WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatial interaction creates

  1. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  2. Spatial interaction creates period-doubling bifurcation and chaos of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a new way of looking at complicated dynamics of simple mathematical models. The complicated behavior of simple equations is one of the headstreams of chaos theory. However, a recent study based on dynamical equations of urbanization shows that there are still some undiscovered secrets behind the simple mathematical models such as logistic equation. The rural-urban interaction model can also display varied kinds of complicated dynamics, including period-doubling bifurcation and chaos. The two-dimension map of urbanization presents the same dynamics as that from the one-dimension logistic map. In theory, the logistic equation can be derived from the two-population interaction model. This seems to suggest that the complicated behavior of simple models results from interaction rather than pure intrinsic randomicity. In light of this idea, the classical predator-prey interaction model can be revised to explain the complex dynamics of logistic equation in physical and social sciences.

  3. Quadratic spatial soliton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav

    Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO 3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multi-soliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multi-soliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multi-soliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the self-reflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a non-planar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30

  4. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lesley W; Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue's biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Creating an interactive environment for pediatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas Weber, D; Easley-Rosenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    An interactive assessment room (IAR) was conceived to explore the effect of a dynamic environment on the pediatric assessment process and subsequent individualized goal development. Selection of a central theme, creation of a multipurpose space, provision of multisensory experiences, maximization of environmental affordances, provision of effective motivators and opportunities for goal attainment, and facilitation of a transdisciplinary assessment were identified as integral to designing the IAR. A central farm theme was selected to create five task-oriented activity stations. The IAR offered a creative assessment environment for transdisciplinary, practice-based application of current motor development and behavioral models. In addition, the IAR facilitated exploratory play essential to promoting the client's optimal performance to arrive at the development of appropriate treatment goals.

  6. Creating Identity in Interaction with Business Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper; Boutaiba, Sami

    2004-01-01

    In contemporary society, it is believed that things are changing at an increasingly rapid pace. We see this in newspapers, books, or every speech we listen to that modern (business) life is a race towards new horizons, or towards newness tout court. No matter which standpoint one engages vis......-mentioned observation that economic transformation and globalization continue to alter how organizations and employees view work, and that these transformations require that workers and managers understand and adjust to major changes in definitions of and approaches to work, organizational structures, and relationships...... more specifically on the way in which Zentropa performs an identity in interaction with one of its very significant others, namely the written press. This paper is in particular interested in studying how organizations through different forms of interaction and communication with the business media...

  7. Leveraging Metadata to Create Interactive Images... Today!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Squires, G. K.; Llamas, J.; Rosenthal, C.; Brinkworth, C.; Fay, J.

    2011-01-01

    The image gallery for NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has been newly rebuilt to fully support the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard to create a new user experience both on the website and in other applications. We encapsulate all the key descriptive information for a public image, including color representations and astronomical and sky coordinates and make it accessible in a user-friendly form on the website, but also embed the same metadata within the image files themselves. Thus, images downloaded from the site will carry with them all their descriptive information. Real-world benefits include display of general metadata when such images are imported into image editing software (e.g. Photoshop) or image catalog software (e.g. iPhoto). More advanced support in Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope can open a tagged image after it has been downloaded and display it in its correct sky position, allowing comparison with observations from other observatories. An increasing number of software developers are implementing AVM support in applications and an online image archive for tagged images is under development at the Spitzer Science Center. Tagging images following the AVM offers ever-increasing benefits to public-friendly imagery in all its standard forms (JPEG, TIFF, PNG). The AVM standard is one part of the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP); http://www.communicatingastronomy.org

  8. Creating a collage: a meaningful interactive classroom strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R J

    1995-01-01

    How can students be helped to make personal meaning of their nursing knowledge? The author describes one strategy, that of creating a collage, that promoted interactive learning and the making of meaning.

  9. Spatial computing in interactive architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.O. Dulman (Stefan); M. Krezer; L. Hovestad

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDistributed computing is the theoretical foundation for applications and technologies like interactive architecture, wearable computing, and smart materials. It evolves continuously, following needs rising from scientific developments, novel uses of technology, or simply the curiosity to

  10. Where am I? Creating spatial awareness in unmanned ground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a survey of Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) algorithms for unmanned ground robots. SLAM is the process of creating a map of the environment, sometimes unknown a priori, while at the same time localizing the robot in the same map. The map could be one of different types i.e. metrical, ...

  11. Socio-spatial authenticity at co-created music festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Szmigin, I; Bengry-Howell, A; Morey, Y; Griffin, C; Riley, S

    2017-01-01

    From the early days of hippie counter-culture, music festivals have been an important part of the British summer. Today they are commercialised offerings without the counter-cultural discourse of earlier times. Drawing on participant observation, interviews and focus groups conducted at a rock festival and a smaller boutique festival, the paper examines how their design, organisation and management are co-created with participants to produce authentic experiences. The paper contributes to res...

  12. Spatial Computing in Synthetic Bioware: Creating Bacterial Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Pascalie , Jonathan; Potier , Martin; Kowaliw , Taras; Giavitto , Jean-Louis; Michel , Olivier; Spicher , Antoine; Doursat , René

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Synthetic biology is an emerging scientific field that promotes the standardized manufacturing of biological components without natural equivalents. Its goal is to create artificial living systems that can meet various needs in health care, nanotechnology and energy. Most works are currently focused on the individual bacterium as a chemical reactor. Our project, SynBioTIC, addresses a novel and more complex challenge: shape engineering, i.e. the redesign of natural mor...

  13. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghas, A; Coppola, M

    2001-07-01

    It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language.

  14. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  15. Frequency downshifting and trapping of an electromagnetic wave by a rapidly created spatially periodic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, J.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly time varying spatially periodic plasmas are presented. It is shown that a number of Floquet modes, each with their own oscillation frequency, are created during the interaction. Included among these modes are downshifted waves which will not exist in the single slab case, and also waves with a larger upshifted frequency than one can obtain with a single plasma layer of the same density. In addition, the periodic structure is characterized by pass and stop bands that are different from those of a single plasma layer, and the frequencies of the downshifted modes falling in the stop band of a single plasma layer. Therefore these waves are trapped within the plasma structure until the plasma decays away. To show this phenomenon a chamber experiment is conducted, with the periodic plasma being produced by a capacitive discharge. The power spectrum recorded for waves interacting with the plasma shows vastly improved efficiency in the downshift mechanism, which the numerical calculations suggest is related to the trapping of the wave within the plasma. Reproducible results are recorded which are found to agree well with the numerical simulation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Co-creating value through agents interaction within service network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okdinawati, L.; Simatupang, T.M.; Sunitiyoso, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gives further understanding on value co-creation mechanisms in B-to-B service network by reinforcing the processes, the relationships, and influences of other agents where Collaborative Transportation Management (CTM) forms might be best employed. Design/methodology/approach: In order to model the interactions among agents in the collaboration processes and the value co-creation processes, this research used three collaboration cases in Indonesia. Then, the agent-based simulation was used to capture both the collaboration process and the value co-creation process of the three collaboration cases. Findings: The interactions among the agents both inside and outside their collaboration environment determined agent’s role as a value co-creator. The willingness of an agent to accept the opinion of another agent determined the degree of their willingness to co-operate and to change their strategies, and perceptions. Therefore, influenced the size of the value obtained by them in each collaboration process. Research limitations/implications: The findings of the simulations subject to assumptions based on the collaboration cases. Further research is related to how to encourage agents to co-operate and adjust their perceptions. Practical implications: It is crucial for the practitioners to interact with another agent both inside and outside their collaboration environment. The opinions of another agent inside the collaboration environment also need to be considered. Originality/value: This research is derived from its emphasis on how a value is co-created by reinforcing both the collaborative processes and the interactions among agents as well as on how CTM might be best employed.

  17. Co-creating value through agents interaction within service network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okdinawati, L.; Simatupang, T.M.; Sunitiyoso, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gives further understanding on value co-creation mechanisms in B-to-B service network by reinforcing the processes, the relationships, and influences of other agents where Collaborative Transportation Management (CTM) forms might be best employed. Design/methodology/approach: In order to model the interactions among agents in the collaboration processes and the value co-creation processes, this research used three collaboration cases in Indonesia. Then, the agent-based simulation was used to capture both the collaboration process and the value co-creation process of the three collaboration cases. Findings: The interactions among the agents both inside and outside their collaboration environment determined agent’s role as a value co-creator. The willingness of an agent to accept the opinion of another agent determined the degree of their willingness to co-operate and to change their strategies, and perceptions. Therefore, influenced the size of the value obtained by them in each collaboration process. Research limitations/implications: The findings of the simulations subject to assumptions based on the collaboration cases. Further research is related to how to encourage agents to co-operate and adjust their perceptions. Practical implications: It is crucial for the practitioners to interact with another agent both inside and outside their collaboration environment. The opinions of another agent inside the collaboration environment also need to be considered. Originality/value: This research is derived from its emphasis on how a value is co-created by reinforcing both the collaborative processes and the interactions among agents as well as on how CTM might be best employed.

  18. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi T

    2018-04-01

    Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action. Therefore, the hippocampal spatial map should interact with action-planning systems in other cortical regions. In accordance with this idea, several recent studies have indicated the importance of functional interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex for goal-directed navigation. In this paper, I will review these studies and discuss how an animal can estimate its future positions correspond to a next movement. Investigation of the navigation problem may further provide general insights into internal models of the brain for action planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring directional urban spatial interaction in China: A migration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzhou; Feng, Zhiming; Li, Peng; You, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The study of urban spatial interaction is closely linked to that of economic geography, urban planning, regional development, and so on. Currently, this topic is generating a great deal of interest among researchers who are striving to find accurate ways to measure urban spatial interaction. Classical spatial interaction models lack theoretical guidance and require complicated parameter-adjusting processes. The radiation model, however, as proposed by Simini et al. with rigorous formula derivation, can simulate directional urban spatial interaction. We applied the radiation model in China to simulate the directional migration number among 337 nationwide research units, comprising 4 municipalities and 333 prefecture-level cities. We then analyzed the overall situation in Chinese cities, the interaction intensity hierarchy, and the prime urban agglomerations from the perspective of migration. This was done to ascertain China's urban spatial interaction and regional development from 2000 to 2010 to reveal ground realities.

  20. Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

  1. Urban strategy: Noise mapping in instrument for interactive spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial planning in urban areas is complex. Besides noise from different source types, many other aspects play a role. In order to support local authorities and others involved in spatial planning, TNO has developed an interactive instrument: 'Urban Strategy', which integrates a detailed interactive

  2. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  3. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  4. Displaying R spatial statistics on Google dynamic maps with web applications created by Rwui

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The R project includes a large variety of packages designed for spatial statistics. Google dynamic maps provide web based access to global maps and satellite imagery. We describe a method for displaying directly the spatial output from an R script on to a Google dynamic map. Methods This is achieved by creating a Java based web application which runs the R script and then displays the results on the dynamic map. In order to make this method easy to implement by those unfamiliar with programming Java based web applications, we have added the method to the options available in the R Web User Interface (Rwui) application. Rwui is an established web application for creating web applications for running R scripts. A feature of Rwui is that all the code for the web application being created is generated automatically so that someone with no knowledge of web programming can make a fully functional web application for running an R script in a matter of minutes. Results Rwui can now be used to create web applications that will display the results from an R script on a Google dynamic map. Results may be displayed as discrete markers and/or as continuous overlays. In addition, users of the web application may select regions of interest on the dynamic map with mouse clicks and the coordinates of the region of interest will automatically be made available for use by the R script. Conclusions This method of displaying R output on dynamic maps is designed to be of use in a number of areas. Firstly it allows statisticians, working in R and developing methods in spatial statistics, to easily visualise the results of applying their methods to real world data. Secondly, it allows researchers who are using R to study health geographics data, to display their results directly onto dynamic maps. Thirdly, by creating a web application for running an R script, a statistician can enable users entirely unfamiliar with R to run R coded statistical analyses of health geographics

  5. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  6. Modulation of the Object/Background Interaction by Spatial Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images, functional isolation hypothesis and interactive hypothesis were proposed. Based on previous studies, the present study investigated the role of spatial frequency in the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images. In three experiments, participants reported the object, background, or both after seeing each picture for 500 ms followed by a mask. The authors found that (a backgrounds were identified more accurately when they contained a consistent rather than an inconsistent object, independently of spatial frequency; (b objects were identified more accurately in a consistent than an inconsistent background under the condition of low spatial frequencies but not high spatial frequencies; (c spatial frequency modulation remained when both objects and backgrounds were reported simultaneously. The authors conclude that object/background interaction is partially dependent on spatial frequency.

  7. Spatial Sound and Multimodal Interaction in Immersive Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Overholt, Daniel; Erkut, Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    primary problem areas: 1) creation of interactive spatial audio experiences for immersive virtual and augmented reality scenarios, and 2) production and mixing of spatial audio for cinema, music, and other artistic contexts. Several ongoing research projects are described, wherein the latest developments...

  8. Interacting fermions in one spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains in its first part a critical survey about the method of the bosonization of fermi fields in one spatial dimension and its application to the Luttinger and the massive Thirring model. The first chapter served for the explanation of the term of the unitary inequivalence. Thereby two generally valid facts could be demonstrated very illustratively by the example of a fermion algebra and its representations, namely first that infinite, direct product space are not separable, and second that weak equivalence of the vacua is equivalent to the unitary equivalence of the corresponding representations of the field algebra. In the second part the statement first studied by Luther (1976) and since then often cited, that the continuum limit of the Heisenberg model is the massive Thirring model. It is concluded that it can up to today not be considered as proved although indications for its validity can be found. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Interspecific bacterial interactions are reflected in multispecies biofilm spatial organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzheng; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke

    2016-01-01

    not only the enabling sub-populations. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of cellular processes affecting spatial organization, and vice versa, are poorly understood and very complex to unravel. Therefore, detailed description of the spatial organization of individual bacterial cells...... environments. Species residing in these complex bacterial communities usually interact both intra- and interspecifically. Such interactions are considered to not only be fundamental in shaping overall biomass and the spatial distribution of cells residing in multispecies biofilms, but also to result......, industrial, and clinical implications. This review briefly presents the state of the art of studying interspecies interactions and spatial organization of multispecies communities, aiming to support theoretical and practical arguments for further advancement of this field....

  10. Spatial heterogeneity in fishing creates de facto refugia for endangered Celtic Sea elasmobranchs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Shephard

    Full Text Available The life history characteristics of some elasmobranchs make them particularly vulnerable to fishing mortality; about a third of all species are listed by the IUCN as Threatened or Near Threatened. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs have been suggested as a tool for conservation of elasmobranchs, but they are likely to be effective only if such populations respond to fishing impacts at spatial-scales corresponding to MPA size. Using the example of the Celtic Sea, we modelled elasmobranch biomass (kg h(-1 in fisheries-independent survey hauls as a function of environmental variables and 'local' (within 20 km radius fishing effort (h y(-1 recorded from Vessel Monitoring Systems data. Model selection using AIC suggested strongest support for linear mixed effects models in which the variables (i fishing effort, (ii geographic location and (iii demersal fish assemblage had approximately equal importance in explaining elasmobranch biomass. In the eastern Celtic Sea, sampling sites that occurred in the lowest 10% of the observed fishing effort range recorded 10 species of elasmobranch including the critically endangered Dipturus spp. The most intensely fished 10% of sites had only three elasmobranch species, with two IUCN listed as Least Concern. Our results suggest that stable spatial heterogeneity in fishing effort creates de facto refugia for elasmobranchs in the Celtic Sea. However, changes in the present fisheries management regime could impair the refuge effect by changing fisher's behaviour and displacing effort into these areas.

  11. Interspecific bacterial interactions are reflected in multispecies biofilm spatial organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interspecies interactions are essential for the persistence and development of any kind of complex community, and microbial biofilms are no exception. Multispecies biofilms are structured and spatially defined communities that have received much attention due to their omnipresence in natural environments. Species residing in these complex bacterial communities usually interact both intra- and interspecifically. Such interactions are considered to not only be fundamental in shaping overall biomass and the spatial distribution of cells residing in multispecies biofilms, but also to result in coordinated regulation of gene expression in the different species present. These communal interactions often lead to emergent properties in biofilms, such as enhanced tolerance against antibiotics, host immune responses and other stresses, which have been shown to provide benefits to all biofilm members not only the enabling sub-populations. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of cellular processes affecting spatial organization, and vice versa, are poorly understood and very complex to unravel. Therefore, detailed description of the spatial organization of individual bacterial cells in multispecies communities can be an alternative strategy to reveal the nature of interspecies interactions of constituent species. Closing the gap between visual observation and biological processes may become crucial for resolving biofilm related problems, which is of utmost importance to environmental, industrial, and clinical implications. This review briefly presents the state of the art of studying interspecies interactions and spatial organization of multispecies communities, aiming to support theoretical and practical arguments for further advancement of this field.

  12. Online interactive tutorials for creating graphs with excel 2007 or 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Nicholas R; Bourret, Jason C

    2012-01-01

    Graphic display of clinical data is a useful tool for the behavior-analytic clinician. However, graphs can sometimes be difficult to create. We describe how to access and use an online interactive tutorial that teaches the user to create a variety of graphs often used by behavior analysts. Three tutorials are provided that cover the basics of Microsoft Excel 2007 or 2010, creating graphs for clinical purposes, and creating graphs for research purposes. The uses for this interactive tutorial and other similar programs are discussed.

  13. Bayesian Inference of Ecological Interactions from Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Stephens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and quantification of ecological interactions and the construction of species’ distributions and their associated ecological niches are of fundamental theoretical and practical importance. In this paper, we discuss a Bayesian inference framework, which, using spatial data, offers a general formalism within which ecological interactions may be characterized and quantified. Interactions are identified through deviations of the spatial distribution of co-occurrences of spatial variables relative to a benchmark for the non-interacting system and based on a statistical ensemble of spatial cells. The formalism allows for the integration of both biotic and abiotic factors of arbitrary resolution. We concentrate on the conceptual and mathematical underpinnings of the formalism, showing how, using the naive Bayes approximation, it can be used to not only compare and contrast the relative contribution from each variable, but also to construct species’ distributions and ecological niches based on an arbitrary variable type. We also show how non-linear interactions between distinct niche variables can be identified and the degree of confounding between variables accounted for.

  14. The Future Role of GIS Education in Creating Critical Spatial Thinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Nick; Jones, Nick; André, Isabel; Cachinho, Herculano Alberto; DeMers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Teaching of critical spatial thinking in higher education empowers graduates to effectively engage with spatial data. Geographic information systems (GIS) and science are taught to undergraduates across many disciplines; we evaluate how this contributes to critical spatial thinking. The discipline of GIS covers the whole process of spatial…

  15. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting N2 fixation in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanisms by which even the clearest of keystone or dominant species exert community-wide effects are only partially understood in most ecosystems. This is especially true when a species or guild influences community-wide interactions via changes in the abiotic landscape. Using stable isotope analyses, we show that subterranean termites in an East African savanna strongly influence a key ecosystem process: atmospheric nitrogen fixation by a monodominant tree species and its bacterial symbionts. Specifically, we applied the 15N natural abundance method in combination with other biogeochemical analyses to assess levels of nitrogen fixation by Acacia drepanolobium and its effects on co-occurring grasses and forbs in areas near and far from mounds and where ungulates were or were not excluded. We find that termites exert far stronger effects than do herbivores on nitrogen fixation. The percentage of nitrogen derived from fixation in Acacia drepanolobium trees is higher (55-80%) away from mounds vs. near mounds (40-50%). Mound soils have higher levels of plant available nitrogen, and Acacia drepanolobium may preferentially utilize soil-based nitrogen sources in lieu of fixed nitrogen when these sources are readily available near termite mounds. At the scale of the landscape, our models predict that termite/soil derived nitrogen sources influence >50% of the Acacia drepanolobium trees in our system. Further, the spatial extent of these effects combine with the spacing of termite mounds to create highly regular patterning in nitrogen fixation rates, resulting in marked habitat heterogeneity in an otherwise uniform landscape. In summary, we show that termite-associated effects on nitrogen processes are not only stronger than those of more apparent large herbivores in the same system, but also occur in a highly regular spatial pattern, potentially adding to their importance as drivers of community and ecosystem structure.

  16. An Interactive Tool for Creating Multi-Agent Systems and Interactive Agent-based Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing principles from parallel and distributed processing combined with inspiration from modular robotics, we developed the modular interactive tiles. As an educational tool, the modular interactive tiles facilitate the learning of multi-agent systems and interactive agent-based games...

  17. Stability of a spatial model of social interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragard, Jean; Mossay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    We study a spatial model of social interactions. Though the properties of the spatial equilibrium have been largely discussed in the existing literature, the stability of equilibrium remains an unaddressed issue. Our aim is to fill up this gap by introducing dynamics in the model and by determining the stability of equilibrium. First we derive a variational equation useful for the stability analysis. This allows to study the corresponding eigenvalue problem. While odd modes are shown to be always stable, there is a single even mode of which stability depends on the model parameters. Finally various numerical simulations illustrate our theoretical results.

  18. Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliambos, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental interactions of spinning electrons at an interelectron separation less than 578.8 fm yield attractive electromagnetic forces with S = 0 creating vibrations under a motional emf. They explain the indistinguishability of electrons and give a vibration energy able for calculating the ground-state energies of many-electron atoms without using any perturbative approximation. Such forces create two-electron orbitals able to account for the exclusion principal and the mechanism of covalent bonds. In the outer subshells of atoms the penetrating orbitals interact also as pair-pair systems and deform drastically the probability densities of the quantum mechanical electron clouds. Such a dynamics of deformation removes the degeneracy and leads to the deviation from the shell scheme. However in the interior of atoms the large nuclear charge leads to a spherically symmetric potential with non-interacting pairs for creating shells of degenerate states giving an accurate explanation of the X-ray lines. On the other hand, considerable charge distributions in nucleons as multiples of 2e/3 and - e/3 determined by the magnetic moments, interact for creating the nuclear structure with p-n bonds. Such spin-spin interactions show that the dominant concept of the untisymmetric wave function for fermions is inapplicable not only in the simple p-n, p-p, and n-n systems but also in the LS coupling of atoms in which the electrons interact from different quantum states giving either S = 0 or S = l. (author)

  19. Spatially balanced topological interaction grants optimal cohesion in flocking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperi, Marcelo; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Silvestri, Edmondo

    2012-12-06

    Models of self-propelled particles (SPPs) are an indispensable tool to investigate collective animal behaviour. Originally, SPP models were proposed with metric interactions, where each individual coordinates with neighbours within a fixed metric radius. However, recent experiments on bird flocks indicate that interactions are topological: each individual interacts with a fixed number of neighbours, irrespective of their distance. It has been argued that topological interactions are more robust than metric ones against external perturbations, a significant evolutionary advantage for systems under constant predatory pressure. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the stability of metric versus topological SPP models in three dimensions. We show that topological models are more stable than metric ones. We also show that a significantly better stability is achieved when neighbours are selected according to a spatially balanced topological rule, namely when interacting neighbours are evenly distributed in angle around the focal individual. Finally, we find that the minimal number of interacting neighbours needed to achieve fully stable cohesion in a spatially balanced model is compatible with the value observed in field experiments on starling flocks.

  20. The Effects of Spatial Enclosure on Social Interaction Between Older Adults With Dementia and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Minyoung S; Shepley, Mardelle M

    2016-04-01

    To examine the impact of spatial enclosures on social interaction between older adults with early stage dementia and young children. Intergenerational interaction through meaningful activities can promote positive affects and behaviors of children and older adults. The development of social interaction is closely related to the physical environment in association with personal competence of older adults with dementia and young children. However, minimal attention has been given to the role of physical environment in influencing intergenerational interaction. A quasi-experiment examined the functional relationship between the amount of spatial enclosure and the types of social behaviors of older adults with dementia and young children. Semi-structured interviews, aided by a photographic simulation, were developed to explore the participants' perceptions of and experiences with the different degrees of spatial enclosure. Findings showed that the semienclosed spatial plan impacted both prosocial and antisocial behaviors of older adults with dementia in their interactions with young children. This apparent discrepancy was associated with two conflicting perceptions: a sense of openness and the lack of control due to distraction created by the loose visual boundary. There was no correlation between the elder-child neutral behaviors and the degrees of spatial enclosure. This study suggests that spaces with moderate openness without visual and acoustic distraction are the most desirable to promote prosocial behaviors of older adults with dementia and young children. Additionally, elder-child prosocial behaviors were likely facilitated by specific design features such as adequate personal space, the perception of openness, and possible spaces that provide both prospect and refuge in relation to spatial enclosure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Spatial Knowledge Infrastructures - Creating Value for Policy Makers and Benefits the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.

