice-free duration in the context of global warming. Envisat ASAR data will also be used in this study.

  3. Modelling spatial and temporal variations of annual suspended sediment yields from small agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; Bruen, M; O'Sullivan, J J; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Harrington, J R; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2018-04-01

    Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments. Regression based models, calibrated to field measurements, can offer an advantage over complex and computational models due to their simplicity, easy access to input data and due to the additional insights into factors controlling sediment export in the study sites. While traditionally calibrated to long-term average values of sediment yields such predictions cannot represent temporal variations. This study addresses this issue in a novel way by taking account of the variation from year to year in hydrological variables in the developed models (using annual mean runoff, annual mean flow, flows exceeded in five percentage of the time (Q5) and seasonal rainfall estimated separately for each year of observations). Other parameters included in the models represent spatial differences influenced by factors such as soil properties (% poorly drained soils and % peaty soils), land-use (% pasture or % arable lands), channel slope (S1085) and drainage network properties (drainage density). Catchment descriptors together with year-specific hydrological variables can explain both spatial differences and inter-annual variability of suspended sediment yields. The methodology is demonstrated by deriving equations from Irish data-sets (compiled in this study) with the best model

  4. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  5. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1 identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2 analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3 conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

  6. Consequences of variations in spatial turbulence characteristics for fatigue life time of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.

    1998-09-01

    The fatigue loading of turbines situated in complex terrain is investigated in order to determine the crucial parameters in the spatial structure of the turbulence in such situations. The parameter study is performed by means of numerical calculations, and it embraces three different wind turbine types, representing a pitch controlled concept, a stall controlled concept, and a stall controlled concept with an extremely flexible tower. For each of the turbine concepts, the fatigue load sensibility to the selected turbulence characteristics are investigated for three different mean wind speeds at hub height. The selected mean wind speeds represent the linear-, the stall-, and the post stall aerodynamic region for the stall controlled turbines and analogously the unregulated-, the partly regulated-, and the fully regulated regime for the pitch controlled turbine. Denoting the turbulence component in the mean wind direction by u, the lateral turbulence component by v, and the vertical turbulence component by w, the selected turbulence characteristics comprise the u-turbulence length scale, the ratio between the v- and w-turbulence intensities and the u-turbulence intensity, the uu-coherence decay factor, and finally the u-v and u-w cross-correlations. The turbulence length scale in the mean wind direction gives rise to significant modification of the fatigue loading on all the investigated wind turbine concepts, but for the other selected parameter variations, large individual differences exists between the turbines. With respect to sensitivity to the performed parameter variations, the Vestas V39 wind turbine is the most robust of the investigated turbines. The Nordtank 500/37 turbine, equipped with the (artificial) soft tower, is by far the most sensitive of the investigated turbine concepts - also much more sensitive than the conventional Nordtank 500/37 turbine equipped with a traditional tower. (au) 2 tabs., 43 ills., 7 refs.

  7. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author).

  8. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na + , Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - , and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author)

  9. Spatial variation of dissolved organic matter composition and characteristics in an urbanized watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a chemically complex mixture of organic polymers that plays an important role in river ecosystems and originates from various sources. Some DOMs are autochthonous originating through phytoplankton and microbial activity in situ. On the other hand, some DOMs are allochthonous which are transported to river from the surrounding watershed by natural or anthropogenic activities. The studies of DOM in river are usually conducted at the watershed scale; however, factors of local spatial scale affecting DOM composition also need to take into consideration for the study of DOM in an urbanized watershed. Through increasing urbanization, changes in a watershed occur not only in land use patterns but also in river channel characteristics. The objective of this study is to investigate effects of different river channel characteristics and patterns on changes in DOM source and composition. In this study, we chose three tributaries of Tamsui river in Taiwan according to its land use pattern and river channel characteristics. At each sub-basin, river water samples were sampled from three study sites. River water DOM was measured by using optical measurements of UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Water samples were also collected for laboratory analysis of different water quality parameters. From our study sites, they are from three sub-basins which are in the similar physical environments but with different river channel types: the highly channelized Keelung river, the less channelized Xindian river, and less channelized Dahan river with five human-made wetlands. From the upstream to the urbanized downstream, composition of DOM showed variation among different sampled sites. In all three sub-basins, the trends of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and suspended solids (SS) are also different. The changes in DOM source and composition as well as different water quality parmaters occur at the local spatial-scale depended on their

  10. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  11. Spatial variation of electrode position in bioelectrochemical treatment system: Design consideration for azo dye remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Shanthi Sravan, J; Butti, Sai Kishore; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, three bio-electrochemical treatment systems (BET) were designed with variations in cathode electrode placement [air exposed (BET1), partially submerged (BET2) and fully submerged (BET3)] to evaluate azo-dye based wastewater treatment at three dye loading concentrations (50, 250 and 500 mg L -1 ). Highest dye decolorization (94.5 ± 0.4%) and COD removal (62.2 ± 0.8%) efficiencies were observed in BET3 (fully submerged electrodes) followed by BET1 and BET2, while bioelectrogenic activity was highest in BET1 followed by BET2 and BET3. It was observed that competition among electron acceptors (electrode, dye molecules and intermediates) critically regulated the fate of bio-electrogenesis to be higher in BET1 and dye removal higher in BET3. Maximum half-cell potentials in BET3 depict higher electron acceptance by electrodes utilized for dye degradation. Study infers that spatial positioning of electrodes in BET3 is more suitable towards dye remediation, which can be considered for scaling-up/designing a treatment plant for large-scale industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  14. Spatial and temporal variations and mobile source emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Quito, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachtl, Megan V.; Durant, John L.; Perez, Carlos Paez; Oviedo, Jorge; Sempertegui, Fernando; Naumova, Elena N.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in Quito, Ecuador; however, little work has been done to characterize spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related pollutants, or to measure pollutants in vehicle emissions. We measured PAH continuously for one year at two residential sites in Quito, and PAH and traffic patterns for one week near a busy roadway. Morning rush-hour traffic and temperature inversions caused daily PAH maxima between 06:00 and 08:00. SO 2 , NO x , CO, and PM 2.5 behaved similarly. At the residential sites PAH levels during inversions were 2-3-fold higher than during the afternoon, and 10-16-fold higher than 02:00-03:00 when levels were lowest. In contrast, at the near-roadway site, PAH concentrations were 3-6-fold higher than at the residential sites, and the effects of inversions were less pronounced. Cars and buses accounted for >95% of PAH at the near-roadway site. Near-roadway PAH concentrations were comparable to other polluted cities. - Atmospheric temperature inversions and proximity to roadways strongly influence potential human exposure to ambient airborne PAH in Quito, Ecuador

  15. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in pacific oysters from british columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cindy Xin; Cao, Jiguo; Bendell, Leah

    2011-09-01

    Oysters from the Pacific Northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, contain high levels of cadmium, in some cases exceeding some international food safety guidelines. A primary goal of this article is the investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations for oysters sampled from coastal British Columbia. Such information is important so that recommendations can be made as to where and when oysters can be cultured such that accumulation of cadmium within these oysters is minimized. Some modern statistical methods are applied to achieve this goal, including monotone spline smoothing, functional principal component analysis, and semi-parametric additive modeling. Oyster growth rates are estimated as the first derivatives of the monotone smoothing growth curves. Some important patterns in cadmium accumulation by oysters are observed. For example, most inland regions tend to have a higher level of cadmium concentration than most coastal regions, so more caution needs to be taken for shellfish aquaculture practices occurring in the inland regions. The semi-parametric additive modeling shows that oyster cadmium concentration decreases with oyster length, and oysters sampled at 7 m have higher average cadmium concentration than those sampled at 1 m. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblages in mangrove creek systems in Zanzibar (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Andersson, Mathias H.; Öhman, Marcus C.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Bryceson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblage composition were studied in three non-estuarine mangrove creeks of Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish were collected monthly for one year at three sites (lower, intermediate and upper reaches) in each creek using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2). Density, species number and diversity of fish were all higher at sites with dense cover of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) than over unvegetated sandy sites. In general, fish assemblages mainly comprised juveniles of a few abundant taxa, e.g. Mugil cephalus, Mugilidae spp. and Leiognathus equulus at sites with mud substratum and Gerres oyena, Lethrinus harak and Sillago sihama at sites dominated by macrophytes. Multivariate analyses revealed significant separations in fish assemblage composition within the two creeks where the bottom substratum differed among sites. Overall, season seemed to have little effect on density, species number, diversity index ( H') and assemblage structure of fish. Water condition variables were also relatively stable across the season, although a short-term fluctuation primarily induced by decreased salinity, occurred during the heavy rains in April and May. Fish assemblage structure was not significantly affected by any of the abiotic factors tested. However, significant regressions were found between the other fish variables and environmental variables, but since these associations were mostly species-specific and generally inconsistent, we suggest that the overall distribution patterns of fish were mainly an effect of particular substrate preferences of fish species rather than contemporary water conditions.

  17. The Spatial Distributions and Variations of Water Environmental Risk in Yinma River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Hui; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Tong, Zhijun; Ji, Meichen

    2018-03-15

    Water environmental risk is the probability of the occurrence of events caused by human activities or the interaction of human activities and natural processes that will damage a water environment. This study proposed a water environmental risk index (WERI) model to assess the water environmental risk in the Yinma River Basin based on hazards, exposure, vulnerability, and regional management ability indicators in a water environment. The data for each indicator were gathered from 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water environmental risk using particle swarm optimization and the analytic hierarchy process (PSO-AHP) method. The results showed that the water environmental risk in the Yinma River Basin decreased from 2000 to 2015. The risk level of the water environment was high in Changchun, while the risk levels in Yitong and Yongji were low. The research methods provide information to support future decision making by the risk managers in the Yinma River Basin, which is in a high-risk water environment. Moreover, water environment managers could reduce the risks by adjusting the indicators that affect water environmental risks.

  18. SO2 columns over China: Temporal and spatial variations using OMI and GOME-2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanhuan, Yan; Liangfu, Chen; Lin, Su; Jinhua, Tao; Chao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements of SO 2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources over China were shown in this paper by using OMI and GOME-2 observations. The temporal and spatial variations of SO 2 columns over China were analyzed for the time period 2005–2010. Beijing and Chongqing showed a high concentration in the SO 2 columns, attributable to the use of coal for power generation in China and the characteristic of terrain and meteorology. The reduction of SO 2 columns over Beijing and surrounding provinces in 2008 was observed by OMI, which confirms the effectiveness of strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic before and during 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The SO 2 columns over China from GOME-2 (0.2–0.5 DU) were lower than those from OMI (0.6–1 DU), but both showed a decrease in SO 2 columns over northern China since 2008 (except an increase in OMI SO 2 in 2010)

  19. Influence of spatial variation on countermeasures with special regards to animal food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Kiefer, P.

    2000-07-01

    In the context of SAVE, soil and animal based countermeasures have been considered as well as human based ones: In this technical deliverable we have considered the following countermeasures: - Soil-plant transfer: The effectiveness of Ca, K, fertilisers and substances with a high cation exchange capacity on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plant for different soil types within Europe have been considered. In addition, the fertility status of soils will give an indication of the potential effectiveness of fertilisation. In this report the effect of K application in a specified area and a given contamination scenario is evaluated and demonstrated. - Plant-animal transfer: A wide range of countermeasures is available to directly reduce transfer of radionuclides to animals, and thereby animal products. The preferred option will always be the most cost effective and practically acceptable one, for both producers and consumers. In this report collection of animal based countermeasures for Cs, Sr and I with special respect to their acceptability, effectiveness and spatial variation is presented. The contribution and importance of countries in import and export of feedstuff used for animals is estimated based on trading information. (orig.)

  20. Temporal, spatial and substrate-dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, L.; Dahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the Danish hard-bottom fauna is at present limited because of sampling problems. In this study, two different sampling units were used to yield quantitative results of the fauna on two stone reefs in Kattegat: natural holdfasts of Laminaria digitata and plastic pan-scourers ......Detailed knowledge of the Danish hard-bottom fauna is at present limited because of sampling problems. In this study, two different sampling units were used to yield quantitative results of the fauna on two stone reefs in Kattegat: natural holdfasts of Laminaria digitata and plastic pan...... on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and it showed a high degree of spatial and temporal variation. ANOSIM analyses showed a significant difference in species compositions between both sampling location, time and substrate type. The plastic pan-scourers proved to be a valuable substrate for quantitative...... investigations of the fauna. In contrast, the Laminaria holdfasts were too small and variable to be suitable for such studies...

  1. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cruz-Motta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs; however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution, we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  2. Optimization of phase-variation measurements in low-coherence methods: implications for OCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Phase-resolved measurements found numerous applications in low-coherence methods, in particular in OCT-based compressional elastography, where phase-variation gradients are used for estimating strains produced by the OCT probe pressed onto the tissue. Conventionally, for the reference and deformed pixelated OCT scans, one performs comparison of phases taken from pixels with the same coordinates. This is reasonable in regions of sufficiently small sub-pixel displacements, for which the so-compared pixels contain the same scatterers. Furthermore, to avoid error-prone multiple phase unwrapping for reconstructing displacements, one have to ensure even smaller sub-wavelength displacements. This limits the allowable strains to less than ~10-4-10-3, although such weak phase gradients can be strongly corrupted by measurement noises. Here, we discuss how creation of an order of magnitude greater strains can be used for increasing the signal-to noise ratio in estimating phase gradients by obviating the phase-unwrapping procedures and reducing the influence of decorrelation noise for supra-pixel displacements. This optimized phase-variation measurement makes it possible to perform strain mapping in optical coherence elastography with exceptionally high tolerance to noises due to possibility of using significantly increased strains. We also discuss the effect of "frozen-phase zones" associated with displaced strong scatterers. This effect can result in appearance of artifacts in the form of false stiff inclusions in elastograms in the vicinity of bright scatterers in OCT scans. We present analytical arguments, numerical simulations and experimental examples illustrating the above-mentioned features of the "frozen-phase" effect and advantages of using the proposed optimized phase-variation measurement with pixel-scale displacement compensation in the compared OCT scans.

  3. Electrically and spatially controllable PDLC phase gratings for diffraction and modulation of laser beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B., E-mail: georgibh@issp.bas.bg [Laboratory of Optics and Spectroscopy, Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G. [Laboratory of Biomolecular Layers, Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria (Bulgaria)

    2016-03-25

    We present a study on electrically- and spatially-controllable laser beam diffraction, electrooptic (EO) phase modulation, as well as amplitude-frequency EO modulation by single-layer microscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) phase gratings (PDLC SLPGs) of interest for device applications. PDLC SLPGs were produced from nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 in photo-curable NOA65 polymer. The wedge-formed PDLC SLPGs have a continuously variable thickness (2–25 µm). They contain LC droplets of diameters twice as the layer thickness, with a linear-gradient size distribution along the wedge. By applying alternating-current (AC) electric field, the PDLC SLPGs produce efficient: (i) diffraction splitting of transmitted laser beams; (ii) spatial redistribution of diffracted light intensity; (iii) optical phase modulation; (iv) amplitude-frequency modulation, all controllable by the driven AC field and the droplet size gradient.

  4. Spatial and Decadal Variations in Potential Evapotranspiration of China Based on Reanalysis Datasets during 1982–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is an important indicator of atmospheric evaporation demand and has been widely used to characterize hydrological change. However, sparse observations of pan evaporation (EP prohibit the accurate characterization of the spatial and temporal patterns of PET over large spatial scales. In this study, we have estimated PET of China using the Penman-Monteith (PM method driven by gridded reanalysis datasets to analyze the spatial and decadal variations of PET in China during 1982–2010. The results show that the estimated PET has decreased on average by 3.3 mm per year (p < 0.05 over China during 1982–1993, while PET began to increase since 1994 by 3.4 mm per year (p < 0.05. The spatial pattern of the linear trend in PET of China illustrates that a widely significant increasing trend in PET appears during 1982–2010 in Northwest China, Central China, Northeast China and South China while there are no obvious variations of PET in other regions. Our findings illustrate that incident solar radiation (Rs is the largest contributor to the variation of PET in China, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD, air temperature (Tair and wind speed (WS. However, WS is the primary factor controlling inter-annual variation of PET over Northwest China.

  5. Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L; Lusingu, John P

    2011-01-01

    system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across...... the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving...

  6. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  7. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  8. Analysis of the Spatial Variation of Network-Constrained Phenomena Represented by a Link Attribute Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhensheng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation of geographical phenomena is a classical problem in spatial data analysis and can provide insight into underlying processes. Traditional exploratory methods mostly depend on the planar distance assumption, but many spatial phenomena are constrained to a subset of Euclidean space. In this study, we apply a method based on a hierarchical Bayesian model to analyse the spatial variation of network-constrained phenomena represented by a link attribute in conjunction with two experiments based on a simplified hypothetical network and a complex road network in Shenzhen that includes 4212 urban facility points of interest (POIs for leisure activities. Then, the methods named local indicators of network-constrained clusters (LINCS are applied to explore local spatial patterns in the given network space. The proposed method is designed for phenomena that are represented by attribute values of network links and is capable of removing part of random variability resulting from small-sample estimation. The effects of spatial dependence and the base distribution are also considered in the proposed method, which could be applied in the fields of urban planning and safety research.

  9. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  10. A Correlational Study of Seven Projective Spatial Structures with Regard to the Phases of the MOON^

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen Linette

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between projective spatial structures and the ability to construct a scientific model. In addition, gender-related performance and the influence of prior astronomy experience on task success were evaluated. Sixty-one college science undergraduates were individually administered Piagetian tasks to assess for projective spatial structures and the ability to set up a phases of the moon model. The spatial tasks included: (a) Mountains task (coordination of perspectives); (b) Railroad task (size and intervals of objects with increasing distance); (c) Telephone Poles task (masking and ordering objects); and (d) Shadows task (spatial relationships between an object and its shadow, dependent upon the object's orientation). Cramer coefficient analyses indicated that significant relationships existed between Moon task and spatial task success. In particular, the Shadows task, requiring subjects to draw shadows of objects in different orientations, proved most difficult and was most strongly associated with with a subject's understanding of lunar phases. Chi-square tests for two independent samples were used to analyze gender performance differences on each of the Ave tasks. Males performed significantly better at a.05 significance level in regard to the Shadows task and the Moon task. Chi-square tests for two independent samples showed no significant difference in Moon task performance between subjects with astronomy or Earth science coursework, and those without such science classroom experience. Overall, only six subjects passed all seven projective spatial structure tasks. Piaget (1967) contends that concrete -operational spatial structures must be established before an individual is able to develop formal-operational patterns of thinking. The results of this study indicate that 90% of the interviewed science majors are still operating at the concrete-operational level. Several educational implications were drawn from this study

  11. Phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh O; Saini, L K; Bahuguna, Bhagwati Prasad

    2018-05-10

    We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater-Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text] and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text]. As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s   =  20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s   Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.

  12. Temporal and spatial variation in recent vehicular emission inventories in China based on dynamic emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    2013-03-01

    emissions. This paper tracks the temporal and spatial variation characteristics in recent vehicular emission inventories in China based on dynamic emission factors. The fact that CO and NMVOC emissions kept growing at reduced rates and the NOx, PM10, and GHG emissions continued rising rapidly reveals that it was insufficient to bring down the rapid growth of NOx, PM10, and CO2 emissions by merely tightening emission standards and improving fuel quality of motor vehicles. The results will assist decision makers to formulate effective control policies for China's vehicular emissions. The improved methodologies are applicable for routine update of China's vehicular emission inventories.

  13. Spatial variation in the parasite communities and genomic structure of urban rats in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angley, L P; Combs, M; Firth, C; Frye, M J; Lipkin, I; Richardson, J L; Munshi-South, J

    2018-02-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a globally distributed pest. Urban habitats can support large infestations of rats, posing a potential risk to public health from the parasites and pathogens they carry. Despite the potential influence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases on human health, it is unclear how urban habitats affect the structure and transmission dynamics of ectoparasite and microbial communities (all referred to as "parasites" hereafter) among rat colonies. In this study, we use ecological data on parasites and genomic sequencing of their rat hosts to examine associations between spatial proximity, genetic relatedness and the parasite communities associated with 133 rats at five sites in sections of New York City with persistent rat infestations. We build on previous work showing that rats in New York carry a wide variety of parasites and report that these communities differ significantly among sites, even across small geographical distances. Ectoparasite community similarity was positively associated with geographical proximity; however, there was no general association between distance and microbial communities of rats. Sites with greater overall parasite diversity also had rats with greater infection levels and parasite species richness. Parasite community similarity among sites was not linked to genetic relatedness of rats, suggesting that these communities are not associated with genetic similarity among host individuals or host dispersal among sites. Discriminant analysis identified site-specific associations of several parasite species, suggesting that the presence of some species within parasite communities may allow researchers to determine the sites of origin for newly sampled rats. The results of our study help clarify the roles that colony structure and geographical proximity play in determining the ecology of R. norvegicus as a significant urban reservoir of zoonotic diseases. Our study also highlights the spatial variation present in urban

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Indidura Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian) in Northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque-Botero, F.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2002-12-01

    Rock sequences of Cenomanian-Turonian age commonly assigned to the Indidura Formation in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, are shown to include distinct facies indicative of significant spatial variability over the carbonate platform of that region. The type section at Las Delicias is characterized by very-pale orange (10YR8/2) bedded biocalcirudites (10-30 cm thick), without internal structures, and comprises fossil assemblages rich in epifaunal groups, as well as nektonic and planktic taxa. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) varies between 48 % and 94 %, with fluctuation in total organic carbon (TOC) between 0.73 % and 1.58 %. The section at la Casita Canyon, farther southeast, consists of pale yellowish brown (10YR6/2) interbedded biocalcilutites and olive gray (5Y3/2) shales between 3 and 30 cm thick. They also show no apparent original internal structures, and allochems consist essentially of sparse fragments of planktonic foraminifera and radiolarian. TIC content varies between 0.84 % and 59.3 %, whereas TOC changes between 0.17 % and 5.85 %. In contrast, in the Parras Mountains, located south of La Delicias and northwest of la Casita, the succession occurs under a characteristic sequence showing interbeds of light olive gray (5Y6/1) and brownish black to olive black (5YR2/1 - 5Y2/1) shales and marly biocalcilutites 30 to 100 cm thick. They display distinct internal structures arranged in nearly even parallel varve-like dual lamina (TIC content varies from 43 % to 78.3 %, while TOC content remains relatively high with values between 7.35 % and 24.39 %, but more consistently higher than 20 %. Assuming that these facies are coeval, microfacies studies of these rocks as well as acid etched polished rocks, and scanning electron microscope examination (secondary and backscatter imaging) further substantiate these spatial differences. TOC-rich black shales in the Parras region further document unique paleoceanographic conditions, which was also characterized by

  15. The Spatial Variations and Hotspots of Ecosystem Service Values in India During 1985 - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, S.; Bhatt, S.; Paul, S. K.; Sen, S.; Rahmat, S.; Uniyal, B.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined as the processes and functions of the natural ecosystem through which the basic needs and demands of human well-being are sustained and fulfilled. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation and clusters of ESV are analyzed during 1985 - 2005 using benefits transfer approach. The spatial heterogeneity of ESV was assessed through Local Morans I, Getis-Ord-Gi hotspot, and Geary's I statistics, respectively. The temporal uncertainty of ESV was estimated through Ecosystem Service Change Index (ESCI), Ecosystem Service Status Index (ESSI). The sensitivity of ESV to land use/land cover changes were estimated using the Coefficient of Elasticity (CE) approach. The variability of ESV in different land-use categories was examined through Coefficient of Variation (CV), Theil Index (TI), Ginni Coefficient and Entropy method. The contribution of ESV to GDP was quantified using the percent of ESV (%ESV) approach. Total eight ecoregions were considered for estimating the changing dynamics of high and low ESV clusters during 1985 - 2005. Among the eight ecoregions, grassland shows the minimum CV of ESV (1.15) during 1985 - 2005, indicating the most stable and undisturbed eco-regions in India during this study period, followed by cropland (CV= 2.0), forest land (2.32), water bodies (3.27), mangrove (3.5) respectively. While, the urban built-up (CV = 15.89) and wetland (CV = 10.91) exhibits the highest CV during 1985 - 2005. The ESCI was found highly negative (-0.05) over forested region, and negative (-0.02) for water bodies, while a very highly positive (0.38), highly positive (0.24), moderate positive (0.06), weakly positive (0.03) and very weak positive (0.02) values have quantified for urban built-up, wetland, mangrove, cropland and, grassland, respectively. The overall ESSI was very good for urban built-up categories (0.24), followed by wetland (0.15), mangrove (0.04), cropland (0.02) and, grassland (0.01), respectively. During this period

  16. Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection on phenology, floral display and spur length in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurlat, Elodie; Ågren, Jon; Sletvold, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in plant-pollinator interactions may cause variation in pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits, but to establish this link conclusively experimental studies are needed. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection on flowering phenology and morphology in four populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, and compared selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in two of the populations. Variation in pollinator-mediated selection explained most of the among-population variation in the strength of directional and correlational selection. Pollinators mediated correlational selection on pairs of display traits, and on one display trait and spur length, a trait affecting pollination efficiency. Only nocturnal pollinators selected for longer spurs, and mediated stronger selection on the number of flowers compared with diurnal pollinators in one population. The two types of pollinators caused correlational selection on different pairs of traits and selected for different combinations of spur length and number of flowers. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in interactions with pollinators may result in differences in directional and correlational selection on floral traits in a plant with a semi-generalized pollination system, and suggest that differences in the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators can cause variation in selection. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  19. Spatial variations of earthquake occurrence and coseismic deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wenzel, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismic activity in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is an aspect in the public, political, and industrial decision making process. The spatial analysis of magnitude-frequency distributions provides valuable information about local seismicity patterns and regional seismic hazard assessment and can be used also as a proxy for coseismic deformation to explore the seismo-tectonic setting of the URG. We combine five instrumental and one historic earthquake bulletins to obtain for the first time a consistent database for events with local magnitudes ML ≥ 2.0 in the whole URG and use it for the determination of magnitude frequencies. The data processing results in a dataset with 274 Poisson distributed instrumentally recorded earthquakes within the URG between 01/1971 and 02/2012 and 34 historic events since the year 1250. Our analysis reveals significant b-value variations along the URG that allow us to differentiate four distinct sections (I-IV) with significant differences in earthquake magnitude distributions: I: Basel region in the Swiss-France-German border region (b = 0.83), II: region between Mulhouse and Freiburg in the southern URG (b = 1.42), III: central URG (b = 0.93), and IV: northern URG (b = 1.06). High b-values and thus a relatively low amount of high magnitude events in the Freiburg section are possibly a consequence of strongly segmented, small-scale structures that are not able to accumulate high stresses. We use the obtained magnitude-frequency distributions and representative source mechanisms for each section to determine coseismic displacement rates. A maximum horizontal displacement rate of 41 μm/a around Basel is found whereas only 8 μm/a are derived for the central and northern URG. A comparison with geodetic and geological constraints implies that the coseismic displacement rates cover less than 10% of the overall displacement rates, suggesting a high amount of aseismic deformation in the URG.

  20. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes

  1. Seasonal and diurnal variation in concentrations of gaseous and particulate phase endosulfan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xianyu; Song, Jing; Sui, Hongqi; Huang, Lei; Li, Lu

    2012-12-01

    Successive 52-week air monitoring of α-endosulfan (α-E), β-endosulfan (β-E) and endosulfan sulfate (E.S) in the gaseous and particulate phases was conducted in Dalian city, northeast China by using an active high-volume sampler. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations in endosulfan concentrations were observed. It was found that the concentration of gaseous-phase α-E peaked in the summer and the concentration of particulate phase α-E peaked in the winter. For E.S, both gaseous and particulate phase concentrations peaked in the summer. α-E was distributed predominantly in the gas phase in the summer but was distributed mainly in the particulate phase in the winter. β-E was distributed mainly in the gas phase in the summer and in the particulate phase at other times of the year. E.S was distributed mainly in the particulate phase throughout the year. Elevated temperatures facilitated the volatilization of α-E from particle surfaces but exerted little effect on β-E and had almost no effect on E.S. Trajectory-based analysis indicates that the seasonal variation in atmospheric concentrations of endosulfan in Dalian city was influenced strongly by the land and sea air masses. In addition, differences in endosulfan concentrations in the particulate phase between day and night were likely due to the circulation of sea/land breezes. The 'cold-condensation' effect occurring during the night may result in the attachment of endosulfan to the particulate phase.

  2. Measurement of seasonal changes and spatial variations in pavement unbound base and subgrade properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Soils often undergo cyclic wetting/drying, but there is very limited research on unsaturated : soils subjected to variations in moisture content. More specifically, field moisture variation : over time in highway unbound bases and subgrade soils is a...

  3. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  4. Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, A; Fort, H

    2009-01-01

    Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water

  5. Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Herbert

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper we review a series of experiments showing that heritable variations in the size of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields correlate with performance in spatial, but not non-spatial radial-maze tasks. Experimental manipulation of the size of this projection by means of early postnatal hyperthyroidism produces the effects predicted from the correlations obtained with inbred mouse strains. Although the physiological mechanisms behind these correlations are unknown as yet, several lines of evidence indicate that these correlations are causal.

  6. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile heigh...

  7. Combining observations of channel network contraction and spatial discharge variation to inform spatial controls on baseflow in Birch Creek, Catskill Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Shaw

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: For the 31 different sub-channels, baseflow discharge per unit drainage area and per unit stream length were highly variable, even during periods of higher moisture storage when all channels were active. Simple mapping of the active channels would not have recognized these sizable spatial differences in discharge contribution. Previous studies of hydrologic scaling in the Catskills have noted the likelihood of heterogeneity in discharge below a threshold of approximately 3–8 km2. This study provides direct documentation of such heterogeneity at smaller spatial scales. When considering perennial and ephemeral streams, such heterogeneity was not well explained by standard topographic, geologic, or meteorological factors. We suggest the heterogeneity may arise from difficult to map fine-scale variations in subsurface properties.

  8. [Spatial and temporal variation in diet composition of invertivore fishes in a tropical stream, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaz, Mario; Martín, Ricardo; López-Ordaz, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Invertivores fishes are an important component of neotropical streams and they represent a link between aquatic invertebrates and piscivorous species. This study evaluated the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap of nine invertivores fish species during three consecutive hydrological phases: falling (December/07, January/08, February/08 and March/08), low (April/08) and rising waters (June/08), in two sections of a Venezuelan neotropical stream, which were located at different elevation, high watershed (HW) and low watershed (LW). The fishes were collected with a beach seine (5mm mesh) between 8:00 and 11:00 hours. The diet of each species was evaluated using an index of relative importance (IRI), which includes as variables the number, weight and occurrence frequency of food items consumed. The Levin' index (B ) and Morisita (IM) were used to estimate the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap, respectively. All estimations were made using the numeric proportion of preys. Nine fish species were captured, eight Characiformes, of which three were captured in HW (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari and C. melasma) and five in LW (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus and Aphyocharax alburnus), and one Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata), which was also found in HW. In HW aquatic insects were the main resource consumed by fishes while plant material and terrestrial arthropods were secondary resources. In LW the fishes ingested all of these items in addition to zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera and larval stages of Decapoda). However, there was a temporal replacement with a predominance of zooplankton in falling and low water. In general, the breadth diet decreased during the falling water in both sections and increased in rising water. However, the average breadth diet was higher in HW. The interspecific food overlap was high in HW while low values were more frequent in LW and its temporal

  9. Ultrafast Dynamics in Vanadium Dioxide: Separating Spatially Segregated Mixed Phase Dynamics in the Time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, David

    2011-10-01

    In correlated electronic systems, observed electronic and structural behavior results from the complex interplay between multiple, sometimes competing degrees-of- freedom. One such material used to study insulator-to-metal transitions is vanadium dioxide, which undergoes a phase transition from a monoclinic-insulating phase to a rutile-metallic phase when the sample is heated to 340 K. The major open question with this material is the relative influence of this structural phase transition (Peirels transition) and the effects of electronic correlations (Mott transition) on the observed insulator-to-metal transition. Answers to these major questions are complicated by vanadium dioxide's sensitivity to perturbations in the chemical structure in VO2. For example, related VxOy oxides with nearly a 2:1 ratio do not demonstrate the insulator-to- metal transition, while recent work has demonstrated that W:VO2 has demonstrated a tunable transition temperature controllable with tungsten doping. All of these preexisting results suggest that the observed electronic properties are exquisitely sensitive to the sample disorder. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, it is now possible to impulsively excite this transition and investigate the photoinduced counterpart to this thermal phase transition in a strongly nonequilibrium regime. I will discuss our recent results studying the terahertz-frequency conductivity dynamics of this photoinduced phase transition in the poorly understood near threshold temperature range. We find a dramatic softening of the transition near the critical temperature, which results primarily from the mixed phase coexistence near the transition temperature. To directly study this mixed phase behavior, we directly study the nucleation and growth rates of the metallic phase in the parent insulator using non-degenerate optical pump-probe spectroscopy. These experiments measure, in the time- domain, the coexistent phase separation in VO2 (spatially

  10. Spatial difference in genetic variation for fenitrothion tolerance between local populations of Daphnia galeata in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the spatial difference in genetic variation for tolerance to a pesticide, fenitrothion, in Daphnia galeata at field sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. We estimated genetic values of isofemale lines established from dormant eggs of D. galeata collected from field sampling sites with the toxicant threshold model applied using acute toxicity. We compared genetic values and variances and broad-sense heritability across different sites in the lake. Results showed that the mean tolerance values to fenitrothion did not differ spatially. The variance in genetic value and heritability of fenitrothion tolerance significantly differed between sampling sites, revealing that long-term ecological risk of fenitrothion may differ between local populations in the lake. These results have implications for aquatic toxicology research, suggesting that differences in genetic variation of tolerance to a chemical among local populations must be considered for understanding the long-term ecological risks of the chemical over a large geographic area.

  11. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the impact of temporal and spatial variation in spring snow melt on summer soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, G. P.; Papuga, S. A.; Wright, C. L.; Nelson, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    monsoon, late-melt sites were wetter than early-melt sites. These preliminary results are an important step toward understanding the role that temporal and spatial variations in snow cover, which will undoubtedly be impacted by climate change, play in the carbon dynamics of these semiarid mountain environments.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  14. Sensitising rural policy: Assessing spatial variation in rural development options for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van D.B.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional distinctiveness is supported by the European Union in rural development policy. However, there is little information about the spatial distribution of the potential for rural development across Europe. The concept of territorial capital is used to consider spatial characteristics in

  15. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. I: Spatial variation and land use

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud, MA; El-Fadel, M; Scrimshaw, MDirector; Lester, JN

    2006-01-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and anthropogenic activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing Knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing...

  16. Spatial variations in food web structures with alternative stable states: evidence from stable isotope analysis in a large eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shuo

    2018-03-01

    Food web structures are well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Moreover, many food web studies of lakes have generally attempted to characterize the overall food web structure and have largely ignored internal spatial and environmental variations. In this study, we hypothesize that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within an ecosystem and such heterogeneity may lead to strong variations in environmental conditions and resource availability, in turn resulting in different trophic pathways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed for the whole food web to describe the structure of the food web in different sub-basins within Taihu Lake. This lake is a large eutrophic freshwater lake that has been intensively managed and highly influenced by human activities for more than 50 years. The results show significant isotopic differences between basins with different environmental characteristics. Such differences likely result from isotopic baseline differences combining with a shift in food web structure. Both are related to local spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading in waters. Such variation should be explicitly considered in future food web studies and ecosystem-based management in this lake ecosystem.

  17. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  18. Spatial variations in food web structures with alternative stable states: evidence from stable isotope analysis in a large eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Food web structures are well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Moreover, many food web studies of lakes have generally attempted to characterize the overall food web structure and have largely ignored internal spatial and environmental variations. In this study, we hypothesize that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within an ecosystem and such heterogeneity may lead to strong variations in environmental conditions and resource availability, in turn resulting in different trophic pathways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed for the whole food web to describe the structure of the food web in different sub-basins within Taihu Lake. This lake is a large eutrophic freshwater lake that has been intensively managed and highly influenced by human activities for more than 50 years. The results show significant isotopic differences between basins with different environmental characteristics. Such differences likely result from isotopic baseline differences combining with a shift in food web structure. Both are related to local spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading in waters. Such variation should be explicitly considered in future food web studies and ecosystem-based management in this lake ecosystem.

  19. Melting temperature and enthalpy variations of phase change materials (PCMs): a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Medina, Mario A.; Chu, Youhong; Li, Chuanchang

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis is a standard thermal analysis technique used to determine the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy of phase change materials (PCMs). To determine the appropriate heating rate and sample mass, various DSC measurements were carried out using two kinds of PCMs, namely N-octadecane paraffin and calcium chloride hexahydrate. The variations in phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy were observed within applicable heating rates and sample masses. It was found that the phase transition temperature range increased with increasing heating rate and sample mass; while the heat of fusion varied without any established pattern. The specific heat decreased with the increase of heating rate and sample mass. For accuracy purpose, it is recommended that for PCMs with high thermal conductivity (e.g. hydrated salt) the focus will be on heating rate rather than sample mass.

  20. Variation of the energy gap of the SbSI crystals at ferroelectric phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Zaltauskas, R.; Zigas, L.; Vinokurova, I.V.; Farberovich, O.V.; Pauliukas, A.; Kvedaravicius, A.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of the forbidden gap of SbSI crystals in the phase transition region is analyzed on the pseudopotential method for antiferroelectric and ferroelectric phase. The band gap at several special points of the Brillouin zone and some characteristic parameters of the band are considered. During the phase transition, the most significant changes are observed with the valence band top at points Q, C, R, H, E and with the conduction band bottom at points H, T and E of the Brillouin zone. At the ferroelectric phase transition, the valence and conduction bands change due to displacement of Sb and S atoms with respect to I and with respect to each other as a result of order-disorder and displacement-type transition. The obtained band gap values agree quite well with the experiment. This is apparently due to application of neutral rather than ionic atomic functions and inclusion of sufficiently many plane waves in the basis set for calculation

  1. Spatial Structure and Temporal Variation of Fish Communities in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chick, John H; Ickes, Brian S; Pegg, Mark A; Barko, Valerie A; Hrabik, Robert A; Herzog, David P

    2005-01-01

    Variation in community composition (presence/absence data) and structure (relative abundance) of Upper Mississippi River fishes was assessed using data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  2. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot....... The geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  3. Spatial variation in size at onset of maturity of female southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii around Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Gardner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>The size at onset of maturity (SOM of female Jasus edwardsii (Hutton, 1875 was estimated at 50 sites around Tasmania, Australia, based on the presence of ovigerous setae. There was a distinct spatial cline with the largest SOM being found at northwestern sites and the smallest at southwestern sites. Variation in SOM between sites was substantial and ranged from 59 mm to 112 mm carapace length. The observed decline in SOM from north to south was the reverse of that described for the same species at similar latitudes in New Zealand, which suggests that SOM in J. edwardsii is regulated by factors in addition to temperature. The effect of density on female SOM was investigated by comparing SOM estimates from two marine reserves with adjacent fished sites; however, there was no evidence of a decline in SOM with increasing density as predicted. A model of SOM predicted by latitude and longitude is described to facilitate spatial modelling of lobster stocks. The substantial and predictable spatial variation in SOM implies that management of this fishery would be improved by incorporating spatial elements, such as regional legal minimum size limits.

  4. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in proportional stock density and relative weight of smallmouth bass in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Duke, S.D.; Ward, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Population data for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui in 20,235 ha John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River were used to (1) determine whether Proportional Stock Density (PSD) and Relative Weight (Wr) varied spatially and temporally in two areas of the reservoir with established smallmouth bass fisheries; (2) explore possible causes of any observed variation; and (3) discuss some management implications and recommendations. Both PSD and Wr varied spatially and monthly in all years examined. On an annual basis, PSD varied at one area but not at the other, whereas Wr showed little variation. Possible explanations for the variation in PSD and Wr are differences in growth, mortality, recruitment, and exploitation. Our data suggested that regulations established or changed on a reservoir-wide basis may have different effects on the fishery, depending on location in the reservoir. Also, pooling data from various areas within a reservoir to yield point estimates of structural indices may not represent the variation present in the population as a whole. The significant temporal variability reflects the importance of determining the proper time to sample fish to yield representative estimates of the variable of interest. In areas with valuable fisheries or markedly different population structures, we suggest that an area-specific approach be made to reservoir fishery management, and that efforts be made toward effecting consistent harvest regulations in interstate waters.

  6. Spatial variations in composition of the Valles Marineris and Isidis Planitia regions of Mars derived from ISM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Forni, O.; Mustard, J.; Head, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    The present study summarizes preliminary results of an analysis of spaceborne near-infrared imaging spectroscopic data obtained from the martian surface. The sources of spectral variation are identified and surface units are mapped on the basis of the observed spectral properties. The findings indicate that strong spectral variations exist down to the limit of spatial resolution (22 x 22 sq km) of the ISM instrument. The most discriminant criteria are brightness, strength of the 3-micron absorption due to hydration, and near-infrared spectral slope. Bright areas are relatively featureless, but spectral subunits can be delimited within them. Dark areas are heterogeneous, with variations related to mafic mineralogy and partial coatings by fine material. Topographic and spectroscopic maps compiled from the ISM data agree in general with previous results, but provide additional detail and compositional information.

  7. Spatial variation in the relationship between performance and metabolic rate in wild juvenile Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe Robertsen; John D. Armstrong; Keith H. Nislow; Ivar Herfindal; Simon McKelvey; Sigurd Einum; Martin. Genner

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of metabolic rate (MR, the energy cost of self-maintenance) is linked to behavioural traits and fitness and varies substantially within populations. Despite having received much attention, the causes and consequences of this variation remain obscure. Theoretically, such within-population variation in fitness-related traits can be maintained by environmental...

  8. Spatial Distribution and Semiannual Variation of Cold-Dense Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shichen; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Nowada, Motoharu; Degeling, Alexander W.; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Rae, I. Jonathan; Fu, Suiyan; Zhang, Hui; Pu, Zuyin; Fazakerly, Andrew N.

    2018-01-01

    The cold-dense plasma sheet (CDPS) plays an important role in the entry process of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere. Investigating the seasonal variation of CDPS occurrences will help us better understand the long-term variation of plasma exchange between the solar wind and magnetosphere, but any seasonal variation of CDPS occurrences has not yet been reported in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the seasonal variation of the occurrence rate of CDPS using Geotail data from 1996 to 2015 and find a semiannual variation of the CDPS occurrences. Given the higher probability of solar wind entry under stronger northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, 20 years of IMF data (1996-2015) are used to investigate the seasonal variation of IMF Bz under northward IMF conditions. We find a semiannual variation of IMF Bz, which is consistent with the Russell-McPherron (R-M) effect. We therefore suggest that the semiannual variation of CDPS may be related to the R-M effect.

  9. Factors affecting spatial variation of annual apparent Q₁₀ of soil respiration in two warm temperate forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Luan

    Full Text Available A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀ values of the soil-to-atmosphere CO₂ flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q₁₀ values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q₁₀ values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF and a pine plantation (PP. Q₁₀ values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (R(S measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q₁₀ values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR (R = 0.50, P = 0.002, non-capillary porosity (NCP (R = 0.37, P = 0.03, and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T₅ (R = -0.43, P = 0.01 well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ (R = -0.35, P = 0.04. Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q₁₀ values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q₁₀ values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q₁₀ values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q₁₀ value variation.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mukelabai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and could not be explained by variables such as leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in

  11. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    . Similarly, variations in mean annual density (NA) explained R2=52.1% of variation in annual P/BA, the latter reaching an asymptote at P/BA=2.1. This explained why P/BT is equal to P/BA plus the number of year-classes at high but not at low densities. 5.Site depth was a major determinant of spatial (among sites) variation in production attributes. All these attributes described two-phase trajectories with site depth, reaching a maximum at sites of intermediate depth and declining at shallower and deeper sites. As a consequence, at sites where recruitment and mean annual density reached minimum or maximum values, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios also reached minimum and maximum values. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  13. Characterizing the spatial variations and correlations of large rainstorms for landslide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides in Hong Kong; hence, rainstorm spatial distribution is an important piece of information in landslide hazard analysis. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify spatial correlation characteristics of three landslide-triggering large storms in Hong Kong. The spatial maximum rolling rainfall is represented by a rotated ellipsoid trend surface and a random field of residuals. The maximum rolling 4, 12, 24, and 36 h rainfall amounts of these storms are assessed via surface trend fitting, and the spatial correlation of the detrended residuals is determined through studying the scales of fluctuation along eight directions. The principal directions of the surface trend are between 19 and 43°, and the major and minor axis lengths are 83–386 and 55–79 km, respectively. The scales of fluctuation of the residuals are found between 5 and 30 km. The spatial distribution parameters for the three large rainstorms are found to be similar to those for four ordinary rainfall events. The proposed rainfall spatial distribution model and parameters help define the impact area, rainfall intensity and local topographic effects for landslide hazard evaluation in the future.