  2. Spatial evolutionary games of interaction among generic cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, L.A.; Sumpter, D.J.T.; Alsner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary game models of cellular interactions have shown that heterogeneity in the cellular genotypic composition is maintained through evolution to stable coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types. We generalise these mean-field models and relax the assumption of perfect m...... at a cellular level. This study thus points a new direction towards more plausible spatial tumour modelling and the understanding of cancerous growth....

  3. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of “the object of design” and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate...

  4. Creating Service Concepts for Finnish Elderly Care : Case: Virtual Interactive Care Service

    OpenAIRE

    Nwagu, Promise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at creating service concept by evaluating the research project of Virtual Interactive Care Service. The research project was initiated and implemented by the author together with Hovi Group Oy and Suomen kotilääkäripalvelu Oy. The goal was to provide a virtual care service business that uses interactive and stimulating activities to improve the wellbeing of elderly people in Finland. The study employed qualitative research method by reviewing existing works particularly...

  5. Creating Spaces for Children's Agency: "I Wonder…" Formulations in Teacher-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houen, Sandy; Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Affording children's agency is an important pedagogical underpinning of a high-quality early childhood program. Yet little is known about how teachers' interactions create spaces for children's agency. From the perspectives of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, this paper investigates how teachers and children navigate agency through…

  6. Data visualization, bar naked: A free tool for creating interactive graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Savic, Marko; Winham, Stacey J; Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Garovic, Vesna D; Milic, Natasa M

    2017-12-15

    Although bar graphs are designed for categorical data, they are routinely used to present continuous data in studies that have small sample sizes. This presentation is problematic, as many data distributions can lead to the same bar graph, and the actual data may suggest different conclusions from the summary statistics. To address this problem, many journals have implemented new policies that require authors to show the data distribution. This paper introduces a free, web-based tool for creating an interactive alternative to the bar graph (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-dotplot/). This tool allows authors with no programming expertise to create customized interactive graphics, including univariate scatterplots, box plots, and violin plots, for comparing values of a continuous variable across different study groups. Individual data points may be overlaid on the graphs. Additional features facilitate visualization of subgroups or clusters of non-independent data. A second tool enables authors to create interactive graphics from data obtained with repeated independent experiments (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-repeated-experiments-dotplot/). These tools are designed to encourage exploration and critical evaluation of the data behind the summary statistics and may be valuable for promoting transparency, reproducibility, and open science in basic biomedical research. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Using Spatial Semantics and Interactions to Identify Urban Functional Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structures of cities have changed dramatically with rapid socio-economic development in ways that are not well understood. To support urban structural analysis and rational planning, we propose a framework to identify urban functional regions and quantitatively explore the intensity of the interactions between them, thus increasing the understanding of urban structures. A method for the identification of functional regions via spatial semantics is proposed, which involves two steps: (1 the study area is classified into three types of functional regions using taxi origin/destination (O/D flows; and (2 the spatial semantics for the three types of functional regions are demonstrated based on point-of-interest (POI categories. To validate the existence of urban functional regions, we explored the intensity of interactions quantitatively between them. A case study using POI data and taxi trajectory data from Beijing validates the proposed framework. The results show that the proposed framework can be used to identify urban functional regions and promotes an enhanced understanding of urban structures.

  8. Spatial Evolutionary Games of Interaction among Generic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lars Arve; Sumpter, David J.T.; Alsner, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary game models of cellular interactions have shown that heterogeneity in the cellular genotypic composition is maintained through evolution to stable coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types. We generalise these mean-field models and relax the assumption of perfect...... mixing of cells by instead implementing an individual-based model that includes the stochastic and spatial effects likely to occur in tumours. The scope for coexistence of genotypic strategies changed with the inclusion of explicit space and stochasticity. The spatial models show some interesting...... deviations from their mean-field counterparts, for example the possibility of altruistic (paracrine) cell strategies to thrive. Such effects can however, be highly sensitive to model implementation and the more realistic models with semi-synchronous and stochastic updating do not show evolution of altruism...

  9. Enhanced effects of biotic interactions on predicting multispecies spatial distribution of submerged macrophytes after eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Cui, Yichong; Zhang, Xijin; Pan, Yingji; Xu, Junli; Xu, Kaiqin; Da, Liangjun

    2017-10-01

    Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009, null species distribution models based on abiotic variables and full models based on both abiotic and biotic variables were developed using generalized linear model (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to determine whether the biotic variables improved the model performance. Hierarchical Bayesian-based joint species distribution models capable of detecting paired biotic interactions were established for each species in both periods to evaluate the changes in the biotic interactions. In most of the GLM and BRT models, the full models showed better performance than the null models in predicting the species presence/absence, and the relative importance of the biotic variables in the full models increased from less than 50% in 1959 to more than 50% in 2009 for each species. Moreover, co-occurrence correlation of each paired species interaction was higher in 2009 than that in 1959. The findings suggest biotic interactions that tend to be positive play more important roles in the spatial distribution of multispecies assemblages of macrophytes and should be included in prediction models to improve prediction accuracy when forecasting macrophytes' distribution under eutrophication stress.

  10. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  11. Selection of fire-created snags at two spatial scales by cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Ree Brannon; Jonathan Dudley; Larry Donohoo; Dave Vanderzanden; Vicky Johnson; Henry Lachowski

    2002-01-01

    We examined the use of snag stands by seven species of cavity-nesting birds from 1994-1998. Selection of snags was studied in logged and unlogged burned forests at two spatial scales: microhabitat (local vegetation characteristics) and landscape (composition and patterning of surrounding vegetation types). We modeled nest occurrence at the landscape scale by using...

  12. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  13. Creating a spatially-explicit index: a method for assessing the global wildfire-water risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinne, François-Nicolas; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike; Miller, Carol; Bladon, Kevin D.

    2017-04-01

    The wildfire-water risk (WWR) has been defined as the potential for wildfires to adversely affect water resources that are important for downstream ecosystems and human water needs for adequate water quantity and quality, therefore compromising the security of their water supply. While tools and methods are numerous for watershed-scale risk analysis, the development of a toolbox for the large-scale evaluation of the wildfire risk to water security has only started recently. In order to provide managers and policy-makers with an adequate tool, we implemented a method for the spatial analysis of the global WWR based on the Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This framework relies on the cause-and-effect relationships existing between the five categories of the DPSIR chain. As this approach heavily relies on data, we gathered an extensive set of spatial indicators relevant to fire-induced hydrological hazards and water consumption patterns by human and natural communities. When appropriate, we applied a hydrological routing function to our indicators in order to simulate downstream accumulation of potentially harmful material. Each indicator was then assigned a DPSIR category. We collapsed the information in each category using a principal component analysis in order to extract the most relevant pixel-based information provided by each spatial indicator. Finally, we compiled our five categories using an additive indexation process to produce a spatially-explicit index of the WWR. A thorough sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to understand the relationship between the final risk values and the spatial pattern of each category used during the indexation. For comparison purposes, we aggregated index scores by global hydrological regions, or hydrobelts, to get a sense of regional DPSIR specificities. This rather simple method does not necessitate the use of complex physical models and provides a scalable and efficient tool

  14. Interaction Creates Learning: Engaging Learners with Special Educational Needs through Orff-Schulwerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Kaikkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the individual and the collective as fundamentally interdependent. Interaction leads to learning and therefore theories of interaction are of importance. For a music teacher, the achieved awareness can lead to practical advances. Discovering the most productive interactional strategy and understanding the consequences of actions within the actual learning situation can be helpful in creating interaction and learning. However, as interaction is dynamic and complex, especially those practitioners working with students with Special Educational Needs (SEN may not be satisfied with the respective conceptual frameworks on interaction processes. In the present article, we reason that on close inspection it is possible to develop a conceptual approach that meets the diversified challenges of pedagogical interaction. We also suggest that pedagogical interaction with students with SEN can be grounded on the insights of Orff-Schulwerk. First, we briefly describe some of the key principles of Orff-Schulwerk. After the theoretical background the article continues with real case examples with a view to illustrating the applications of the approach and some of the advances of the Orff-Schulwerk perspective in special music educational environments. We close with a summary, presenting some views on the potential of Orff-Schulwerk in pedagogical interaction with students with SEN.

  15. Interactive Installations for Spatial Access to Artistic Sketchbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Laursen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    A book is a book – or is it? With present-day, aordable technology, we can scale a book to become a spatial object, or even a space in itself, of almost arbitrary size. We describe our design of and experiences with a generic interactive installation, called Viskbook, that provides a convincing...... illusion of oversize books, allowing the spectator to turn over the pages using natural and intuitive gestures. It provides a new media for exhibiting books in museums and elsewhere. It can be used for vulnerable and irreplaceable unique books, that otherwise would remain in the safe-box, and for books...

  16. Spatial interactions database development for effective probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liming, J. K.; Dunn, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for a subsequent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) fire risk analysis update, the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) is updating its spatial interactions database (SID). This work is being performed to support updating the spatial interactions analysis (SIA) initially performed for the original South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) probabilistic safely assessment (PSA) and updated in the STPEGS Level 2 PSA and IPE Report. S/A is a large-scope screening analysis performed for nuclear power plant PRA that serves as a prerequisite basis for more detailed location-dependent, hazard-spec analyses in the PRA, such as fire risk analysis, flooding risk analysis, etc. SIA is required to support the 'completeness' argument for the PRA scope. The objectives of the current SID development effort are to update the spatial interactions analysis data, to the greatest degree practical, to be consistent with the following: the as-built plant as of December 31, 2007 the in-effect STPNOC STPEGS Units 1 and 2 PRA the current technology and intent of NUREG/CR-6850 guidance for lire risk analysis database support the requirements for PRA SIA, including fire and flooding risk analysis, established by NRC Regulatory Guide 1.200 and the ASME PRA Standard (ASME RA-S-2002 updated through ASME RA-Sc-2007,) This paper presents the approach and methodology for state-of-the-art SID development and applications, including an overview of the SIA process for nuclear power plant PRA. The paper shows how current relational database technology and existing, conventional station information sources can be employed to collect, process, and analyze spatial interactions data for the plant in an effective and efficient manner to meet the often challenging requirements of industry guidelines and standards such as NUREG/CR-6850, NRC Regulatory Guide 1.200, and ASME RA-S-2002 (updated through ASME RA-Sc 2007). This paper includes tables and figures illustrating how SIA

  17. Spatial interactions reveal inhibitory cortical networks in human amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Erwin H; Levi, Dennis M; McGraw, Paul V

    2005-10-01

    Humans with amblyopia have a well-documented loss of sensitivity for first-order, or luminance defined, visual information. Recent studies show that they also display a specific loss of sensitivity for second-order, or contrast defined, visual information; a type of image structure encoded by neurons found predominantly in visual area A18/V2. In the present study, we investigate whether amblyopia disrupts the normal architecture of spatial interactions in V2 by determining the contrast detection threshold of a second-order target in the presence of second-order flanking stimuli. Adjacent flanks facilitated second-order detectability in normal observers. However, in marked contrast, they suppressed detection in each eye of the majority of amblyopic observers. Furthermore, strabismic observers with no loss of visual acuity show a similar pattern of detection suppression. We speculate that amblyopia results in predominantly inhibitory cortical interactions between second-order neurons.

  18. SChiSM2: creating interactive web page annotations of molecular structure models using Jmol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammer, Stephen

    2007-02-01

    SChiSM2 is a web server-based program for creating web pages that include interactive molecular graphics using the freely-available applet, Jmol, for illustration. The program works with Internet Explorer and Firefox on Windows, Safari and Firefox on Mac OSX and Firefox on Linux. The program can be accessed at the following address: http://ci.vbi.vt.edu/cammer/schism2.html.

  19. Creating and Exploring Huge Parameter Spaces: Interactive Evolution as a Tool for Sound Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a program is presented that applies interactive evolution to sound generation, i.e., preferred individuals are repeatedly selected from a population of genetically bred sound objects, created with various synthesis and pattern generation algorithms. This simplifies aural exploration...... applications. It is also shown how this technique can be used to simplify sound design in standard hardware synthesizers, a task normally avoided by most musicians, due to the required amount of technical understanding....

  20. Web mapping: tools and solutions for creating interactive maps of forestry interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notarangelo G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of geobrowsers as tools for displaying geographically referenced information provides insights and opportunities to those who, not being specialists in Geographic Information Systems, want to take advantage from exploration and communication power offered by these software. Through the use of web services such as Google Maps and the use of suitable markup languages, one can create interactive maps starting from highly heterogeneous data and information. These interactive maps can also be easily distributed and shared with Internet users, because they do not need to use proprietary software nor special skills but only a web browser. Unlike the maps created with GIS, whose output usually is a static image, the interactive maps retain all their features to users advantage. This paper describes a web application that, using the Keyhole Markup Language and the free service of Google Maps, produces choropleth maps relating to some forest indicators estimated by the last Italian National Forest Inventory. The creation of a map is done through a simple and intuitive interface. The maps created by users can be downloaded as KML file and can be viewed or modified via the freeware application Google Earth or free and open source GIS software like Quantum GIS. The web application is free and available at www.ricercaforestale.it.

  1. Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games.

  2. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori

    2013-06-10

    Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha-1 yr-1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy.

  3. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  4. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G; Khademhosseini, Ali; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness these interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behavior. Here, we review two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3D) nanoscale tissue engineering technologies, and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffold technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D. However, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and that can control the temporal changes in the cellular microenvironment. (topical review)

  5. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takahashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs. Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community.

  6. An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, W.A.; Hood, F.W.; King, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy

  7. heatmaply: an R package for creating interactive cluster heatmaps for online publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Tal; O'Callaghan, Alan; Sidi, Jonathan; Sievert, Carson

    2018-05-01

    heatmaply is an R package for easily creating interactive cluster heatmaps that can be shared online as a stand-alone HTML file. Interactivity includes a tooltip display of values when hovering over cells, as well as the ability to zoom in to specific sections of the figure from the data matrix, the side dendrograms, or annotated labels. Thanks to the synergistic relationship between heatmaply and other R packages, the user is empowered by a refined control over the statistical and visual aspects of the heatmap layout. The heatmaply package is available under the GPL-2 Open Source license. It comes with a detailed vignette, and is freely available from: http://cran.r-project.org/package=heatmaply. tal.galili@math.tau.ac.il. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Using large hydrological datasets to create a robust, physically based, spatially distributed model for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological systems requires further quantification in order to inform water management. This study intends to conduct such analysis using hydrological models. Such models are of varying forms, of which conceptual, lumped parameter models and physically-based models are two important types. The majority of hydrological studies use conceptual models calibrated against measured river flow time series in order to represent catchment behaviour. This method often shows impressive results for specific problems in gauged catchments. However, the results may not be robust under non-stationary conditions such as climate change, as physical processes and relationships amenable to change are not accounted for explicitly. Moreover, conceptual models are less readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. As such, the physically based, spatially distributed model SHETRAN is used in this study to develop a robust and reliable framework for modelling historic and future behaviour of gauged and ungauged catchments across the whole of Great Britain. In order to achieve this, a large array of data completely covering Great Britain for the period 1960-2006 has been collated and efficiently stored ready for model input. The data processed include a DEM, rainfall, PE and maps of geology, soil and land cover. A desire to make the modelling system easy for others to work with led to the development of a user-friendly graphical interface. This allows non-experts to set up and run a catchment model in a few seconds, a process that can normally take weeks or months. The quality and reliability of the extensive dataset for modelling hydrological processes has also been evaluated. One aspect of this has been an assessment of error and uncertainty in rainfall input data, as well as the effects of temporal resolution in precipitation inputs on model calibration. SHETRAN has been updated to accept gridded rainfall

  9. Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the

  10. Spatiality of ethnic identity and construction of sociopolitical interaction in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon K. Madut

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the complexity of the spatial construction of ethnicity, identity, and sociopolitical interaction among South Sudanese ethnic groups. The article focuses on the interplay between social interaction and the construction of ethnic identity as they affect the notion of human interaction and welfare. The narratives are based on the political sociology of South Sudan after its independence from Sudan and challenges endured in the process of sociopolitical transformation towards the reconstruction of national identity and peaceful coexistence. This discourse gives meaning to visible and invisible ethno-cultural constructions that shaped the norms of social and political interactions among various ethnic groups in the country. The analysis concluded that South Sudan society is socially, politically, and culturally constructed along ethnicized communities with variant perceptions of group and regional identities based on both primordial ties and instrumentalists’ perceptions. These unique characteristics of spaces and construction of social structure has created multi-faceted challenges in the process of social, economic and political reconstruction after the independent of South Sudan in July 2011.

  11. Attention Modulates Visual-Tactile Interaction in Spatial Pattern Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Florian; Engel, Andreas K.; Friese, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an ‘all-or-nothing’ manner. PMID:25203102

  12. Attention modulates visual-tactile interaction in spatial pattern matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Göschl

    Full Text Available Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an 'all-or-nothing' manner.

  13. Spatial-structural interaction and strain energy structural optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Davila Delgado, J.M.; Borrmann, A.; Geyer, P.; Rafiq, Y.; Wilde, de P.

    2012-01-01

    A research engine iteratively transforms spatial designs into structural designs and vice versa. Furthermore, spatial and structural designs are optimised. It is suggested to optimise a structural design by evaluating the strain energy of its elements and by then removing, adding, or changing the

  14. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Mikael; Merkel, Magnus; Ahrenberg, Lars; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Petersson, Håkan; Åhlfeldt, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems. PMID:17034649

  15. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweigenbaum Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems.

  16. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Mikael; Merkel, Magnus; Ahrenberg, Lars; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Petersson, Håkan; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2006-10-12

    This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems.

  17. Transitions between central and peripheral vision create spatial/temporal distortions: a hypothesis concerning the perceived break of the curveball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Shapiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system does not treat all parts of an image equally: the central segments of an image, which fall on the fovea, are processed with a higher resolution than the segments that fall in the visual periphery. Even though the differences between foveal and peripheral resolution are large, these differences do not usually disrupt our perception of seamless visual space. Here we examine a motion stimulus in which the shift from foveal to peripheral viewing creates a dramatic spatial/temporal discontinuity.The stimulus consists of a descending disk (global motion with an internal moving grating (local motion. When observers view the disk centrally, they perceive both global and local motion (i.e., observers see the disk's vertical descent and the internal spinning. When observers view the disk peripherally, the internal portion appears stationary, and the disk appears to descend at an angle. The angle of perceived descent increases as the observer views the stimulus from further in the periphery. We examine the first- and second-order information content in the display with the use of a three-dimensional Fourier analysis and show how our results can be used to describe perceived spatial/temporal discontinuities in real-world situations.The perceived shift of the disk's direction in the periphery is consistent with a model in which foveal processing separates first- and second-order motion information while peripheral processing integrates first- and second-order motion information. We argue that the perceived distortion may influence real-world visual observations. To this end, we present a hypothesis and analysis of the perception of the curveball and rising fastball in the sport of baseball. The curveball is a physically measurable phenomenon: the imbalance of forces created by the ball's spin causes the ball to deviate from a straight line and to follow a smooth parabolic path. However, the curveball is also a perceptual puzzle

  18. Transitions between central and peripheral vision create spatial/temporal distortions: a hypothesis concerning the perceived break of the curveball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Huang, Chang-Bing; Knight, Emily; Ennis, Robert

    2010-10-13

    The human visual system does not treat all parts of an image equally: the central segments of an image, which fall on the fovea, are processed with a higher resolution than the segments that fall in the visual periphery. Even though the differences between foveal and peripheral resolution are large, these differences do not usually disrupt our perception of seamless visual space. Here we examine a motion stimulus in which the shift from foveal to peripheral viewing creates a dramatic spatial/temporal discontinuity. The stimulus consists of a descending disk (global motion) with an internal moving grating (local motion). When observers view the disk centrally, they perceive both global and local motion (i.e., observers see the disk's vertical descent and the internal spinning). When observers view the disk peripherally, the internal portion appears stationary, and the disk appears to descend at an angle. The angle of perceived descent increases as the observer views the stimulus from further in the periphery. We examine the first- and second-order information content in the display with the use of a three-dimensional Fourier analysis and show how our results can be used to describe perceived spatial/temporal discontinuities in real-world situations. The perceived shift of the disk's direction in the periphery is consistent with a model in which foveal processing separates first- and second-order motion information while peripheral processing integrates first- and second-order motion information. We argue that the perceived distortion may influence real-world visual observations. To this end, we present a hypothesis and analysis of the perception of the curveball and rising fastball in the sport of baseball. The curveball is a physically measurable phenomenon: the imbalance of forces created by the ball's spin causes the ball to deviate from a straight line and to follow a smooth parabolic path. However, the curveball is also a perceptual puzzle because batters often

  19. Effective interactions between nanoparticles: Creating temperature-independent solvation environments for self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Hari O. S., E-mail: cyz108802@chemistry.iitd.ac.in, E-mail: hariyadav.iitd@gmail.com; Shrivastav, Gourav; Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-28

    The extent to which solvent-mediated effective interactions between nanoparticles can be predicted based on structure and associated thermodynamic estimators for bulk solvents and for solvation of single and pairs of nanoparticles is studied here. As a test of the approach, we analyse the strategy for creating temperature-independent solvent environments using a series of homologous chain fluids as solvents, as suggested by an experimental paper [M. I. Bodnarchuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11967 (2010)]. Our conclusions are based on molecular dynamics simulations of Au{sub 140}(SC{sub 10}H{sub 21}){sub 62} nanoparticles in n-alkane solvents, specifically hexane, octane, decane and dodecane, using the TraPPE-UA potential to model the alkanes and alkylthiols. The 140-atom gold core of the nanocrystal is held rigid in a truncated octahedral geometry and the gold-thiolate interaction is modeled using a Morse potential. The experimental observation was that the structural and rheological properties of n-alkane solvents are constant over a temperature range determined by equivalent solvent vapour pressures. We show that this is a consequence of the fact that long chain alkane liquids behave to a good approximation as simple liquids formed by packing of monomeric methyl/methylene units. Over the corresponding temperature range (233–361 K), the solvation environment is approximately constant at the single and pair nanoparticle levels under good solvent conditions. However, quantitative variations of the order of 10%–20% do exist in various quantities, such as molar volume of solute at infinite dilution, entropy of solvation, and onset distance for soft repulsions. In the opposite limit of a poor solvent, represented by vacuum in this study, the effective interactions between nanoparticles are no longer temperature-independent with attractive interactions increasing by up to 50% on decreasing the temperature from 361 K to 290 K, accompanied by an increase in

  20. Study of plasmas created by X-ray laser-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtier, E.

    2010-11-01

    This thesis took advantage of the emerging newly developed 4. generation sources of light, namely the free electron lasers, to create and characterize a state of matter under extreme conditions which is still obscure: the warm dense matter (WDM). WDM is found in giant planets and is also produced in inertial fusion. An experiment allowed to study the transitions between the different phases, solid/WDM/plasma, and characterize the mechanism responsible for the equilibration. The laser pulse FLASH, of duration and energy equal to about 20 femto-seconds and 30 μJ respectively, is micro-focussed on a solid target producing an isochoric heating. The intensity, greater than 10 16 W.cm -2 , has never been reached in such an experimental context so far. Emission spectra from an aluminium plasma are studied with a code coupling a genetic algorithm and a code of atomic physics, in order to interpret the whole temporal evolution of the XUV laser-matter interaction for the first time, despite the time integration of the experimental spectra. The first experimental proof of the important contribution of the Auger effect in the isochoric heating of an aluminium target is established. The first observation of the X-ray emission of a boron nitride target under extreme conditions has been investigated by a preliminary study. Additionally, the effect of hot electrons on the electron population distribution in the energy levels of the ions is analysed and shows an important similarity with the photo-ionization process occurring in XUV/X-ray laser-matter interaction. (author)

  1. CREATING TEACHING AND LEARNING OBJECTS THROUGH INTERACTIVE DIGITAL BLACKBOARD (IDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Dorado Perea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The virtual Laboratory of Educative Technology is a research and development project which has been funded by the 2009 research grant at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona UAB, (Spain. Its aim is to improve the IT skills of both lecturers and students, in the use of technological tools, like the IDB, with the purpose of triggering the processes of information communication in the classroom. Ultimately it focuses in an improvement in the processes of education and learning.This article describes the experience carried out in the Research Group of Methodologies in Education and Multimedia (MEM at the Education Faculty at UAB. Through interactive and collaborative communication in Internet, it has been selecting, designing and creating materials and situations.The incorporation of this simple and reasonable technology, in its diverse modalities, as well as being user-friendly, allows the participant the double perspective of action and reflection. It also allows for an analysis and evaluation of the generation process, obtention of results, encouraging therefore dynamic collaboration and the generation knowledge.