  14. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. The aim of this study is to identify associations between the spatial distribution of dung beetle species and Atlantic Forest structure. The spatial distribution of some dung beetle species was associated with structural forest features. The number of species among the sampling sites ranged widely, and few species were found in all remnant areas. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that species composition, abundance and biomass showed a spatially structured distribution, and these results were corroborated by permutational multivariate analysis of variance. The indicator value index and redundancy analysis showed an association of several dung beetle species with some explanatory environmental variables related to Atlantic Forest structure. This work demonstrated the existence of a spatially structured distribution of dung beetles, with significant associations between several species and forest structure in Atlantic Forest remnants from Southern Brazil. Keywords: Beta diversity, Species composition, Species diversity, Spatial distribution, Tropical forest

  15. Emergence of Distinct Spatial Patterns in Cellular Automata with Inertia: A Phase Transition-Like Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kramer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Cellular Automata (CA model in which three ubiquitous and relevant processes in nature are present, namely, spatial competition, distinction between dynamically stronger and weaker agents and the existence of an inner resistance to changes in the actual state S n (=−1,0,+1 of each CA lattice cell n (which we call inertia. Considering ensembles of initial lattices, we study the average properties of the CA final stationary configuration structures resulting from the system time evolution. Assuming the inertia a (proper control parameter, we identify qualitative changes in the CA spatial patterns resembling usual phase transitions. Interestingly, some of the observed features may be associated with continuous transitions (critical phenomena. However, certain quantities seem to present jumps, typical of discontinuous transitions. We argue that these apparent contradictory findings can be attributed to the inertia parameter’s discrete character. Along the work, we also briefly discuss a few potential applications for the present CA formulation.

  16. Examining Spatial Variation in the Effects of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora on Burn Severity Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity has profound impacts on the response of post-fire forest ecosystems to fire events. Numerous previous studies have reported that burn severity is determined by variables such as meteorological conditions, pre-fire forest structure, and fuel characteristics. An underlying assumption of these studies was the constant effects of environmental variables on burn severity over space, and these analyses therefore did not consider the spatial dimension. This study examined spatial variation in the effects of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora on burn severity. Specifically, this study investigated the presence of spatially varying relationships between Japanese red pine and burn severity due to changes in slope and elevation. We estimated conventional ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR models and compared them using three criteria; the coefficients of determination (R2, Akaike information criterion for small samples (AICc, and Moran’s I-value. The GWR model performed considerably better than the OLS model in explaining variation in burn severity. The results provided strong evidence that the effect of Japanese red pine on burn severity was not constant but varied spatially. Elevation was a significant factor in the variation in the effects of Japanese red pine on burn severity. The influence of red pine on burn severity was considerably higher in low-elevation areas but became less important than the other variables in high-elevation areas. The results of this study can be applied to location-specific strategies for forest managers and can be adopted to improve fire simulation models to more realistically mimic the nature of fire behavior.

  17. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying

    2010-09-15

    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  19. Nonlinearly preconditioned semismooth Newton methods for variational inequality solution of two-phase flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian

    2016-12-10

    Most existing methods for solving two-phase flow problems in porous media do not take the physically feasible saturation fractions between 0 and 1 into account, which often destroys the numerical accuracy and physical interpretability of the simulation. To calculate the solution without the loss of this basic requirement, we introduce a variational inequality formulation of the saturation equilibrium with a box inequality constraint, and use a conservative finite element method for the spatial discretization and a backward differentiation formula with adaptive time stepping for the temporal integration. The resulting variational inequality system at each time step is solved by using a semismooth Newton algorithm. To accelerate the Newton convergence and improve the robustness, we employ a family of adaptive nonlinear elimination methods as a nonlinear preconditioner. Some numerical results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. A comparison is also included to show the superiority of the proposed fully implicit approach over the classical IMplicit Pressure-Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method in terms of the time step size and the total execution time measured on a parallel computer.

  20. Nonlinearly preconditioned semismooth Newton methods for variational inequality solution of two-phase flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian; Sun, Shuyu; Yang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Most existing methods for solving two-phase flow problems in porous media do not take the physically feasible saturation fractions between 0 and 1 into account, which often destroys the numerical accuracy and physical interpretability of the simulation. To calculate the solution without the loss of this basic requirement, we introduce a variational inequality formulation of the saturation equilibrium with a box inequality constraint, and use a conservative finite element method for the spatial discretization and a backward differentiation formula with adaptive time stepping for the temporal integration. The resulting variational inequality system at each time step is solved by using a semismooth Newton algorithm. To accelerate the Newton convergence and improve the robustness, we employ a family of adaptive nonlinear elimination methods as a nonlinear preconditioner. Some numerical results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. A comparison is also included to show the superiority of the proposed fully implicit approach over the classical IMplicit Pressure-Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method in terms of the time step size and the total execution time measured on a parallel computer.

  1. A comparison of temporal, spatial and parallel phase shifting algorithms for digital image plane holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M P; Lobera, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of several phase shifting (PS) techniques when using digital image plane holography (DIPH) as a fluid velocimetry technique. The main focus is on increasing the recording system aperture in order to overcome the limitation on the little light available in fluid applications. Some experiments with small rotations of a fluid-like solid object have been used to test the ability of PS-DIPH to faithfully reconstruct the object complex amplitude. Holograms for several apertures and for different defocusing distances have been recorded using spatial phase shifting (SPS) or temporal phase shifting (TPS) techniques. The parallel phase shifted holograms (H PPS ) have been generated from the TPS holograms (H TPS ). The data obtained from TPS-DIPH have been taken as the true object complex amplitude, which is used to benchmark that recovered using the other techniques. The findings of this work show that SPS and PPS are very similar indeed, and suggest that both can work for bigger apertures yet retain phase information

  2. PHASE QUANTIZATION STUDY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR FOR EXTREME HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing, E-mail: jpdou@niaot.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangpeidou@gmail.com [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10{sup -10}. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10{sup -10} in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  3. Spatial variation and linkages of soil and vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra - coupling field observations with remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Virtanen, Tarmo; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Vähä, Emmi; Nyman, Johanna; Postanogova, Olga; Räsänen, Aleksi; Kotze, D. Johan; Laurila, Tuomas; Juutinen, Sari; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Aurela, Mika

    2018-05-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems will play a key role in future climate change due to intensifying permafrost thawing, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchange, but monitoring these changes may be challenging due to the heterogeneity of Arctic landscapes. We examined spatial variation and linkages of soil and plant attributes in a site of Siberian Arctic tundra in Tiksi, northeast Russia, and evaluated possibilities to capture this variation by remote sensing for the benefit of carbon exchange measurements and landscape extrapolation. We distinguished nine land cover types (LCTs) and to characterize them, sampled 92 study plots for plant and soil attributes in 2014. Moreover, to test if variation in plant and soil attributes can be detected using remote sensing, we produced a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and topographical parameters for each study plot using three very high spatial resolution multispectral satellite images. We found that soils ranged from mineral soils in bare soil and lichen tundra LCTs to soils of high percentage of organic matter (OM) in graminoid tundra, bog, dry fen and wet fen. OM content of the top soil was on average 14 g dm-3 in bare soil and lichen tundra and 89 g dm-3 in other LCTs. Total moss biomass varied from 0 to 820 g m-2, total vascular shoot mass from 7 to 112 g m-2 and vascular leaf area index (LAI) from 0.04 to 0.95 among LCTs. In late summer, soil temperatures at 15 cm depth were on average 14 °C in bare soil and lichen tundra, and varied from 5 to 9 °C in other LCTs. On average, depth of the biologically active, unfrozen soil layer doubled from early July to mid-August. When contrasted across study plots, moss biomass was positively associated with soil OM % and OM content and negatively associated with soil temperature, explaining 14-34 % of variation. Vascular shoot mass and LAI were also positively associated with soil OM content, and LAI with active layer depth, but only explained 6-15 % of variation. NDVI

  4. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children’s anaemia risk in northern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in anaemia endemicity; and (ii develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15, S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86% were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  5. A Position Sensorless Control Method for SRM Based on Variation of Phase Inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuzaki, Akitomo; Miki, Ichiro

    Switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are suitable for variable speed industrial applications because of the simple structure and high-speed capability. However, it is necessary to detect the rotor position with a position sensor attached to the motor shaft. The use of the sensor increases the cost of the drive system and machine size, and furthermore the reliability of the system is reduced. Therefore, several approaches to eliminate the position sensor have already been reported. In this paper, a position sensorless control method based on the variation of the phase inductance is described. The phase inductance regularly varies with the rotor position. The SRM is controlled without the position sensor using the de-fluxing period and the phase inductance. The turn-off timing is determined by computing the difference of angle between the sampling point and the aligned point and the variation of angle during the de-fluxing period. In the magnetic saturation region, the phase inductance at the current when the effect of the saturation starts is computed and the sensorless control can be carried out using this inductance. Experimental results show that the SRM is well controlled without the position sensor using the proposed method.

  6. Nanoscale nuclear architecture for cancer diagnosis by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Bista, Rajan K.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Qiu, Wei; Staton, Kevin D.; Zhang, Lin; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in nuclear architecture are the hallmark diagnostic characteristic of cancer cells. In this work, we show that the nuclear architectural characteristics quantified by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), is more sensitive for the identification of cancer cells than conventional cytopathology. We demonstrated the importance of nuclear architectural characteristics in both an animal model of intestinal carcinogenesis - APC/Min mouse model and human cytology specimens with colorectal cancer by identifying cancer from cytologically noncancerous appearing cells. The determination of nanoscale nuclear architecture using this simple and practical optical instrument is a significant advance towards cancer diagnosis.

  7. Temporal-spatial variation of DOC concentration, UV absorbance and the flux estimation in the Lower Dagu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Min; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue; Kong, Fanting

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component for both carbon cycle and energy balance. The concentration, UV absorbance, and export flux of DOC in the natural environment dominate many important transport processes. To better understand the temporal and spatial variation of DOC, 7 sites along the Lower Dagu River were chosen to conduct a comprehensive measurement from March 2013 to February 2014. Specifically, water samples were collected from the Lower Dagu River between the 26th and 29th of every month during the experimental period. The DOC concentration (CDOC) and UV absorbance were analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer and the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, and the DOC export flux was estimated with a simple empirical model. The results showed that the CDOC of the Lower Dagu River varied from 1.32 to 12.56 mg/L, consistent with global rivers. The CDOC and UV absorbance showed significant spatial variation in the Dagu River during the experiential period because of the upstream natural processes and human activities in the watershed. The spatial variation is mainly due to dam or reservoir constructions, riverside ecological environment changes, and non-point source or wastewater discharge. The seasonal variation of CDOC was mainly related to the source of water DOC, river runoff, and temperature, and the UV absorbance and humification degree of DOC had no obvious differences among months ( P<0.05). UV absorbance was applied to test the CDOC in Lower Dagu River using wave lengths of 254 and 280 nm. The results revealed that the annual DOC export flux varied from 1.6 to 3.76 × 105 g C/km2/yr in a complete hydrological year, significantly lower than the global average. It is worth mentioning that the DOC export flux was mainly concentrated in summer (˜90% of all-year flux in July and August), since the runoff in the Dagu River took place frequently in summer. These observations implied environment change could bring the temporal-spatial

  8. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  9. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L −1 (mean 14.4 μg L −1 , median 11.9 μg L −1 ). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L −1 originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the

  10. A measurement based analysis of the spatial distribution, temporal variation and chemical composition of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the studies presented in this paper is to present an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg, Germany, and to identify and discuss the factors determining the aerosol pollution in both areas. Surface-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements of particle mass and particle size distribution have been performed in, around, and above the two cities. Two measurement campaigns were conducted in Munich, one in late spring and one in winter 2003. Another campaign has been on-going in Augsburg since 2004. Spatial and temporal variations are analyzed from this data (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. There are higher particle mass concentrations at the urban site than at the surrounding rural sites, especially in winter. No significant difference in the major ionic composition of the particles between the urban and the rural site was detected. This is considered to be related to the spatial distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol that is more homogeneous than aerosol resulting from other sources like traffic or urban releases in general. During the measurement campaigns mixing layer heights were determined continuously by remote sensing (SODAR, ceilometer, RASS. Significant dependence of particle size distribution and particle mass concentration on mixing layer height was found. This finding paves the way to new applications of satellite remote sensing products.

  11. Normal modes and possibility of spatially inhomogeneous phases for a 2D ferromagnet with biquadratic and magnetoelastic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Matyunin, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of the magnetodipolar interaction on the phase states of a 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnet is investigated. It is shown that in the system considered both the homogeneous states (ferromagnetic or quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous ones can be realized. At this the spatial inhomogeneity is related with the distribution of the quadrupolar order parameters

  12. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  13. Scanning moiré and spatial-offset phase-stepping for surface inspection of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S.; Morimoto, Y.; Fujigaki, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2005-06-01

    In order to develop a high-speed and accurate surface inspection system of structures such as tunnels, a new surface profile measurement method using linear array sensors is studied. The sinusoidal grating is projected on a structure surface. Then, the deformed grating is scanned by linear array sensors that move together with the grating projector. The phase of the grating is analyzed by a spatial offset phase-stepping method to perform accurate measurement. The surface profile measurements of the wall with bricks and the concrete surface of a structure are demonstrated using the proposed method. The change of geometry or fabric of structures and the defects on structure surfaces can be detected by the proposed method. It is expected that the surface profile inspection system of tunnels measuring from a running train can be constructed based on the proposed method.

  14. Application of XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers and SPME–GC–MS/MS analysis for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticides in Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schummer, Claude; Tuduri, Ludovic; Briand, Olivier; Appenzeller, Brice M.; Millet, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Passive air sampling has been shown to be a very interesting alternative to high-volume sampling by overcoming its disadvantages (size, weight, expensiveness). However, to date, only limited data is available about passive air sampling of current-use pesticides. In order to test if passive samplers allow monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticide concentrations, five XAD-2-resin based passive air samplers were deployed at five locations in Luxembourg. Samplers were analyzed using accelerated solvent extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Collected data was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds. Twenty two pesticides were detected between March and October, while no pesticides were detected from November to February. Highest concentrations were measured on the rural sites, suggesting that the used XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers allow the simultaneous monitoring of multiple current-use pesticides and identifying spatial and temporal variations. - Highlights: ► XAD-2 passive sampling of current-used pesticides. ► Coupling of ASE and SPME–GC–MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides in XAD-2 passive sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for current-used pesticides atmospheric sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for spatial and temporal atmospheric concentrations variations. - XAD-2 passive sampling of current-use pesticides in the atmosphere.

  15. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  16. Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solus, Joseph F; Arietta, Brenda J; Harris, James R; Sexton, David P; Steward, John Q; McMunn, Chara; Ihrie, Patrick; Mehall, Janelle M; Edwards, Todd L; Dawson, Elliott P

    2004-10-01

    The extent of genetic variation found in drug metabolism genes and its contribution to interindividual variation in response to medication remains incompletely understood. To better determine the identity and frequency of variation in 11 phase I drug metabolism genes, the exons and flanking intronic regions of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. A total of 60 kb of bi-directional sequence was generated from each of 93 human DNAs, which included Caucasian, African-American and Asian samples. There were 388 different polymorphisms identified. These included 269 non-coding, 45 synonymous and 74 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of these, 54% were novel and included 176 non-coding, 14 synonymous and 21 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of the novel variants observed, 85 were represented by single occurrences of the minor allele in the sample set. Much of the variation observed was from low-frequency alleles. Comparatively, these genes are variation-rich. Calculations measuring genetic diversity revealed that while the values for the individual genes are widely variable, the overall nucleotide diversity of 7.7 x 10(-4) and polymorphism parameter of 11.5 x 10(-4) are higher than those previously reported for other gene sets. Several independent measurements indicate that these genes are under selective pressure, particularly for polymorphisms corresponding to non-synonymous amino acid changes. There is relatively little difference in measurements of diversity among the ethnic groups, but there are large differences among the genes and gene subfamilies themselves. Of the three CYP subfamilies involved in phase I drug metabolism (1, 2, and 3), subfamily 2 displays the highest levels of genetic diversity.

  17. The Orbital and Planetary Phase Variations of Jupiter-sized Planets: Characterizing Present and Future Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Laura C.; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert; Knowles, Ben; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marley, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of how the brightness and color of a planet varies with viewing angle is essential for the design of future direct imaging missions and deriving constraints on atmospheric properties. However, measuring the phase curves for the solar system gas giants is impossible from the ground. Using data Cassini/ISS obtained during its flyby of Jupiter, I measured Jupiter's phase curve in six bands spanning 400-1000 nm. I found that Jupiter's brightness is less than that of a Lambertian scatterer and that its color varies more with phase angle than predicted by theoretical models. For hot Jupiters, the light from the planet cannot be spatially isolated from that of the star. As a result, determining the planetary phase curve requires removing the phase-dependent contributions from the host star. I consider the effect of varying the stellar model and present a parameterization of the Doppler beaming amplitude that depends upon the planetary mass, orbital period, and the stellar temperature. I consider the detectability of Doppler beaming amplitudes with data from TESS and find that TESS will be less sensitive to this signal than Kepler. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program and the New Mexico Higher Education Department Graduate Scholarship Program.

  18. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soil microbial communities are in constant change at many different temporal and spatial scales. However, the importance of these changes to the turnover of the soil microbial communities has been rarely studied simultaneously in space and time. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in net carbon flux during HAPEX-Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moncrieff, J.B.; Monteny, B.; Verhoef, A.; Friborg, Th.; Elbers, J.; Kabat, P.; DeBruin, H.; Soegaard, H.; Jarvis, P.G.; Taupin, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of the surface flux of carbon dioxide were made at a number of spatially separate sites within the HAPEX-Sahel experimental area. Differences in the timing of plant development caused by differences in rainfall (both quantity and frequency) over the experimental area

  1. Individual variation in human spatial ability: differences between men and women in object location memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the area of cognitive sex differences is that males outperform females on many spatial tasks. One exception seems to be object location memory. On this task, females tend to perform better than males. However, the existing studies have provided quite mixed

  2. Quantifying Spatial Variation in Ecosystem Services Demand : A Global Mapping Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, S.; Schulp, C. J E; Kastner, T.; Verburg, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spatial-temporal variability in ecosystem services (ES) demand can help anticipate externalities of land use change. This study presents new operational approaches to quantify and map demand for three non-commodity ES on a global scale: animal pollination, wild medicinal plants and

  3. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hybholt, Trine K.; Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the study was to determine centimeter-scale spatial variation in mineralization potential in diffusely polluted soil. To this end we employed a 96-well microplate method to measure the mineralization of {sup 14}C-labeled organic compounds in deep-well microplates and thereby compile mineralization curves for 348 soil samples of 0.2-cm{sup 3}. Centimeter-scale spatial variation in organic matter and the mineralization of glucose, benzoic acid, and PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) was determined for urban road-side soil sampled as arrays (7 x 11 cm) of 96 subsamples. The spatial variation in mineralization was visualized by means of 2-D contour maps and quantified by means of semivariograms. The geostatistical analysis showed that the easily degradable compounds (glucose and benzoic acid) exhibited little spatial variation in mineralization potential, whereas the mineralization was highly heterogeneous for the PAH compounds that require specialized degraders. The spatial heterogeneity should be taken into account when estimating natural attenuation rates. - Highlights: > Geostatistics were applied at the centimeter scale. > Glucose and benzoic acid mineralization showed little spatial variation. > PAH mineralization was highly variable at the sub-centimeter scale. > High spatial heterogeneity may be caused by low functional redundancy. - This study supports the hypothesis that specialized xenobiotic degraders may show high spatial heterogeneity in soil due to low functional redundancy.

  4. Vpma phase variation is important for survival and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the immunocompetent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite very small genomes, mycoplasmas retain large multigene families encoding variable antigens whose exact role in pathogenesis needs to be proven. To understand their in vivo significance, we used Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model exhibiting high-frequency variations of a family of immunodominant Vpma lipoproteins via Xer1-mediated site-specific recombinations. Phase-Locked Mutants (PLMs expressing single stable Vpma products served as first breakthrough tools in mycoplasmology to study the role of such sophisticated antigenic variation systems. Comparing the general clinical features of sheep infected with a mixture of phase-invariable PLMs (PLMU and PLMY and the wild type strain, it was earlier concluded that Vpma phase variation is not necessary for infection. Conversely, the current study demonstrates the in vivo indispensability of Vpma switching as inferred from the Vpma phenotypic and genotypic analyses of reisolates obtained during sheep infection and necropsy. PLMY and PLMU stably expressing VpmaY and VpmaU, respectively, for numerous in vitro generations, switched to new Vpma phenotypes inside the sheep. Molecular genetic analysis of selected 'switchover' clones confirmed xer1 disruption and revealed complex new rearrangements like chimeras, deletions and duplications in the vpma loci that were previously unknown in type strain PG2. Another novel finding is the differential infection potential of Vpma variants, as local infection sites demonstrated an almost complete dominance of PLMY over PLMU especially during early stages of both conjunctival and intramammary co-challenge infections, indicating a comparatively better in vivo fitness of VpmaY expressors. The data suggest that Vpma antigenic variation is imperative for survival and persistence inside the immunocompetent host, and although Xer1 is necessary for causing Vpma variation in vitro, it is not a virulence factor because alternative Xer1-independent mechanisms operate in

  5. Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radersma, Reinder; Garroway, Colin J; Santure, Anna W; de Cauwer, Isabelle; Farine, Damien R; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2017-10-01

    Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances, animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics, respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here, we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging of 85,602 flocks through time (fission-fusion dynamics), at 60 feeding sites. Of the 1,711 birds in those flocks, we genotyped 962 individuals at 4,701 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By combining genomewide genotyping with repeated field observations of the same individuals, we were able to investigate links between social structure and allele frequencies at a much finer scale than was previously possible. We explicitly accounted for potential spatial effects underlying genetic structure at the population level. We modelled social structure and spatial configuration of great tit fission-fusion dynamics with eigenvector maps. Variance partitioning revealed that allele frequencies were strongly affected by group fidelity (explaining 27%-45% of variance) as individuals tended to maintain associations with the same conspecifics. These conspecifics were genetically more dissimilar than expected, shown by genomewide heterophily for pure social (i.e., space-independent) grouping preferences. Genomewide homophily was linked to spatial configuration, indicating spatial segregation of genotypes. We did not find evidence for homophily or heterophily for putative socially relevant candidate genes or any other SNP markers. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing social and spatial processes in determining population structure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Spatial and Seasonal Variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Irish streams: importance of soil and topography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Xu, Xianli; McGoff, Nicola M; Eaton, James M; Leahy, Paul; Foley, Nelius; Kiely, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have increased in many sites in Europe and North America in recent decades. High DOC concentrations can damage the structure and functions of aquatic ecosystems by influencing water chemistry. This study investigated the spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in Irish streams across 55 sites at seven time occasions over 1 year (2006/2007). The DOC concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 25.9 mg/L with a mean value of 6.8 and a median value of 5.7 mg/L and varied significantly over the course of the year. The DOC concentrations from late winter (February: 5.2 ± 3.0 mg/L across 55 sites) and early spring (April: 4.5 ± 3.5 mg/L) had significantly lower DOC concentrations than autumn (October: mean 8.3 ± 5.6 mg/L) and early winter (December: 8.3 ± 5.1 mg/L). The DOC production sources (e.g., litterfall) or the accumulation of DOC over dry periods might be the driving factor of seasonal change in Irish stream DOC concentrations. Analysis of data using stepwise multiple linear regression techniques identified the topographic index (TI, an indication of saturation-excess runoff potential) and soil conditions (organic carbon content and soil drainage characteristics) as key factors in controlling DOC spatial variation in different seasons. The TI and soil carbon content (e.g., soil organic carbon; peat occurrence) are positively related to DOC concentrations, while well-drained soils are negatively related to DOC concentrations. The knowledge of spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in streams and their drivers are essential for optimum riverine water resources management.

  7. Calculation of the temporal gravity variation from spatially variable water storage change in soils and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiriao, Silvia; He, Xin; Christiansen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Total water storage change in the subsurface is a key component of the global, regional and local water balances. It is partly responsible for temporal variations of the earth's gravity field in the micro-Gal (1 mu Gal = 10(-8) m s(-2)) range. Measurements of temporal gravity variations can thus...... be used to determine the water storage change in the hydrological system. A numerical method for the calculation of temporal gravity changes from the output of hydrological models is developed. Gravity changes due to incremental prismatic mass storage in the hydrological model cells are determined to give...

  8. Temporal versus spatial variation in leaf reflectance under changing water stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf reflectance changes associated with changes in water stress were analyzed in two separate experiments. Results indicate that the variation in reflectance among collections of leaves of a given species all at the same level of water stress is at least as great as the variation in reflectance associated with changes in water stress for a given leaf collection of that species. The implications is that results from leaf reflectance-water stress studies have only limited applicability to the remote sensing of plant canopy water stress.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  10. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Spatial and depth variation of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite sand along HBRA of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cunha, Primal; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The samples collected from high background radiation area were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in order to understand their distribution, enrichment and depth profile in the beach sand. The 210 Po and 210 Pb activities vary from 1.85 to 31.27 Bq kg -1 and 9.77 to 132.30 Bq kg -1 respectively. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb indicate that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in sand is greater than for 210 Po. The spatial variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb activities were studied in detail. (author)

  12. Effects of spatial variations of soil moisture and vegetation on the evolution of a prestorm environment - A numerical case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jy-Tai; Wetzel, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    To examine the effects of spatial variations of soil moisture and vegetation coverage on the evolution of a prestorm environment, the Goddard mesoscale model is modified to incorporate a simple evapotranspiration model that requires these two parameters. The case study of 3-4 June 1980 is of special interest due to the development of a tornado producing convective complex near Grand Island, Nebraska during a period of comparatively weak synoptic-scale forcing. It is shown that the observed stationary front was strongly enhanced by differential heating created by observed gradients of soil moisture, as acted upon by the vegetation cover.

  13. Development of Michelson interferometer based spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin

    Digital shearography is a non-contact, full field, optical measurement method, which has the capability of directly measuring the gradient of deformation. For high measurement sensitivity, phase evaluation method has to be introduced into digital shearography by phase-shift technique. Catalog by phase-shift method, digital phase-shift shearography can be divided into Temporal Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (TPS-DS) and Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (SPS-DS). TPS-DS is the most widely used phase-shift shearography system, due to its simple algorithm, easy operation and good phase-map quality. However, the application of TPS-DS is only limited in static/step-by-step loading measurement situation, due to its multi-step shifting process. In order to measure the strain under dynamic/continuous loading situation, a SPS-DS system has to be developed. This dissertation aims to develop a series of Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS measurement methods to achieve the strain measurement by using only a single pair of speckle pattern images. The Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS systems utilize special designed optical setup to introduce extra carrier frequency into the laser wavefront. The phase information corresponds to the strain field can be separated on the Fourier domain using a Fourier Transform and can further be evaluated with a Windowed Inverse Fourier Transform. With different optical setups and carrier frequency arrangements, the Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS method is capable to achieve a variety of measurement tasks using only single pair of speckle pattern images. Catalog by the aimed measurand, these capable measurement tasks can be divided into five categories: 1) measurement of out-of-plane strain field with small shearing amount; 2) measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field with big shearing amount; 3) simultaneous measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field and deformation gradient field by using multiple

  14. Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Gergely; Kun, Ádám; Scheuring, István; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant

  15. Natural spatial and temporal variations in groundwater chemistry in fractured, sedimentary rocks: scale and implications for solute transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, Stephen J. van der; Kip Solomon, D.; Moline, Gerilynn R.

    2005-01-01

    Natural tracers (major ions, δ 18 O, and O 2 ) were monitored to evaluate groundwater flow and transport to a depth of 20 m below the surface in fractured sedimentary (primarily shale and limestone) rocks. Large temporal variations in these tracers were noted in the soil zone and the saprolite, and are driven primarily by individual storm events. During nonstorm periods, an upward flow brings water with high TDS, constant δ 18 O, and low dissolved O 2 to the water table. During storm events, low TDS, variable δ 18 O, and high dissolved O 2 water recharges through the unsaturated zone. These oscillating signals are rapidly transmitted along fracture pathways in the saprolite, with changes occurring on spatial scales of several meters and on a time scale of hours. The variations decreased markedly below the boundary between the saprolite and less weathered bedrock. Variations in the bedrock units occurred on time scales of days and spatial scales of at least 20 m. The oscillations of chemical conditions in the shallow groundwater are hypothesized to have significant implications for solute transport. Solutes and colloids that adsorb onto aquifer solids can be released into solution by decreases in ionic strength and pH. The decreases in ionic strength also cause thermodynamic undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to some mineral species and may result in mineral dissolution. Redox conditions are also changing and may result in mineral dissolution/precipitation. The net result of these chemical variations is episodic transport of a wide range of dissolved solutes or suspended particles, a phenomenon rarely considered in contaminant transport studies

  16. Temporal and spatial variation in Hg accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): possible influences of DOC and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Lisa D; Evans, Douglas; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are filter feeders located near the base of the foodweb and these animals are able to utilize a variety of carbon sources that may also vary seasonally. We conducted both a spatial and a temporal study in order to test the hypotheses: (1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations influence Hg accumulation in zebra mussels sampled from a series of lakes and (2) seasonal variations in diet influence Hg accumulation. In the spatial study, we found a significant negative relationship between Hg concentrations and DOC concentrations, suggesting an influence of DOC on Hg bioaccumulation. In the temporal study, we used stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) as ecological tools to provide a temporally integrated description of the feeding ecology of zebra mussels. Both δ(15)N and δ(13)C varied seasonally in a similar manner: more depleted values occurred in the summer and more enriched values occurred in the fall. Mercury concentrations also varied significantly over the year, with highest concentrations occurring in the summer, followed by a progressive decrease in concentrations into the fall. The C/N ratio of zebra mussels also varied significantly over the year with the lowest values occurring mid-summer and then values increased in the fall and winter, suggesting that there was significant variation in lipid stores. These results indicate that in addition to any effect of seasonal dietary changes, seasonal variation in energy stores also appeared to be related to Hg levels in the zebra mussels. Collectively results from this study suggest that DOC concentrations, seasonal variation in diet and seasonal depletion of energy stores are all important variables to consider when understanding Hg accumulation in zebra mussels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Heejun; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the spatial patterns of trends in summer precipitation amount, intensity, and heavy precipitation for South Korea between 1973 and 2005. All stations show increasing trends in precipitation amount during the summer months, with the highest percentage of significant increase in June precipitation for the northern and central western part of South Korea. There is a significant increase in August precipitation for stations in the southeastern part of South Korea. Only a few stations exhibited significant upward trends in September precipitation. There is a weak to moderate spatial autocorrelation with the highest Moran's I value in June precipitation amount and August precipitation intensity. The number of days with daily precipitation exceeding 50 and 30 mm during the summer has increased at all stations. Observed trends are likely to be associated with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation, sea surface temperature anomalies, and orography, but detailed causes of these trends need further investigation

  18. Current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with spatial variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sugishita, Hiroki; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2010-01-01

    We model current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with the variable width. Employing the collective coordinate method we trace the wall dynamics. The effect of the width modulation is implemented by spatial dependence of an effective magnetic field. The wall destination in the potential energy landscape due to the magnetic anisotropy and the spatial nonuniformity is obtained as a function of the current density. For a nanowire of a periodically modulated width, we identify three (pinned, nonlinear, and linear) current density regimes for current-induced wall motion. The threshold current densities depend on the pulse duration as well as the magnitude of wire modulation. In the nonlinear regime, application of ns order current pulses results in wall displacement which opposes or exceeds the prediction of the spin transfer mechanism. The finding explains stochastic nature of the domain wall displacement observed in recent experiments.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a tropical eutrophic river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, L M; Moraes, M E B; Silva, D M L; Ferragut, C

    2016-04-19

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental factors determining of the changes in phytoplankton structure in spatial (upper, middle and lower course) and seasonal (dry and rainy period) scales in a eutrophic river (Almada River, northeastern Brazil). In the study period, total accumulated rainfall was below of the historic average, resulting in flow reduction, mainly in rainy period. High orthophosphate concentration was found at the sampling sites. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a increased from upstream to downstream. Geitlerinema splendidum (S1) and Chlamydomonas sp. (X2) were the most abundant species in the upper course and several species of diatoms (D), Euglenophyceae (W1, W2) and Chlorophyceae (X1) in the middle and lower course. The functional groups were found to be characteristic of lotic ecosystem, shallow, with low light availability, rich in organic matter and eutrophic environments. We conclude that phytoplankton community structure was sensitive to change of the river flow and nutrient availability in spatial and seasonal scale in a tropical river.

  20. Spatial variations and determinants of infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Khan, Mmh; Burkart, Katrin; Lautenbach, Sven; Lakes, Tobia; Krämer, Alexander; Subramanian, S V; Galea, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Reducing child mortality is a Sustainable Development Goal yet to be achieved by many low-income countries. We applied a subnational and spatial approach based on publicly available datasets and identified permanent insolvency, urbanicity, and malaria endemicity as factors associated with child mortality. We further detected spatial clusters in the east of Bangladesh and noted Sylhet and Jamalpur as those districts that need immediate attention to reduce child mortality. Our approach is transferable to other regions in comparable settings worldwide and may guide future studies to identify subnational regions in need for public health attention. Our study adds to our understanding where we may intervene to more effectively improve health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  2. Spatial Variation and Distribution of Urban Energy Consumptions from Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Cai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With support of GIS tools and Theil index, the spatial variance of urban energy consumption in China was discussed in this paper through the parallel comparison and quantitative analysis of the 30 provincial capital cities of mainland China in 2005, in terms of scale, efficiency and structure. The indicators associated with urban energy consumption show large spatial variance across regions, possibly due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability in China. In absolute terms, cities with the highest total energy consumption are mostly distributed in economic-developed regions as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta of China, however, the per capita urban energy use is significantly higher in the Mid-and-Western regions. With regard to the energy mix, coal still plays the dominant role and cities in Mid-and-Western regions rely more on coal. In contrast, high quality energy carrier as electricity and oils are more used in southeast coastal zone and northern developed areas. The energy intensive cities are mainly located in the northwest, while the cities with higher efficiency are in southeast areas. The large spatial variance of urban energy consumption was also verified by the Theil indices. Considering the Chinese economy-zones of East, Middle and West, the within-group inequalities are the main factor contributing to overall difference, e.g., the Theil index for per capita energy consumption of within-group is 0.18, much higher than that of between group (0.07, and the same applies to other indicators. In light of the spatial variance of urban energy consumptions in China, therefore, regionalized and type-based management of urban energy systems is badly needed to effectively address the ongoing energy strategies and targets.

  3. Spatially-resolved studies of charge-density-wave phase slip and dynamics in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemay, S.G.; Adelman, T.L.; Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V.; Thorne, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We review our spatially and temporally resolved studies of charge-density-wave (CDW) phase slip and dynamics in NbSe 3 . Measurements of the steady-state CDW current, phase slip and strain profiles and their transient evolutions in response to a change in current direction provide a detailed picture of the interplay between elastic deformations and plasticity in this material. (orig.)

  4. Utilization of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator in a gray scale detour phase method for Fourier holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Ghaith; El-Daher, Moustafa Sayem; Al-Shufi, Kanj

    2012-11-10

    This paper introduces a new modification for the well-known binary detour phase method, which is largely used to represent Fourier holograms; the modification utilizes gray scale level control provided by a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to improve the traditional binary detour phase. Results are shown by both simulation and experiment.

  5. Revealing Spatial Variation and Correlation of Urban Travels from Big Trajectory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Tu, W.; Shen, S.; Yue, Y.; Luo, N.; Li, Q.

    2017-09-01

    With the development of information and communication technology, spatial-temporal data that contain rich human mobility information are growing rapidly. However, the consistency of multi-mode human travel behind multi-source spatial-temporal data is not clear. To this aim, we utilized a week of taxies' and buses' GPS trajectory data and smart card data in Shenzhen, China to extract city-wide travel information of taxi, bus and metro and tested the correlation of multi-mode travel characteristics. Both the global correlation and local correlation of typical travel indicator were examined. The results show that: (1) Significant differences exist in of urban multi-mode travels. The correlation between bus travels and taxi travels, metro travel and taxi travels are globally low but locally high. (2) There are spatial differences of the correlation relationship between bus, metro and taxi travel. These findings help us understanding urban travels deeply therefore facilitate both the transport policy making and human-space interaction research.

  6. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  7. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  8. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  9. REVEALING SPATIAL VARIATION AND CORRELATION OF URBAN TRAVELS FROM BIG TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information and communication technology, spatial-temporal data that contain rich human mobility information are growing rapidly. However, the consistency of multi-mode human travel behind multi-source spatial-temporal data is not clear. To this aim, we utilized a week of taxies’ and buses’ GPS trajectory data and smart card data in Shenzhen, China to extract city-wide travel information of taxi, bus and metro and tested the correlation of multi-mode travel characteristics. Both the global correlation and local correlation of typical travel indicator were examined. The results show that: (1 Significant differences exist in of urban multi-mode travels. The correlation between bus travels and taxi travels, metro travel and taxi travels are globally low but locally high. (2 There are spatial differences of the correlation relationship between bus, metro and taxi travel. These findings help us understanding urban travels deeply therefore facilitate both the transport policy making and human-space interaction research.

  10. A model for spatial variations in life expectancy; mortality in Chinese regions in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life expectancy in China has been improving markedly but health gains have been uneven and there is inequality in survival chances between regions and in rural as against urban areas. This paper applies a statistical modelling approach to mortality data collected in conjunction with the 2000 Census to formally assess spatial mortality contrasts in China. The modelling approach provides interpretable summary parameters (e.g. the relative mortality risk in rural as against urban areas and is more parsimonious in terms of parameters than the conventional life table model. Results Predictive fit is assessed both globally and at the level of individual five year age groups. A proportional model (age and area effects independent has a worse fit than one allowing age-area interactions following a bilinear form. The best fit is obtained by allowing for child and oldest age mortality rates to vary spatially. Conclusion There is evidence that age (21 age groups and area (31 Chinese administrative divisions are not proportional (i.e. independent mortality risk factors. In fact, spatial contrasts are greatest at young ages. There is a pronounced rural survival disadvantage, and large differences in life expectancy between provinces.

  11. Spatial & temporal variations of PM10 and particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Gidhagen, Lars

    2007-04-01

    The size of particles in urban air varies over four orders of magnitude (from 0.001 microm to 10 microm in diameter). In many cities only particle mass concentrations (PM10, i.e. particles tires and traction sand on streets during winter; up to 90% of the locally emitted PM10 may be due to road abrasion. PM10 emissions and concentrations, but not PNC, at kerbside are controlled by road moisture. Annual mean urban background PM10 levels are relatively uniformly distributed over the city, due to the importance of long range transport. For PNC local sources often dominate the concentrations resulting in large temporal and spatial gradients in the concentrations. Despite these differences in the origin of PM10 and PNC, the spatial gradients of annual mean concentrations due to local sources are of equal magnitude due to the common source, namely traffic. Thus, people in different areas experiencing a factor of 2 different annual PM10 exposure due to local sources will also experience a factor of 2 different exposure in terms of PNC. This implies that health impact studies based solely on spatial differences in annual exposure to PM10 may not separate differences in health effects due to ultrafine and coarse particles. On the other hand, health effect assessments based on time series exposure analysis of PM10 and PNC, should be able to observe differences in health effects of ultrafine particles versus coarse particles.

  12. Spatial pattern of allozyme variation in a contact zone of Pinus Ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Bryan K; Chung, Myong Gi; Telewski, Frank W

    2003-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genotypes for nine polymorphic allozyme loci was examined in a contact zone between Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and another tree regarded as either a separate species, Pinus arizonica, or variety, Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica, in southern Arizona. Previous work had identified a steep elevational cline for a key taxonomic trait, number of leaf-needles per fascicle, on the south slope of Mt. Lemmon. The present results indicate that the taxa are not fully interbreeding in this contact zone, because allozyme genotypes are considerably more spatially structured than expected for the dispersal characteristics of pines. The amount of spatial differentiation is also much less than that observed for needle number. It appears that this is due to the lack of differentiation for allozyme gene frequencies for the two types of trees, which is further evidenced by analysis of samples from two other populations away from the contact zone. It is likely that if the two taxa were isolated in the past, it was not for long enough nor complete enough to allow mutation-drift to create substantial differentiation between them. Another possible explanation is that introgression after recontact is so advanced that any differences have been erased throughout the Santa Catalina mountain range.

  13. The role of spatial variations of abiotic factors in mediating intratumour phenotypic heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenzi, Tommaso

    2018-05-08

    We present here a space- and phenotype-structured model of selection dynamics between cancer cells within a solid tumour. In the framework of this model, we combine formal analyses with numerical simulations to investigate in silico the role played by the spatial distribution of abiotic components of the tumour microenvironment in mediating phenotypic selection of cancer cells. Numerical simulations are performed both on the 3D geometry of an in silico multicellular tumour spheroid and on the 3D geometry of an in vivo human hepatic tumour, which was imaged using computerised tomography. The results obtained show that inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of oxygen, currently observed in solid tumours, can promote the creation of distinct local niches and lead to the selection of different phenotypic variants within the same tumour. This process fosters the emergence of stable phenotypic heterogeneity and supports the presence of hypoxic cells resistant to cytotoxic therapy prior to treatment. Our theoretical results demonstrate the importance of integrating spatial data with ecological principles when evaluating the therapeutic response of solid tumours to cytotoxic therapy.

  14. The role of spatial variations of abiotic factors in mediating intratumour phenotypic heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenzi, Tommaso; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar; Lorz, Alexander; Chaplain, Mark A.J.

    2018-01-01

    We present here a space- and phenotype-structured model of selection dynamics between cancer cells within a solid tumour. In the framework of this model, we combine formal analyses with numerical simulations to investigate in silico the role played by the spatial distribution of abiotic components of the tumour microenvironment in mediating phenotypic selection of cancer cells. Numerical simulations are performed both on the 3D geometry of an in silico multicellular tumour spheroid and on the 3D geometry of an in vivo human hepatic tumour, which was imaged using computerised tomography. The results obtained show that inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of oxygen, currently observed in solid tumours, can promote the creation of distinct local niches and lead to the selection of different phenotypic variants within the same tumour. This process fosters the emergence of stable phenotypic heterogeneity and supports the presence of hypoxic cells resistant to cytotoxic therapy prior to treatment. Our theoretical results demonstrate the importance of integrating spatial data with ecological principles when evaluating the therapeutic response of solid tumours to cytotoxic therapy.