  2. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  3. Creating an interactive Web-based e-learning course: a practical introduction for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Denis; Micheau, Antoine; Gahide, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    With the development of e-learning and its ability to provide rich animated content rapidly to a wide audience, new methods for teaching medical imaging have evolved. E-learning tools allow building of learner-focused structured courses. Standards such as shareable content object reference model (SCORM) or Aviation Industry Computer-based Training Committee (AICC) guidelines and recommendations provide the framework required to combine text, images, videos, animations, and quizzes for learning assessment, even if each of these elements is created with different software. The main features to consider when choosing a learning management system are content management, assessment and reporting tools, customization options, course delivery, administration, and security. The tools for building a Web-based course with pages containing text, images, videos, and Flash animations are now accessible to any radiologist. Open-source learning management systems and content authoring software are available at no cost. The authors developed e-MRI.com, a free Web-based e-learning course with interactive animations and simulations, self-tests, and clinical cases to demonstrate the potential of the latest advances in e-learning and pedagogy applied to magnetic resonance imaging physics.

  4. Using JavaScript and the FDSN web service to create an interactive earthquake information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.

    2015-04-01

    The FDSN web service provides a web interface to access earthquake meta-data (e. g. event or station information) and waveform date over the internet. Requests are send to a server as URLs and the output is either XML or miniSEED. This makes it hard to read by humans but easy to process with different software. Different data centers are already supporting the FDSN web service, e. g. USGS, IRIS, ORFEUS. The FDSN web service is also part of the Seiscomp3 (http://www.seiscomp3.org) software. The Seismological Observatory of the Ruhr-University switched to Seiscomp3 as the standard software for the analysis of mining induced earthquakes at the beginning of 2014. This made it necessary to create a new web-based earthquake information service for the publication of results to the general public. This has be done by processing the output of a FDSN web service query by javascript running in a standard browser. The result is an interactive map presenting the observed events and further information of events and stations on a single web page as a table and on a map. In addition the user can download event information, waveform data and station data in different formats like miniSEED, quakeML or FDSNxml. The developed code and all used libraries are open source and freely available.

  5. FIND: difFerential chromatin INteractions Detection using a spatial Poisson process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekidel, Mohamed Nadhir; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q

    2018-02-12

    Polymer-based simulations and experimental studies indicate the existence of a spatial dependency between the adjacent DNA fibers involved in the formation of chromatin loops. However, the existing strategies for detecting differential chromatin interactions assume that the interacting segments are spatially independent from the other segments nearby. To resolve this issue, we developed a new computational method, FIND, which considers the local spatial dependency between interacting loci. FIND uses a spatial Poisson process to detect differential chromatin interactions that show a significant difference in their interaction frequency and the interaction frequency of their neighbors. Simulation and biological data analysis show that FIND outperforms the widely used count-based methods and has a better signal-to-noise ratio. © 2018 Djekidel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Interactions of collimation, sampling and filtering on spect spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The major factors which affect the spatial resolution of single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) include collimation, sampling and filtering. A theoretical formulation is presented to describe the relationship between these factors and their effects on the projection data. Numerical calculations were made using commercially available SPECT systems and imaging parameters. The results provide an important guide for proper selection of the collimator-detector design, the imaging and the reconstruction parameters to avoid unnecessary spatial resolution degradation and aliasing artifacts in the reconstructed image. In addition, the understanding will help in the fair evaluation of different SPECT systems under specific imaging conditions

  7. Experiments with a First Prototype of a Spatial Model of Cultural Meaning through Natural-Language Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Schürer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When using assistive systems, the consideration of individual and cultural meaning is crucial for the utility and acceptance of technology. Orientation, communication and interaction are rooted in perception and therefore always happen in material space. We understand that a major problem lies in the difference between human and technical perception of space. Cultural policies are based on meanings including their spatial situation and their rich relationships. Therefore, we have developed an approach where the different perception systems share a hybrid spatial model that is generated by artificial intelligence—a joint effort by humans and assistive systems. The aim of our project is to create a spatial model of cultural meaning based on interaction between humans and robots. We define the role of humanoid robots as becoming our companions. This calls for technical systems to include still inconceivable human and cultural agendas for the perception of space. In two experiments, we tested a first prototype of the communication module that allows a humanoid to learn cultural meanings through a machine learning system. Interaction is achieved by non-verbal and natural-language communication between humanoids and test persons. This helps us to better understand how a spatial model of cultural meaning can be developed.

  8. Shape Displays: Spatial Interaction with Dynamic Physical Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithinger, Daniel; Follmer, Sean; Olwal, Alex; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Shape displays are an emerging class of devices that emphasize actuation to enable rich physical interaction, complementing concepts in virtual and augmented reality. The ability to render form introduces new opportunities to touch, grasp, and manipulate dynamic physical content and tangible objects, in both nearby and remote environments. This article presents novel hardware, interaction techniques, and applications, which point to the potential for extending the ways that we traditionally interact with the physical world, empowered by digital computation.

  9. Spatial interactions among ecosystem services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiangxiao; Turner, Monica G

    2013-07-16

    Understanding spatial distributions, synergies, and tradeoffs of multiple ecosystem services (benefits people derive from ecosystems) remains challenging. We analyzed the supply of 10 ecosystem services for 2006 across a large urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest of the United States, and asked the following: (i) Where are areas of high and low supply of individual ecosystem services, and are these areas spatially concordant across services? (ii) Where on the landscape are the strongest tradeoffs and synergies among ecosystem services located? (iii) For ecosystem service pairs that experience tradeoffs, what distinguishes locations that are "win-win" exceptions from other locations? Spatial patterns of high supply for multiple ecosystem services often were not coincident; locations where six or more services were produced at high levels (upper 20th percentile) occupied only 3.3% of the landscape. Most relationships among ecosystem services were synergies, but tradeoffs occurred between crop production and water quality. Ecosystem services related to water quality and quantity separated into three different groups, indicating that management to sustain freshwater services along with other ecosystem services will not be simple. Despite overall tradeoffs between crop production and water quality, some locations were positive for both, suggesting that tradeoffs are not inevitable everywhere and might be ameliorated in some locations. Overall, we found that different areas of the landscape supplied different suites of ecosystem services, and their lack of spatial concordance suggests the importance of managing over large areas to sustain multiple ecosystem services.

  10. A flexible system for creating music while interacting with the computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Music is a very important part of our lives. People enjoy listening to the music, and many of us find a special pleasure in creating the music. Computers further extended many aspects of our musical experience. Listening to, recording, and creating music is now easier and more accessible to various

  11. Magnetic interaction between spatially extended superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2002-01-01

    A general description of magnetic interactions between superconducting tunnel junctions is given. The description covers a wide range of possible experimental systems, and we explicitly explore two experimentally relevant limits of coupled junctions. One is the limit of junctions with tunneling...... been considered through arrays of superconducting weak links based on semiconductor quantum wells with superconducting electrodes. We use the model to make direct interpretations of the published experiments and thereby propose that long-range magnetic interactions are responsible for the reported...

  12. Bringing VR and spatial 3D interaction to the masses through video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    This article examines why innovations such as the Sony EyeToy and Nintendo Wii have been so successful and discusses the research opportunities presented by the latest commercial push for spatial 3D interaction in games.

  13. Visualisation and research strategy for computational spatial and structural design interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeten, D.; Hofmeyer, H.; Thabet, W

    2010-01-01

    A research engine is under development for studying the interaction of spatial and structural design processes. The design processes are being implemented as two separate configurable transformation steps; a conversion step and an optimisation step. A significant part of the spatial-to-structural

  14. A spatial theory for emergent multiple predator-prey interactions in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northfield, Tobin D; Barton, Brandon T; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2017-09-01

    Predator-prey interaction is inherently spatial because animals move through landscapes to search for and consume food resources and to avoid being consumed by other species. The spatial nature of species interactions necessitates integrating spatial processes into food web theory and evaluating how predators combine to impact their prey. Here, we present a spatial modeling approach that examines emergent multiple predator effects on prey within landscapes. The modeling is inspired by the habitat domain concept derived from empirical synthesis of spatial movement and interactions studies. Because these principles are motivated by synthesis of short-term experiments, it remains uncertain whether spatial contingency principles hold in dynamical systems. We address this uncertainty by formulating dynamical systems models, guided by core habitat domain principles, to examine long-term multiple predator-prey spatial dynamics. To describe habitat domains, we use classical niche concepts describing resource utilization distributions, and assume species interactions emerge from the degree of overlap between species. The analytical results generally align with those from empirical synthesis and present a theoretical framework capable of demonstrating multiple predator effects that does not depend on the small spatial or temporal scales typical of mesocosm experiments, and help bridge between empirical experiments and long-term dynamics in natural systems.

  15. Testing a Dynamic Field Account of Interactions between Spatial Attention and Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: if attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal is reexamined in light of a neural process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color-discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial recall task. In the critical shifting attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the memorized location relative to a midline reference axis. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors but no change in directional error, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations—as predicted by the model—there should be systematic changes in the pattern of spatial recall errors depending on the direction of the shift. Results were consistent with the latter possibility—recall errors were biased toward the location of discrimination targets appearing during the delay. PMID:26810574

  16. Testing a dynamic-field account of interactions between spatial attention and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: If attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal was reexamined in light of a neural-process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial-recall task. In the critical shifting-attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the midline reference axis, relative to the memorized location. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors, but no change in directional errors, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations-as predicted by the model-systematic changes in the patterns of spatial-recall errors should occur that would depend on the direction of the shift. The results were consistent with the latter possibility-recall errors were biased toward the locations of discrimination targets appearing during the delay.

  17. Interactions through the network - understanding the myths to create new ways of information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of open data networks in the former Soviet Union, even concerning nuclear matters, collided with Soviet myths of, for example, nuclear secrets, information prohibition and dangers of international communication. Moreover, it was considered very complicated. These myths share many of the features with perception of radiation risk, such as dread, fear and misunderstanding. The new opportunities for information exchange, created by modern telecommunications and computer networks, can dispel these myths and perceptions concerning radiation risk, provided proper consideration of the myths' origins is taken. New ways of information exchange, such as creating extensive, international information infrastructures, based on Internet, can create new conditions for presenting the social conditions related to radiation risk. (author)

  18. A new intelligent algorithm to create a profile for user based on web interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab khademali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to classify the web user’s navigation patterns automatically. The proposed model of this paper classifies user’s navigation patterns and predicts his/her upcoming requirements. To create users’ profile, a new method is introduced by recording user’s settings active and user’s similarity measurement with neighboring users. The proposed model is capable of creating the profile implicitly. Besides, it updates the profile based on created changes. In fact, we try to improve the function of recommender engine using user’s navigation patterns and clustering. The method is based on user’s navigation patterns and is able to present the result of recommender engine based on user’s requirement and interest. In addition, this method has the ability to help customize websites, more efficiently.

  19. Not All Diversity Interactions Are Created Equal: Cross-Racial Interaction, Close Interracial Friendship, and College Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Park, Julie J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education researchers and practitioners have emphasized the educational benefits of fostering meaningful interracial interaction on college campuses. The link between cross-racial interaction and student growth has received considerable empirical attention, but far less is known about whether and when interracial friendship predicts student…

  20. Modelling of spatially complex human-ecosystem, rural-urban and rich-poor interactions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naude, AH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the challenges of modelling and assessing spatially complex human-ecosystem interactions, and the need to simultaneously consider rural-urban and rich-poor interactions. The context for exploring these challenges is South Africa...

  1. Leaders' limitations and approaches to creating conditions for interaction and communication in parental groups: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykedal, Karin Forslund; Rosander, Michael; Barimani, Mia; Berlin, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand parental group (PG) leaders' experiences of creating conditions for interaction and communication. The data consisted of 10 interviews with 14 leaders. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the leaders' ambition was to create a parent-centred learning environment by establishing conditions for interaction and communication between the parents in the PGs. However, the leaders' experience was that their professional competencies were insufficient and that they lacked pedagogical tools to create constructive group discussions. Nevertheless, they found other ways to facilitate interactive processes. Based on their experience in the PG, the leaders constructed informal socio-emotional roles for themselves (e.g. caring role and personal role) and let their more formal task roles (e.g. professional role, group leader and consulting role) recede into the background, so as to remove the imbalance of power between the leaders and the parents. They believed this would make the parents feel more confident and make it easier for them to start communicating and interacting. This personal approach places them in a vulnerable position in the PG, in which it is easy for them to feel offended by parents' criticism, questioning or silence.

  2. Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of power-space interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiang; Zhu, Lei

    2018-05-10

    A power-space interaction, which denotes the phenomenon that people responded faster to powerful words when they are placed higher in a visual field and faster to powerless words when they are placed lower in a visual field, has been repeatedly found. The dominant explanation of this power-space interaction is that it results from a tight correspondence between the representation of power and visual space (i.e., a visuospatial coding account). In the present study, we demonstrated that the interaction between power and space could be also based on a verbal-spatial coding in absence of any vertical spatial information. Additionally, the verbal-spatial coding was dominant in driving the power-space interaction when verbal space was contrasted with the visual space. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research Techniques Made Simple: Emerging Methods to Elucidate Protein Interactions through Spatial Proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yonglu; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between proteins are essential for fundamental cellular processes, and the diversity of such interactions enables the vast variety of functions essential for life. A persistent goal in biological research is to develop assays that can faithfully capture different types of protein interactions to allow their study. A major step forward in this direction came with a family of methods that delineates spatial proximity of proteins as an indirect measure of protein-protein interaction. A variety of enzyme- and DNA ligation-based methods measure protein co-localization in space, capturing novel interactions that were previously too transient or low affinity to be identified. Here we review some of the methods that have been successfully used to measure spatially proximal protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How Managers' Shared Mental Models of Business–Customer Interactions Create Different Sensemaking of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Ringberg, Torsten; Wilke, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    Building on empirical research, we identify four mental models of business–customer interactions and show how each uniquely affects how managers conceptualize and use social media. The four models are “business-to-customers,” “business-from-customers,” “business-with-customers,” and “business......-for-customers.” The mental model approach helps explain why managers' use of social media does not necessarily lead to radical changes in their interaction with customers, despite the opportunities facilitated by these media. We provide a conceptual framework that enables managers to introspectively investigate their own...... mental models and thereby revise their sensemaking and use of social media....

  5. Multilayer networks reveal the spatial structure of seed-dispersal interactions across the Great Rift landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Sérgio; Correia, Marta; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Freitas, Helena; Heleno, Ruben

    2018-01-10

    Species interaction networks are traditionally explored as discrete entities with well-defined spatial borders, an oversimplification likely impairing their applicability. Using a multilayer network approach, explicitly accounting for inter-habitat connectivity, we investigate the spatial structure of seed-dispersal networks across the Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique. We show that the overall seed-dispersal network is composed by spatially explicit communities of dispersers spanning across habitats, functionally linking the landscape mosaic. Inter-habitat connectivity determines spatial structure, which cannot be accurately described with standard monolayer approaches either splitting or merging habitats. Multilayer modularity cannot be predicted by null models randomizing either interactions within each habitat or those linking habitats; however, as habitat connectivity increases, random processes become more important for overall structure. The importance of dispersers for the overall network structure is captured by multilayer versatility but not by standard metrics. Highly versatile species disperse many plant species across multiple habitats, being critical to landscape functional cohesion.

  6. Global connectivity and cross-scale interactions create uncertainty for Blue Growth of Arctic fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niiranen, S.; Richter, A.; Blenckner, T.; Stige, L.C.; Valman, M.; Eikeset, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic faces high expectations of Blue Growth due to future projections of easier access and increased biological productivity. These expectations are, however, often based on global and regional climate change projections and largely ignore the complexity of social-ecological interactions

  7. Mutually Beneficial Foreign Language Learning: Creating Meaningful Interactions through Video-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumie; Spring, Ryan; Mori, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    Providing learners of a foreign language with meaningful opportunities for interactions, specifically with native speakers, is especially challenging for instructors. One way to overcome this obstacle is through video-synchronous computer-mediated communication tools such as Skype software. This study reports quantitative and qualitative data from…

  8. Playing With Nonverbal Communication: Using Grasp and Facial Direction to Create Adaptive Interaction in a Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2014-01-01

    . The results indicate that participants grasp a remote control according to the intended use and turn their face towards the object with which they intend to interact. The amount of time during which the participants turned their faces towards the object was influenced by the available visual information...

  9. Probing interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we place observational constraints on the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model. We consider three kinds of phenomenological interactions between holographic dark energy and matter, i.e., the interaction term Q is proportional to the energy densities of dark energy (ρ Λ ), matter (ρ m ), and matter plus dark energy (ρ m +ρ Λ ). For probing the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model, we use the latest observational data including the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Constitution data, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our results show that the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model are both rather small. Besides, it is interesting to find that there exists significant degeneracy between the phenomenological interaction and the spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model

  10. The process of co-creating the interface for VENSTER, an interactive artwork for nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Gaston; Luyten, Tom; Delsing, Rob; Braun, Susy

    2017-10-17

    Interactive art installations might engage nursing home residents with dementia. The main aim of this article was to describe the challenging design process of an interactive artwork for nursing home residents, in co-creation with all stakeholders and to share the used methods and lessons learned. This process is illustrated by the design of the interface of VENSTER as a case. Nursing home residents from the psychogeriatric ward, informal caregivers, client representatives, health care professionals and members of the management team were involved in the design process, which consisted of three phases: (1) identify requirements, (2) develop a prototype and (3) conduct usability tests. Several methods were used (e.g. guided co-creation sessions, "Wizard of Oz"). Each phase generated "lessons learned", which were used as the departure point of the next phase. Participants hardly paid attention to the installation and interface. There, however, seemed to be an untapped potential for creating an immersive experience by focussing more on the content itself as an interface (e.g. creating specific scenes with cues for interaction, scenes based on existing knowledge or prior experiences). "Fifteen lessons learned" which can potentially assist the design of an interactive artwork for nursing home residents suffering from dementia were derived from the design process. This description provides tools and best practices for stakeholders to make (better) informed choices during the creation of interactive artworks. It also illustrates how co-design can make the difference between designing a pleasurable experience and a meaningful one. Implications for rehabilitation Co-design with all stakeholders can make the difference between designing a pleasurable experience and a meaningful one. There seems to be an untapped potential for creating an immersive experience by focussing more on the content itself as an interface (e.g. creating specific scenes with cues for interaction

  11. Sex-biased dispersal creates spatial genetic structure in a parthenogenetic ant with a dependent-lineage reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, A; Bauman, D; Darras, H; Aron, S

    2017-10-01

    Reproduction and dispersal are key aspects of species life history that influence spatial genetic structure in populations. Several ant species in the genus Cataglyphis have evolved a unique breeding system in which new reproductives (that is, queens and males) are produced asexually by parthenogenesis; in contrast, non-reproductives (that is, workers) are produced via sexual reproduction by mates from distinct genetic lineages. We investigated how these two coexisting reproductive methods affect population-level spatial genetic structure using the ant Cataglyphis mauritanica as a model. We obtained genotypes for queens and their male mates from 338 colonies, and we found that the two lineages present in the study population occurred with equal frequency. Furthermore, analysis of spatial genetic structure revealed strong sex-biased dispersal. Because queens were produced by parthenogenesis and because they dispersed over short distances, there was an extreme level of spatial structuring: a mosaic of patches composed of clonal queens was formed. Males, on the other hand, dispersed over several hundred metres and, thus, across patches, ensuring successful interlineage mating.

  12. Multilevel Modelling with Spatial Interaction Effects with Application to an Emerging Land Market in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanpeng Dong

    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for extending multilevel modelling to incorporate spatial interaction effects. The motivation is that classic multilevel models are not specifically spatial. Lower level units may be nested into higher level ones based on a geographical hierarchy (or a membership structure--for example, census zones into regions but the actual locations of the units and the distances between them are not directly considered: what matters is the groupings but not how close together any two units are within those groupings. As a consequence, spatial interaction effects are neither modelled nor measured, confounding group effects (understood as some sort of contextual effect that acts 'top down' upon members of a group with proximity effects (some sort of joint dependency that emerges between neighbours. To deal with this, we incorporate spatial simultaneous autoregressive processes into both the outcome variable and the higher level residuals. To assess the performance of the proposed method and the classic multilevel model, a series of Monte Carlo simulations are conducted. The results show that the proposed method performs well in retrieving the true model parameters whereas the classic multilevel model provides biased and inefficient parameter estimation in the presence of spatial interactions. An important implication of the study is to be cautious of an apparent neighbourhood effect in terms of both its magnitude and statistical significance if spatial interaction effects at a lower level are suspected. Applying the new approach to a two-level land price data set for Beijing, China, we find significant spatial interactions at both the land parcel and district levels.

  13. Multi-model-based interactive authoring environment for creating shareable medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Jamil; Ali, Rahman; Hassan, Waseem; Jamshed, Arif; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2017-10-01

    Technologically integrated healthcare environments can be realized if physicians are encouraged to use smart systems for the creation and sharing of knowledge used in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). While CDSSs are heading toward smart environments, they lack support for abstraction of technology-oriented knowledge from physicians. Therefore, abstraction in the form of a user-friendly and flexible authoring environment is required in order for physicians to create shareable and interoperable knowledge for CDSS workflows. Our proposed system provides a user-friendly authoring environment to create Arden Syntax MLM (Medical Logic Module) as shareable knowledge rules for intelligent decision-making by CDSS. Existing systems are not physician friendly and lack interoperability and shareability of knowledge. In this paper, we proposed Intelligent-Knowledge Authoring Tool (I-KAT), a knowledge authoring environment that overcomes the above mentioned limitations. Shareability is achieved by creating a knowledge base from MLMs using Arden Syntax. Interoperability is enhanced using standard data models and terminologies. However, creation of shareable and interoperable knowledge using Arden Syntax without abstraction increases complexity, which ultimately makes it difficult for physicians to use the authoring environment. Therefore, physician friendliness is provided by abstraction at the application layer to reduce complexity. This abstraction is regulated by mappings created between legacy system concepts, which are modeled as domain clinical model (DCM) and decision support standards such as virtual medical record (vMR) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). We represent these mappings with a semantic reconciliation model (SRM). The objective of the study is the creation of shareable and interoperable knowledge using a user-friendly and flexible I-KAT. Therefore we evaluated our system using completeness and user satisfaction

  14. Spatially Extended Habitat Modification by Intertidal Reef-Building Bivalves has Implications for Consumer-Resource Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, E.M.; van der Heide, T.; Donadi, S.; Eklöf, J.S.; Eriksson, B.K.; Olff, H.; van der Veer, H.W.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers can strongly modify habitat structure and resource availability across space. In theory, this should alter the spatial distributions of trophically interacting species. In this article, we empirically investigated the importance of spatially extended habitat modification by

  15. Spatially extended habitat modification by intertidal reef-building bivalves has implications for consumer-resource interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Els M.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Donadi, Serena; Eklöf, Johan S.; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Olff, Han; van der Veer, Henk W.; Piersma, Theunis

    Ecosystem engineers can strongly modify habitat structure and resource availability across space. In theory, this should alter the spatial distributions of trophically interacting species. In this article, we empirically investigated the importance of spatially extended habitat modification by

  16. The Strategy of Creating a Virtual Interactive Platform for the Low-Carbon Open Innovations Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Mykola S. Shestavin

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for the creation of a Virtual Interactive Platform (or Networking Platform) to combine the four web-baseness of expert systems on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. It used the concept of “Open Innovation” and “Triple Helix” with regard to theories of “Green Growth” and “Carbon Footprint”. Interpreters expert systems operate on the basis of models of the “Predator-Prey” for the process of transfer and diffusion of technologies, taking into account the features c...

  17. Histone and RNA-binding protein interaction creates crosstalk network for regulation of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Eun; Park, Chungoo; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Kee K

    2018-04-30

    Alternative splicing is an essential process in eukaryotes, as it increases the complexity of gene expression by generating multiple proteins from a single pre-mRNA. However, information on the regulatory mechanisms for alternative splicing is lacking, because splicing occurs over a short period via the transient interactions of proteins within functional complexes of the spliceosome. Here, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanisms connecting alternative splicing with epigenetic mechanisms. We identified interactions between histone proteins and splicing factors such as Rbfox2, Rbfox3, and splicing factor proline and glutamine rich protein (SFPQ) by in vivo crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we confirmed that splicing factors were bound to specific modified residues of histone proteins. Additionally, changes in histone methylation due to histone methyltransferase inhibitor treatment notably affected alternative splicing in selected genes. Therefore, we suggested that there may be crosstalk mechanisms connecting histone modifications and RNA-binding proteins that increase the local concentration of RNA-binding proteins in alternative exon loci of nucleosomes by binding specific modified histone proteins, leading to alternative splicing. This crosstalk mechanism may play a major role in epigenetic processes such as histone modification and the regulation of alternative splicing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  19. Creating and analyzing pathway and protein interaction compendia for modelling signal transduction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirouac Daniel C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the information-processing capabilities of signal transduction networks, how those networks are disrupted in disease, and rationally designing therapies to manipulate diseased states require systematic and accurate reconstruction of network topology. Data on networks central to human physiology, such as the inflammatory signalling networks analyzed here, are found in a multiplicity of on-line resources of pathway and interactome databases (Cancer CellMap, GeneGo, KEGG, NCI-Pathway Interactome Database (NCI-PID, PANTHER, Reactome, I2D, and STRING. We sought to determine whether these databases contain overlapping information and whether they can be used to construct high reliability prior knowledge networks for subsequent modeling of experimental data. Results We have assembled an ensemble network from multiple on-line sources representing a significant portion of all machine-readable and reconcilable human knowledge on proteins and protein interactions involved in inflammation. This ensemble network has many features expected of complex signalling networks assembled from high-throughput data: a power law distribution of both node degree and edge annotations, and topological features of a “bow tie” architecture in which diverse pathways converge on a highly conserved set of enzymatic cascades focused around PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT, NFκB, and apoptotic signaling. Individual pathways exhibit “fuzzy” modularity that is statistically significant but still involving a majority of “cross-talk” interactions. However, we find that the most widely used pathway databases are highly inconsistent with respect to the actual constituents and interactions in this network. Using a set of growth factor signalling networks as examples (epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor, and wingless, we find a multiplicity of network topologies in which receptors couple to downstream

  20. FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGIES CREATE INTERACTIVE ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT FOR SUPPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICAL PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola A. Meleshko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the content of the «flash-book» construct, defining its properties and possible components. There are presented some examples of components programming steps of “authoring flash – book”, considered the possibility of using such an electronic document to optimize the learning process at the Technical University in the performance of laboratory training on general physics. The technique of its using to provide individualized approach to learning and the use of various experimental base from classical to digital equipment laboratories is proposed. It was carried out the analysis of ways to improve such interactive electronic document for the development of information technology competence of engineering students.

  1. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  2. Similarity of multi-fragmentation of residual nucleus created in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hafiez, A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Orlova, G.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Navotny, V.SH.; Uzhinskii, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on multi-fragmentation of residual krypton nuclei created in the interactions of the krypton nuclei with photoemulsion nuclei ut energy of 0.9 GeV per nucleon are presented in a comparison with the analogous data on fragmentation of gold residual nuclei at the energy of 10.7 GeV/nucleon. It is shown for the first time that there are two regimes of nuclear multifragmentation: the former is when less than one-half of nucleons of projectile nucleus are knocked out, the later is when more than one-half of nucleons are knocked out. Residual nuclei with closed masses created at different reactions are fragmenting practically simultaneously when more than one-half of nucleons of original nuclei are knocked out. The evidence of existence of a radial flow of the spectator fragment at the decay of residual krypton nuclei is found

  3. Exploring Interacting Quantum Many-Body Systems by Experimentally Creating Continuous Matrix Product States in Superconducting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eichler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.

  4. Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the

  5. Bistability, Spatial Interaction, and the Distribution of Tropical Forests and Savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Xu, Chi; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only

  6. Fake Magnets, Real Physics: Using touch tables with fiducials to create interactive experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute has been producing space weather related activities for both museums and online for over a decade (see, for instance, www.spaceweathercenter.org). Recently we have begun exploring the possibilities of augmented reality as a mechanism for letting visitors explore magnetic fields, charged particle motion, and related space weather topics. Using a Microsoft Surface touch table, NCIL@SSI has developed several activities that incorporate magnet "fiducials"... objects shaped like recognizable magnets (bar, horseshoe, etc.) that when placed on the table are recognized by the computer. In this way visitors can place a magnet, then see the associated magnetic field drawn out on the table. And given a magnet (which could be the Earth) and a field, they can touch the screen to launch charged particles in to the field. We believe that this combination of physical objects and simulated physics provides a compelling new opportunity for topics such as space weather, where the necessary prior knowledge (e.g., the behavior of magnetic fields and charged particles) are not well understood, or even easily accessible, for the average visitor. We will be reporting both on the software and educational strategies reflected in it, as well as testing which is being performed at the NCAR visitor center in Boulder Colorado and the Hatfield Visitor Center in Oregon by NCIL's Director of Learning Research and Evaluation. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Channel-facilitated molecular transport: The role of strength and spatial distribution of interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppulury, Karthik, E-mail: karthik.uppulury@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Kolomeisky, Anatoly B. [Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Highlights: • Molecular flux strongly depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions. • There exists an optimal molecule-pore interaction potential for maximal flux. • Volume of interactions depends inversely on the strength for maximal flux. • Stronger interactions need more number of attractive sites for maximal flux. • Channels with few special sites need more attractive sites for higher flux. - Abstract: Molecular transport across channels and pores is critically important for multiple natural and industrial processes. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed researchers to probe translocation through nanopores with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of channel-facilitated molecular transport is still not complete. We present a theoretical approach that investigates the role of molecular interactions in the transport through channels. It is based on the discrete-state stochastic analysis that provides a fully analytical description of this complex process. It is found that a spatial distribution of the interactions strongly influences the translocation dynamics. We predict that there is the optimal distribution that leads to the maximal flux through the channel. It is also argued that the channel transport depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions, on the shape of interaction potentials and on the relative contributions of entrance and diffusion processes in the system. These observations are discussed using simple physical-chemical arguments.

  8. Channel-facilitated molecular transport: The role of strength and spatial distribution of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppulury, Karthik; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular flux strongly depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions. • There exists an optimal molecule-pore interaction potential for maximal flux. • Volume of interactions depends inversely on the strength for maximal flux. • Stronger interactions need more number of attractive sites for maximal flux. • Channels with few special sites need more attractive sites for higher flux. - Abstract: Molecular transport across channels and pores is critically important for multiple natural and industrial processes. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed researchers to probe translocation through nanopores with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of channel-facilitated molecular transport is still not complete. We present a theoretical approach that investigates the role of molecular interactions in the transport through channels. It is based on the discrete-state stochastic analysis that provides a fully analytical description of this complex process. It is found that a spatial distribution of the interactions strongly influences the translocation dynamics. We predict that there is the optimal distribution that leads to the maximal flux through the channel. It is also argued that the channel transport depends on the strength of the molecule-pore interactions, on the shape of interaction potentials and on the relative contributions of entrance and diffusion processes in the system. These observations are discussed using simple physical-chemical arguments.

  9. Drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions in anthropogenic neotropical landscapes at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Jacqueline; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Amador-Hernández, Sergio; Oyama, Ken; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2018-05-21

    The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest. In general, the variation in fly communities largely mirrored the variation in bat communities as a result of the high level of specialization characterizing host-bat fly interaction networks. Nevertheless, we observed that: (1) bats roosting dynamics can shape bat-streblid interactions, modulating parasite prevalence and the intensity of infestation; (2) a degraded matrix could favor crowding and consequently the exchange of ectoparasites among bat species, lessening the level of specialization of the interaction networks and promoting novel interactions; and (3) bat-fly interaction can also be shaped by the dilution effect, as a decrease in bat diversity could be associated with a potential increase in the dissemination and prevalence of streblids.

  10. Impact of spatial organization on a novel auxotrophic interaction among soil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Zerfaß, Christian; Feng, Song; Eichmann, Ruth; Asally, Munehiro; Schäfer, Patrick; Soyer, Orkun S

    2018-06-01

    A key prerequisite to achieve a deeper understanding of microbial communities and to engineer synthetic ones is to identify the individual metabolic interactions among key species and how these interactions are affected by different environmental factors. Deciphering the physiological basis of species-species and species-environment interactions in spatially organized environments requires reductionist approaches using ecologically and functionally relevant species. To this end, we focus here on a defined system to study the metabolic interactions in a spatial context among the plant-beneficial endophytic fungus Serendipita indica, and the soil-dwelling model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Focusing on the growth dynamics of S. indica under defined conditions, we identified an auxotrophy in this organism for thiamine, which is a key co-factor for essential reactions in the central carbon metabolism. We found that S. indica growth is restored in thiamine-free media, when co-cultured with B. subtilis. The success of this auxotrophic interaction, however, was dependent on the spatial and temporal organization of the system; the beneficial impact of B. subtilis was only visible when its inoculation was separated from that of S. indica either in time or space. These findings describe a key auxotrophic interaction in the soil among organisms that are shown to be important for plant ecosystem functioning, and point to the potential importance of spatial and temporal organization for the success of auxotrophic interactions. These points can be particularly important for engineering of minimal functional synthetic communities as plant seed treatments and for vertical farming under defined conditions.

  11. Creating Interactions between Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle and the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alec S T; Passey, Samantha L; Martin, Neil R W; Player, Darren J; Mudera, Vivek; Greensmith, Linda; Lewis, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Effective models of mammalian tissues must allow and encourage physiologically (mimetic) correct interactions between co-cultured cell types in order to produce culture microenvironments as similar as possible to those that would normally occur in vivo. In the case of skeletal muscle, the development of such a culture model, integrating multiple relevant cell types within a biomimetic scaffold, would be of significant benefit for investigations into the development, functional performance, and pathophysiology of skeletal muscle tissue. Although some work has been published regarding the behaviour of in vitro muscle models co-cultured with organotypic slices of CNS tissue or with stem cell-derived neurospheres, little investigation has so far been made regarding the potential to maintain isolated motor neurons within a 3D biomimetic skeletal muscle culture platform. Here, we review the current state of the art for engineering neuromuscular contacts in vitro and provide original data detailing the development of a 3D collagen-based model for the co-culture of primary muscle cells and motor neurons. The devised culture system promotes increased myoblast differentiation, forming arrays of parallel, aligned myotubes on which areas of nerve-muscle contact can be detected by immunostaining for pre- and post-synaptic proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicate that motor neuron presence has a positive effect on myotube maturation, suggesting neural incorporation influences muscle development and maturation in vitro. The importance of this work is discussed in relation to other published neuromuscular co-culture platforms along with possible future directions for the field. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Selection in spatial working memory is independent of perceptual selective attention, but they interact in a shared spatial priority map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Craig; Oberauer, Klaus; Leonards, Ute

    2015-11-01

    We examined the relationship between the attentional selection of perceptual information and of information in working memory (WM) through four experiments, using a spatial WM-updating task. Participants remembered the locations of two objects in a matrix and worked through a sequence of updating operations, each mentally shifting one dot to a new location according to an arrow cue. Repeatedly updating the same object in two successive steps is typically faster than switching to the other object; this object switch cost reflects the shifting of attention in WM. In Experiment 1, the arrows were presented in random peripheral locations, drawing perceptual attention away from the selected object in WM. This manipulation did not eliminate the object switch cost, indicating that the mechanisms of perceptual selection do not underlie selection in WM. Experiments 2a and 2b corroborated the independence of selection observed in Experiment 1, but showed a benefit to reaction times when the placement of the arrow cue was aligned with the locations of relevant objects in WM. Experiment 2c showed that the same benefit also occurs when participants are not able to mark an updating location through eye fixations. Together, these data can be accounted for by a framework in which perceptual selection and selection in WM are separate mechanisms that interact through a shared spatial priority map.

  13. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and tritrophic interactions across spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsma, Yavanna; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes. The volatile mosaic may be exploited differentially by different parasitoid species, in relation to species traits such as sensory ability to perceive volatiles and the physical ability to move towards the source. Understanding how HIPVs influence parasitoids at larger spatial scales is crucial for our understanding of tritrophic interactions and sustainable pest management in agriculture. However, there is a large gap in our knowledge on how volatiles influence the process of host location by parasitoids at the landscape scale. Future studies should bridge the gap between the chemical and behavioural ecology of tritrophic interactions and landscape ecology. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  15. Individual Differences in Verbal and Spatial Stroop Tasks: Interactive Role of Handedness and Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Capizzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding debate in psychology concerns the relation between handedness and cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to contribute to this debate by comparing performance of right- and non-right-handers on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Previous studies have shown that non-right-handers have better inter-hemispheric interaction and greater access to right hemisphere processes. On this ground, we expected performance of right- and non-right-handers to differ on verbal and spatial Stroop tasks. Specifically, relative to right-handers, non-right-handers should have greater Stroop effect in the color-word Stroop task, for which inter-hemispheric interaction does not seem to be advantageous to performance. By contrast, non-right-handers should be better able to overcome interference in the spatial Stroop task. This is for their preferential access to the right hemisphere dealing with spatial material and their greater inter-hemispheric interaction with the left hemisphere hosting Stroop task processes. Our results confirmed these predictions, showing that handedness and the underlying brain asymmetries may be a useful variable to partly explain individual differences in executive functions.

  16. GIS-Based Evaluation of Spatial Interactions by Geographic Disproportionality of Industrial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemyung Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of regional industry is regarded as a key factor for regional development, as it has a positive relationship with economic stability, which attracts population. This paper focuses on how the spatial imbalance of industrial diversity contributes to the population change caused by inter-regional migration. This paper introduces a spatial interaction model for the Geographic Information System (GIS-based simulation of the spatial interactions to evaluate the demographic attraction force. The proposed model adopts the notions of gravity, entropy, and virtual work. An industrial classification by profit level is introduced and its diversity is quantified with the entropy of information theory. The introduced model is applied to the cases of 207 regions in South Korea. Spatial interactions are simulated with an optimized model and their resultant forces, the demographic attraction forces, are compared with observed net migration for verification. The results show that the evaluated attraction forces from industrial diversity have a very significant, positive, and moderate relationship with net migration, while other conventional factors of industry, population, economy, and the job market do not. This paper concludes that the geographical quality of industrial diversity has positive and significant effects on population change by migration.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedback affects root interactions and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marloes; Ravenek, Janneke M; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek E; van der Paauw, Jan Willem; de Caluwe, Hannie; van der Putten, Wim H; de Kroon, Hans; Mommer, Liesje

    2015-08-01

    Plant-soil feedback is receiving increasing interest as a factor influencing plant competition and species coexistence in grasslands. However, we do not know how spatial distribution of plant-soil feedback affects plant below-ground interactions. We investigated the way in which spatial heterogeneity of soil biota affects competitive interactions in grassland plant species. We performed a pairwise competition experiment combined with heterogeneous distribution of soil biota using four grassland plant species and their soil biota. Patches were applied as quadrants of 'own' and 'foreign' soils from all plant species in all pairwise combinations. To evaluate interspecific root responses, species-specific root biomass was quantified using real-time PCR. All plant species suffered negative soil feedback, but strength was species-specific, reflected by a decrease in root growth in own compared with foreign soil. Reduction in root growth in own patches by the superior plant competitor provided opportunities for inferior competitors to increase root biomass in these patches. These patterns did not cascade into above-ground effects during our experiment. We show that root distributions can be determined by spatial heterogeneity of soil biota, affecting plant below-ground competitive interactions. Thus, spatial heterogeneity of soil biota may contribute to plant species coexistence in species-rich grasslands. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Interactions between the spatial and temporal stimulus factors that influence multisensory integration in human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Fister, Juliane Krueger; Barnett, Zachary P; Nidiffer, Aaron R; Wallace, Mark T

    2012-05-01

    In natural environments, human sensory systems work in a coordinated and integrated manner to perceive and respond to external events. Previous research has shown that the spatial and temporal relationships of sensory signals are paramount in determining how information is integrated across sensory modalities, but in ecologically plausible settings, these factors are not independent. In the current study, we provide a novel exploration of the impact on behavioral performance for systematic manipulations of the spatial location and temporal synchrony of a visual-auditory stimulus pair. Simple auditory and visual stimuli were presented across a range of spatial locations and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), and participants performed both a spatial localization and simultaneity judgment task. Response times in localizing paired visual-auditory stimuli were slower in the periphery and at larger SOAs, but most importantly, an interaction was found between the two factors, in which the effect of SOA was greater in peripheral as opposed to central locations. Simultaneity judgments also revealed a novel interaction between space and time: individuals were more likely to judge stimuli as synchronous when occurring in the periphery at large SOAs. The results of this study provide novel insights into (a) how the speed of spatial localization of an audiovisual stimulus is affected by location and temporal coincidence and the interaction between these two factors and (b) how the location of a multisensory stimulus impacts judgments concerning the temporal relationship of the paired stimuli. These findings provide strong evidence for a complex interdependency between spatial location and temporal structure in determining the ultimate behavioral and perceptual outcome associated with a paired multisensory (i.e., visual-auditory) stimulus.

  19. Information gathering, management and transferring for geospatial intelligence - A conceptual approach to create a spatial data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Correia, Anacleto; Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2017-06-01

    Since long ago, information is a key factor for military organizations. In military context the success of joint and combined operations depends on the accurate information and knowledge flow concerning the operational theatre: provision of resources, environment evolution, targets' location, where and when an event will occur. Modern military operations cannot be conceive without maps and geospatial information. Staffs and forces on the field request large volume of information during the planning and execution process, horizontal and vertical geospatial information integration is critical for decision cycle. Information and knowledge management are fundamental to clarify an environment full of uncertainty. Geospatial information (GI) management rises as a branch of information and knowledge management, responsible for the conversion process from raw data collect by human or electronic sensors to knowledge. Geospatial information and intelligence systems allow us to integrate all other forms of intelligence and act as a main platform to process and display geospatial-time referenced events. Combining explicit knowledge with person know-how to generate a continuous learning cycle that supports real time decisions, mitigates the influences of fog of war and provides the knowledge supremacy. This paper presents the analysis done after applying a questionnaire and interviews about the GI and intelligence management in a military organization. The study intended to identify the stakeholder's requirements for a military spatial data infrastructure as well as the requirements for a future software system development.

  20. Spatial structures in a simple model of population dynamics for parasite-host interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. J.; Skinner, B.; Breecher, N.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2015-08-01

    Spatial patterning can be crucially important for understanding the behavior of interacting populations. Here we investigate a simple model of parasite and host populations in which parasites are random walkers that must come into contact with a host in order to reproduce. We focus on the spatial arrangement of parasites around a single host, and we derive using analytics and numerical simulations the necessary conditions placed on the parasite fecundity and lifetime for the populations long-term survival. We also show that the parasite population can be pushed to extinction by a large drift velocity, but, counterintuitively, a small drift velocity generally increases the parasite population.

  1. Interactive effects of morphine and dopaminergic compounds on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hong Wang; Joshua Dominie Rizak; Yan-Mei Chen; Liang Li; Xin-Tian Hu; Yuan-Ye Ma

    2013-01-01

    Opiates and dopamine (DA) play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals.Although interactions between these neurotransmitters have been found,their functional roles remain to be fully elucidated,and their dysfunction may contribute to human diseases and addiction.Here we investigated the interactions of morphine and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems with respect to learning and memory in rhesus monkeys by using the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) delayed-response task.Morphine and DA agonists (SKF-38393,apomorphine and bromocriptine) or DA antagonists (SKF-83566,haloperidol and sulpiride) were co-administered to the monkeys 30 min prior to the task.We found that dose-patterned co-administration of morphine with D1 or D2 antagonists or agonists reversed the impaired spatial working memory induced by morphine or the compounds alone.For example,morphine at 0.01 mg/kg impaired spatial working memory,while morphine (0.01 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.01 or 0.06 mg/kg) co-treatment ameliorated this effect.Our findings suggest that the interactions between morphine and dopaminergic compounds influence spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.A better understanding of these interactive relationships may provide insights into human addiction.

  2. Uncovering patterns of inter-urban trip and spatial interaction from social media check-in data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips.

  3. Uncovering patterns of inter-urban trip and spatial interaction from social media check-in data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sui, Zhengwei; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips.

  4. Uncovering Patterns of Inter-Urban Trip and Spatial Interaction from Social Media Check-In Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sui, Zhengwei; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The article revisits spatial interaction and distance decay from the perspective of human mobility patterns and spatially-embedded networks based on an empirical data set. We extract nationwide inter-urban movements in China from a check-in data set that covers half a million individuals within 370 cities to analyze the underlying patterns of trips and spatial interactions. By fitting the gravity model, we find that the observed spatial interactions are governed by a power law distance decay effect. The obtained gravity model also closely reproduces the exponential trip displacement distribution. The movement of an individual, however, may not obey the same distance decay effect, leading to an ecological fallacy. We also construct a spatial network where the edge weights denote the interaction strengths. The communities detected from the network are spatially cohesive and roughly consistent with province boundaries. We attribute this pattern to different distance decay parameters between intra-province and inter-province trips. PMID:24465849

  5. Interactive spatial multimedia for communication of art in the physical museum space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    of the artworks we apply three spatial multimedia techniques where the only interaction device needed is the human body. The three techniques are: 1) spatially bounded audio; 2) floor-based multimedia; 3) multimedia interior. The paper describes the application of these techniques for communication of information...... without disturbing the art works. This has usually been limited to individual audio guides. In our case we strive to achieve holistic and social experiences with seamless transitions between art experience and communication related to the artworks. To reach a holistic experience with minimal disturbance...... in a Mariko Mori exhibition. The multimedia installations and their implementation are described. It is argued that the utilization of the spatial multimedia techniques support holistic and social art experience. The multimedia installations were in function for a three and a half month exhibition period...

  6. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  7. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  8. The Relationship between an Invasive Shrub and Soil Moisture: Seasonal Interactions and Spatially Covarying Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that positive relationships between invasive plants and soil can contribute to further plant invasions. However, it remains unclear whether these relations remain unchanged throughout the growing season. In this study, spatial sequences of field observations along a transect were used to reveal seasonal interactions and spatially covarying relations between one common invasive shrub (Tartarian Honeysuckle, Lonicera tatarica and soil moisture in a tall grassland habitat. Statistical analysis over the transect shows that the contrast between soil moisture in shrub and herbaceous patches vary with season and precipitation. Overall, a negatively covarying relationship between shrub and soil moisture (i.e., drier surface soils at shrub microsites exists during the very early growing period (e.g., May, while in summer a positively covarying phenomenon (i.e., wetter soils under shrubs is usually evident, but could be weakened or vanish during long precipitation-free periods. If there is sufficient rainfall, surface soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI often spatially covary with significant spatial oscillations at an invariant scale (which is governed by the shrub spatial pattern and is about 8 m, but their phase relation in space varies with season, consistent with the seasonal variability of the co-varying phenomena between shrub invasion and soil water content. The findings are important for establishing a more complete picture of how shrub invasion affects soil moisture.