  15. Spatial variations in estimated chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution in working populations: A simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier-Fisher Denise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with a variety of health impacts in adults and recent studies show that exposure varies spatially, with some residents in a community more exposed than others. A spatial exposure simulation model (SESM which incorporates six microenvironments (home indoor, work indoor, other indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle to work and in-vehicle other is described and used to explore spatial variability in estimates of exposure to traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (not including indoor sources for working people. The study models spatial variability in estimated exposure aggregated at the census tracts level for 382 census tracts in the Greater Vancouver Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. Summary statistics relating to the distributions of the estimated exposures are compared visually through mapping. Observed variations are explored through analyses of model inputs. Results Two sources of spatial variability in exposure to traffic-related nitrogen dioxide were identified. Median estimates of total exposure ranged from 8 μg/m3 to 35 μg/m3 of annual average hourly NO2 for workers in different census tracts in the study area. Exposure estimates are highest where ambient pollution levels are highest. This reflects the regional gradient of pollution in the study area and the relatively high percentage of time spent at home locations. However, for workers within the same census tract, variations were observed in the partial exposure estimates associated with time spent outside the residential census tract. Simulation modeling shows that some workers may have exposures 1.3 times higher than other workers residing in the same census tract because of time spent away from the residential census tract, and that time spent in work census tracts contributes most to the differences in exposure. Exposure estimates associated with the activity of commuting by vehicle to work were

  16. First-order system least squares and the energetic variational approach for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, J. H.; Brannick, J.; Liu, C.; Manteuffel, T.; Zikatanov, L.

    2011-07-01

    This paper develops a first-order system least-squares (FOSLS) formulation for equations of two-phase flow. The main goal is to show that this discretization, along with numerical techniques such as nested iteration, algebraic multigrid, and adaptive local refinement, can be used to solve these types of complex fluid flow problems. In addition, from an energetic variational approach, it can be shown that an important quantity to preserve in a given simulation is the energy law. We discuss the energy law and inherent structure for two-phase flow using the Allen-Cahn interface model and indicate how it is related to other complex fluid models, such as magnetohydrodynamics. Finally, we show that, using the FOSLS framework, one can still satisfy the appropriate energy law globally while using well-known numerical techniques.

  17. Determination of the variation of mercury isotope concentration based on spectral-phase effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, A.A.; Man', D.D.; Turkin, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method of isotopic atomic-absorption analysis, based on spectral-phase effects in which there is no need to use several sources of radiation with pure isotopes of the analyte element, was developed. The method made it possible to simplify the analysis and to determine the variation of the concentration of mercury isotopes from one deposit to another with an accuracy several times higher that of traditional methods of spectral isotopic analysis. The method was tested on mercury 198 and mercury 202. The isotopic analyzer is diagramed and described. The mechanism of spectral-phase effects was determined by the difference in effective photon lifetimes, corresponding to different components of the hyperfine structure of the resonance line of mercury at 254 nm

  18. Effect of assessment scale on spatial and temporal variations in CH4, C02, and N20 fluxes in a forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Harbin Li; Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a forested watershed (160 ha) in South Carolina, USA, were estimated with a spatially explicit watershed-scale modeling framework that utilizes the spatial variations in physical and biogeochemical characteristics across watersheds. The target watershed (WS80) consisting of wetland (23%) and...

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-11-01

    East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

  20. Spatial variations of prokaryotic communities in surface water from India Ocean to Chinese marginal seas and their underlining environmental determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei eZheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the biogeographic patterns of prokaryotic communities in surface sea water, 24 samples were systematically collected across a large distance from Indian Ocean to Chinese marginal seas, with an average distance of 453 km between two adjacent stations. A total of 841,364 quality reads was produced by the high throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Proteobacteria were predominant in all samples, with Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria being the two most abundant components. Cyanobacteria represented the second largest fraction of the total quality reads, and mainly included Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. The semi-closed marginal seas, including South China Sea (SCS and nearby regions, exhibited a transition in community composition between oceanic and coastal seas, based on the distribution patterns of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus as well as a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis. Distinct clusters of prokaryotes from coastal and open seas, and from different water masses in Indian Ocean were obtained by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis at the OTU level, revealing a clear spatial heterogeneity. The major environmental factors correlated with the community variation in this broad scale were identified as salinity, temperature and geographic distance. Community comparison among regions shows that anthropogenic contamination is another dominant factor in shaping the biogeographic patterns of the microorganisms. These results suggest that environmental factors involved in complex interactions between land and sea act synergistically in driving spatial variations in coastal areas.

  1. Plant Water Use Strategy in Response to Spatial and Temporal Variation in Precipitation Patterns in China: A Stable Isotope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in precipitation patterns can directly alter the survival and growth of plants, yet in China there is no comprehensive and systematic strategy for plant use based on the effects of precipitation patterns. Here, we examined information from 93 published papers (368 plant species on plant xylem water stable isotopes (δD and δ18O in China. The results showed that: (1 The slope of the local meteoric water line (LMWL gradually increased from inland areas to the coast, as a result of continental and seasonal effects. The correlation between δD and δ18O in plant stem water is also well fitted and the correlation coefficients range from 0.78 to 0.89. With respect to the soil water line, the δ18O values in relation to depth (0–100 cm varied over time; (2 Plants’ main water sources are largely affected by precipitation patterns. In general, plants prioritize the use of stable and continuous water sources, while they have a more variable water uptake strategy under drought conditions; (3 There are no spatial and temporal variations in the contribution of the main water source (p > 0.05 because plants maintain growth by shifting their use of water sources when resources are unreliable.

  2. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Seasonal and spatial variations of macro- and megabenthic community characteristics in two sections of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xinzheng; Ma, Lin; Dong, Dong; Kou, Qi; Sui, Jixing; Gan, Zhibin; Wang, Hongfa

    2017-09-01

    In spring and summer 2011, the macro- and megabenthic fauna in two sections of the East China Sea were investigated using an Agassiz net trawl to detect the seasonal and spatial variations of benthic community characteristics and the relation to environmental variables. The total number of species increased slightly from spring (131 species) to summer (133) whereas the percentage of Mollusca decreased significantly. The index of relative importance (IRI) indicated that the top five important species changed completely from spring to summer. Species number, abundance and biomass in summer were significantly higher than in spring, but no significant difference was observed among areas (coastal, transitional and oceanic areas, divided basically from inshore to offshore). Species richness ( d), diversity ( H') and evenness ( J') showed no significant seasonal or spatial variations. Cluster analysis and nMDS ordination identified three benthic communities from inshore to offshore, corresponding to the three areas. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the overall significant difference in community structure between seasons and among areas. K-dominance curves revealed the high intrinsic diversity in the offshore area. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the coastal community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in spring, but negatively in summer; oceanic community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in both seasons. Species such as Coelorhynchus multispinulosus, Neobythites sivicola, Lepidotrigla alata, Solenocera melantho, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Oratosquilla gonypetes and Spiropagurus spiriger occurred exclusively in the offshore oceanic area and their presence may reflect the influence of the offshore Kuroshio Current.

  4. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  5. Spatial variation of pneumonia hospitalization risk in Twin Cities metro area, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroh Tam, P Y; Krzyzanowski, B; Oakes, J M; Kne, L; Manson, S

    2017-11-01

    Fine resolution spatial variability in pneumonia hospitalization may identify correlates with socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. We performed a retrospective study within the Fairview Health System network of Minnesota. Patients 2 months of age and older hospitalized with pneumonia between 2011 and 2015 were geocoded to their census block group, and pneumonia hospitalization risk was analyzed in relation to socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. Spatial analyses were performed using Esri's ArcGIS software, and multivariate Poisson regression was used. Hospital encounters of 17 840 patients were included in the analysis. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several significant associations, including a 40% increased risk of pneumonia hospitalization among census block groups with large, compared with small, populations of ⩾65 years, a 56% increased risk among census block groups in the bottom (first) quartile of median household income compared to the top (fourth) quartile, a 44% higher risk in the fourth quartile of average nitrogen dioxide emissions compared with the first quartile, and a 47% higher risk in the fourth quartile of average annual solar insolation compared to the first quartile. After adjusting for income, moving from the first to the second quartile of the race/ethnic diversity index resulted in a 21% significantly increased risk of pneumonia hospitalization. In conclusion, the risk of pneumonia hospitalization at the census-block level is associated with age, income, race/ethnic diversity index, air quality, and solar insolation, and varies by region-specific factors. Identifying correlates using fine spatial analysis provides opportunities for targeted prevention and control.

  6. Be discs in coplanar circular binaries: Phase-locked variations of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Faes, Daniel M.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Baade, Dietrich; Rivinius, Thomas; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration consists of two spiral arms, and this can be given as input into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Making use of the property of steady disc structure in coplanar circular binaries, observables are computed as functions of the orbital phase. Some orbital-phase series of line profiles are given for selected parameter sets under various viewing angles, to allow comparison with observations. Flat-topped profiles with and without superimposed multiple structures are reproduced, showing, for example, that triple-peaked profiles do not have to be necessarily associated with warped discs and misaligned binaries. It is demonstrated that binary tidal effects give rise to phase-locked variability of the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of hydrogen emission lines. The V/R ratio exhibits two maxima per cycle; in certain cases those maxima are equal, leading to a clear new V/R cycle every half orbital period. This study opens a way to identifying binaries and to constraining the parameters of binary systems that exhibit phase-locked variations induced by tidal interaction with a companion star.

  7. The Influence of Second Harmonic Phase and Amplitude Variation in Cyclically Pitching Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Ethan; Farnsworth, John

    2017-11-01

    From wind tunnel testing of a cyber-physical wing model, it has been found that the pitch trajectory for stall flutter is described by an array of higher harmonic frequencies with decaying energy content. These frequencies distort the stall flutter motion from that of a pure sinusoidal oscillation in pitch and can have a significant effect on the resulting force production. In order to understand how these higher harmonic frequencies contribute to the overall pitching moment characteristics of a wing in stall flutter, a rigid finite span wing model, with aspect ratio four, was pitched in the wind tunnel. The prescribed motion of the pitch cycle was varied by changing the amplitude ratio and phase of the second harmonic of the oscillation frequency. The second harmonic represents the second highest energy mode in the pitching cycle spectra. Pitching moment and planar particle image velocimetry data was collected. From these pitching trajectories, a significant dependence of pitching moment on both the phase and amplitude of the prescribed waveforms was found. Specifically, for the same amplitude ratio, variations in the phase produced changes of approximately 30 percent in the phase averaged pitching moment.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-03-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N-NO3- at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from -3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N-NO3- is significantly lower ranging from -7.6‰ to -1.3‰ while winter δ15N-NO3- ranges from -2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N-NO3- is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3- and δ15N-NO3- are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3- concentrations and δ15N-NO3- in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N-NH4+ ranged from -10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N-NH4+(-9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N-NH4+ observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and agricultural sources. These findings show spatial and

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-01-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N−NO3− at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from −3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N−NO3− is significantly lower ranging from −7.6‰ to −1.3‰ while winter δ15N−NO3− ranges from −2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N−NO3− is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3− and δ15N−NO3− are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3−concentrations and δ15N−NO3− in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N−NH4+ ranged from −10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N−NH4+(−9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N−NH4+observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and

  10. Spatial variation in below ground carbon cycling in a pristine peatland, driven by present and past vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gałka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Peat carbon cycling is controlled by both large scale factors, such as climate and hydrological setting, and small scale factors, such as microtopography, vegetation, litter quality, and rooting depth. These small scale factors commonly vary within peatlands, causing variation in the carbon balance at different locations within the same site. Understanding the relationship between small scale carbon cycling and vegetation helps us to assess the variation of carbon dynamics of peatlands, because vegetation composition acts as an integrator of factors such as microtopography, hydrology, and nutrient level. Variation in vegetation illustrates spatial variation of these underlying factors. Furthermore, the presence of certain plant species affects carbon cycling directly through litter quality or aeration through root tissues. In order to understand these within-site variations in terms of carbon cycling, we investigated carbon accumulation, decomposition, and biogeochemistry of pore waters along a transect of peat cores with changing vegetation and water levels in an ombrotrophic peatland in southern Patagonia. The transect ran from a Sphagnum magellanicum dominated spot with relatively high water table, to intermediately wet spots with mixed Sphagnum/shrubs vegetation, or dominated by Cyperaceae, eventually to a more elevated and drier spot dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). There were large differences in peat accumulation rates and peat densities, with faster peat growth and lower densities under Sphagnum, but overall carbon accumulation rates were quite similar in the various microenvironments. At most plots C/N ratios decreased with depth, concurrent with increasing humification index derived from FT-IR spectra. But under cushion plants this relation was opposite: more humification with depth, but also C/N ratios increases. This reflected the differing source material at depth under the cushion plants, and that the cushion plant peat layers were

  11. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  12. [Spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperature of Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Ran; Wang, Xing Chang; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Quan Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (T s ) and its influencing factors, we measured the T s with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the T s largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the T s lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth. The daily maximal values and ranges of the diurnal course of T s decreased gradually with increasing measuring depth across the stem and decreasing measuring height along the stem. The circumferential variation in T s was marginal, with slightly higher daily maximal values in the south and west directions during the daytime of the dormant season. Differences in thermal properties (i.e. , specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) of both bark and wood tissue between the two species contributed to the inter specific variations in the radial variation in T s through influencing the heat exchange between the stem surface and ambient air as well as heat diffusion within the stem. The higher reflectance of the bark of B. platyphylla decreased the influence of solar radiation on T s . The stepwise regression showed that the diurnal courses of T s could be well predicted by the environmental factors (R 2 > 0.85) with an order of influence ranking as air temperature > water vapor pressure > net radiation > wind speed. It is necessary to take the radial, vertical and inter specific varia-tions in T s into account when estimating biomass heat storage and stem CO2 efflux.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation of fish assemblages in Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Wang, Siqing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Qingjiang; Ruan, Renliang; Chen, Liqiao; Liu, Qigen

    2014-07-01

    Using multi-mesh gillnets and trawls, the fish communities in Dianshan Lake at 6 stations from Oct. 2009 to Jul. 2010 were investigated seasonally to reveal the biodiversity and its spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The long-term changes in their structural characteristics were then analyzed to identify the main influencing factors and several measures for lake restoration were put forward. Thirty six species, belonging to 9 family and 30 genera, were collected, amongst which, the order Cypriniformes accounted for 61.1% of the total species number. In terms of importance value, Cypriniformes was the predominant group, Coilia nasus the dominant species, while Cyprinus carpio and Rhinogobius giurinus were the subdominant taxa. The community types did not differ among stations, but between seasons. There were no significant differences between seasons and among stations in species diversity, but richness differed both spatially and seasonally. Along with the process of eutrophication and the drastic reduction of the area colonized by macrophytes from 1959 to 2009-2010, the fish diversity declined markedly, and species numbers of herbivores and piscivores declined proportionately more than those of invertivores, omnivores, and planktivores. The decline of potamophilus and river-lake migratory fish was more marked than those of sedentary, river-sea migratory, and estuarine fishes. Eutrophication concomitant with sharp reduction of macrophyte area and overfishing may be the main reasons for the decline in fish diversity in Dianshan Lake.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a tropical eutrophic river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santana

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to evaluate the environmental factors determining of the changes in phytoplankton structure in spatial (upper, middle and lower course and seasonal (dry and rainy period scales in a eutrophic river (Almada River, northeastern Brazil. In the study period, total accumulated rainfall was below of the historic average, resulting in flow reduction, mainly in rainy period. High orthophosphate concentration was found at the sampling sites. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a increased from upstream to downstream. Geitlerinema splendidum (S1 and Chlamydomonas sp. (X2 were the most abundant species in the upper course and several species of diatoms (D, Euglenophyceae (W1, W2 and Chlorophyceae (X1 in the middle and lower course. The functional groups were found to be characteristic of lotic ecosystem, shallow, with low light availability, rich in organic matter and eutrophic environments. We conclude that phytoplankton community structure was sensitive to change of the river flow and nutrient availability in spatial and seasonal scale in a tropical river.

  15. Strain-dependent variations in spatial learning and in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular basis for spatial learning. Strain-dependent differences in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region have been reported. However, it is not known whether these differences extend to other synapses within the trisynaptic circuit, although there is evidence for morphological variations within that path. We investigated whether Wistar and Hooded Lister (HL rat strains express differences in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We also explored whether they exhibit differences in the ability to engage in spatial learning in an 8-arm radial maze. Basal synaptic transmission was stable over a 24h period in both rat strains, and the input-output relationship of both strains was not significantly different. Paired-pulse analysis revealed significantly less paired-pulse facilitation in the Hooded Lister strain when pulses were given 40-100 msec apart. Low frequency stimulation at 1Hz evoked long-term depression (>24h in Wistar and short-term depression (<2h in HL rats; 200Hz stimulation induced long-term potentiation (>24h in Wistar, and a transient, significantly smaller potentiation (<1h in HL rats, suggesting that HL rats have higher thresholds for expression of persistent synaptic plasticity. Training for 10d in an 8-arm radial maze revealed that HL rats master the working memory task faster than Wistar rats, although both strains show an equivalent performance by the end of the trial period. HL rats also perform more efficiently in a double working and reference memory task. On the other hand, Wistar rats show better reference memory performance on the final (8-10 days of training. Wistar rats were less active and more anxious than HL rats.These data suggest that strain-dependent variations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity occur in different hippocampal synapses. A clear correlation with differences in spatial learning is not evident however.

  16. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from 40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in radiation exposure of amphibians - Implications for environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Although amphibians are threatened world-wide, many amphibian species are protected in national legislation. Thus, amphibians need special attention in many environmental risk assessments for releases of contaminants such as radionuclides. In fact, amphibians' ecology and physiology (including, for example, a complex life-cycle with both aquatic and terrestrial life stages, and a thin skin) makes them sensitive to radiation exposure. In current dose models for wildlife, homogenous distribution of radionuclides in soil is assumed. However, soils are heterogeneous environments and radionuclide contamination can be very unevenly distributed. As a consequence, bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota may vary on a local scale. Specifically, organisms' spatial location and movement within habitats may affect both their external and internal exposure pattern to radionuclides. Therefore, measuring the spatial location of individual amphibians within ecosystems and understanding why they use these different locations is essential for predicting potential effects of released radionuclides on these populations. The aim of this study was to investigate amphibians' spatial distribution in a {sup 137}Cs contaminated wetland area and their body content of {sup 137}Cs at the beginning and end of the summer period. The study site was a wetland nature reserve called Bladmyra near Gaevle in the central-eastern part of Sweden. This area received fallout of {sup 137}Cs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study measured the spatial distributions of two amphibian species (Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo) with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags in a mark-and-recapture study during 2012-2014. In addition, {sup 137}Cs body content in the two species was measured by whole body counting in spring and autumn of 2013. The results showed differences between years in how marked animals used the study area: More individuals stayed in a small area during 2012 than in 2013

  18. The coherent state variational algorithm and the QCD deconfinement phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somsky, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the coherent state variational algorithm, its implementation in a recently completed set of computer programs, and its application to the study of the QCD deconfinement phase transition. The coherent state variational algorithm is a computational method for studying the large-N limit of non-abelian gauge theories by direct exploitation of the classical nature of this limit. Unlike Monte Carlo methods, this technique is applicable to both euclidean and hamiltonian formulations of lattice gauge theories and is deterministic, rather than statistical, in nature. The first part of this thesis presents the theoretical basis of the coherent state algorithm and describes the application of the algorithm, to non-abelian lattice gauge theories. The second part describes the symbolic methods involved in the computer implementation of the coherent state algorithm and gives an overview of the programs which form the full coherent state implementation. The final part of this thesis discusses the application of the coherent state algorithm to the study of the QCD deconfinement phase transition at large N. The results obtained are indicative of a second-order transition for lattices of temporal extent N ν = 1 and N τ = 2 in both three and four space-time dimensions

  19. Spatial and time variations of radon-222 concentration in the atmosphere of a dead-end horizontal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frederic; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Trique, Michaeel; Ferry, Cecile; Voisin, Vincent; Pili, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of radon-222 has been monitored since 1995 in the atmosphere of a 2 m transverse dimension, 128 m long, dead-end horizontal tunnel located in the French Alps, at an altitude of 1600 m. Most of the time, the radon concentration is stable, with an average value ranging from 200 Bq m -3 near the entrance to about 1000 Bq m -3 in the most confined section, with an equilibrium factor between radon and its short-lived decay products varying from 0.61 to 0.78. However, radon bursts are repeatedly observed, with amplitudes reaching up to 36 x 10 3 Bq m -3 and durations varying from one to several weeks, with similar spatial variations along the tunnel as the background concentration. These spatial variations are qualitatively interpreted in terms of natural ventilation. Comparing the radon background concentration with the measured radon exhalation flux at the wall yields an estimate of 8 ± 2 x 10 -6 s -1 (0.03 ± 0.007 h -1 ) for the ventilation rate. The hypothesis that the bursts could be due to transient changes in ventilation can be ruled out. Thus, the bursts are the results of transient increased radon exhalation at the walls, that could be due to meteorological effects or possibly combined hydrological and mechanical forcing associated with the water level variations of the nearby Roselend reservoir lake. Such studies are of interest for radiation protection in poorly ventilated underground settings, and, ultimately, for a better understanding of radon exhalation associated with tectonic or volcanic processes

  20. Summertime Spatial Variations in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components in Different Functional Areas of Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of urban areas in Chinese cities, air pollution exhibits well-defined spatial variations. Rapid urbanization in China has heightened the importance of understanding and characterizing atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations and their spatiotemporal variations. To investigate the small-scale spatial variations in PM in Xiamen, total suspended particulate (TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 measurements were collected between August and September in 2012. Their average mass concentrations were 102.50 μg∙m−3, 82.79 μg∙m−3, 55.67 μg∙m−3 and 43.70 μg∙m−3, respectively. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in PM2.5 were measured using thermal optical transmission. Based on the PM concentrations for all size categories, the following order for the different functional areas studied was identified: hospital > park > commercial area > residential area > industrial area. OC contributed approximately 5%–23% to the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC accounted for 0.8%–6.95%. Secondary organic carbon constituted most of the carbonaceous particles found in the park, commercial, industrial and residential areas, with the exception of hospitals. The high PM and EC concentrations in hospitals were primarily caused by vehicle emissions. Thus, the results suggest that long-term plans should be to limit the number of vehicles entering hospital campuses, construct large-capacity underground parking structures, and choose hospital locations far from major roads.