  9. Modelling Spatial Interactions in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis using the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calcagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM is the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Investigating this kind of symbiosis is considered one of the most promising ways to develop methods to nurture plants in more natural manners, avoiding the complex chemical productions used nowadays to produce artificial fertilizers. In previous work we used the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC to investigate different phases of the AM symbiosis. In this paper, we continue this line of research by modelling the colonisation of the plant root cells by the fungal hyphae spreading in the soil. This study requires the description of some spatial interaction. Although CWC has no explicit feature modelling a spatial geometry, the compartment labelling feature can be effectively exploited to define a discrete surface topology outlining the relevant sectors which determine the spatial properties of the system under consideration. Different situations and interesting spatial properties can be modelled and analysed in such a lightweight framework (which has not an explicit notion of geometry with coordinates and spatial metrics, thus exploiting the existing CWC simulation tool.

  10. EscapED: A Framework for Creating Educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Games to For Higher/Further Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Clarke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning (GBL is often found to be technologically driven and more often than not, serious games for instance, are conceptualised and designed solely for digital platforms and state of the art technologies. To encourage a greater discussion on the potential benefits and challenges of a more holistic approach to developing GBL that promote human centered interactions and play for learning, the authors present the escapED programme. The escapED programme was conceived following the recent entertainment trend of escape rooms and is used for developing non-digital GBL approaches within education. escapED aids the design and creation of educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Gaming Experiences for staff and students in further/higher education settings. The paper first presents a pilot study that was used to assess the feasibility and acceptance of University teaching staff of embedding interactive GBL into a higher education environment. The authors then present the escapED theoretical framework that was used to create the prototype game for the pilot study as a tool to aid future design and development of on-site interactive experiences. The paper also presents an external developer report of using the escapED framework to develop a prototype game for teaching research methods to Southampton University students. Finally, the authors present a discussion on the use of the escapED framework so far and plans for future work and evaluation in order to provide engaging alternatives for learning and soft skills development amongst higher education staff andstudents.

  11. Investigating “Locality” of Intra-Urban Spatial Interactions in New York City Using Foursquare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the increasing popularity of location-based social networks, a large amount of user-generated geo-referenced check-in data is now available, and such check-in data is becoming a new data source in the study of mobility and travel. Conventionally, spatial interactions between places were measured based on the trips made between them. This paper empirically investigates the use of social media data (i.e., Foursquare data to study the “locality” of such intra-urban spatial interactions in New York City, and specifically: (i the level of “locality” of spatial interactions; (ii the impacts of personal characteristics on “locality” of spatial interaction and finally; (iii the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of “local” interactions. The results of this study indicate that: (1 spatial interactions show a high degree of locality; (2 gender does not have a considerable impact on the locality of spatial interactions and finally; (3 “local” interactions likely cluster in some places within the research city.

  12. My Space- a collaboration between Arts & Science to create a suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Niamh, , Dr.; McSweeney, Clair; Smith, Niall, , Dr.; O'Neill, Stephanie; Foley, Cathy; Crawley, Joanna; Phelan, Ronan; Colley, Dan; Henderson, Clare; Conroy, Lorraine

    2015-04-01

    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives, entitled 'MySpace' was created, to promote the importance of Earth science and Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space and Earth Science industries. Site visits to research centres in Ireland & abroad, interviews with scientists, engineers, and former astronauts were conducted over a 6 month period. A suite of performance pieces emerged from this development phase, based on Dr. Shaw's personal documented journey and the dissemination of her research. These included: 1. 'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult. Initially presented as a 'Work In Progress' event at The Festival of Curiosity, the full theatre show 'To Space' premiered at Science Gallery, Dublin as part of Tiger Dublin Fringe Arts Festival. Response to the piece was very strong, indicated by audience response, box office sales and theatre reviews in national press and online. A national and international tour is in place for 2015. To Space was performed a total of 10 times and was seen by 680 audiences. 2. An adapted piece for 13-17 year old students -'ToSpace for Secondary Schools'- to increase awareness of Ireland's involvement in Space Exploration & to encourage school leavers to dream big. This show toured nationally as part of World Space week and Science week events in conjunction with ESERO Ireland, CIT Blackrock Castle Observatory, Cork, Armagh Planetarium & Dunsink Observatory. It was performed 12 times and was seen by 570 students. 3. 'My Place in Space', created for families from the very old (60 +) to the very young (3yrs +), this highly interactive workshop highlighted the appeal of science through the wonders of our planet and its place in Space. Presented at Festival of Curiosity, the Mallow Science Fair and at Science week 2014, this

  13. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which

  14. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  15. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  16. Evolution of interactions and cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Zhang

    Full Text Available We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are allowed to establish new interactions with others. By employing a simple coevolutionary rule entailing only two crucial parameters, we find that different selection criteria for the new interaction partners as well as their number vitally affect the outcome of the game. The resolution of the social dilemma is most probable if the selection favors more successful players and if their maximally attainable number is restricted. While the preferential selection of the best players promotes cooperation irrespective of game parametrization, the optimal number of new interactions depends somewhat on the temptation to defect. Our findings reveal that the "making of new friends" may be an important activity for the successful evolution of cooperation, but also that partners must be selected carefully and their number limited.

  17. Quantifying long-term evolution of intra-urban spatial interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Jin, Jian Gang; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the long-term impact that changes in a city's transportation infrastructure have on its spatial interactions remains a challenge. The difficulty arises from the fact that the real impact may not be revealed in static or aggregated mobility measures, as these are remarkably robust to perturbations. More generally, the lack of longitudinal, cross-sectional data demonstrating the evolution of spatial interactions at a meaningful urban scale also hinders us from evaluating the sensitivity of movement indicators, limiting our capacity to understand the evolution of urban mobility in depth. Using very large mobility records distributed over 3 years, we quantify the impact of the completion of a metro line extension: the Circle Line (CCL) in Singapore. We find that the commonly used movement indicators are almost identical before and after the project was completed. However, in comparing the temporal community structure across years, we do observe significant differences in the spatial reorganization of the affected geographical areas. The completion of CCL enables travellers to re-identify their desired destinations collectively with lower transport cost, making the community structure more consistent. These changes in locality are dynamic and characterized over short timescales, offering us a different approach to identify and analyse the long-term impact of new infrastructures on cities and their evolution dynamics. PMID:25551142

  18. Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2014-04-01

    Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment of luminance and chromatic gratings matched or mismatched in contrast polarity or grating type. Thresholds with matched gratings were low while all mismatched pairs were elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of constant contrast components of the other type. For in-phase components, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions, which suggested that luminance can override chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

  19. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  20. CMEIAS-Aided Microscopy of the Spatial Ecology of Individual Bacterial Interactions Involving Cell-to-Cell Communication within Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Dazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various spatial pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a spatially random process, but rather involves strong positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors’ aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the spatial heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their spatial patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the spatially dependent microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture.

  1. Spatially telescoping measurements for improved characterization of groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Colin; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of measurement methods available to characterize fluxes between groundwater and surface water is rapidly growing. However, there are few studies that examine approaches to design of field investigations that include multiple methods. We propose that performing field measurements in a spatially telescoping sequence improves measurement flexibility and accounts for nested heterogeneities while still allowing for parsimonious experimental design. We applied this spatially telescoping approach in a study of ground water-surface water (GW-SW) interaction during baseflow conditions along Lucile Creek, located near Wasilla, Alaska. Catchment-scale data, including channel geomorphic indices and hydrogeologic transects, were used to screen areas of potentially significant GW-SW exchange. Specifically, these data indicated increasing groundwater contribution from a deeper regional aquifer along the middle to lower reaches of the stream. This initial assessment was tested using reach-scale estimates of groundwater contribution during baseflow conditions, including differential discharge measurements and the use of chemical tracers analyzed in a three-component mixing model. The reach-scale measurements indicated a large increase in discharge along the middle reaches of the stream accompanied by a shift in chemical composition towards a regional groundwater end member. Finally, point measurements of vertical water fluxes -- obtained using seepage meters as well as temperature-based methods -- were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variability of GW-SW exchange within representative reaches. The spatial variability of upward fluxes, estimated using streambed temperature mapping at the sub-reach scale, was observed to vary in relation to both streambed composition and the magnitude of groundwater contribution from differential discharge measurements. The spatially telescoping approach improved the efficiency of this field investigation. Beginning our assessment

  2. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of tri-trophic interactions: Spatial variation and effects of plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Moreira, Xoaquín; Ramos-Zapata, José

    2017-02-01

    The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora . We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant. We established common gardens at two sites in Yucatan, Mexico, and planted R. nudiflora at two densities in each garden. We recorded fruit output and SP and parasitoid attack; calculated relative fitness (seed number) under scenarios of three trophic levels (accounting for SP and parasitoid effects), two trophic levels (accounting for SP but not parasitoid effects), and one trophic level (no consumer effects); and compared selection strength on fruit number under these scenarios across sites and densities. There was spatial variation in SP recruitment, whereby the SP functional response was negatively density-dependent at one site but density-independent at the other; parasitoid responses were density-independent and invariant across sites. Site variation in SP attack led, in turn, to differences in SP selection on fruit output, and parasitoids did not alter SP selection. There were no significant effects of density at either site. Our results provide a link between consumer functional responses and consumer selection on plants, which deepens our understanding of geographic variation in the evolutionary outcomes of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Normal modes and possibility of spatially inhomogeneous phases for a 2D ferromagnet with biquadratic and magnetoelastic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Matyunin, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of the magnetodipolar interaction on the phase states of a 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnet is investigated. It is shown that in the system considered both the homogeneous states (ferromagnetic or quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous ones can be realized. At this the spatial inhomogeneity is related with the distribution of the quadrupolar order parameters

  4. Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and bright solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.J.; Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and generate bright solitons for the condensates by solving the associated mean field description governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. We then investigate the properties of BECs in an optical lattice and periodic potential. We show that the GP equation in an optical lattice potential is integrable provided the interaction strength between the atoms varies periodically in space. The model discussed in the Letter offers the luxury of choosing the form of the lattice without destroying the integrability. Besides, we have also brought out the possible ramifications of the integrable model in the condensates of quasi-particles. -- Highlights: → We generate bright solitons for the collisionally inhomogeneous BECs. → We then study their properties in an optical lattice and periodic potential. → The model may have wider ramifications in the BECs of quasi-particles.

  5. Urban land use decouples plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions at multiple spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Nelson

    Full Text Available Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor.

  6. Spatial structure of single and interacting Mn acceptors in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraad, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Ferromagnetic semiconductors such as Ga1-xMnxAs are receiving a lot of attention at the moment because of their application in spintronic devices. However, despite intense study of deep acceptors in III-V semiconductors such as MnGa, little information has been obtained on their electronic properties at the atomic scale. Yet the spatial shape of the Mn acceptor state will influence the hole-mediated Mn-Mn coupling and thus all of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic semiconductors such as Ga1-xMnxAs. This study presents an experimental and theoretical description of the spatial symmetry of the Mn acceptor wave-function in GaAs. We present measurements of the spatial mapping of the anisotropic wavefunction of a hole localized at a Mn acceptor. To achieve this, we have used the STM tip not only to image the Mn acceptor but also to manipulate its charge state A^0/A^- at room temperature. Within an envelope function effective mass model (EFM) the anisotropy in the acceptor wave-function can be traced to the influence of the cubic symmetry of the GaAs crystal which selects specific d-states that mix into the ground state due to the spin-orbit interaction in the valence band. Comparison with calculations based on a tight-binding model (TBM) for the Mn acceptor structure supports this conclusion. Using the same experimental and theoretical approach we furthermore explored the interaction between Mn acceptors directly by analyzing close Mn-Mn pairs, which were separated by less than 2 nm. We will discuss some implications of these results for Mn delta-doped layers grown on differently oriented growth surfaces.

  7. Interaction mechanisms of cavitation bubbles induced by spatially and temporally separated fs-laser pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Tinne

    Full Text Available The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers.

  8. High-precision spatial localization of mouse vocalizations during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jesse J; Proville, Rémi; Heckman, Gert J; Azarfar, Alireza; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-06-07

    Mice display a wide repertoire of vocalizations that varies with age, sex, and context. Especially during courtship, mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of high complexity, whose detailed structure is poorly understood. As animals of both sexes vocalize, the study of social vocalizations requires attributing single USVs to individuals. The state-of-the-art in sound localization for USVs allows spatial localization at centimeter resolution, however, animals interact at closer ranges, involving tactile, snout-snout exploration. Hence, improved algorithms are required to reliably assign USVs. We develop multiple solutions to USV localization, and derive an analytical solution for arbitrary vertical microphone positions. The algorithms are compared on wideband acoustic noise and single mouse vocalizations, and applied to social interactions with optically tracked mouse positions. A novel, (frequency) envelope weighted generalised cross-correlation outperforms classical cross-correlation techniques. It achieves a median error of ~1.4 mm for noise and ~4-8.5 mm for vocalizations. Using this algorithms in combination with a level criterion, we can improve the assignment for interacting mice. We report significant differences in mean USV properties between CBA mice of different sexes during social interaction. Hence, the improved USV attribution to individuals lays the basis for a deeper understanding of social vocalizations, in particular sequences of USVs.

  9. Large-scale changes in network interactions as a physiological signature of spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Hacker, Carl L; Callejas, Alicia; Astafiev, Serguei V; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Zinn, Kristi; Rengachary, Jennifer; Snyder, Abraham Z; Carter, Alex R; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2014-12-01

    networks in the right hemisphere; and (iii) increased intrahemispheric connectivity with the basal ganglia. These patterns of functional connectivity:behaviour correlations were stronger in patients with right- as compared to left-hemisphere damage and were independent of lesion volume. Our findings identify large-scale changes in resting state network interactions that are a physiological signature of spatial neglect and may relate to its right hemisphere lateralization. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spatial variation in near-ground radiation and low temperature. Interactions with forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, K.

    1997-10-01

    Low temperature has a large impact on the survival and distribution of plants. Interactive effects with high irradiance lead to cold-induced photo inhibition, which may impact on the establishment and growth of tree seedlings. In this thesis, novel approaches are applied for relating the spatial variability in low temperature and irradiance to photosynthetic performance and growth of tree seedlings, and for modelling the micro- and local-scale spatial variations in low temperature for heterogeneous terrain. The methodologies include the development and use of a digital image analysis system for hemispherical photographs, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical methods, field data acquisition of meteorological elements, plant structure, growth and photosynthetic performance. Temperature and amounts of intercepted direct radiant energy for seedlings on clear days (IDRE) were related to chlorophyll a fluorescence, and the dry weight of seedlings. The combination of increased IDRE with reduced minimum temperatures resulted in persistent and strong photo inhibition as the season progressed, with likely implications for the establishment of tree seedlings at forest edges, and within shelter wood. For models of spatial distribution of low air temperature, the sky view factor was used to parameterize the radiative cooling, whilst drainage, ponding and stagnation of cold air, and thermal properties of the ground were all considered. The models hint at which scales and processes govern the development of spatial variations in low temperature for the construction of corresponding mechanistic models. The methodology is well suited for detecting areas that will be frost prone after clearing of forest and for comparing the magnitudes of impacts on low air temperature of forest management practices, such as shelter wood and soil preparation. The results can be used to formulate ground rules for use in practical forestry 141 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Analyzing the Effects of Spatial Interaction among City Clusters on Urban Growth—Case of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui Tan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, China’s urbanization has attracted increasing attention from scholars around the world. Numerous insightful studies have attempted to determine the socioeconomic causes of the rapid urban growth in Chinese cities. However, most of these studies regarded each city as a single entity, with few considering inter-city relationships. The present study uses a gravity-based model to measure the spatial interaction among city clusters in the Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA, which is one of China’s most rapidly urbanizing regions. The effects of spatial interaction on urban growth area were also analyzed. Empirical results indicate that, similar to urban population or employment in secondary and tertiary industries in the WUA from 2000 to 2005, the spatial interaction among city clusters is one of the main drivers of urban growth. In fact, this study finds the effects of spatial interaction as the only socioeconomic factor that affected the spatial expansion from 2005 to 2010. This finding suggests that population migration and information and commodity flows showed greater influence than the socioeconomic drivers of each city did on promoting urbanization in the WUA during this period. We thus argue that spatial interaction among city clusters should be a consideration in future regional planning.

  12. Building Interactivity in Higher Education to Support Student Engagement in Spatial Problem Solving and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulland, E.-K.; Veenendaal, B.; Schut, A. G. T.

    2012-07-01

    Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. The student cohort considered for this study involves students in the surveying as well as geographic information science (GISc) disciplines. Also, students studying across a range of learning modes including on-campus, distance and blended, are considered in this study. Student feedback and past studies reveal a lack of student interest and engagement in problem solving and computer programming. Many students do not see such skills as directly relevant and applicable to their perceptions of what future spatial careers hold. A range of teaching and learning methods for both face-to-face teaching and distance learning were introduced to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the learning environment. These included initiating greater student interaction in lectures, modifying assessments to provide greater feedback and student accountability, and the provision of more interactive and engaging online learning resources. The paper presents and evaluates the teaching methods used to support the student learning environment. Responses of students in relation to their learning experiences were collected via two anonymous, online surveys and these results were analysed with respect to student pass and retention rates. The study found a clear distinction between expectations and engagement of surveying students in comparison to GISc students. A further outcome revealed that students who were already engaged in their learning benefited the most from the interactive learning resources and

  13. BUILDING INTERACTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION TO SUPPORT STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PROBLEM SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-K. Gulland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. The student cohort considered for this study involves students in the surveying as well as geographic information science (GISc disciplines. Also, students studying across a range of learning modes including on-campus, distance and blended, are considered in this study. Student feedback and past studies reveal a lack of student interest and engagement in problem solving and computer programming. Many students do not see such skills as directly relevant and applicable to their perceptions of what future spatial careers hold. A range of teaching and learning methods for both face-to-face teaching and distance learning were introduced to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the learning environment. These included initiating greater student interaction in lectures, modifying assessments to provide greater feedback and student accountability, and the provision of more interactive and engaging online learning resources. The paper presents and evaluates the teaching methods used to support the student learning environment. Responses of students in relation to their learning experiences were collected via two anonymous, online surveys and these results were analysed with respect to student pass and retention rates. The study found a clear distinction between expectations and engagement of surveying students in comparison to GISc students. A further outcome revealed that students who were already engaged in their learning benefited the most from the interactive

  14. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  15. Near or far? It depends on my impression: moral information and spatial behavior in virtual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Pagliaro, Stefano; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2015-10-01

    Near body distance is a key component of action and social interaction. Recent research has shown that peripersonal space (reachability-distance for acting with objects) and interpersonal space (comfort-distance for interacting with people) share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli. The social psychological literature has demonstrated that information about morality is crucial because it affects impression formation and the intention to approach-avoid others. Here we explore whether peripersonal/interpersonal spaces are modulated by moral information. Thirty-six participants interacted with male/female virtual confederates described by moral/immoral/neutral sentences. The modulation of body space was measured by reachability-distance and comfort-distance while participants stood still or walked toward virtual confederates. Results showed that distance expanded with immorally described confederates and contracted with morally described confederates. This pattern was present in both spaces, although it was stronger in comfort-distance. Consistent with an embodied cognition approach, the findings suggest that high-level socio-cognitive processes are linked to sensorimotor-spatial processes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Seed harvesting by a generalist consumer is context-dependent: Interactive effects across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Klinger, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Granivore foraging decisions affect consumer success and determine the quantity and spatial pattern of seed survival. These decisions are influenced by environmental variation at spatial scales ranging from landscapes to local foraging patches. In a field experiment, the effects of seed patch variation across three spatial scales on seed removal by western harvester ants Pogonomyrmex occidentalis were evaluated. At the largest scale we assessed harvesting in different plant communities, at the intermediate scale we assessed harvesting at different distances from ant mounds, and at the smallest scale we assessed the effects of interactions among seed species in local seed neighborhoods on seed harvesting (i.e. resource–consumer interface). Selected seed species were presented alone (monospecific treatment) and in mixture with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass; mixture treatment) at four distances from P. occidentalis mounds in adjacent intact sagebrush and non-native cheatgrass-dominated communities in the Great Basin, Utah, USA. Seed species differed in harvest, with B. tectorum being least preferred. Large and intermediate scale variation influenced harvest. More seeds were harvested in sagebrush than in cheatgrass-dominated communities (largest scale), and the quantity of seed harvested varied with distance from mounds (intermediate-scale), although the form of the distance effect differed between plant communities. At the smallest scale, seed neighborhood affected harvest, but the patterns differed among seed species considered. Ants harvested fewer seeds from mixed-seed neighborhoods than from monospecific neighborhoods, suggesting context dependence and potential associational resistance. Further, the effects of plant community and distance from mound on seed harvest in mixtures differed from their effects in monospecific treatments. Beyond the local seed neighborhood, selection of seed resources is better understood by simultaneously evaluating removal at

  17. Evolution of altruism in spatial prisoner's dilemma: Intra- and inter-cellular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Uehara, Takashi; Sakata, Tomoyuki; Naito, Hiromi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma game is carried out on lattice with “colony” structure. Each cell is regarded as a colony which contains plural players with an identical strategy. Both intra- and inter-cellular interactions are assumed. In the former a player plays with all other players in the same colony, while in the latter he plays with one player each from adjacent colonies. Spatial patterns among four typical strategies exhibit various dynamics and winners. Both theory and simulation reveal that All Cooperation (AC) wins, when the members of colony or the intensity of noise increases. This result explains the evolution of altruism in animal societies, even though errors easily occur in animal communications.

  18. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-01-13

    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles - which are common in natural environments - wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments.

  19. Comet 73P Measurements of Solar Wind Interactions, Cometary Ion Pickup, and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several fragments of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 passed near the Earth following a 2006 disintegration episode. Unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during this time by both the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. As the solar wind passed through the neutral cometary coma, it experienced charge exchange that was observed as an increase in the ratio of He+/He++. In addition, particles originating from fragments trailing the major cometary objects were ionized and picked up by the solar wind. The cometary material can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16-18 amu/e, indicating that these are actively sublimating fragments. Here we present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, directionality, and heliospheric interactions with a focus on Helium, Carbon (C/O), and water-group ions.

  20. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  1. Spatial Interaction Modeling to Identify Potentially Exposed Populations during RDD or IND Terrorism Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.; Gupta, S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive no.5 (HSPD-5) Management of Domestic Incidents and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents underscore the need to delineate radiological emergency guidance applicable to remedial action and recovery following an RDD or IND incident. Rapid delineation of the population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from fallout during terrorist incidents involving RDDs or low-yield nuclear devices (≤ 20 KT) is necessary for effective medical response and incident management as part of the recovery process. This paper illustrates the application of spatial interaction models to allocate population data for a representative U.S. urban area (≅1.3M people; 1,612.27 km 2 area) at a geographical scale relevant for accurately estimating risk given dose concentrations. Estimated total dose equivalents (TEDE) are calculated for isopleths moving away from the detonation point for typical release scenarios. Population is estimated within the TEDE zones using Euclidean distances between zip code polygon centroids generated in ArcGIS version 9.1 with distance decay determined by regression analysis to apportion origin-destination pairs to a population count and density matrix on a spatial basis for daytime and night-time release scenarios. (authors)

  2. Creating and Using Interactive, 3D-Printed Models to Improve Student Comprehension of the Bohr Model of the Atom, Bond Polarity, and Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiar, Karen; Mendez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular model kits have been used in chemistry classrooms for decades but have seen very little recent innovation. Using 3D printing, three sets of physical models were created for a first semester, introductory chemistry course. Students manipulated these interactive models during class activities as a supplement to existing teaching tools for…

  3. A spatiotemporal model for the LTE uplink: Spatially interacting tandem queues approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad

    2017-07-31

    With the proliferation of the Internet-of-things (IoT), there is an undeniable consensus that cellular LTE networks will have to support a dramatically larger number of uplink connections. This is true since most of the devices to be added incur machine-type communications which is dominantly upstream. Can current LTE network withstand this challenge? To answer this question, the joint performance of random access process and the uplink data transmission should be investigated. These two problems have been classically treated in the literature in a disjoint fashion. In this paper, they are jointly analyzed as an inseparable couple. To do that, a tandem queuing model is adopted whereby devices are represented as spatially interacting queues. The interaction between queues is governed by the mutual inter-cell and intra-cell interference. To that end, a joint stochastic geometry and queueing theory model is exploited to study this problem and a spatiotemporal analytical model is developed accordingly. Network stability and scalability are two prime performance criteria for performance assessment. In light of these two criteria, the developed model is poised to offer valuable insights into efficient access and resource allocation strategies.

  4. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hellmann

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent

  5. Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB): A Mobile Intervention to Improve Social Functioning in People With Chronic Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Danielle; Nahum, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous psychosocial interventions for individuals with chronic psychotic disorders (CPD) have shown positive effects on social cognitive and functional outcome measures. However, access to and engagement with these interventions remains limited. This is partly because these interventions require specially trained therapists, are not available in all clinical settings, and have a high scheduling burden for participants, usually requiring a commitment of several weeks. Delivering interventions remotely via mobile devices may facilitate access, improve scheduling flexibility, and decrease participant burden, thus improving adherence to intervention requirements. To address these needs, we designed the Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB) digital intervention, which aims to enhance social functioning in people with CPD. CLIMB consists of two treatment components: a computerized social cognition training (SCT) program and optimized remote group therapy (ORGT). ORGT is an innovative treatment that combines remote group therapy with group texting (short message service, SMS). Objectives The objectives of this single-arm study were to investigate the feasibility of delivering 6 weeks of CLIMB to people with CPD and explore the initial effects on outcomes. Methods Participants were recruited, screened and enrolled via the Internet, and delivered assessments and interventions remotely using provided tablets (iPads). Participants were asked to complete 18 hours of SCT and to attend 6 remote group therapy sessions. To assess feasibility, adherence to study procedures, attrition rates, engagement metrics, and acceptability of the intervention were evaluated. Changes on measures of social cognition, quality of life, and symptoms were also explored. Results In total, 27 participants were enrolled over 12 months. Remote assessments were completed successfully on 96% (26/27) of the enrolled participants. Retention in the 6-week trial was 78% (21

  6. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of global scale climate-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T. P.; Moosdorf, N.; Schneider, A. C.; Hartmann, J.; Befus, K. M.; Lehner, B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between groundwater and climate are important to resolve in both space and time as they influence mass and energy transfers at Earth's land surface. Despite the significance of these processes, little is known about the spatio-temporal distribution of such interactions globally, and many large-scale climate, hydrological and land surface models oversimplify groundwater or exclude it completely. In this study we bring together diverse global geomatic data sets to map spatial patterns in the sensitivity and degree of connectedness between the water table and the land surface, and use the output from a global groundwater model to assess the locations where the lateral import or export of groundwater is significant. We also quantify the groundwater response time, the characteristic time for groundwater systems to respond to a change in boundary conditions, and map its distribution globally to assess the likely dynamics of groundwater's interaction with climate. We find that more than half of the global land surface significantly exports or imports groundwater laterally. Nearly 40% of Earth's landmass has water tables that are strongly coupled to topography with water tables shallow enough to enable a bi-directional exchange of moisture with the climate system. However, only a small proportion (around 12%) of such regions have groundwater response times of 100 years or less and have groundwater fluxes that would significantly respond to rapid environmental changes over this timescale. We last explore fundamental relationships between aridity, groundwater response times and groundwater turnover times. Our results have wide ranging implications for understanding and modelling changes in Earth's water and energy balance and for informing robust future water management and security decisions.

  7. Impact of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions on the spatial rainfall distribution in the Central Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Breil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a Regional Climate Model (RCM the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are described by a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer Model (SVAT. In the presented study two SVATs of different complexity (TERRA-ML and VEG3D are coupled to the RCM COSMO-CLM (CCLM to investigate the impact of different representations of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions on the West African Monsoon (WAM system. In contrast to TERRA-ML, VEG3D comprises a more detailed description of the land-atmosphere coupling by including a vegetation layer in its structural design, changing the treatment of radiation and turbulent fluxes. With these two different model systems (CCLM-TERRA-ML and CCLM-VEG3D climate simulations are performed for West Africa and analyzed. The study reveals that the simulated spatial distribution of rainfall in the Sahel region is substantially affected by the chosen SVAT. Compared to CCLM-TERRA-ML, the application of CCLM-VEG3D results in higher near surface temperatures in the Sahel region during the rainy season. This implies a southward expansion of the Saharian heat-low. Consequently, the mean position of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ is also shifted to the south, leading to a southward displacement of tracks for Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS, developing in connection with the AEJ. As a result, less precipitation is produced in the Sahel region, increasing the agreement with observations. These analyses indicate that soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions impact the West African Monsoon system and highlight the benefit of using a more complex SVAT to simulate its dynamics.

  8. Spatially explicit assessment of ecosystem services in China's Loess Plateau: Patterns, interactions, drivers, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-02-01

    Human demands for natural resources have significantly changed the natural landscape and induced ecological degradation and associated ecosystem services. An understanding of the patterns, interactions, and drivers of ecosystem services is essential for the ecosystem management and guiding targeted land use policy-making. The Losses Plateau (LP) provides ecosystem services including the carbon sequestration and soil retention, and exerts tremendous impacts on the midstream and downstream of the Yellow River. Three dominant ecosystem services between 2000 and 2012 within the LP were presented based on multiple source datasets and biophysical models. In addition, paired ecosystem services interactions were quantified using the correlation analysis and constraint line approach. The main conclusions are as follows. It was observed that the warming and wetting climate and ecological program jointly promoted the vegetation growth and carbon sequestration. The increasing precipitation throughout 2000-2012 was related to the soil retention and hydrological regulation fluctuations. The vegetation restoration played a positive role in the soil retention enhancement, thus substantially reduced water and sediment yields. The relationships between ecosystem services were not only correlations (tradeoffs or synergies), but rather constraint effects. The constraint effects between the three paired ecosystem services could be classified as the negative convex (carbon sequestration vs. hydrological regulation) and hump-shaped (soil retention vs. carbon sequestration and soil retention vs. hydrological regulation), and the coefficients of determination for the entire LP were 0.78, 0.84, and 0.65, respectively. In the LP, the rainfall (water availability) was the key constraint factor that affected the relationships between the paired ecosystem services. The spatially explicit mapping of ecosystem services and interaction analyses utilizing constraint line approach enriched the

  9. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  10. Linking Spatial Structure and Community-Level Biotic Interactions through Cooccurrence and Time Series Modeling of the Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muinck, Eric J; Lundin, Knut E A; Trosvik, Pål

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome is a densely populated ecosystem where dynamics are determined by interactions between microbial community members, as well as host factors. The spatial organization of this system is thought to be important in human health, yet this aspect of our resident microbiome is still poorly understood. In this study, we report significant spatial structure of the GI microbiota, and we identify general categories of spatial patterning in the distribution of microbial taxa along a healthy human GI tract. We further estimate the biotic interaction structure in the GI microbiota, both through time series and cooccurrence modeling of microbial community data derived from a large number of sequentially collected fecal samples. Comparison of these two approaches showed that species pairs involved in significant negative interactions had strong positive contemporaneous correlations and vice versa, while for species pairs without significant interactions, contemporaneous correlations were distributed around zero. We observed similar patterns when comparing these models to the spatial correlations between taxa identified in the adherent microbiota. This suggests that colocalization of microbial taxon pairs, and thus the spatial organization of the GI microbiota, is driven, at least in part, by direct or indirect biotic interactions. Thus, our study can provide a basis for an ecological interpretation of the biogeography of the human gut. IMPORTANCE The human gut microbiome is the subject of intense study due to its importance in health and disease. The majority of these studies have been based on the analysis of feces. However, little is known about how the microbial composition in fecal samples relates to the spatial distribution of microbial taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. By characterizing the microbial content both in intestinal tissue samples and in fecal samples obtained daily, we provide a conceptual framework for how the spatial

  11. The properties of genome conformation and spatial gene interaction and regulation networks of normal and malignant human cell types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available The spatial conformation of a genome plays an important role in the long-range regulation of genome-wide gene expression and methylation, but has not been extensively studied due to lack of genome conformation data. The recently developed chromosome conformation capturing techniques such as the Hi-C method empowered by next generation sequencing can generate unbiased, large-scale, high-resolution chromosomal interaction (contact data, providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the spatial structure of a genome and its applications in gene regulation, genomics, epigenetics, and cell biology. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale computational analysis of this new stream of genome conformation data generated for three different human leukemia cells or cell lines by the Hi-C technique. We developed and applied a set of bioinformatics methods to reliably generate spatial chromosomal contacts from high-throughput sequencing data and to effectively use them to study the properties of the genome structures in one-dimension (1D and two-dimension (2D. Our analysis demonstrates that Hi-C data can be effectively applied to study tissue-specific genome conformation, chromosome-chromosome interaction, chromosomal translocations, and spatial gene-gene interaction and regulation in a three-dimensional genome of primary tumor cells. Particularly, for the first time, we constructed genome-scale spatial gene-gene interaction network, transcription factor binding site (TFBS - TFBS interaction network, and TFBS-gene interaction network from chromosomal contact information. Remarkably, all these networks possess the properties of scale-free modular networks.

  12. Evolution of cooperation through adaptive interaction in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiuhui; Liu, Xuesong; Bao, Honglin; Su, Yu; He, Mingfeng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of adaptive interaction on the evolution of cooperation in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The connections of players are co-evolutionary with cooperation; whether adjacent players can play the prisoner's dilemma game is associated with the strategies they took in the preceding round. If a player defected in the preceding round, his neighbors will refuse to play the prisoner's dilemma game with him in accordance with a certain probability distribution. We use the disconnecting strength to represent this probability. We discuss the evolution of cooperation with different values of temptation to defect, sucker's payoff and disconnecting strength. The simulation results show that cooperation can be significantly enhanced through increasing the value of the disconnecting strength. In addition, the increase in disconnecting strength can improve the cooperators' ability to resist the increase in temptation and the decrease in reward. We study the parameter ranges for three different evolutionary results: cooperators extinction, defectors extinction, cooperator and defector co-existence. Meanwhile, we recruited volunteers and designed a human behavioral experiment to verify the theoretical simulation results. The punishment of disconnection has a positive effect on cooperation. A higher disconnecting strength will enhance cooperation more significantly. Our research findings reveal some significant insights into efficient mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation.

  13. Effect of Growing Size of Interaction Neighbors on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Snowdrift Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanjuan; Sun Shiwen; Wang Li; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan; Wang Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the size of interaction neighbors (k) on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial snowdrift game. At first, we consider the effects of noise K and cost-to-benefit ratio r, the simulation results indicate that the evolution of cooperation depends on the combined action of noise and cost-to-benefit ratio. For a lower r, the cooperators are multitudinous and the cooperation frequency ultimately increases to 1 as the increase of noise. However, for a higher r, the defectors account for the majority of the game and dominate the game if the noise is large enough. Then we mainly investigate how k influences the evolution of cooperation by varying the noise in detail. We find that the frequency of cooperators is closely related to the size of neighborhood and cost-to-benefit ratio r. In the case of lower r, the augmentation of k plays no positive role in promoting the cooperation as compared with that of k = 4, while for higher r the cooperation is improved for a growing size of neighborhood. At last, based on the above discussions, we explore the cluster-forming mechanism among the cooperators. The current results are beneficial to further understand the evolution of cooperation in many natural, social and biological systems. (general)

  14. Models of the Dynamics of Spatially Separated Broadband Electromagnetic Fields Interacting with Resonant Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The Markov model of spontaneous emission of an atom localized in a spatial region with a broadband electromagnetic field with zero photon density is considered in the conditions of coupling of the electromagnetic field with the broadband field of a neighboring space. The evolution operator of the system and the kinetic equation for the atom are obtained. It is shown that the field coupling constant affects the rate of spontaneous emission of the atom, but is not manifested in the atomic frequency shift. The analytic expression for the radiative decay constant for the atom is found to be analogous in a certain sense to the expression for the decay constant for a singly excited localized ensemble of identical atoms in the conditions when the effect of stabilization of its excited state by the Stark interaction with the vacuum broadband electromagnetic field is manifested. The model is formulated based on quantum stochastic differential equations of the non- Wiener type and the generalized algebra of the Ito differential of quantum random processes.

  15. Assessing the spatial implications of interactions among strategic forest management options using a Windows-based harvest simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Luke V. Rasmussen

    2002-01-01

    Forest management planners must develop strategies to produce timber in ways that do not compromise ecological integrity or sustainability. These strategies often involve modifications to the spatial and temporal scheduling of harvest activities, and these strategies may interact in unexpected ways. We used a timber harvest simulator (HARVEST 6.0) to determine the...

  16. Spatial heterogeneity, frequency-dependent selection and polymorphism in host-parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellier Aurélien

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic and pathology analysis has revealed enormous diversity in genes involved in disease, including those encoding host resistance and parasite effectors (also known in plant pathology as avirulence genes. It has been proposed that such variation may persist when an organism exists in a spatially structured metapopulation, following the geographic mosaic of coevolution. Here, we study gene-for-gene relationships governing the outcome of plant-parasite interactions in a spatially structured system and, in particular, investigate the population genetic processes which maintain balanced polymorphism in both species. Results Following previous theory on the effect of heterogeneous environments on maintenance of polymorphism, we analysed a model with two demes in which the demes have different environments and are coupled by gene flow. Environmental variation is manifested by different coefficients of natural selection, the costs to the host of resistance and to the parasite of virulence, the cost to the host of being diseased and the cost to an avirulent parasite of unsuccessfully attacking a resistant host. We show that migration generates negative direct frequency-dependent selection, a condition for maintenance of stable polymorphism in each deme. Balanced polymorphism occurs preferentially if there is heterogeneity for costs of resistance and virulence alleles among populations and to a lesser extent if there is variation in the cost to the host of being diseased. We show that the four fitness costs control the natural frequency of oscillation of host resistance and parasite avirulence alleles. If demes have different costs, their frequencies of oscillation differ and when coupled by gene flow, there is amplitude death of the oscillations in each deme. Numerical simulations show that for a multiple deme island model, costs of resistance and virulence need not to be present in each deme for stable polymorphism to occur

  17. High spatial resolution measurement of depth-of-interaction of a PET LSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Kalinka, G.; Novak, D.; Sipos, A.; Vegh, J.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A new type of experimental technique to investigate the depth-of-interaction (DOI) dependence in small scintillator elements designed for high-resolution animal PET [1] has been introduced at our institute, recently. A lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystal (2x2x10 mm 3 ) was irradiated with a highly focused 2 MeV He + beam at the ATOMKI nuclear microprobe laboratory. Pulse height spectra from a photomultiplier (PMT) attached to one end of the LSO crystal were collected in list mode. Sequential scans of 1000x1000 μm 2 areas along the 10 mm long crystal were made to get high lateral resolution images of pulse height spectra at different distances from the window of the PMT. A mean pulse height algorithm was applied to each pixel to generate two dimensional intensity images and the corresponding spectra of 100 μmx1 mm areas. Representative pulse height spectra are shown in Fig. 1 for different distances between the position of irradiation and the PMT. The mean value of the pulse height spectrum describing the position of the full energy peak is a way to measure DOI effects. It is seen that the closer the DOI to the PMT-end of the crystal the higher the energy of the peak. The centre of the detected peak varies about 30 % along the lateral side of the crystal. This effect is due to the increasing number of reflections with associated loss of light when the distance between the DOI position and the light collecting PMT grows. Further these results, no difference in the light intensity was found depending on which position across (perpendicular to the length of) the crystal was irradiated with the microbeam. The obtained results of the overall DOI dependence confirm previous measurements on LSO crystals with similar geometry and wrapping but based on collimated gamma-ray irradiation. Since the present experimental setup allows obtaining data with several orders of magnitude better spatial resolution (from μm up to mm) than with

  18. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Oliver, Margaret A. [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom); Walker, Allan [Warwick-HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV32 6EF (United Kingdom); Wood, Martin [University of Reading, Soil Science Department, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  19. Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling, hierarchical analysis of variance and residual maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Oliver, Margaret A.; Walker, Allan; Wood, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An unbalanced nested sampling design was used to investigate the spatial scale of soil and herbicide interactions at the field scale. A hierarchical analysis of variance based on residual maximum likelihood (REML) was used to analyse the data and provide a first estimate of the variogram. Soil samples were taken at 108 locations at a range of separating distances in a 9 ha field to explore small and medium scale spatial variation. Soil organic matter content, pH, particle size distribution, microbial biomass and the degradation and sorption of the herbicide, isoproturon, were determined for each soil sample. A large proportion of the spatial variation in isoproturon degradation and sorption occurred at sampling intervals less than 60 m, however, the sampling design did not resolve the variation present at scales greater than this. A sampling interval of 20-25 m should ensure that the main spatial structures are identified for isoproturon degradation rate and sorption without too great a loss of information in this field. - Estimating the spatial scale of herbicide and soil interactions by nested sampling.

  20. X-ray created metamaterials: applications to metal-free structural colors with full chromaticity spectrum and 80 nm spatial resolution

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella

    2018-05-07

    We created new types of metamaterials by hard X-rays possessing high fluency. We discuss applications in structural colors that show full spectrum of Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Black (CYMK), realized in transparent dielectrics with 80 nm resolution.

  1. X-ray created metamaterials: applications to metal-free structural colors with full chromaticity spectrum and 80 nm spatial resolution

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella; Mazzone, Valerio; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We created new types of metamaterials by hard X-rays possessing high fluency. We discuss applications in structural colors that show full spectrum of Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Black (CYMK), realized in transparent dielectrics with 80 nm resolution.

  2. Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneh, Yoram S; Sagi, Dov; Polat, Uri

    2004-12-01

    Amblyopic vision is thought to be limited by abnormal long-range spatial interactions, but their exact mode of action and relationship to the main amblyopic deficit in visual acuity is largely unknown. We studied this relationship in a group (N=59) of anisometropic (N=21) and strabismic (or combined, N=38) subjects, using (1) a single and multi-pattern (crowded) computerized static Tumbling-E test with scaled spacing of two pattern widths (TeVA), in addition to an optotype (ETDRS chart) acuity test (VA) and (2) contrast detection of Gabor patches with lateral flankers (lateral masking) along the horizontal and vertical axes as well as in collinear and parallel configurations. By correlating the different measures of visual acuity and contrast suppression, we found that (1) the VA of the strabismic subjects could be decomposed into two uncorrelated components measured in TeVA: acuity for isolated patterns and acuity reduction due to flanking patterns. The latter comprised over 60% of the VA magnitude, on the average and accounted for over 50% of its variance. In contrast, a slight reduction in acuity was found in the anisometropic subjects, and the acuity for a single pattern could account for 70% of the VA variance. (2) The lateral suppression (contrast threshold elevation) in a parallel configuration along the horizontal axis was correlated with the VA (R2=0.7), as well as with the crowding effect (TeVA elevation, R2=0.5) for the strabismic group. Some correlation with the VA was also found for the collinear configuration in the anisometropic group, but less suppression and no correlation were found for all the vertical configurations in all the groups. The results indicate the existence of a specific non-local component of the strabismic deficit, in addition to the local acuity deficit in all amblyopia types. This deficit might reflect long-range lateral inhibition, or alternatively, an inaccurate and scattered top-down attentional selection mechanism.

  3. Experience-Dependency of Reliance on Local Visual and Idiothetic Cues for Spatial Representations Created in the Absence of Distal Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Draht

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues. Our goal was to generate a conflict between local visual and direction-specific information, and then to assess which strategy was prioritized in different learning phases. We observed that, in the absence of distal cues, place fields are initially controlled by local visual cues that override idiothetic cues, but that with multiple exposures to the paradigm, spaced at intervals of days, idiothetic cues become increasingly implemented in generating an accurate spatial representation. Taken together, these data support that, in the absence of distal cues, local visual cues are prioritized in the generation of context-specific spatial representations through place cells, whereby idiothetic cues are deemed unreliable. With cumulative exposures to the environments, the animal learns to attend to subtle idiothetic cues to resolve the conflict between visual and direction-specific information.

  4. Experience-Dependency of Reliance on Local Visual and Idiothetic Cues for Spatial Representations Created in the Absence of Distal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draht, Fabian; Zhang, Sijie; Rayan, Abdelrahman; Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues. Our goal was to generate a conflict between local visual and direction-specific information, and then to assess which strategy was prioritized in different learning phases. We observed that, in the absence of distal cues, place fields are initially controlled by local visual cues that override idiothetic cues, but that with multiple exposures to the paradigm, spaced at intervals of days, idiothetic cues become increasingly implemented in generating an accurate spatial representation. Taken together, these data support that, in the absence of distal cues, local visual cues are prioritized in the generation of context-specific spatial representations through place cells, whereby idiothetic cues are deemed unreliable. With cumulative exposures to the environments, the animal learns to attend to subtle idiothetic cues to resolve the conflict between visual and direction-specific information.

  5. Role of the thalamic nucleus reuniens in mediating interactions between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory.

  6. Lack of Ecological and Life History Context Can Create the Illusion of Social Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Ricardo; Tarnita, Corina E

    2016-12-01

    Studies of social microbes often focus on one fitness component (reproductive success within the social complex), with little information about or attention to other stages of the life cycle or the ecological context. This can lead to paradoxical results. The life cycle of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum includes a multicellular stage in which not necessarily clonal amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a possibly chimeric (genetically heterogeneous) fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and spores. The lab-measured reproductive skew in the spores of chimeras indicates strong social antagonism that should result in low genotypic diversity, which is inconsistent with observations from nature. Two studies have suggested that this inconsistency stems from the one-dimensional assessment of fitness (spore production) and that the solution lies in tradeoffs between multiple life-history traits, e.g.: spore size versus viability; and spore-formation (via aggregation) versus staying vegetative (as non-aggregated cells). We develop an ecologically-grounded, socially-neutral model (i.e. no social interactions between genotypes) for the life cycle of social amoebae in which we theoretically explore multiple non-social life-history traits, tradeoffs and tradeoff-implementing mechanisms. We find that spore production comes at the expense of time to complete aggregation, and, depending on the experimental setup, spore size and viability. Furthermore, experimental results regarding apparent social interactions within chimeric mixes can be qualitatively recapitulated under this neutral hypothesis, without needing to invoke social interactions. This allows for simple potential resolutions to the previously paradoxical results. We conclude that the complexities of life histories, including social behavior and multicellularity, can only be understood in the appropriate multidimensional ecological context, when considering all stages of the life cycle.

  7. The self-assembly of particles with isotropic interactions: Using DNA coated colloids to create designer nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Dion, S.; Konigslow, K. von

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent field theory equations are presented that are suitable for use as a coarse-grained model for DNA coated colloids, polymer-grafted nanoparticles and other systems with approximately isotropic interactions. The equations are generalized for arbitrary numbers of chemically distinct colloids. The advantages and limitations of such a coarse-grained approach for DNA coated colloids are discussed, as are similarities with block copolymer self-assembly. In particular, preliminary results for three species self-assembly are presented that parallel results from a two dimensional ABC triblock copolymer phase. The possibility of incorporating crystallization, dynamics, inverse statistical mechanics and multiscale modelling techniques are discussed

  8. The Effect of Interacting with Two Devices when Creating the Illusion of Internal State in Tangible Widgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Christoffer; Bork, Andreas Heldbjerg; Memborg, Jakob Birch

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the illusion of internal state in passive tangible widgets is stronger when using one touchscreen device or two devices. Passive tangible widgets are an increasingly popular way to interact with tablet games. Since the production of passive widgets is usually cheaper...... than the production of widgets with internal state, it is much more cost-efficient to induce the illusion of internal state in passive widgets than to use tangible widgets with an actual internal state. An experiment was conducted where the participants’ belief in the illusion was determined by means...

  9. Forage fish interactions: A symposium on creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Essington, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium...... on 12–14 November 2012 that was designed to address three key questions regarding the effective management of FF and their ecosystems: (i) how do environmental factors and predator–prey interactions drive the productivity and distribution of FF stocks across ecosystems worldwide, (ii) what...

  10. Perceptual and Cognitive Load Interact to Control the Spatial Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Karina J.; Caparos, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Caparos and Linnell (2009, 2010) used a variable-separation flanker paradigm to show that (a) when cognitive load is low, increasing perceptual load causes spatial attention to focus and (b) when perceptual load is high, decreasing cognitive load causes spatial attention to focus. Here, we tested whether the effects of perceptual and cognitive…

  11. Interaction of visual and vestibular stimulation on spatial coordinates for eye movements in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Minciotti, M; Barmack, N H

    1998-07-01

    Researchers investigated how vestibular and optokinetic signals alter the spatial transformation of the coordinate system that governs the spatial orientation of reflexive eye movements. Also examined were the effects of sensory stimulation when vestibular and optokinetic signals act synergistically and when the two signals are in conflict.