  1. Spatial variation in microbial processes controlling carbon mineralization within soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kleber, Markus [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Nico, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Soils have a defining role in global carbon cycling, having one of the largest dynamic stocks of C on earth—3300 Pg of C are stored in soils, which is three-times the amount stored in the atmosphere and more than the terrestrial land plants. An important control on soil organic matter (SOM) quantities is the mineralization rate. It is well recognized that the rate and extent of SOM mineralization is affected by climatic factors and mineral-organic matter associations. What remained elusive is to what extent constraints on microbial metabolism induced by the respiratory pathway, and specifically the electron acceptor in respiration, control overall rates of carbon mineralization in soils. Therefore, physical factors limiting oxygen diffusion such as soil texture and aggregate size (soil structure) may therefore be central controls on C mineralization rates. The goal of our research was therefore to determine if variations in microbial metabolic rates induced by anaerobic microsites in soils are a major control on SOM mineralization rates and thus storage. We performed a combination of laboratory experiments and field investigations will be performed to fulfill our research objectives. We used laboratory studies to examine fundamental factors of respiratory constraints (i.e., electron acceptor) on organic matter mineralization rates. We ground our laboratory studies with both manipulation of field samples and in-field measurements. Selection of the field sites is guided by variation in soil texture and structure while having (other environmental/soil factors constant. Our laboratory studies defined redox gradients and variations in microbial metabolism operating at the aggregate-scale (cm-scale) within soils using a novel constructed diffusion reactor. We further examined micro-scale variation in terminal electron accepting processes and resulting C mineralization rates within re-packed soils. A major outcome of our research is the ability to quantitatively place

  2. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  3. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  4. Spatial variation of vessel grouping in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Vessel grouping in angiosperms may improve hydraulic integration and increase the spread of cavitations through redundancy pathways. Although disputed, it is increasingly attracting research interest as a potentially significant hydraulic trait. However, the variation of vessel grouping in a tree is poorly understood. I measured the number of solitary and grouped vessels in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth. from the pith to the bark along the water flow path. The vessel grouping parameters included the mean number of vessels per vessel group (VG), percentage of solitary vessels (SVP), percentage of radial multiple vessels (MVP), and percentage of cluster vessels (CVP). The effects of cambial age (CA) and flow path-length (PL) on the vessel grouping were analyzed using a linear mixed model.VG and CVP increased nonlinearly, SVP decreased nonlinearly with PL. In trunks and branches, VG and CVP decreased nonlinearly, and SVP increased nonlinearly with CA. In roots, the parameters had no change with CA. MVP was almost constant with PL or CA. The results suggest that vessel grouping has a nonrandom variation pattern, which is affected deeply by cambial age and water flow path.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in selection of genes associated with pearl millet varietal quantitative traits in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mariac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of two years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability.

  6. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  7. Use of phase-locking value in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface: zero-phase coupling and effects of spatial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenjuan; Chen, Minyou; McFarland, Dennis J

    2017-11-01

    Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering. Both amplitude and PLV feature were extracted in the frequency band of 10-15 Hz by classical methods using archival EEG data of 18 subjects trained on a two-target BCI task. The results show that with right ear-referenced data, there is meaningful long-range zero-phase synchronization likely involving the primary motor area and the supplementary motor area that cannot be explained by volume conduction. Another novel finding is that the large Laplacian spatial filter enhances the amplitude feature but eliminates most of the phase information seen in ear-referenced data. A bipolar channel using phase-coupled areas also includes both phase and amplitude information and has a significant practical advantage since fewer channels required.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in climate change: A bird’s eye view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Decker, Karie L.; Skagen, Susan K.; van Riper, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in global climate have dramatically altered worldwide temperatures and the corresponding timing of seasonal climate conditions. Recognizing the degree to which species respond to changing climates is therefore an area of increasing conservation concern as species that are unable to respond face increased risk of extinction. Here we examine spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the rate of climate change across western North America and discuss the potential for conditions to arise that may limit the ability of western migratory birds to adapt to changing climates. Based on 52 years of climate data, we show that changes in temperature and precipitation differ significantly between spring migration habitats in the desert southwest and breeding habitats throughout western North America. Such differences may ultimately increase costs to individual birds and thereby threaten the long-term population viability of many species.

  9. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Shanghai: Temporal and spatial variation, and global comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Daolun; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Zhou, Jinxing; Zheng, Lirong; Qiao, Gang; Ma, Liming; Lin, Zhifen; Grathwohl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition leads to accumulation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urban surfaces and topsoils. To capture the inherent variability of atmospheric deposition of PAHs in Shanghai's urban agglomeration, 85 atmospheric bulk deposition samples and 7 surface soil samples were collected from seven sampling locations during 2012–2014. Total fluxes of 17 PAHs were 587-32,300 ng m −2 day −1 , with a geometric mean of 2600 ng m −2 day −1 . The deposition fluxes were categorized as moderate to high on a global scale. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene were major contributors. The spatial distribution of deposition fluxes revealed the influence of urbanization/industrialization and the relevance of local emissions. Meteorological conditions and more heating demand in cold season lead to a significant increase of deposition rates. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of PAHs input to topsoils and the annual deposition load in Shanghai amounts to ∼4.5 tons (0.7 kg km −2 ) with a range of 2.5–10 tons (0.4–1.6 kg km −2 ). - Highlights: • PAH deposition flux in Shanghai is categorized as moderate to high on global scale. • Their spatial distribution reveals the influence of urbanization/industrialization. • Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of PAHs input to local topsoils. • Other pathways have to be considered for PAH input in urban soil. - Atmospheric deposition of PAHs revealed the influence of urbanization and industrialization and the relevance of local emissions on Shanghai topsoils.

  10. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Spatial Representativeness of Surface-Measured Variations of Downward Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M.; Folini, D.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Wild, M.

    2017-12-01

    When using time series of ground-based surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in combination with gridded data, the spatial and temporal representativeness of the point observations must be considered. We use SSR data from surface observations and high-resolution (0.05°) satellite-derived data to infer the spatiotemporal representativeness of observations for monthly and longer time scales in Europe. The correlation analysis shows that the squared correlation coefficients (R2) between SSR times series decrease linearly with increasing distance between the surface observations. For deseasonalized monthly mean time series, R2 ranges from 0.85 for distances up to 25 km between the stations to 0.25 at distances of 500 km. A decorrelation length (i.e., the e-folding distance of R2) on the order of 400 km (with spread of 100-600 km) was found. R2 from correlations between point observations and colocated grid box area means determined from satellite data were found to be 0.80 for a 1° grid. To quantify the error which arises when using a point observation as a surrogate for the area mean SSR of larger surroundings, we calculated a spatial sampling error (SSE) for a 1° grid of 8 (3) W/m2 for monthly (annual) time series. The SSE based on a 1° grid, therefore, is of the same magnitude as the measurement uncertainty. The analysis generally reveals that monthly mean (or longer temporally aggregated) point observations of SSR capture the larger-scale variability well. This finding shows that comparing time series of SSR measurements with gridded data is feasible for those time scales.

  12. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  13. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Eggs and hatchlings variations in desert locusts: phase related characteristics and starvation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutaro Ould Maeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are grasshopper species that express phase polyphenism: modifying their behavior, morphology, coloration, life history and physiology in response to crowding. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, epigenetically modify progeny quality and quantity in response to crowding. Gregarious (crowded females produce larger but fewer progeny than do solitarious (isolated ones. The variability of progeny quality within single egg pod and the reasons why gregarious progeny have a better survival than solitarious ones remains unclear. This study investigated 1 the effects of rearing density on the variation in egg size within single egg pods 2 the starvation tolerance of hatchlings from mothers with different phases and 3 the physiological differences in hatchling energy reserve. Isolated females produced smaller but more eggs than did crowded ones. The variation in egg size within egg pods was greater in the latter than in the former. A negative relationship between egg size and number of eggs per egg pod was observed for both groups. Under starvation conditions, gregarious hatchlings survived significantly longer than solitarious ones. Among the solitarious hatchlings, the survival time was longer as hatchling body size increased. However, small individuals survived as long as large ones among the gregarious hatchlings. The percentage of water content per fresh body weight was almost equal between the two phases, before and after starvation. In contrast, the percentage of lipid content per dry body weight was significantly higher in gregarious hatchlings than in solitarious ones before starvation, but became almost equal after starvation. These results demonstrated that female locusts not only trade-off to modify their progeny size and number, but also vary progenies’ energy reserves. We hypothesized that gregarious females enhance their fitness by producing progeny differently adapted to high environmental variability and particularly to

  15. Spatial Variation of Slip Behavior Beneath the Alaska Peninsula Along Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2018-04-01

    We resurveyed preexisting campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) sites and estimated a highly precise GPS velocity field for the Alaska Peninsula. We use the TDEFNODE software to model the slip deficit distribution using the new GPS velocities. We find systematic misfits to the vertical velocities from the optimal model that fits the horizontal velocities well, which cannot be explained by altering the slip distribution, so we use only the horizontal velocities in the study. Locations of three boundaries that mark significant along-strike change in the locking distribution are identified. The Kodiak segment is strongly locked, the Semidi segment is intermediate, the Shumagin segment is weakly locked, and the Sanak segment is dominantly creeping. We suggest that a change in preexisting plate fabric orientation on the downgoing plate has an important control on the along-strike variation in the megathrust locking distribution and subduction seismicity.

  16. Role of cerebellar nodulus and uvula on the vestibular quick phase spatial constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S; Errico, P; Barmack, N H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the orientation of quick phases (QPs) of vestibularly-induced eye movements in rabbits in response to "off-vertical" sinusoidal vestibular stimulation. We also examined the possible role of the cerebellar nodulus and ventral uvula in controlling QP spatial orientation and modification. During "off-vertical" vestibular stimulation QPs remained aligned with the earth's horizontal plane, while the slow phases (SPs) were aligned with the plane of vestibular stimulation. This suggests that QPs are coded in gravito-inertial coordinates and SPs in head coordinates. When rabbits were oscillated in the light (20 degrees peak-to-peak; 0.2 Hz) about an "off-vertical" axis for 2 h, the QPs changed their trajectory, abandoning the earth's horizontal plane to approach the plane of the stimulus. By contrast, in the absence of conjunctive optokinetic stimulation, QPs remained fixed in the earth's horizontal plane even after 2 h of "off-vertical" stimulation. The conjunctive combination of optokinetic and vestibular stimulation caused QPs to change their plane of rotation. After lesion of the nodulus-uvula the ability of rabbits to reorient QPs during conjoint vestibular-optokinetic stimulation was maintained. We conclude that the space orientation and adaptation of QPs do not require cerebellar control.

  17. Traffic jams induce dynamical phase transition in spatial rock-paper-scissors game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Ichinose, Genki; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Spatial and temporal behaviors of the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game is key to understanding not only biodiversity but also a variety of cyclic systems. It has been demonstrated that, in the stochastic cellular automaton of RPS game, three species cannot survive on one-dimensional (1-d) lattice; only a single species survives. Previous studies have shown that three species are able to coexist if the migration of species is considered. However, their definitions of migration are the swapping of two species or the random walk of species, which rarely occurs in nature. Here, we investigate the effect of migration by using the 1-d lattice traffic model in which species can move rightward if the site ahead is empty. Computer simulations reveal that three species can survive at the same time within the wide range of parameter values. At low densities, all species can coexist. In contrast, the extinction of two species occurs if the density exceeds the critical limit of the jamming transition. This dynamical phase transition between the coexistence and single (non-coexistence) phase clearly separates due to the self-organized pattern: condensation and rarefaction in the stripe-pattern of three species.

  18. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  19. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Fabricio D., E-mail: fabricio.cid@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Anton, Rosa I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina)

    2011-10-31

    Highlights: {yields} Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. {yields} PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. {yields} Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. {yields} The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the

  20. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Fabricio D.; Anton, Rosa I.; Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. → PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. → Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. → The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the spatial and

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E.; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100–1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time

  2. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pop Ristova

    Full Text Available Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100-1700 m, but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were

  3. Seasonal and spatial variation of bacterial production and abundance in the northern Levantine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. YUCEL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in bacterial production and abundance in relation to ambient bio-physicochemical parameters has been investigated in the Levantine Sea. Five stations with different trophic states in an area extending from highly eutrophic Mersin bay to the mesotrophic Rhodes gyre area including the oligotrophic offshore waters were sampled four times. Integrated bacterial production varied between 6.1 and 90.3 µg C m-2 d-1 with higher rates occurring during September 2012 in offshore waters. Bacterial abundance ranged between 0.18 and 7.3 x 105 cells ml-1 within the euphotic zone and was generally higher up to 100 meters throughout the study period. In offshore waters, bacterial production (0.401 to 0.050 µg C m-3 d-1, abundance (4.5 to 1.6 x 105 cells ml-1 and depth of the productive layer decreased from 150 to 75 meters westward along the transect. Although the highest abundance was observed in July 2012 in offshore waters, the highest activity was measured in September 2012. These results indicated that the temperature played a key role in regulating bacterial abundance and production in the area. High chlorophyll concentrations in March did not correspond to high bacterial abundance and production at the same time. Increase in dissolved organic carbon content following spring phytoplankton bloom and the increase in temperature in the mean time might have enhanced the bacterial activity towards summer.

  4. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  5. Spatial variation in risk and consequence of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans introduction in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Adams, Michael J.; White, C. LeAnn; Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    A newly identified fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), is responsible for mass mortality events and severe population declines in European salamanders. The eastern USA has the highest diversity of salamanders in the world and the introduction of this pathogen is likely to be devastating. Although data are inevitably limited for new pathogens, disease-risk assessments use best available data to inform management decisions. Using characteristics of Bsal ecology, spatial data on imports and pet trade establishments, and salamander species diversity, we identify high-risk areas with both a high likelihood of introduction and severe consequences for local salamanders. We predict that the Pacific coast, southern Appalachian Mountains and mid-Atlantic regions will have the highest relative risk from Bsal. Management of invasive pathogens becomes difficult once they are established in wildlife populations; therefore, import restrictions to limit pathogen introduction and early detection through surveillance of high-risk areas are priorities for preventing the next crisis for North American salamanders.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in sponge spicule patches at Station M, northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguionie-Marchais, C; Kuhnz, L A; Huffard, C L; Ruhl, H A; Smith, K L

    Changes in habitat-forming organisms can have complex consequences for associated species. Sessile epibenthic glass "plate" sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are conspicuous inhabitants of soft-sediment abyssal areas and their siliceous spicules create persistent spicule patches on the seafloor. Sponge spicule patch density, spatial dispersion, and percent cover were examined over a seven-year period (2006-2013) using remotely operated vehicle videos from Station M in the abyssal northeast Pacific (50˚00N, 123˚00W, ~4,000 m depth). There was an apparent large increase in newly dead plate sponges in February 2007 compared with December 2006, with this trend continuing through June 2007 (mean 0.03 % cover increasing to 0.33 %). A second increase in mean percent cover of dead plate sponges occurred from May 2011 (0.24 %) through June 2012 (0.60 %). Among the 28 megafaunal taxa occurring in association with the patches, the distributions of three taxa [two sponge taxa (Porifera) and brittle stars (Ophiuroidea)] suggested selectivity for the sponge spicule patches. The community structure of visible megafauna within sponge spicule patches was different when compared with that outside the patches suggesting that the sponges, after death, provide preferred habitat patches for certain benthic megafauna. These findings indicate that sponge spicule patches contribute to habitat heterogeneity in space and time.

  7. Spatial Isolation and Temporal Variation in Fitness and Condition Facilitate Divergence in a Migratory Divide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hermes

    Full Text Available A novel migratory polymorphism evolved within the last 60 years in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla breeding sympatrically in southwestern Germany. While most individuals winter in the traditional areas in the Mediterranean, a growing number of blackcaps started migrating to Britain instead. The rapid microevolution of this new strategy has been attributed to assortative mating and better physical condition of birds wintering in Britain. However, the isolating barriers as well as the physical condition of birds are not well known. In our study, we examined whether spatial isolation occurred among individuals with distinct migratory behaviour and birds with different arrival dates also differed in physical and genetic condition. We caught blackcaps in six consecutive years upon arrival on the breeding grounds and assigned them via stable isotope analysis to their wintering areas. Analysis of the vegetation structure within blackcap territories revealed different microhabitat preferences of birds migrating to distinct wintering areas. Blackcaps arriving early on the breeding grounds had higher survival rates, better body condition and higher multilocus heterozygosities than later arriving birds. We did however not find an effect of parasite infection status on arrival time. Our results suggest that early arriving birds have disproportionate effects on population dynamics. Allochrony and habitat isolation may thus act together to facilitate ongoing divergence in hybrid zones, and migratory divides in particular.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  9. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Shanghai: Temporal and spatial variation, and global comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Zhou, Jinxing; Zheng, Lirong; Qiao, Gang; Ma, Liming; Lin, Zhifen; Grathwohl, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric deposition leads to accumulation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urban surfaces and topsoils. To capture the inherent variability of atmospheric deposition of PAHs in Shanghai's urban agglomeration, 85 atmospheric bulk deposition samples and 7 surface soil samples were collected from seven sampling locations during 2012-2014. Total fluxes of 17 PAHs were 587-32,300 ng m -2 day -1 , with a geometric mean of 2600 ng m -2 day -1 . The deposition fluxes were categorized as moderate to high on a global scale. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene were major contributors. The spatial distribution of deposition fluxes revealed the influence of urbanization/industrialization and the relevance of local emissions. Meteorological conditions and more heating demand in cold season lead to a significant increase of deposition rates. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of PAHs input to topsoils and the annual deposition load in Shanghai amounts to ∼4.5 tons (0.7 kg km -2 ) with a range of 2.5-10 tons (0.4-1.6 kg km -2 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial-temporal variation of low-frequency earthquake bursts near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Guyer, Robert; Shelly, David R.; Trugman, D.; Frank, William; Gomberg, Joan S.; Johnson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic tremor (TT) and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) have been found in the deeper crust of various tectonic environments globally in the last decade. The spatial-temporal behaviour of LFEs provides insight into deep fault zone processes. In this study, we examine recurrence times from a 12-yr catalogue of 88 LFE families with ∼730 000 LFEs in the vicinity of the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in central California. We apply an automatic burst detection algorithm to the LFE recurrence times to identify the clustering behaviour of LFEs (LFE bursts) in each family. We find that the burst behaviours in the northern and southern LFE groups differ. Generally, the northern group has longer burst duration but fewer LFEs per burst, while the southern group has shorter burst duration but more LFEs per burst. The southern group LFE bursts are generally more correlated than the northern group, suggesting more coherent deep fault slip and relatively simpler deep fault structure beneath the locked section of SAF. We also found that the 2004 Parkfield earthquake clearly increased the number of LFEs per burst and average burst duration for both the northern and the southern groups, with a relatively larger effect on the northern group. This could be due to the weakness of northern part of the fault, or the northwesterly rupture direction of the Parkfield earthquake.

  11. Response of the Benguela upwelling systems to spatial variations in the wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Wolfgang; Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we combine field observations, numerical modeling and an idealized analytical theory to study some features of the Benguela upwelling system. The current system can be established through a combination of observations and realistic simulations with an advanced numerical model. The poleward undercurrent below the equator-ward coastal jet is often found as a countercurrent that reaches the sea surface seaward of the coastal jet. The coastal band of cold upwelled water appears to broaden from south to north and at the northern edge of the wind band an offshore flow is often detected, which deflects the coastal Angola current to the west. These features can be explained and understood with an idealized analytical model forced by a spatially variable wind. A crucial role is played by the wind stress curl, which shapes the oceanic response through Ekman-pumping. The interplay of the curl driven effects and the coastal Ekman upwelling together with the coastal jet, Kelvin waves, and the undercurrent is the key to understand the formation of the three-dimensional circulation patterns in the Benguela system. While the numerical model is based on the full set of primitive equations, realistic topography and forcing, the analytic model uses a linear, flat-bottomed f-plane ocean, where the coast is a straight wall and the forcing is represented by an alongshore band of dome-shaped wind stress. Although the analytical model is highly idealized it is very useful to grasp the basic mechanisms leading to the response patterns.

  12. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  13. Simulation study of spatial resolution in phase-contrast X-ray imaging with Takagi-Taupin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Ichiro; Momose, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate attainable spatial resolution of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an LLL X-ray interferometer with a thin crystal wafer, a computer simulation study with Takagi-Taupin equation was performed. Modulation transfer function of the wafer for X-ray phase was evaluated. For a polyester film whose thickness is 0.1 mm, it was concluded that the spatial resolution can be improved up to 3 μm by thinning the wafer, under our experimental condition

  14. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  15. Spatial variations in vegetation as related to the soil moisture regime over an arid limestone hillside, northern Negev, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, A; Danin, A

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study of the distribution of plant communities was conducted in an experimental site, located in the arid northern Negev of Israel, where the spatial variation in rainfall, runoff and soil moisture regime are currently being studied. Phytogeographical methods of analysis usually used for studies on a regional scale were applied for a small area extending over 11,325 m 2 of a north-facing hillside. Data obtained indicate that the best water regime and a high diversity of plant species are characteristic of a massive limestone rock unit; whereas worse water regimes characterize densely jointed and thinly bedded limestones. Over slopes, developed in a uniform lithology, whose lower part is composed of a colluvial mantle, a gradual downslope worsening of the soil moisture regime is recorded within the colluvium. These changes are well expressed in the distribution of the plant communities and their phytogeographical affinities along the slopes.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of radon concentrations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Nepolian, M.; Tirumalesh, K.; Prasanna, M.V.

    2017-01-01

    Radon ("2"2"2Rn) and other radionuclides in groundwater can lead to health problems if present in higher concentrations. A study was carried out in Madurai district of Tamilnadu by collecting groundwater samples for four different seasons and aims to identify the regions with higher "2"2"2Rn concentration along with their spatial and seasonal variations. "2"2"2Rn has been compared with field parameters, log pCO_2, major ions and uranium to detect the factors responsible for the higher concentration in groundwater. The weathering process induces the release of higher uranium ions from the granitic terrain from the rock matrix which enhances the "2"2"2Rn levels in groundwater. (author)

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of winter discharge under climate change: Case study of rivers in European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Telegina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in hydrology is the re-evaluation of the current resources of surface and underground waters in the context of ongoing climate changes. The main feature of the present-day changes in water regime in the major portion of European Russia (ER is the substantial increase in low-water runoff, especially in winter. In this context, some features of the spatial–temporal variations of runoff values during the winter low-water period are considered. Calculations showed that the winter runoff increased at more than 95% of hydrological gauges. Changes in the minimum and average values of runoff during winter low-water period and other characteristics are evaluated against the background of climate changes in the recent decades. The spatial and temporal variability of winter runoff in European Russia is evaluated for the first time.