  12. The interaction between hippocampal GABA-B and cannabinoid receptors upon spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.

  13. Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple

  14. Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alonso-Alvarez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa. In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings, and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol. Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of

  15. MOLNs: A CLOUD PLATFORM FOR INTERACTIVE, REPRODUCIBLE, AND SCALABLE SPATIAL STOCHASTIC COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENTS IN SYSTEMS BIOLOGY USING PyURDME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawert, Brian; Trogdon, Michael; Toor, Salman; Petzold, Linda; Hellander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiments using spatial stochastic simulations have led to important new biological insights, but they require specialized tools and a complex software stack, as well as large and scalable compute and data analysis resources due to the large computational cost associated with Monte Carlo computational workflows. The complexity of setting up and managing a large-scale distributed computation environment to support productive and reproducible modeling can be prohibitive for practitioners in systems biology. This results in a barrier to the adoption of spatial stochastic simulation tools, effectively limiting the type of biological questions addressed by quantitative modeling. In this paper, we present PyURDME, a new, user-friendly spatial modeling and simulation package, and MOLNs, a cloud computing appliance for distributed simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion models. MOLNs is based on IPython and provides an interactive programming platform for development of sharable and reproducible distributed parallel computational experiments.

  16. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km, which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007 from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW and Bavaria (BY. Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale

  17. Population responses to environmental change in a tropical ant: the interaction of spatial and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Doug; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structure can have a profound, but often underappreciated, effect on the temporal dynamics of ecosystems. Here we report on a counterintuitive increase in the population of a tree-nesting ant, Azteca sericeasur, in response to a drastic reduction in the number of potential nesting sites. This surprising result is comprehensible when viewed in the context of the self-organized spatial dynamics of the ants and their effect on the ants' dispersal-limited natural enemies. Approximately 30% of the trees in the study site, a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico, were pruned or felled over a two-year period, and yet the abundance of the ant nests more than doubled over the seven-year study. Throughout the transition, the spatial distribution of the ants maintained a power-law distribution - a signal of spatial self organization - but the local clustering of the nests was reduced post-pruning. A cellular automata model incorporating the changed spatial structure of the ants and the resulting partial escape from antagonists reproduced the observed increase in abundance, highlighting how self-organized spatial dynamics can profoundly influence the responses of ecosystems to perturbations.

  18. Population responses to environmental change in a tropical ant: the interaction of spatial and temporal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Jackson

    Full Text Available Spatial structure can have a profound, but often underappreciated, effect on the temporal dynamics of ecosystems. Here we report on a counterintuitive increase in the population of a tree-nesting ant, Azteca sericeasur, in response to a drastic reduction in the number of potential nesting sites. This surprising result is comprehensible when viewed in the context of the self-organized spatial dynamics of the ants and their effect on the ants' dispersal-limited natural enemies. Approximately 30% of the trees in the study site, a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico, were pruned or felled over a two-year period, and yet the abundance of the ant nests more than doubled over the seven-year study. Throughout the transition, the spatial distribution of the ants maintained a power-law distribution - a signal of spatial self organization - but the local clustering of the nests was reduced post-pruning. A cellular automata model incorporating the changed spatial structure of the ants and the resulting partial escape from antagonists reproduced the observed increase in abundance, highlighting how self-organized spatial dynamics can profoundly influence the responses of ecosystems to perturbations.

  19. Interactions between a Trawl fishery and spatial closures for biodiversity conservation in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Grech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Queensland East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (ECOTF for penaeid shrimp fishes within Australia's Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA. The past decade has seen the implementation of conservation and fisheries management strategies to reduce the impact of the ECOTF on the seabed and improve biodiversity conservation. New information from electronic vessel location monitoring systems (VMS provides an opportunity to review the interactions between the ECOTF and spatial closures for biodiversity conservation. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We used fishing metrics and spatial information on the distribution of closures and modelled VMS data in a geographical information system (GIS to assess change in effort of the trawl fishery from 2001-2009 and to quantify the exposure of 70 reef, non-reef and deep water bioregions to trawl fishing. The number of trawlers and the number of days fished almost halved between 2001 and 2009 and new spatial closures introduced in 2004 reduced the area zoned available for trawl fishing by 33%. However, we found that there was only a relatively minor change in the spatial footprint of the fishery as a result of new spatial closures. Non-reef bioregions benefited the most from new spatial closures followed by deep and reef bioregions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the catch of non target species remains an issue of concern for fisheries management, the small spatial footprint of the ECOTF relative to the size of the GBRWHA means that the impact on benthic habitats is likely to be negligible. The decline in effort as a result of fishing industry structural adjustment, increasing variable costs and business decisions of fishers is likely to continue a trend to fish only in the most productive areas. This will provide protection for most benthic habitats without any further legislative or management intervention.

  20. A Spatially Explicit Approach for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of GIS-Multicriteria Landslide Susceptibility Mapping. GI_Forum 2013 – Creating the GISociety|

    OpenAIRE

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly being used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, decision making, as well as hazard mitigation plans. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are prone to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, the spatiality explicitly method is employed to assess the uncertainty associated with two methods of GIS-MCDA namely, Analytical Hierarchi...

  1. Death by streaming or vinyl revival? Exploring the spatial dynamics and value-creating strategies of independent record shops in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Hracs, Brian; Jansson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The contemporary retail landscape is in flux and there is a growing perception that shopping at bricks and mortar stores is more expensive and time-consuming than shopping online. For music, illegal downloading and streaming have restructured the retail landscape and put thousands of record shops out of business. Yet, some retailers remain attractive consumption spaces. Drawing on a qualitative case study of independent record shops in Stockholm, this paper considers three value-creating stra...

  2. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Alexander M; Silverberg, Jesse L; Padgett, Jennifer; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D) using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for 2 months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals) and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific), than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies.

  3. Using spatial manipulation to examine interactions between visual and auditory encoding of pitch and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M McLachlan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Music notations use both symbolic and spatial representation systems. Novice musicians do not have the training to associate symbolic information with musical identities, such as chords or rhythmic and melodic patterns. They provide an opportunity to explore the mechanisms underpinning multimodal learning when spatial encoding strategies of feature dimensions might be expected to dominate. In this study, we applied a range of transformations (such as time reversal to short melodies and rhythms and asked novice musicians to identify them with or without the aid of notation. Performance using a purely spatial (graphic notation was contrasted with the more symbolic, traditional western notation over a series of weekly sessions. The results showed learning effects for both notation types, but performance improved more for graphic notation. This points to greater compatibility of auditory and visual neural codes for novice musicians when using spatial notation, suggesting that pitch and time may be spatially encoded in multimodal associative memory. The findings also point to new strategies for training novice musicians.

  4. The influence of photon depth of interaction and non-collinear spread of annihilation photons on PET image spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A.

    2006-01-01

    The quality of PET imaging is impaired by parallax errors. These errors produce misalignment between the projected location of the true origin of the annihilation event and the line of response determined by the coincidence detection system. Parallax errors are due to the varying depths of photon interaction (DOI) within the scintillator and the non-collinear (NC) emission of the annihilation photons. The aim of this work was to address the problems associated with the DOI and the NC spread of annihilation photons and to develop a quantitative model to assess their impact on image spatial resolution losses for various commonly used scintillators and PET geometries. A theoretical model based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed to assess the relative influence of DOI and the NC spread of annihilation photons on PET spatial resolution for various scintillator materials (BGO, LSO, LuAP, GSO, NaI) and PET geometries. The results demonstrate good agreement between simulated, experimental and published overall spatial resolution for some commercial systems, with maximum differences around 1 mm in both 2D and 3D mode. The DOI introduces an impairment of non-stationary spatial resolution along the radial direction, which can be very severe at peripheral positions. As an example, the radial spatial resolution loss due to DOI increased from 1.3 mm at the centre to 6.7 mm at 20 cm from the centre of a BGO camera with a 412-mm radius in 2D mode. Including the NC, the corresponding losses were 3.0 mm at the centre and 7.3 mm 20 cm from the centre. Without a DOI detection technique, it seems difficult to improve PET spatial resolution and increase sensitivity by reducing the detector ring radius or by extending the detector in the axial direction. Much effort is expended on the design and configuration of smaller detector elements but more effort should be devoted to the DOI complexity. (orig.)

  5. Are all types of expertise created equal? Car experts use different spatial frequency scales for subordinate categorization of cars and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    A much-debated question in object recognition is whether expertise for faces and expertise for non-face objects utilize common perceptual information. We investigated this issue by assessing the diagnostic information required for different types of expertise. Specifically, we asked whether face categorization and expert car categorization at the subordinate level relies on the same spatial frequency (SF) scales. Fifteen car experts and fifteen novices performed a category verification task with spatially filtered images of faces, cars, and airplanes. Images were categorized based on their basic (e.g. "car") and subordinate level (e.g. "Japanese car") identity. The effect of expertise was not evident when objects were categorized at the basic level. However, when the car experts categorized faces and cars at the subordinate level, the two types of expertise required different kinds of SF information. Subordinate categorization of faces relied on low SFs more than on high SFs, whereas subordinate expert car categorization relied on high SFs more than on low SFs. These findings suggest that expertise in the recognition of objects and faces do not utilize the same type of information. Rather, different types of expertise require different types of diagnostic visual information.

  6. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55 ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2015

  7. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and tritrophic interactions across spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsma, Y.S.Y.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Werf, van der W.; Poelman, E.H.; Dicke, M.

    2017-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger

  8. Spatial synchrony propagates through a forest food web via consumer-resource interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle J. ​Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Todd M. Fearer; Guiming Wang; Gary W. Norman; Derek M. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    In many study systems, populations fluctuate synchronously across large regions. Several mechanisms have been advanced to explain this, but their importance in nature is often uncertain. Theoretical studies suggest that spatial synchrony initiated in one species through Moran effects may propagate among trophically linked species, but evidence for this in nature is...

  9. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  10. Salp/krill interactions in the Southern Ocean: spatial segregation and implications for the carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Perissinotto, R.

    Available data on the spatial distribution and feeding ecophysiology of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, in the Southern Ocean are summarized in this study. Antarctic krill and salps generally display pronounced spatial segregation at all spatial scales. This appears to be the result of a clear biotopical separation of these key species in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Krill and salps are found in different water masses or water mass modifications, which are separated by primary or secondary frontal features. On the small-scale (salps are usually restricted to the specific water parcels, or are well segregated vertically. Krill and salp grazing rates estimated using the in situ gut fluorescence technique are among the highest recorded in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Although krill and salps at times may remove the entire daily primary production, generally their grazing impact is moderate (⩽50% of primary production). The regional ecological consequences of years of high salp densities may be dramatic. If the warming trend, which is observed around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Southern Ocean, continues, salps may become a more prominent player in the trophic structure of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This likely would be coupled with a dramatic decrease in krill productivity, because of a parallel decrease in the spatial extension of the krill biotope. The high Antarctic regions, particularly the Marginal Ice Zone, have, however, effective physiological mechanisms that may provide protection against the salp invasion.

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Virtual Reality (Perceived Realism) and the Ability of Children To Create, Manipulate and Utilize Mental Images for Spatially Related Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merickel, Mark L.

    The premise of the Creative Technology Project, a collaboration by Autodesk, Inc., the School of Education at Oregon State University, and Novato Unified School District in the San Francisco Bay Area, was that children's cognitive abilities could be enhanced by having them develop, displace, transform, and interact with 2D and 3D…

  12. Multiagent-Based Simulation of Temporal-Spatial Characteristics of Activity-Travel Patterns Using Interactive Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multiagent-based reinforcement learning algorithm, in which the interactions between travelers and the environment are considered to simulate temporal-spatial characteristics of activity-travel patterns in a city. Road congestion degree is added to the reinforcement learning algorithm as a medium that passes the influence of one traveler’s decision to others. Meanwhile, the agents used in the algorithm are initialized from typical activity patterns extracted from the travel survey diary data of Shangyu city in China. In the simulation, both macroscopic activity-travel characteristics such as traffic flow spatial-temporal distribution and microscopic characteristics such as activity-travel schedules of each agent are obtained. Comparing the simulation results with the survey data, we find that deviation of the peak-hour traffic flow is less than 5%, while the correlation of the simulated versus survey location choice distribution is over 0.9.

  13. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  14. Spatial attention interacts with serial-order retrieval from verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Majerus, Steve; Fias, Wim

    2013-09-01

    The ability to maintain the serial order of events is recognized as a major function of working memory. Although general models of working memory postulate a close link between working memory and attention, such a link has so far not been proposed specifically for serial-order working memory. The present study provided the first empirical demonstration of a direct link between serial order in verbal working memory and spatial selective attention. We show that the retrieval of later items of a sequence stored in working memory-compared with that of earlier items-produces covert attentional shifts toward the right. This observation suggests the conceptually surprising notion that serial-order working memory, even for nonspatially defined verbal items, draws on spatial attention.

  15. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  16. Classic theory for chromosome rearrangements with spatially restricted volume for broken ends interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanchuk, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    D. Lea classic theory for chromosomal rearrangements formation was modified to account for local interaction of broken chromosome ends. This assumption makes it possible to drastically improve coincidence of the theory and experiment in the case of complex rearrangements

  17. Influencing appraisals of emotional valence with spatial touchscreen interactions: An embodied approach to Positive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Torres, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Could bodily interactions with touchscreen interfaces influence users´s affective experiences? The present dissertation investigates, from an embodied perspective, the potential of touchscreen interfaces as "positive technologies". Positive Technology is an emergent research area within the fields of Cyberpsychology and Human-Computer Interaction interested in examining and promote the quality of user´s affective experiences. However, despite touchscreens enable the manipulation of digital co...

  18. Impact of self interaction on the evolution of cooperation in social spatial dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chenxi; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A self interaction mechanism is integrated into two classical game models (PDG and SDG). • An additional payoff will be awarded into the cooperative agents for the payoff calculation. • Beyond the fixed interaction strength, distributed interaction strength is considered. • The collective cooperation can be drastically elevated into a higher level. - Abstract: In this paper, a new self interaction mechanism is integrated into two typical pairwise models including the prisoner’s dilemma and snowdrift games, where an additional payoff will be awarded into the cooperative agents. In the prisoner’s dilemma game, we take three types of additional payoffs into account, to be a fixed constant, a random value situated within the positive unilateral interval and a random one uniformly distributed within a bilateral interval. Large quantities of numerical simulations indicate the promotion of cooperation can be very noticeable whether in the case of von Neumann neighborhood or Moore neighborhood. In the meantime, the self interaction will also be extended into the snowdrift game in which two equilibria exist, and the outcomes clearly show that the collective cooperation is still drastically elevated into a higher level. Current results demonstrate that the self interaction might become a potential and effective means to enhance the behavior of cooperation, and be helpful for us to deeply understand the widespread persistence and emergence of cooperation within many animal and human being societies.

  19. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  20. LHC Create

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  1. Creating Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  2. Stimulated Brillouin scattering reflectivity in the case of a spatially smoothed laser beam interacting with an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Mounaix, P.; Pesme, D.

    1997-01-01

    The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is investigated theoretically in the case of a spatially smoothed laser beam interacting with an inhomogeneous plasma in the regime of strong ion acoustic damping. The domain of parameters being considered corresponds to most of the present day experiments carried out with nanosecond laser pulses interacting with preformed plasmas: the characteristic length for convective amplification is assumed to be much shorter than the longitudinal correlation length of the laser field. The SBS reflectivity of one individual hot spot is analytically computed taking into account thermal noise emission and pump depletion within the hot spot. The SBS reflectivity of the whole beam is then obtained by summing up the individual hot spot reflectivities in accordance with their statistical distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  4. An event-related potential study on the interaction between lighting level and stimulus spatial location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCarretié

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux, characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod>cone and rodspatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod- and cone-originated visual processing.

  5. Distributed Hardware-in-the-loop simulator for autonomous continuous dynamical systems with spatially constrained interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, D.J.; Papp, Z.; Dorrepaal, M.

    2003-01-01

    The state-of-the-art intelligent vehicle, autonomous guided vehicle and mobile robotics application domains can be described as collection of interacting highly autonomous complex dynamical systems. Extensive formal analysis of these systems – except special cases – is not feasible, consequently the

  6. Spatial and temporal dynamics of disturbance interactions along an ecological gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. O' Connor

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among site conditions, disturbance events, and climate determine the patterns of forest species recruitment and mortality across landscapes. Forests of the American Southwest have undergone significant changes over a century of altered disturbance regimes, human land uses, and changing environmental conditions. Along steep vertical gradients such as those...

  7. Temporal and spatial interactions of slope and catchment processes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Lana-Renault, N.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Lasanta, T.; Arnáez, J.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Regüés, D.; Martí-Bono, C.

    2004-01-01

    Historical and present day changes in land uses and plant cover explain the complex interactions assessed in the Central Spanish Pyrenees between geomorphic processes in hillslopes and channels. More intense erosion periods caused an enlargement of sediment sources areas and an increase of

  8. Spatial interaction of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in an unfertilized grassland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eStempfhuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interrelated successive transformation steps of nitrification are performed by distinct microbial groups – the ammonia-oxidizers, comprising ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB, and nitrite-oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira, which are the dominant genera in the investigated soils. Hence, not only their presence and activity in the investigated habitat is required for nitrification, but also their temporal and spatial interactions. To demonstrate the interdependence of both groups and to address factors promoting putative niche differentiation within each group, temporal and spatial changes in nitrifying organisms were monitored in an unfertilized grassland site over an entire vegetation period at the plot scale of 10 m². Nitrifying organisms were assessed by measuring the abundance of marker genes (amoA for AOA and AOB, nxrA for Nitrobacter, 16S rRNA gene for Nitrospira selected for the respective sub-processes. A positive correlation between numerically dominant AOA and Nitrospira, and their co-occurrence at the same spatial scale in August and October, suggests that the nitrification process is predominantly performed by these groups and is restricted to a limited timeframe. Amongst nitrite-oxidizers, niche differentiation was evident in observed seasonally varying patterns of co-occurrence and spatial separation. While their distributions were most likely driven by substrate concentrations, oxygen availability may also have played a role under substrate-limited conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed temporal shifts in Nitrospira community composition with an increasing relative abundance of OTU03 assigned to sublineage V from August onwards, indicating its important role in nitrite oxidation.

  9. Evaluation of spatial pressure distribution during ice-structure interaction using pressure indicating film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunwook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is required to determine design loads on local structures, such as plating and framing. However, obtaining a practical ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is a hard task due to the sensitivity of the data acquisition frequency and resolution. High-resolution Pessure-Idicating Flm (PIF was applied to obtain pressure distribution and pressure magnitude using stepped crushing method. Different types of PIF were stacked at each test to creating a pressure distribution plot at specific time steps. Two different concepts of plotting ‘spatial’ pressure-area curve was introduced and evaluated. Diverse unit pixel size was chosen to investigate the effect of the resolution in data analysis. Activated area was not significantly affected by unit pixel size; however, total force was highly sensitive

  10. Protein Interaction Analysis Provides a Map of the Spatial and Temporal Organization of the Ciliary Gating Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Daisuke; Wang, Liang; Boss, Allison; Verhey, Kristen J

    2017-08-07

    The motility and signaling functions of the primary cilium require a unique protein and lipid composition that is determined by gating mechanisms localized at the base of the cilium. Several protein complexes localize to the gating zone and may regulate ciliary protein composition; however, the mechanisms of ciliary gating and the dynamics of the gating components are largely unknown. Here, we used the BiFC (bimolecular fluorescence complementation) assay and report for the first time on the protein-protein interactions that occur between ciliary gating components and transiting cargoes during ciliary entry. We find that the nucleoporin Nup62 and the C termini of the nephronophthisis (NPHP) proteins NPHP4 and NPHP5 interact with the axoneme-associated kinesin-2 motor KIF17 and thus spatially map to the inner region of the ciliary gating zone. Nup62 and NPHP4 exhibit rapid turnover at the transition zone and thus define dynamic components of the gate. We find that B9D1, AHI1, and the N termini of NPHP4 and NPHP5 interact with the transmembrane protein SSTR3 and thus spatially map to the outer region of the ciliary gating zone. B9D1, AHI1, and NPHP5 exhibit little to no turnover at the transition zone and thus define components of a stable gating structure. These data provide the first comprehensive map of the molecular orientations of gating zone components along the inner-to-outer axis of the ciliary gating zone. These results advance our understanding of the functional roles of gating zone components in regulating ciliary protein composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire Stations, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Fire Stations dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  12. Grocery Stores, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Grocery Stores dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  13. Libraries, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Libraries dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the...

  14. The Relationship Between Spatial Configuration and Social Interaction in High-Rise Flats: A Case Study On The Jatinegara Barat in Jakarta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwana Rifan

    2018-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that: (1 the relationship of spatial configuration to social interaction level in Jatinegara Barat flats can be positive or negative. (2 Positive relationships are found on the1st and 2ndfloor areas. High configuration values with high interaction levels are found in shared spaces on the 1st and 2nd floors with characteristics such as open space, large space, and availability of interaction supporting elements, while low configuration values with low interaction levels are found in more confined spaces such as private spaces and narrow corridors. (3 Negative relationships are found in the corridor and shared space in front of the elevator on each typical floors. Shared space in front of the elevator that has high spatial configuration value with large area show a low level of social interaction. While corridor with lower configuration value with the narrow area but have supporting elements such as chairs, mats, and shops have a higher level of social interaction. (4 This study shows that in the case of the relationship between spatial configuration and social interaction, availability of interaction supporting elements has greater influence rather than any other spatial factors.

  15. Oligophenylenevinylenes in spatially confined nanochannels: Monitoring intermolecular interactions by UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloshyna, Mariya; Medina, Begona Milian; Poulsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -guest interactions are elucidated by UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy. The impact of the local environment of the chromophore on the optical and photophysical properties is discussed in light of quantum-chemical calculations. In stark contrast to thin films where preferential side-by-side orientation leads to quenching...... of photoluminescence (PL) via non-emissive traps, the ICs are found to be attractive materials for opto-electronic applications: they offer high chromophore concentrations, but at the same time behave as quasi-isolated entities of tightly packed, well-oriented objects with high PL quantum yields and the possibility...

  16. Method to study water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in spatial pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhide; Ma Jianzhong; Sun Lei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of coupling 4-function models and its solution approach are first introduced in this paper, and the method of CFD to calculate fluid-structure interaction is also introduced. Finally, the model in related reference is applied with this method to simulate the process of water hammer. By CFD calculation for the classical water hammer, the numerical scheme and grid are selected, and the results of CFD are compared with reference. The results show that the method in this paper can be used in more complex pipe system to simulate the water hammer effect. (authors)

  17. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  18. A working memory account of the interaction between numbers and spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Acar, Freya; Ketels, Boris; Fias, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Rather than reflecting the long-term memory construct of a mental number line, it has been proposed that the relation between numbers and space is of a more temporary nature and constructed in working memory during task execution. In three experiments we further explored the viability of this working memory account. Participants performed a speeded dot detection task with dots appearing left or right, while maintaining digits or letters in working memory. Just before presentation of the dot, these digits or letters were used as central cues. These experiments show that the "attentional SNARC-effect" (where SNARC is the spatial-numerical association of response codes) is not observed when only the lastly perceived number cue--and no serially ordered sequence of cues--is maintained in working memory (Experiment 1). It is only when multiple items (numbers in Experiment 2; letters in Experiment 3) are stored in working memory in a serially organized way that the attentional cueing effect is observed as a function of serial working memory position. These observations suggest that the "attentional SNARC-effect" is strongly working memory based. Implications for theories on the mental representation of numbers are discussed.