  18. Analysis of Temporal-spatial Co-variation within Gene Expression Microarray Data in an Organogenesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Martin; Rajapakse, Vinodh; Zeeberg, Barry; Brooks, Brian; Brown, Jacob; Czaja, Wojciech; Bonner, Robert F.

    The gene networks underlying closure of the optic fissure during vertebrate eye development are poorly understood. We used a novel clustering method based on Laplacian Eigenmaps, a nonlinear dimension reduction method, to analyze microarray data from laser capture microdissected (LCM) cells at the site and developmental stages (days 10.5 to 12.5) of optic fissure closure. Our new method provided greater biological specificity than classical clustering algorithms in terms of identifying more biological processes and functions related to eye development as defined by Gene Ontology at lower false discovery rates. This new methodology builds on the advantages of LCM to isolate pure phenotypic populations within complex tissues and allows improved ability to identify critical gene products expressed at lower copy number. The combination of LCM of embryonic organs, gene expression microarrays, and extracting spatial and temporal co-variations appear to be a powerful approach to understanding the gene regulatory networks that specify mammalian organogenesis.

  19. Seasonal and spatial variations of atmospheric trace elemental deposition in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition (wet + dry deposition) samples (n = 40) were collected concurrently at ten sites in four seasons between June 2009 and April 2010 in the Aliaga heavily industrialized region, Turkey, containing a number of significant air pollutant sources. Analyses of trace elements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). While there were significant differences in the particulate matter (PM) deposition fluxes among the sampling sites, seasonal variations were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Both PM deposition and elemental fluxes were increased at the sampling sites in the vicinity of industrial activities. The crustal elements (i.e., Ca, Mg) and some anthropogenic elements (such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Cr) were high, and the highest fluxes were mostly measured in summer and winter seasons. The enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to determine the possible sources in the study area. High EF values were obtained for the anthropogenic elements such as Ag, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Sb. The possible sources were identified as anthropogenic sources (i.e., iron-steel production) (45.4%), crustal and re-suspended dust (27.1%), marine aerosol (7.9%), and coal and wood combustion (8.2%). Thus, the iron-steel production and its related activities were found to be the main pollutant sources for this region.

  20. Spatial variation in automated burst suppression detection in pharmacologically induced coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingzhi; Jonnalagadda, Durga; Moura, Valdery; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Westover, M Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Burst suppression is actively studied as a control signal to guide anesthetic dosing in patients undergoing medically induced coma. The ability to automatically identify periods of EEG suppression and compactly summarize the depth of coma using the burst suppression probability (BSP) is crucial to effective and safe monitoring and control of medical coma. Current literature however does not explicitly account for the potential variation in burst suppression parameters across different scalp locations. In this study we analyzed standard 19-channel EEG recordings from 8 patients with refractory status epilepticus who underwent pharmacologically induced burst suppression as medical treatment for refractory seizures. We found that although burst suppression is generally considered a global phenomenon, BSP obtained using a previously validated algorithm varies systematically across different channels. A global representation of information from individual channels is proposed that takes into account the burst suppression characteristics recorded at multiple electrodes. BSP computed from this representative burst suppression pattern may be more resilient to noise and a better representation of the brain state of patients. Multichannel data integration may enhance the reliability of estimates of the depth of medical coma.

  1. Spatial variations of growth within domes having different patterns of principal growth directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate variations for two paraboloidal domes: A and B, identical when seen from the outside but differing in the internal pattern of principal growth directions, were modeled by means of the growth tensor and a natural coordinate system. In dome A periclinal trajectories in the axial plane were given by confocal parabolas (as in a tunical dome, in dome B by parabolas converging to the vertex (as in a dome without a tunica. Accordingly, two natural coordinate systems, namely paraboloidal for A and convergent parabolic for B, were used. In both cases, the rate of growth in area on the surfaces of domes was assumed to be isotropic and identical in corresponding points. It appears that distributions of growth rates within domes A and B are similar in their peripheral and central parts and different only in their distal regions. In the latter, growth rates are relatively large; the maximum relative rate of growth in volume is around the geometric focus in dome A, and on the surface around the vertex in dome B.

  2. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Alex; White, N. J.; Caulfield, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1,000 m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1,171 reflections, each of which is greater than 2 km in length. Power spectra of the horizontal gradient of isopycnal displacement, ϕξx, are calculated from these tracked reflections. At low horizontal wave numbers (kxcpm), ϕξx∝kx-0.2±0.6, in agreement with hydrographic observations of the internal wave field. The turbulent spectral subrange is rarely observed. Diapycnal diffusivity, K, is estimated from the observed internal wave spectral subrange of each tracked reflection using a fine-scale parametrization of turbulent mixing. Calculated values of K vary between 10-8 and 10-4 m2 s-1 with a mean value of K˜4×10-6 m2 s-1. The spatial distribution of turbulent mixing shows that K˜10-7 m2 s-1 away from the shelf edge in the upper 300 m where stratification is strong. Mixing is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude adjacent to the shoaling bathymetry of the continental slope. This overall pattern matches that determined by analyzing nearby suites of CTD casts. However, the range of values recovered by spectral analysis of the seismic image is greater as a consequence of significantly better horizontal resolution.

  3. Spatial variation of mercury bioaccumulation in bats of Canada linked to atmospheric mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Hickey, M Brian C; Poulain, Alexandre J; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei; McAlpine, Donald; Vanderwolf, Karen; Jung, Thomas S; Hale, Lesley; Cooke, Emma L L; Hobson, Dave; Jonasson, Kristin; Kaupas, Laura; McCarthy, Sara; McClelland, Christine; Morningstar, Derek; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Novy, Richard; Player, Delanie; Redford, Tony; Simard, Anouk; Stamler, Samantha; Webber, Quinn M R; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Zanuttig, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    mercury deposition is important in determining spatial patterns of mercury accumulation in a mammalian species. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Spatial Variations in N2O Concentration and Isotopomer Composition off the Peru Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, A.; Letscher, R. T.; Kock, A.; Bange, H. W.; Altabet, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and stratospheric ozone depleting substance. The ocean is an important source of N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for up to about 30% of total emissions. However, the factors controlling N2O production and consumption in oceanic environments are still not understood nor constrained. N2O is a by-product of aerobic nitrification, and is formed by two different pathways: 1) the decomposition of hydroxylamine, an intermediate during ammonium oxidation to nitrite, or 2) the reduction of nitrite to N2O (nitrifier-denitrification). N2O is also an intermediate during denitrification under anoxic conditions. In this study, we measured N2O concentrations and isotopomer ratios, as well as O2, nutrient and biogenic N2 concentrations and the isotopic compositions of nitrate, nitrite and biogenic N2 at several coastal stations during two cruises off the Peru coast (6-14°S, 75-81°W) in December 2012 and January 2013. [N2O] varied from below equilibrium values in the OMZ to up to 238 nmol L-1 at 11 m depth at one of the shallowest stations. The isotopic composition of N2O (bulk δ15N: -5 to 30‰, δ18O: 41 to 95‰, and Site Preference: -3 to 65‰) also varied widely, with important differences between stations. Our results show a strong spatial heterogeneity in the mechanisms controlling N2O production and consumption in coastal upwelling regions, which should be taken into account in oceanic N2O models. We will discuss the contributions from different N2O production processes responsible for the observed extreme N2O accumulations.

  6. Spatial variations and sources of trace elements in recent snow from glaciers at the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju; Li, Yuefang; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Longfei

    2018-03-01

    Trace elements (TEs) could pose a potential threat to the environment and human health and hence they have been paid attention increasingly at present. This study presents the acid-leached concentrations of TEs (e.g., Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V) and dust content sampled from Qiumianleike (QMLK), Meikuang (MK), Yuzhufeng (YZF), Xiaodongkemadi (XDKMD), Gurenhekou (GRHK) glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from April to May in 2013. A nonparametric Jonckheere-Terpstra Method was used to test the trend of spatial distribution of TEs. The statistical analysis indicates that TEs were the highest in the QMLK glacier, lowest in the YZF glacier, and comparable in the other three glaciers. Comparison with other glaciers of the plateau, the statistical analysis on As, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Sb shows that their concentrations had, in general, a decreasing distribution characteristic from the north to the south of TP, which indicates that the northern TP is loading more atmospheric-polluted impurity than central and southern TP. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis indicates that Rb, V, U, Cr, Ba, Cs, Li, As, Co, Mn, Tl, Sr, and Cu originated mainly from crustal dust, while anthropogenic inputs such as nonferrous metals melting, coal combustion, and traffic emission made an important contribution to the Mo, Pb, and Sb. Evidences from air mass back trajectories show that TEs in the five studied glaciers might not only come from surrounding areas of glaciers but also might be long-range transported by atmosphere from the Central Asia and South Asia and deposited on these glaciers.

  7. Spatial variation in soil active-layer geochemistry across hydrologic margins in polar desert ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Barrett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar deserts are characterized by severe spatial-temporal limitations of liquid water. In soil active layers of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, liquid water is infrequently available over most of the arid terrestrial landscape. However, soils on the margins of glacial melt-water streams and lakes are visibly wet during the brief Austral summer when temperatures permit the existence of liquid water. We examined the role of these hydrologic margins as preferential zones for the transformation and transport of nutrient elements and solutes in an environment where geochemical weathering and biological activity is strictly limited by the dearth of liquid water. We report on hydropedological investigations of aquatic-terrestrial transition zones adjacent to 11 stream and lake systems in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Our results show that wetted zones extended 1–11 m from the edges of lotic and lentic systems. While capillary demand and surface evaporation drive a one-way flux of water through these zones, the scale of these transition zones is determined by the topography and physical characteristics of the surrounding soils. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes appear to be influenced by both the hydrology and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes. Salt concentrations are enriched near the distal boundary of the wetted fronts due to evapo-concentration of pore water in lake margin soils, while organic matter, ammonium and phosphate concentrations are highest in stream channel sediments where potential for biological activity is greatest. Thus, in the Antarctic Dry Valleys, intermittently wet soils on the margins of streams and lakes are important zones of both geochemical cycling and biological activity.

  8. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  9. Spatial variation in basic chemistry of streams draining a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, C.M.; Triska, F.J.; Browder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variability in selected chemical, physical and biological parameters was examined in waters draining relatively pristine tropical forests spanning elevations from 35 to 2600 meters above sea level in a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope. Waters were sampled within three different vegetative life zones and two transition zones. Water temperatures ranged from 24-25 ??C in streams draining lower elevations (35-250 m) in tropical wet forest, to 10 ??C in a crater lake at 2600 m in montane forest. Ambient phosphorus levels (60-300 ??g SRP L-1; 66-405 ??g TP L-1) were high at sites within six pristine drainages at elevations between 35-350 m, while other undisturbed streams within and above this range in elevation were low (typically <30.0 ??g SRP L-1). High ambient phosphorus levels within a given stream were not diagnostic of riparian swamp forest. Phosphorus levels (but not nitrate) were highly correlated with conductivity, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and SO4. Results indicate two major stream types: 1) phosphorus-poor streams characterized by low levels of dissolved solids reflecting local weathering processes; and 2) phosphorus-rich streams characterized by relatively high Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca and other dissolved solids, reflecting dissolution of basaltic rock at distant sources and/or input of volcanic brines. Phosphorus-poor streams were located within the entire elevation range, while phosphorus-rich streams were predominately located at the terminus of Pleistocene lava flows at low elevations. Results indicate that deep groundwater inputs, rich in phosphorus and other dissolved solids, surface from basaltic aquifers at breaks in landform along faults and/or where the foothills of the central mountain range merge with the coastal plain. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  10. Detection of spatial hot spots and variation for the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii resources in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Chen, Xinjun; Liu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing effects of global climate change and fishing activities, the spatial distribution of the neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) is changing in the traditional fishing ground of 150°-160°E and 38°-45°N in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This research aims to identify the spatial hot and cold spots (i.e. spatial clusters) of O. bartramii to reveal its spatial structure using commercial fishery data from 2007 to 2010 collected by Chinese mainland squid-jigging fleets. A relatively strongly-clustered distribution for O. bartramii was observed using an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method. The results show two hot spots and one cold spot in 2007 while only one hot and one cold spots were identified each year from 2008 to 2010. The hot and cold spots in 2007 occupied 8.2% and 5.6% of the study area, respectively; these percentages for hot and cold spot areas were 5.8% and 3.1% in 2008, 10.2% and 2.9% in 2009, and 16.4% and 11.9% in 2010, respectively. Nearly half (>45%) of the squid from 2007 to 2009 reported by Chinese fleets were caught in hot spot areas while this percentage reached its peak at 68.8% in 2010, indicating that the hot spot areas are central fishing grounds. A further change analysis shows the area centered at 156°E/43.5°N was persistent as a hot spot over the whole period from 2007 to 2010. Furthermore, the hot spots were mainly identified in areas with sea surface temperature (SST) in the range of 15-20°C around warm Kuroshio Currents as well as with the chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentration above 0.3 mg/m3. The outcome of this research improves our understanding of spatiotemporal hotspots and its variation for O. bartramii and is useful for sustainable exploitation, assessment, and management of this squid.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in domestic biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Zimbabwe: implications for atmospheric trace gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, J.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G.; Marufu, L.; University of Utrecht; Lelieveld, J.

    1999-01-01

    An ecologically nationwide and all-year-round domestic biofuel consumption study was conducted in Zimbabwe from January 1996 to March 1997. The study aimed at (a) establishing the determinants and magnitudes of spatial and temporal variations in biofuel consumption rates, (b) estimating the overall mean national rural and urban consumption rates, and (c) estimating the contribution of domestic biomass burning in Zimbabwe to the emission of atmospheric trace gases. The main source of spatial variation in biofuel consumption rates was found to be settlement type (rural or urban). Within a settlement type, per capita consumption rates varied in time and space with household size, ambient temperature, and physical availability. In rural areas wood and agricultural residues were consumed at national average rates of 1.3±0.2 and 0.07±0.01 tonnes capita -1 year -1 , respectively. In urban centres wood was consumed at an average rate of 0.4±0.26 tonnes capita -1 year -1 . These consumption rates translate into emission outputs from Zimbabwe of 4.6 Tg CO 2 -C year -1 , 0.4 Tg CO-C year -1 , 5.3 Gg NO-N year -1 , 14.5 Gg CH 4 -C year -1 , 24.2 Gg NMHC-C year -1 , 2.9 Gg organic acid-C year -1 (formic and acetic acids) and 48.4 Gg aerosol-C year -1 . For CO 2 , CO, and NO, these domestic biofuel emissions represent 41±6%, 67±6%, and 8±1%, respectively, of the total output of all sources evaluated and documented in Zimbabwe to date. This means that of the studied sources, domestic biomass burning is the major source of CO 2 and CO emission in Zimbabwe

  12. Process Inference from High Frequency Temporal Variations in Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Dynamics Across Nested Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J. S.; Soulsby, C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand aquatic ecosystem functioning it is critical to understand the processes that control the spatial and temporal variations in DOC. DOC concentrations are highly dynamic, however, our understanding at short, high frequency timescales is still limited. Optical sensors which act as a proxy for DOC provide the opportunity to investigate near-continuous DOC variations in order to understand the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that control concentrations at short temporal scales. Here we present inferred 15 minute stream water DOC data for a 12 month period at three nested scales (1km2, 3km2 and 31km2) for the Bruntland Burn, a headwater catchment in NE Scotland. High frequency data were measured using FDOM and CDOM probes which work by measuring the fluorescent component and coloured component, respectively, of DOC when exposed to ultraviolet light. Both FDOM and CDOM were strongly correlated (r2 >0.8) with DOC allowing high frequency estimations. Results show the close coupling of DOC with discharge throughout the sampling period at all three spatial scales. However, analysis at the event scale highlights anticlockwise hysteresis relationships between DOC and discharge due to the delay in DOC being flushed from the increasingly large areas of peaty soils as saturation zones expand and increase hydrological connectivity. Lag times vary between events dependent on antecedent conditions. During a 10 year drought period in late summer 2013 it was apparent that very small changes in discharge on a 15 minute timescale result in high increases in DOC. This suggests transport limitation during this period where DOC builds up in the soil and is not flushed regularly, therefore any subsequent increase in discharge results in large DOC peaks. The high frequency sensors also reveal diurnal variability during summer months related to the photo-oxidation, evaporative and biological influences of DOC during the day. This relationship is less

  13. Phase 2B experimental design for the INEEL glass composition variation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Science and Technology (through the Tanks Focus Area [TFA]) and Waste Management are sponsoring a partnership among Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for a collaborative glass composition variation study (CVS). The purpose of the CVS is to investigate property - composition relationships within a glass-composition region compatible with the expected range of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) high-activity wastes (HAWs). The CVS has been conducted in phases to allow INEEL, PNNL, and SRTC researchers to adjust the glass composition region of interest as flowsheet options are refined and/or waste-stream compositions become more defined

  14. Automated high resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography for quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neeru; Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We developed an automated high-resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography (FF-SCT) microscope for quantitative phase imaging that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The Red and Green color laser light was used for finding the quantitative phase images of unstained human red blood cells (RBCs). This study uses morphological parameters of unstained RBCs phase images to distinguish between normal and infected cells. We recorded the single interferogram by a FF-SCT microscope for red and green color wavelength and average the two phase images to further reduced the noise artifacts. In order to characterize anemia infected from normal cells different morphological features were extracted and these features were used to train machine learning ensemble model to classify RBCs with high accuracy.

  15. Phase variation of poly-N-acetylglucosamine expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Brooks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, also known as poly-N-acetyl-β-(1-6-glucosamine (PIA/PNAG is an important component of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and also contributes to resistance to phagocytosis. The proteins IcaA, IcaD, IcaB, and IcaC are encoded within the intercellular adhesin (ica operon and synthesize PIA/PNAG. We discovered a mechanism of phase variation in PIA/PNAG expression that appears to involve slipped-strand mispairing. The process is reversible and RecA-independent, and involves the expansion and contraction of a simple tetranucleotide tandem repeat within icaC. Inactivation of IcaC results in a PIA/PNAG-negative phenotype. A PIA/PNAG-hyperproducing strain gained a fitness advantage in vitro following the icaC mutation and loss of PIA/PNAG production. The mutation was also detected in two clinical isolates, suggesting that under certain conditions, loss of PIA/PNAG production may be advantageous during infection. There was also a survival advantage for an icaC-negative strain harboring intact icaADB genes relative to an isogenic icaADBC deletion mutant. Together, these results suggest that inactivation of icaC is a mode of phase variation for PIA/PNAG expression, that high-level production of PIA/PNAG carries a fitness cost, and that icaADB may contribute to bacterial fitness, by an unknown mechanism, in the absence of an intact icaC gene and PIA/PNAG production.

  16. Spatial variation of epoxyscillirosidine concentrations in Moraea pallida (yellow tulp in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moraea pallida (yellow tulp poisoning is economically the most important intoxication of livestock in South Africa. Poisoning varies according to locality, climatic conditions and growth stage of the plant. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentration of the toxic principle, epoxyscillirosidine, in yellow tulp leaves and to ascertain the variability of epoxyscillirosidine concentrations within and between different locations. A secondary objective was to utilise Geographic Information Systems in an attempt to explain the variability in toxicity. Flowering yellow tulp plants were collected at 26 sampling points across 20 districts of South Africa. The leaves of five plants per sampling point were extracted and submitted for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A large variation in mean epoxyscillirosidine concentrations, ranging from 3.32 μg/g – 238.27 μg/g, occurred between different geographical regions. The epoxyscillirosidine concentrations also varied tremendously between individual plants (n= 5 collected at the same sampling point, with up to a 24 times difference between the lowest and highest concentration detected. No generalised correlation between epoxyscillirosidine concentrations and soil elemental concentrations could be established. However, samples obtained from the north-eastern part of the sampling region tended to have higher epoxyscillirosidine concentrations compared to samples obtained from the south-western part of the sampling region. Higher toxin concentrations in the northeast were associated with statistically significant higher soil concentrations of iron, bismuth, bromide, cadmium, chromium, rubidium, tellurium, thallium, titanium and zinc, whilst soil concentrations of strontium and soil pH, were significantly lower. This study corroborated the contention that epoxyscillirosidine concentration in yellow tulp fluctuates and may explain the variability in toxicity.

  17. Spatial variations in zooplankton diversity in waters contaminated with composite effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asitava CHATTERJEE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton species are cosmopolitan in their clean freshwater habitat and are also found in industrial and municipal wastewaters. The present study records for the first time the aspects of zooplankton diversity in relation to physico-chemical environment of five selected sites of the East Calcutta wetlands, a Ramsar site of Kolkata city, India, heavily contaminated by industrial and municipal wastewaters. The study revealed the occurrence of 22 species of zooplankton, among these 3 species of Cladocera, 2 species of Copepoda, 15 species of Rotifera, and 2 species of Ostracoda were recorded. The copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti was found in all the five sites, rotifers Asplanchna brightwelli, Brachionus angularis, B. calyciflorus and Cladocera Ceriodaphnia cornuta were found in four sites; Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma sarsi were found at three sites. Site wise variation in dominance, diversity, evenness and richness were calculated. Site 1, a fish-pond that stabilized composite wastewater, showed the maximum species richness having 17 species, while Site 2, SWF wastewater carrying canal, showed only 4 species. The calculated Jack 1 values of Sites 1 to 5 were 21.78, 3.77, 18.63, 12.5 and 16.95 respectively. Shannon-Wiener species diversity index (H/ values were almost similar for all the three relatively less polluted sites viz, Site 1 (1.959, Site 4 (2.010, Site 5 (2.047. However, at highly polluted sites viz., 2 and 3, H/ value of 1.336 and 0.984 respectively, were calculated. Simpson’s Dominance index (Dsimp value was highest at Site 3 (0.618 indicating maximum dominance, whereas at Site 5 dominance was lowest (0.1680 and diversity was highest. We discuss the role of zooplankton in the amelioration of wastewater.

  18. Investigation of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of in-cylinder engine fuel spray characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wenjin; Hung, David L.S.; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • POD quadruple decomposition can reconstruct spray structure into different parts. • Different quadruple POD parts reveal different levels of spay field intensity. • Large scale structure part dominates the CCV of the entire spray. • In-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on CCV of spray structure. - Abstract: The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to analyze the pulsing spray characteristics of the fuel injection inside a four-valve optical spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The instantaneous spray structures are decomposed into four parts, namely the mean structure, large scale structure, transition structure and small scale structure, respectively, by using POD quadruple decomposition. The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the in-cylinder pulsing spray structure are examined separately based on the four parts. Analysis results indicate that the four parts have different characteristics, and each individual part represents a specific instantaneous spray structure. First, the mean part contains more than 90% of the total intensity of the spray field throughout the whole injection process. Moreover, the large scale structure part has the highest CCV level among all four parts, and it dominates the CCV of the entire spray field. The CCV of spray can be influenced by different engine operating conditions. In particular, the in-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on the spray CCV. The varying motion of the in-cylinder flow field significantly influences the CCV of the large scale spray part, which in turn affects the CCV characteristics of the whole spray field

  19. Tracking spatial variation in river load from Andean highlands to inter-Andean valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Gustavo E.; Vanacker, Veerle; Campforts, Benjamin; Álvarez, Lenín; Zhiminaicela, Santiago; Vercruysse, Kim; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2018-05-01

    Mountains play an important role in the denudation of continents and transfer erosion and weathering products to lowlands and oceans. The rates at which erosion and weathering processes take place in mountain regions have a substantial impact on the morphology and biogeochemistry of downstream reaches and lowlands. The controlling factors of physical erosion and chemical weathering and the coupling between the two processes are not yet fully understood. In this study, we report physical erosion and chemical weathering rates for five Andean catchments located in the southern Ecuadorian Andes and investigate their mutual interaction. During a 4-year monitoring period, we sampled river water at biweekly intervals, and we analyzed water samples for major ions and suspended solids. We derived the total annual dissolved, suspended sediment, and ionic loads from the flow frequency curves and adjusted rating curves and used the dissolved and suspended sediment yields as proxies for chemical weathering and erosion rates. In the 4-year period of monitoring, chemical weathering exceeds physical erosion in the high Andean catchments. Whereas physical erosion rates do not exceed 30 t km-2 y-1 in the relict glaciated morphology, chemical weathering rates range between 22 and 59 t km-2 y-1. The variation in chemical weathering is primarily controlled by intrinsic differences in bedrock lithology. Land use has no discernible impact on the weathering rate but leads to a small increase in base cation concentrations because of fertilizer leaching in surface water. When extending our analysis with published data on dissolved and suspended sediment yields from the northern and central Andes, we observe that the river load composition strongly changes in the downstream direction, indicating large heterogeneity of weathering processes and rates within large Andean basins.

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  1. Spatial Variations and Sources of Trace Elements in Recent Snow from Glaciers at the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Cozzi, G.; Turetta, C.; Barbante, C.; Xiong, L.

    2017-12-01

    Various trace element (TEs) could be long-range transported through the atmosphere and deposited onto the snow surface. Recently, with the development of economy of China and the surrounding countries, TEs such as Pb, Cd, Mo and Sb in several glaciers from the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been gradually affected by anthropogenic activities. This study presents the acid leached concentrations of TEs (e.g., Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V) and dust content sampled from Qiumianleike (QMLK), Meikuang (MK), Yuzhufeng (YZF), Xiaodongkemadi (XDKMD), Gurenhekou (GRHK) glaciers on the TP from April to May of 2013. The different concentrations of TEs in the surface snow and snow pit samples over the five glaciers show that TEs were influenced both by surrounding environment of glaciers and seasonal variations of atmospheric impurity loading. Comparison of TEs concentrations with data of other sites, elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Sb were observed in glaciers of TP, showing significant atmospheric TEs pollution. Enrichment factor(EF) analysis indicates that Rb, V, U, Cr, Ba, Cs, Li, As, Co, Mn, Tl, Sr and Cu mainly originated from crustal dust, while anthropogenic inputs such as nonferrous metals melting, coal combustion and traffic emission made an important contribution to the Mo, Pb and Sb. Evidences from air mass back trajectories show the air masses arrived at QMLK mostly came from the Taklimakan desert, the TEs from the Taklimakan desert and the western TP could be transported to the MK and YZF glaciers . The air masses derived from the western TP and the southwestern TP affected the environment of the XDKMD and GRHK glaciers. Futhermore, the air masses passed through some big cities with developed industry and large population such as Urumqi, Bishkek, Dushanbe and some countries such as Pakistan and India could also bring pollutants to the studied glaciers.

  2. Spatial variation of nitrogen pollution of the water table at Oued M'Zab (Northern Algerian Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhedid, H.; Bouhoun, M. Daddi

    2018-05-01

    The aim of our work is the study of spatial variations of the water table pollution of Oued M'Zab, in order to determine their abilities of use and the posed problems of degradation. The methodological approach we adopted is to make a spatial study of the variability of nitrogen pollution, as well as to classify water quality according to international standards. The main results obtained in this research show that NH4+ range from 0 to 0,143 mg.l-1 with an average of 0,048 ± 0,039 mg.l-1, the NO2- from 0 to 0,209 mg.l-1 give an average of 0,007 ± 0,033 mg.l-1, and the NO3- vary between 14,264 and 143,465 mg.l-1, with a mean value 54,594 ± 30,503 mg.l-1. According to W.H.O. standards, the majority of these waters are classified as polluted and not drinkable. Our research shows a degradation of the underground water resources in M'Zab Valley. It resulted that it is essential to regulate the use of water and set out other adjustments in order to safeguard the underground water resources so as to promote sustainable development in the valley of M'Zab.

  3. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  4. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  5. Biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. I. Temporal and spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Huhn, G.; Schuermann, G.; Popp, P.; Staerk, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark samples were collected at two field sites (Neuglobsow, Roesa) and in different years between 1987 and 1996 in the east of Germany. The barks were analyzed with respect to the following inorganic and organic substances: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, NH 4 + , Ni, NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , Pb, Sr, SO 4 2- , Ti, V, W, Zr, Zn, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). In addition to bark samples from the site Roesa, 53 test sites were investigated in the Nature Park Duebener Heide. Here, the analysis of the barks aimed at discovering spatial patterns of the above-mentioned substances. Since 1991, most of the determined substances (e.g. sulfate, nitrate, calcium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, a-HCH) show decreased concentration values in bark samples from both sites. Temporal variations reflect substantial infra-structural changes in eastern Germany, especially at Roesa and in the industrial region around the cities Leipzig, Halle, and Bitterfeld. Moreover, nitrate concentrations in barks are increasing since 1995. The trend can be explained with increased nitrogen emissions from motor traffic and livestock farms. Spatial patterns of sulphate and ammonia reflect inputs from power plants and agriculture in pine stands of the Nature Park Duebener Heide. The results show that barks of pine trees can be used as biomonitoring tools to indicate and characterize depositions of airborne organic and inorganic pollutants. (author)

  6. Spatial Distribution of the Coefficient of Variation and Bayesian Forecast for the Paleo-Earthquakes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shunichi; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian method of probability forecasting for recurrent earthquakes of inland active faults in Japan. Renewal processes with the Brownian Passage Time (BPT) distribution are applied for over a half of active faults in Japan by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan. Long-term forecast with the BPT distribution needs two parameters; the mean and coefficient of variation (COV) for recurrence intervals. The HERP applies a common COV parameter for all of these faults because most of them have very few specified paleoseismic events, which is not enough to estimate reliable COV values for respective faults. However, different COV estimates are proposed for the same paleoseismic catalog by some related works. It can make critical difference in forecast to apply different COV estimates and so COV should be carefully selected for individual faults. Recurrence intervals on a fault are, on the average, determined by the long-term slip rate caused by the tectonic motion but fluctuated by nearby seismicities which influence surrounding stress field. The COVs of recurrence intervals depend on such stress perturbation and so have spatial trends due to the heterogeneity of tectonic motion and seismicity. Thus we introduce a spatial structure on its COV parameter by Bayesian modeling with a Gaussian process prior. The COVs on active faults are correlated and take similar values for closely located faults. It is found that the spatial trends in the estimated COV values coincide with the density of active faults in Japan. We also show Bayesian forecasts by the proposed model using Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our forecasts are different from HERP's forecast especially on the active faults where HERP's forecasts are very high or low.

  7. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  8. Analysis of the spatial variation in the parameters of the SWAT model with application in Flanders, Northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heuvelmans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational applications of a hydrological model often require the prediction of stream flow in (future time periods without stream flow observations or in ungauged catchments. Data for a case-specific optimisation of model parameters are not available for such applications, so parameters have to be derived from other catchments or time periods. It has been demonstrated that for applications of the SWAT in Northern Belgium, temporal transfers of the parameters have less influence than spatial transfers on the performance of the model. This study examines the spatial variation in parameter optima in more detail. The aim was to delineate zones wherein model parameters can be transferred without a significant loss of model performance. SWAT was calibrated for 25 catchments that are part of eight larger sub-basins of the Scheldt river basin. Two approaches are discussed for grouping these units in zones with a uniform set of parameters: a single parameter approach considering each parameter separately and a parameter set approach evaluating the parameterisation as a whole. For every catchment, the SWAT model was run with the local parameter optima, with the average parameter values for the entire study region (Flanders, with the zones delineated with the single parameter approach and with the zones obtained by the parameter set approach. Comparison of the model performances of these four parameterisation strategies indicates that both the single parameter and the parameter set zones lead to stream flow predictions that are more accurate than if the entire study region were treated as one single zone. On the other hand, the use of zonal average parameter values results in a considerably worse model fit compared to local parameter optima. Clustering of parameter sets gives a more accurate result than the single parameter approach and is, therefore, the preferred technique for use in the parameterisation of ungauged sub-catchments as part of the

  9. Atmospheric aerosols in Rome, Italy: sources, dynamics and spatial variations during two seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Struckmeier

    2016-12-01

    both sites. While they were observed every day at the urban location, at the suburban location they were only found under favourable meteorological conditions, but were independent of advection of the Rome emission plume. Particles from sources in the metropolitan area of Rome and particles advected from outside Rome contributed 42–70 and 30–58 % to the total measured PM1, respectively. Apart from the general aerosol characteristics, in this study the properties (e.g. emission strength and dynamics (e.g. temporal behaviour of each identified aerosol type is investigated in detail to provide a better understanding of the observed seasonal and spatial differences.

  10. Spatial-temporal variation of marginal land suitable for energy plants from 1990 to 2010 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy plants are the main source of bioenergy which will play an increasingly important role in future energy supplies. With limited cultivated land resources in China, the development of energy plants may primarily rely on the marginal land. In this study, based on the land use data from 1990 to 2010(every 5 years is a period) and other auxiliary data, the distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants was determined using multi-factors integrated assessment method. The variation of land use type and spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants of different decades were analyzed. The results indicate that the total amount of marginal land suitable for energy plants decreased from 136.501 million ha to 114.225 million ha from 1990 to 2010. The reduced land use types are primarily shrub land, sparse forest land, moderate dense grassland and sparse grassland, and large variation areas are located in Guangxi, Tibet, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. The results of this study will provide more effective data reference and decision making support for the long-term planning of bioenergy resources. PMID:25056520

  11. Temporal and spatial variation of the limnological characteristics of a lotic ecosystem in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amintas Nazareth Rossete

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize a stream in the area of Cerrado of Mato Grosso according to limnological characteristics during an annual cycle and to assess its relationship with the hydrological regime and anthropogenic changes of the adjacent land system. Two collection points in the stream were selected which passed through the Parque do Bacaba in addition to two other in areas of anthropogenic influence, mainly cattle-raising activity. Data collection was performed bimonthly in downstream order, from September 2001 to August 2002. At the sampling sites, the water temperature, depth, water transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, suspended material and total stream discharge were verified. The spatial variations were more obvious than the temporal changes. The values of water transparency, suspended material, electric conductivity and dissolved oxygen showed the greatest variations. The lowest concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the stream were recorded in the dry period. Among the sampling sites, only the pH did not present any significant differences, and the other variables differed significantly between at least two sampling sites. Between the dry and rainy periods, only the depth of the water column and total stream discharge differed significantly.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in an artificial urban river receiving WWTP effluent in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of THg concentrations in run-off water from 19 boreal catchments, 2000–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklöf, Karin; Fölster, Jens; Sonesten, Lars; Bishop, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations are presented for 19 Swedish watercourses 2000–2010, together with an analysis of factors affecting these concentrations in space and time. Organic matter (OM) measured as absorbance at 420 nm (Abs 420 ) and total organic carbon (TOC) were the variables most strongly correlated with THg concentrations in the pooled dataset from all 19 watercourses, explaining 66% and 61% of the variance respectively. The correlation between THg and OM indicates that OM is the main controlling factor independent of geographical variation in Hg deposition, geology, or any other factor evaluated in this study. Despite an increase in TOC concentrations at most sites during the study period, THg increased in only one of the watercourses, and the THg/TOC ratio decreased significantly at six sites. The Abs 420 did not increase like TOC. We suggest that OM-fractions absorbing at 420 nm are more important for Hg mobilization than other OM-fractions. - Highlights: ► THg was measured bimonthly 2000–2010 from 19 watercourses across Sweden. ► OM quantity and quality explained most of the THg variation in space and time. ► Despite a temporal increase of TOC in most sites, THg increased in just one. ► THg was more strongly correlated with Abs 420 than TOC. - Despite strong spatial similarity in the THg/TOC ratio across large gradients of climate, land use and deposition, THg did not follow the temporal TOC trends in individual watercourses.

  14. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung Yu, Dae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kihong [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal risk and source in sediments of Dongting Lake wetland, mid-south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Lai, Xu; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments of Dongting Lake wetland were collected from ten sites to investigate variation trend, risk and sources of heavy metal distribution in dry seasons of 2011∼2013. The three-year mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg and As were 91.33, 36.27, 54.82, 4.39, 0.19 and 25.67, respectively, which were all higher than the corresponding background values. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals. The pollution risk of Cd, Hg and As were great and that of Cr needed urgent attention because of its obvious increase. Pollution load index (PLI) and geographic information system (GIS) methods were conducted to assess spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal contamination. Results confirmed an increased contamination contribution inflow from Xiang River. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to identify contribution sources of heavy metal, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from mining, smelting, chemical industry and agricultural activity.

  16. Controls over spatial and seasonal variations on isotopic composition of the precipitation along the central and eastern portion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Didier; Santos, Vinícius; Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Gromboni, João Felipe; Batista, Ludmila Vianna; Miotlinski, Konrad; Chang, Hung Kiang; Govone, José Silvio

    2017-10-01

    Based on Global Network Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) isotopic data set, a review of the spatial and temporal variability of δ 18 O and δ 2 H in precipitation was conducted throughout central and eastern Brazil, indicating that dynamic interactions between Intertropical and South Atlantic Convergence Zones, Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic Ocean determine the variations on the isotopic composition of precipitation over this area. Despite the seasonality and latitude effects observed, a fair correlation with precipitation amount was found. In addition, Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) air mass back trajectories were used to quantify the factors controlling daily variability in stable isotopes in precipitation. Through a linear multiple regression analysis, it was observed that temporal variations were consistent with the meteorological parameters derived from HYSPLIT, particularly precipitation amount along the trajectory and mix depth, but are not dependent on vapour residence time in the atmosphere. These findings also indicate the importance of convective systems to control the isotopic composition of precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-02-01

    Northeast India region is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. Events data for the period 1897-2010, used in this study has been largely compiled from global ISC, NEIC and GCMT databases. Historical seismicity catalogue of Gupta et al (1986) and some events data from the bulletins of India Meteorological Department are also used. Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to M w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978-2006 have been derived. An Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) relationship has also been obtained for scaling of intensity estimates to M w,NEIC using 126 global intensity events with intensity VI or greater during the period 1975-2010. Magnitude of completeness and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameter values have been determined for the declustered homogenized catalogue pertaining to four different time periods namely, 1897-1963, 1964-1990, 1964-2000 and 1964-2010. The M c and ` b' values are observed to decrease and increase, respectively, with addition of newer data with time. The study region has been subdivided into nine seismogenic zones keeping in view the spatial variations in earthquake occurrence and prevalent tectonics. M c, ` b' and ` a' values have been estimated with respect to each zone, and the variations in the values of these parameters have been analysed.

  18. Spatial variations in larch needle and soil δ15N at a forest-grassland boundary in northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Lei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Tsukuura, Akemi; Kitayama, Asami; Lopez Caceres, M Larry; Mijidsuren, Byambasuren; Saraadanbazar, Ariunaa; Tsujimura, Maki

    2017-03-01

    The spatial patterns of plant and soil δ 15 N and associated processes in the N cycle were investigated at a forest-grassland boundary in northern Mongolia. Needles of Larix sibirica Ledeb. and soils collected from two study areas were analysed to calculate the differences in δ 15 N between needle and soil (Δδ 15 N). Δδ 15 N showed a clear variation, ranging from -8 ‰ in the forest to -2 ‰ in the grassland boundary, and corresponded to the accumulation of organic layer. In the forest, the separation of available N produced in the soil with 15 N-depleted N uptake by larch and 15 N-enriched N immobilization by microorganisms was proposed to cause large Δδ 15 N, whereas in the grassland boundary, small Δδ 15 N was explained by the transport of the most available N into larch. The divergence of available N between larch and microorganisms in the soil, and the accumulation of diverged N in the organic layer control the variation in Δδ 15 N.

  19. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region

  20. The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) study: spatial variations and chemical climatology, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, C L; Hidy, G M; Tanenbaum, S; Edgerton, E S; Hartsell, B E

    2013-03-01

    The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) study, which has been in continuous operation from 1999 to 2012, was implemented to investigate regional and urban air pollution in the southeastern United States. With complementary data from other networks, the SEARCH measurements provide key knowledge about long-term urban/nonurban pollution contrasts and regional climatology affecting inland locations and sites along the Gulf of Mexico coastline. Analytical approaches ranging from comparisons of mean concentrations to the application of air mass trajectories and principal component analysis provide insight into local and area-wide pollution. Gases (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and ammonia), fine particle mass concentration, and fine particle species concentrations (including sulfate, elementary carbon, and organic carbon) are affected by a combination of regional conditions and local emission sources. Urban concentrations in excess of regional baselines and intraurban variations of concentrations depend on source proximity, topography, and local meteorological processes. Regional-scale pollution events (95th percentile concentrations) involving more than 6 of the 8 SEARCH sites are rare (< 2% of days), while subregional events affecting 4-6 sites occur on approximately 10% of days. Regional and subregional events are characterized by widely coincident elevated concentrations of ozone, sulfate, and particulate organic carbon, driven by persistent synoptic-scale air mass stagnation and higher temperatures that favor formation of secondary species, mainly in the summer months. The meteorological conditions associated with regional stagnation do not favor long-range transport of polluted air masses during episodes. Regional and subregional pollution events frequently terminate with southward and eastward penetration of frontal systems, which may initially reduce air pollutant concentrations more inland than along the Gulf

  1. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.

    2016-02-01

    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  2. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  3. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  4. Spatial variation and driving factors of soil moisture at multi-scales: a case study in Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the ecological restoration of the Loess Plateau has led to significant achievements such as increases in vegetation coverage, decreases in soil erosion, and enhancement of ecosystem services. Soil moisture shortages, however, commonly occur as a result of limited rainfall and strong evaporation in this semiarid region of China. Since soil moisture is critical in regulating plant growth in these semiarid regions, it is crucial to identify the spatial variation and factors affecting soil moisture at multi-scales in the Loess Plateau of China. In the last several years, extensive studies on soil moisture have been carried out by our research group at the plot, small watershed, watershed, and regional scale in the Loess Plateau, providing some information for vegetation restoration in the region. The main research results are as follows: (1) the highest soil moisture content was in the 0-0.1 m layer with a large coefficient of variation; (2) in the 0-0.1m layer, soil moisture content was negatively correlated with relative elevation, slope and vegetation cover, the correlations among slope, aspect and soil moisture increased with depth increased; (3) as for the deep soil moisture content, the higher spatial variation of deep SMC occurred at 1.2-1.4 m and 4.8-5.0m; (4) the deep soil moisture content in native grassland and farmland were significant higher than that of introduced vegetation; (5) at regional scale, the soil water content under different precipitation zones increased following the increase of precipitation, while, the influencing factors of deep SMC at watershed scale varied with land management types; (6) in the areas with multi-year precipitation of 370 - 440mm, natural grass is more suitable for restoration, and this should be treated as the key areas in vegetation restoration; (7) appropriate planting density and species selection should be taken into account for introduced vegetation management; (8) it is imperative to take the local

  5. Micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and their accumulation in mangroves of Indian Sundarban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhurima; Ram, S S; Ghosh, Somdeep; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, M; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2017-05-01

    This work describes the micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and bioaccumulation of those elements in different mangrove species of the Indian Sundarbans. The potential ecological risk due to such elemental load on this mangrove-dominated habitat is also discussed. The concentrations of elements in mangrove leaves and sediments were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Sediment quality and potential ecological risks were assessed from the calculated indices. Our data reflects higher concentration of elements, e.g., Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb, in the sediment, as compared to that reported by earlier workers. Biological concentration factors for K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in different mangroves indicated gradual elemental bioaccumulation in leaf tissues (0.002-1.442). Significant variation was observed for elements, e.g., Ni, Mn, and Ca, in the sediments of all the sites, whereas in the plants, significant variation was found for P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. This was mostly due to the differences in uptake and accumulation potential of the plants. Various sediment quality indices suggested the surface sediments to be moderately contaminated and suffering from progressive deterioration. Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Ni showed higher enrichment factors (0.658-1.469), contamination factors (1.02-2.7), and geo-accumulation index (0.043-0.846) values. The potential ecological risk index values considering Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found to be within "low ecological risk" category (20.04-24.01). However, Cr and Ni in the Sundarban mangroves exceeded the effect range low and probable effect level limits. Strong correlation of Zn with Fe and K was observed, reflecting their similar transportation and accumulation process in both sediment and plant systems. The plant-sediment elemental correlation was found to be highly non-linear, suggesting role of some physiological and edaphic factors in

  6. Spatial variation of five co-existing siluriformes in an atlantic rain forest drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Siluriformes were registered in the Ubatiba system. Pim