  19. The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intraspecific growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bailey; Grant, James W A; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-07-01

    How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering the equitability of resource accessibility and thereby the effective number of competitors. While much work has investigated the influence of morphology on competitive ability for different resource types, less is known regarding the phenotypic characteristics conferring relative ability for a single resource type, particularly when exploitative competition predominates. Here we used young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to test whether and how the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density interact to influence the level and variance of individual growth, as well as if functional morphology relates to competitive ability. Feeding trials were conducted within stream channels under three spatial distributions of nine resource patches (distributed, semi-clumped and clumped) at two density levels (9 and 27 individuals). Average trial growth was greater in high-density treatments with no effect of resource distribution. Within-trial growth variance had opposite patterns across resource distributions. Here, variance decreased at low-population, but increased at high-population densities as patches became increasingly clumped as the result of changes in the levels of interference vs. exploitative competition. Within-trial growth was related to both pre- and post-trial morphology where competitive individuals were those with traits associated with swimming capacity and efficiency: larger heads/bodies/caudal fins

  20. What Do We Need to Protect, at All Costs, During the 21st Century? Reflections From a Curated, Interactive Co-Created Intellectual Jazz Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadad, Alejandro R; Davis, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The question that forms the title of this article, "What do we need to protect, at all costs, during the 21st century?," speaks to the sizable changes in health care systems and settings that surround the continuing professional development (CPD) provider, and the need to establish a core set of principles and practices as the field moves forward from both theoretical and practical aspects. It also provided the focus for one of the five keynote lectures presented during the 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development. As the planners of this keynote session, we sought to evoke answers to the question, not from the speaker, but from the audience itself, a process enabled by a highly engaging presentation style and powered by interactive digital technologies. Further, we believed that the session would not directly lead to suggestions to improve the theory and practice of CPD, but rather to create the biopsychosocial context-a sort of platform-on which such discussions can occur.

  1. Sustained Spatial Attention to Vibrotactile Stimulation in the Flutter Range: Relevant Brain Regions and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dominique; Pleger, Burkhard; Thiel, Sabrina; Villringer, Arno; Müller, Matthias M.

    2013-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter) concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant) hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition). In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range of flutter

  2. Possible Experiment for the Demonstration of Neutron Waves Interaction with Spatially Oscillating Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloi Mădălina Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of problems in neutron optics is well described by a theory based on application of the effective potential model. It was assumed that the concept of the effective potential in neutron optics have a limited region of validity and ceases to be correct in the case of the giant acceleration of a matter. To test this hypothesis a new Ultra Cold neutron experiment for the observation neutron interaction with potential structure oscillating in space was proposed. The report is focused on the model calculations of the topography of sample surface that oscillate in space. These calculations are necessary to find an optimal parameters and geometry of the planned experiment.

  3. Spatial interaction between tissue pressure and skeletal muscle perfusion during contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, C C; Huyghe, J M; Vankan, W J; Drost, M R

    2001-05-01

    The vascular waterfall theory attributes decreased muscle perfusion during contraction to increased intramuscular pressure (P(IM)) and concomitant increase in venous resistance. Although P(IM) is distributed during contractions, this theory does not account for heterogeneity. This study hypothesises that pressure heterogeneity could affect the interaction between P(IM) rise and perfusion. Regional tissue perfusion during submaximum (100kPa) tetanic contraction is studied, using a finite element model of perfused contracting skeletal muscle. Capillary flow in muscles with one proximal artery and vein (SIM(1)) and with an additional distal artery and vein (SIM(2)) is compared. Blood flow and pressures at rest and P(IM) during contraction ( approximately 25kPa maximally) are similar between simulations, but capillary flow and venous pressure differ. In SIM(2), venous pressure and capillary flow correspond to P(IM) distribution, whereas capillary flow in SIM(1) is less than 10% of flow in SIM(2), in the muscle half without draining vein. This difference is caused by a high central P(IM), followed by central venous pressure rise, in agreement with the waterfall theory. The high central pressure (SIM(1)), obstructs outflow from the distal veins. Distal venous pressure rises until central blood pressure is reached, although local P(IM) is low. Adding a distal vein (SIM(2)) restores the perfusion. It is concluded that regional effects contribute to the interaction between P(IM) and perfusion during contraction. Unlike stated by the vascular waterfall theory, venous pressure may locally exceed P(IM). Although this can be explained by the principles of this theory, the theory does not include this phenomenon as such.

  4. The interaction of chronic restraint stress and voluntary alcohol intake: effects on spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory test, the object placement (OP) task. In addition, intake levels were measured to determine if stress altered general consumption of alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four conditions: no alcohol/no stress control (CON), stress alone (STR), alcohol alone (ALC), and STR+alcohol (STR+ALC). Following each restraint stress bout, the STR+ALC and the ALC groups were given access to 8% alcohol for 1h using the two-bottle choice limited access paradigm. As predicted, the STR+ALC group significantly increased alcohol consumption, while the ALC group had consistent drinking over the 10-day treatment. On the OP task, STR and ALC groups performed at chance levels, whereas the CON and STR+ALC groups significantly discriminated between objects in the new and old locations. These data show that stress increases alcohol intake and the intake of alcohol is associated with reduction of the stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. The data have important implications for the development of alcohol abuse and its treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation of signaling specificity in Arabidopsis by spatially restricted buffering of ligand-receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash, Emily B; Davies, Kelli A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2011-08-01

    Core signaling pathways function in multiple programs during multicellular development. The mechanisms that compartmentalize pathway function or confer process specificity, however, remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA (ER) family receptors have major roles in many growth and cell fate decisions. The ER family acts with receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and several ligands of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKE (EPFL) family, which play distinct yet overlapping roles in patterning of epidermal stomata. Here, our examination of EPFL genes EPFL6/CHALLAH (CHAL), EPFL5/CHALLAH-LIKE1, and EPFL4/CHALLAH-LIKE2 (CLL2) reveals that this family may mediate additional ER-dependent processes. chal cll2 mutants display growth phenotypes characteristic of er mutants, and genetic interactions are consistent with CHAL family molecules acting as ER family ligands. We propose that different classes of EPFL genes regulate different aspects of ER family function and introduce a TMM-based discriminatory mechanism that permits simultaneous, yet compartmentalized and distinct, function of the ER family receptors in growth and epidermal patterning.

  6. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  7. A spatial socio-ecosystem approach to analyse human-environment interactions on climate change adaptation for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Mojtahed, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Global climate and socio-economic drivers determine the future patterns of the allocation and the trade of resources and commodities in all markets. The agricultural sector is an emblematic case in which natural (e.g. climate), social (e.g. demography) and economic (e.g. the market) drivers of change interact, determining the evolution of social and ecological systems (or simply socio-ecosystems; SES) over time. In order to analyse the dynamics and possible future evolutions of SES, the combination of local complex systems and global drivers and trends require the development of multiscale approaches. At global level, climatic general circulation models (CGM) and computable general equilibrium or partial equilibrium models have been used for many years to explore the effects of global trends and generate future climate and socio-economic scenarios. Al local level, the inherent complexity of SESs and their spatial and temporal variabilities require different modelling approaches of physical/environmental sub-systems (e.g. field scale crop modelling, GIS-based models, etc.) and of human agency decision makers (e.g. agent based models). Global and local models have different assumption, limitations, constrains, etc., but in some cases integration is possible and several attempts are in progress to couple different models within the so-called Integrated Assessment Models. This work explores an innovative proposal to integrate the global and local approaches, where agent-based models (ABM) are used to simulate spatial (i.e. grid-based) and temporal dynamics of land and water resource use spatial and temporal dynamics, under the effect of global drivers. We focus in particular on how global change may affect land-use allocation at the local to regional level, under the influence of limited natural resources, land and water in particular. We specifically explore how constrains and competition for natural resources may induce non-linearities and discontinuities in socio

  8. Understanding spatial and temporal patterning of astrocyte calcium transients via interactions between network transport and extracellular diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrahman, E.; Maruyama, D.; Olariu, E.; Fink, C. G.; Zochowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Astrocytes form interconnected networks in the brain and communicate via calcium signaling. We investigate how modes of coupling between astrocytes influence the spatio-temporal patterns of calcium signaling within astrocyte networks and specifically how these network interactions promote coordination within this group of cells. To investigate these complex phenomena, we study reduced cultured networks of astrocytes and neurons. We image the spatial temporal patterns of astrocyte calcium activity and quantify how perturbing the coupling between astrocytes influences astrocyte activity patterns. To gain insight into the pattern formation observed in these cultured networks, we compare the experimentally observed calcium activity patterns to the patterns produced by a reduced computational model, where we represent astrocytes as simple units that integrate input through two mechanisms: gap junction coupling (network transport) and chemical release (extracellular diffusion). We examine the activity patterns in the simulated astrocyte network and their dependence upon these two coupling mechanisms. We find that gap junctions and extracellular chemical release interact in astrocyte networks to modulate the spatiotemporal patterns of their calcium dynamics. We show agreement between the computational and experimental findings, which suggests that the complex global patterns can be understood as a result of simple local coupling mechanisms.

  9. Collective Behaviors in Spatially Extended Systems with Local Interactions and Synchronous Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChatÉ, H.; Manneville, P.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the extent to which dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom can be described within a thermodynamics formalism is a problem that currently attracts much attention. In this context, synchronously updated regular lattices of identical, chaotic elements with local interactions are promising models for which statistical mechanics may be hoped to provide some insights. This article presents a large class of cellular automata rules and coupled map lattices of the above type in space dimensions d = 2 to 6.Such simple models can be approached by a mean-field approximation which usually reduces the dynamics to that of a map governing the evolution of some extensive density. While this approximation is exact in the d = infty limit, where macroscopic variables must display the time-dependent behavior of the mean-field map, basic intuition from equilibrium statistical mechanics rules out any such behavior in a low-dimensional systems, since it would involve the collective motion of locally disordered elements.The models studied are chosen to be as close as possible to mean-field conditions, i.e., rather high space dimension, large connectivity, and equal-weight coupling between sites. While the mean-field evolution is never observed, a new type of non-trivial collective behavior is found, at odds with the predictions of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Both in the cellular automata models and in the coupled map lattices, macroscopic variables frequently display a non-transient, time-dependent, low-dimensional dynamics emerging out of local disorder. Striking examples are period 3 cycles in two-state cellular automata and a Hopf bifurcation for a d = 5 lattice of coupled logistic maps. An extensive account of the phenomenology is given, including a catalog of behaviors, classification tables for the celular automata rules, and bifurcation diagrams for the coupled map lattices.The observed underlying dynamics is accompanied by an intrinsic quasi-Gaussian noise

  10. Seismic soil-structure interaction with consideration of spatial incoherence of seismic ground motions: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Wen S., E-mail: wen.tseng@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., Western Region, 2201 Broadway, Suite 400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Lilhanand, Kiat; Hamasaki, Don; Garcia, Julio A. [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., Western Region, 2201 Broadway, Suite 400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Srinivasan, Ram [AREVA, NP, Inc., 6399 San Ignacio Avenue, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a case study of seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis with consideration of spatial incoherence of seismic input ground motions. The SSI analyses were performed using the SASSI computer program for the Auxiliary Control Building (ACB) structure of an existing nuclear power plant on a hard rock site located in the Center and Eastern United States (CEUS) region. The incoherent seismic input motions for the hard rock site used for the analyses were generated using the computer program INCOH that works together with SASSI. The objective of the analyses was to generate maximum seismic response parameters for assessment of potential impact of newly developed site-specific (ground motion) response spectra (SSRS) on the seismic design of the ACB and potential benefits that could be gained by considering spatial incoherence of seismic input motions. Maximum seismic response values for selected response parameters of interest were generated with both SSRS-compatible coherent and incoherent seismic input motions. Comparisons were made of the corresponding maximum response parameter values and in-structure (acceleration) response spectra (ISRS) generated for both the coherent and incoherent motion inputs. These comparisons indicate that, by incorporating incoherence of ground motions in the seismic input, the maximum response values reduces and the ISRS peak amplitudes in the high frequency range (>10 Hz) also reduce from the corresponding response values resulting from the coherent motion input. The amount of ISRS-amplitude reduction increases as the spectral frequency increases, as expected. Such reductions can be as much as 20–50%. This case study demonstrates that, for a CEUS hard rock site where relatively high high-frequency in the seismic input response spectra exist, consideration of spatial incoherence of input motions would result in substantial benefits in reducing the high-frequency seismic responses. Such benefits are especially

  11. What is an attractive body? Using an interactive 3D program to create the ideal body for you and your partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Crossley

    Full Text Available What is the ideal body size and shape that we want for ourselves and our partners? What are the important physical features in this ideal? And do both genders agree on what is an attractive body? To answer these questions we used a 3D interactive software system which allows our participants to produce a photorealistic, virtual male or female body. Forty female and forty male heterosexual Caucasian observers (females mean age 19.10 years, s.d. 1.01; 40 males mean age 19.84, s.d. 1.66 set their own ideal size and shape, and the size and shape of their ideal partner using the DAZ studio image manipulation programme. In this programme the shape and size of a 3D body can be altered along 94 independent dimensions, allowing each participant to create the exact size and shape of the body they want. The volume (and thus the weight assuming a standard density and the circumference of the bust, waist and hips of these 3D models can then be measured. The ideal female body set by women (BMI = 18.9, WHR = 0.70, WCR = 0.67 was very similar to the ideal partner set by men, particularly in their BMI (BMI = 18.8, WHR = 0.73, WCR = 0.69. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of 39 of the 40 women. The ideal male body set by the men (BMI = 25.9, WHR = 0.87, WCR = 0.74 was very similar to the ideal partner set by the women (BMI = 24.5, WHR = 0.86, WCR = 0.77. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of roughly half of the men and a higher BMI than the other half. The results suggest a consistent preference for an ideal male and female body size and shape across both genders. The results also suggest that both BMI and torso shape are important components for the creation of the ideal body.

  12. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Kallus

    Full Text Available Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization.

  13. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization.

  14. Are All Program Elements Created Equal? Relations Between Specific Social and Emotional Learning Components and Teacher-Student Classroom Interaction Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Timothy W

    2017-02-01

    School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are presented to educators with little understanding of the program components that have the greatest leverage for improving targeted outcomes. Conducted in the context of a randomized controlled trial, the present study used variation in treatment teachers' (N = 143) implementation of four core components of the Responsive Classroom approach to examine relations between each component and the quality of teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (controlling for pre-intervention interaction quality and other covariates). We also examined the extent to which these relations varied as a function of teachers' baseline levels of interaction quality. Indices of teachers' implementation of Morning Meeting, Rule Creation, Interactive Modeling, and Academic Choice were derived from a combination of teacher-reported surveys and classroom observations. Ratings of teacher-student classroom interactions were aggregated across five observations conducted throughout the school year. Structural path models indicated that teachers' use of Morning Meeting and Academic Choice related to higher levels of emotionally supportive interactions; Academic Choice also related to higher levels of instructional interactions. In addition, teachers' baseline interaction quality moderated several associations such that the strongest relations between RC component use and interaction quality emerged for teachers with the lowest baseline interaction quality. Results highlight the value of examining individual program components toward the identification of program active ingredients that can inform intervention optimization and teacher professional development.

  15. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  16. Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Xing; Wang, Jin; Lin, Hualiang; Chen, Lingling; Wu, Zhifeng; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-07-17

    Background : Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods : Moran's I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results : Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature ( q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation ( q = 0.24), road density ( q = 0.24), and water body area ( q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions : Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou.

  17. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L

    2013-08-01

    Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students' deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9±4.8 to 49.5±5.4 (pability by 11.3% (psoftware into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby even diagnostic skills for imaging modalities not included in the course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Manipulating femtosecond laser interactions in bulk glass and thin-film with spatial light modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadian, Ehsan; Ho, Stephen; Ertorer, Erden; Gherghe, Sebastian; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are emerging as a power tool for laser beam shaping whereby digitally addressed phase shifts can impose computer-generated hologram patterns on incoming laser light. SLM provide several additional advantages with ultrashort-pulsed lasers in controlling the shape of both surface and internal interactions with materials. Inside transparent materials, nonlinear optical effects can confine strong absorption only to the focal volume, extend dissipation over long filament tracks, or reach below diffraction-limited spot sizes. Hence, SLM beam shaping has been widely adopted for laser material processing applications that include parallel structuring, filamentation, fiber Bragg grating formation and optical aberration correction. This paper reports on a range of SLM applications we have studied in femtosecond processing of transparent glasses and thin films. Laser phase-fronts were tailored by the SLM to compensate for spherical surface aberration, and to further address the nonlinear interactions that interplay between Kerr-lens self-focusing and plasma defocusing effects over shallow and deep focusing inside the glass. Limits of strong and weak focusing were examined around the respective formation of low-loss optical waveguides and long uniform filament tracks. Further, we have employed the SLM for beam patterning inside thin film, exploring the limits of phase noise, resolution and fringe contrast during interferometric intra-film structuring. Femtosecond laser pulses of 200 fs pulse duration and 515 nm wavelength were shaped by a phase-only LCOS-SLM (Hamamatsu X10468-04). By imposing radial phase profiles, axicon, grating and beam splitting gratings, volume shape control of filament diameter, length, and uniformity as well as simultaneous formation of multiple filaments has been demonstrated. Similarly, competing effects of spherical surface aberration, self-focusing, and plasma de-focusing were studied and delineated to enable formation

  19. What makes a good neighborhood? Interaction of spatial scale and fruit density in the predator satiation dynamics of a masting juniper tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Eduardo T; Olano, José Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in fruit production (masting) has been regarded as a key mechanism to increase plant fitness by reducing seed predation. However, considerably more effort has been devoted into understanding the consequences of temporal rather than spatial variations in fruit crop for plant fitness. In order to simultaneously evaluate both components, we quantify fruit production and pre-dispersal damage by three arthropod species (mites, chalcid wasps and moths) in the Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) during 3 years in a spatially explicit context. Our aims were to assess (1) the interaction between fruit production and pre-dispersal fruit damage by arthropods, (2) the potential interference or competition between arthropods, and (3) the form of the phenotypic selection exerted by arthropods on fruit traits considering the spatial context. Arthropods damaged a substantial fraction of fruits produced by Spanish juniper with levels of damage showing sharp inter-annual variations. Fruit damage by mites was negatively related to yearly fruit crop and positively correlated at individual trees fruiting in consecutive years. Increased interspecific interference was an additional consequence of reduced fruit availability during small crop years. During a masting year, fruit damage by less mobile species such as mites was negatively affected by tree crop size, and no spatial structure was observed for mite damage. The incidence of chalcid wasps was low, so the spatial pattern of seed predation was unclear, and no preferences for fruit or seed traits were detected. Conversely, moths selected larger fruits and their incidence on trees was spatially aggregated up to 20 m, with predation levels being negatively affected by fruit abundance at the patch level, suggesting a positive density-dependent effect of neighbors on fruit output. These results highlight the importance of including the spatial component to understand complex species interactions at local

  20. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  1. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  2. Evidence of Territoriality and Species Interactions from Spatial Point-Pattern Analyses of Subarctic-Nesting Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species’ distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross’s geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  3. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    and their digital devices (i.e. the proxemic relationships). Building on the ideas of proxemic interactions, this workshop is motivated by the concept of ‘proxemic mobile collocated interactions’, to harness new or existing technologies to create engaging and interactionally relevant experiences. Such approaches......Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people...... in exploring proxemics and mobile collocated interactions....

  4. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  5. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  6. Spatial organization of the budding yeast genome in the cell nucleus and identification of specific chromatin interactions from multi-chromosome constrained chromatin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Gamze; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization. With significantly improved sampling of genome structures, both intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction patterns from genome-wide 3C studies are accurately captured in our model at higher resolution than previous studies. We show that nuclear confinement is a key determinant of the intra-chromosomal interactions, and centromere tethering is responsible for the inter-chromosomal interactions. In addition, important genomic elements such as fragile sites and tRNA genes are found to be clustered spatially, largely due to centromere tethering. We uncovered previously unknown interactions that were not captured by genome-wide 3C studies, which are found to be enriched with tRNA genes, RNAPIII and TFIIS binding. Moreover, we identified specific high-frequency genome-wide 3C interactions that are unaccounted for by polymer effects under landmark constraints. These interactions are enriched with important genes and likely play biological roles.

  7. The role of efficacy and moral outrage norms in creating the potential for international development activism through group-based interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    This paper adopts an intergroup perspective on helping as collective action to explore the ways to boost motivation amongst people in developed countries to join the effort to combat poverty and preventable disease in developing countries. Following van Zomeren, Spears, Leach, and Fischer's (2004) model of collective action, we investigated the role of norms about an emotional response (moral outrage) and beliefs about efficacy in motivating commitment to take action amongst members of advantaged groups. Norms about outrage and efficacy were harnessed to an opinion-based group identity (Bliuc, McGarty, Reynolds, & Muntele, 2007) and explored in the context of a novel group-based interaction method. Results showed that the group-based interaction boosted commitment to action especially when primed with an (injunctive) outrage norm. This norm stimulated a range of related effects including increased identification with the pro-international development opinion-based group, and higher efficacy beliefs. Results provide an intriguing instance of the power of group interaction (particularly where strengthened with emotion norms) to bolster commitment to positive social change.

  8. Spatial and thickness dependence of coupling interaction of surface states and influence on transport and optical properties of few-layer Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjun; Chen, Shi; Sun, Jiuyu; Li, Xingxing; Qiu, Huaili; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-02-01

    Coupling interaction between the bottom and top surface electronic states and the influence on transport and optical properties of Bi2Se3 thin films with 1-8 quintuple layers (QLs) have been investigated by first principles calculations. Obvious spatial and thickness dependences of coupling interaction are found by analyzing hybridization of two surface states. In the thin film with a certain thickness, from the outer to inner atomic layers, the coupling interaction exhibits an increasing trend. On the other hand, as thickness increases, the coupling interaction shows a disproportionate decrease trend. Moreover, the system with 3 QLs exhibits stronger interaction than that with 2 QLs. The presence of coupling interaction would suppress destructive interference of surface states and enhance resistance in various degrees. In view of the inversely proportional relation to transport channel width, the resistance of thin films should show disproportionate thickness dependence. This prediction is qualitatively consistent with the transport measurements at low temperature. Furthermore, the optical properties also exhibit obvious thickness dependence. Especially as the thickness increases, the coupling interaction results in red and blue shifts of the multiple-peak structures in low and high energy regions of imaginary dielectric function, respectively. The red shift trend is in agreement with the recent experimental observation and the blue shift is firstly predicted by the present calculation. The present results give a concrete understanding of transport and optical properties in devices based on Bi2Se3 thin films with few QLs.

  9. Meta-analysis of field scale spatial variability of grassland soil CO2 efflux: Interaction of biotic and abiotic drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fóti, S.; Balogh, J.; Herbst, M.; Papp, M.; Koncz, P.; Bartha, S.; Zimmermann, Z.; Komoly, C.; Szabó, G.; Margóczi, G.; Acosta, Manuel; Nagy, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 143, aug (2016), s. 78-89 ISSN 0341-8162 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cross-variogram * Principal component analysis * Soil CO2 efflux * Spatial pattern * Variogram Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.191, year: 2016

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal, macrophages and mast cells in the gut musculature: morphology, distribution, spatial and possible functional interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are recognized as pacemaker cells for gastrointestinal movement and are suggested to be mediators of neuromuscular transmission. Intestinal motility disturbances are often associated with a reduced number of ICC and/or ultrastructural damage, sometimes associated...... conditions such as Crohn's disease and achalasia, ICC and mast cells develop close spatial contacts and piecemeal degranulation is possibly triggered....

  11. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengier, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.rengier@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Häfner, Matthias F. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Unterhinninghofen, Roland [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Anthropomatics, Department of Informatics, Adenauerring 2, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Giesel, Frederik L. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  12. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F.; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  13. Cross sections for production of 70 discrete-energy gamma rays created by neutron interactions with 56Fe for En to 40 MeV: Tabulated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Todd, J.H.; Larson, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Inelastic and nonelastic neutron interactions with 56 Fe have been studied for incident neutron energies between 0.8 and 41 MeV. An iron sample isotopically enriched in the mass 56 isotope was used. Gamma rays representing 70 transitions among levels in residual nuclei were identified, and production cross sections were deduced. The reactions studied were 56 Fe(n,n') 56 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn, 56 Fe(n,2n) 55 Fe, 56 Fe(n,d + n,np) 55 Mn, 56 Fe(n,t + n,nd + n,2np) 54 Mn, 56 Fe(n,α) 53 Cr, 56 Fe(n,nα) 52 Cr, and 56 Fe(n,3n) 54 Fe. Values obtained for production cross sections as functions of incident neutron energy are presented in tabular form. 38 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Analysis of the geochemical gradient created by surface-groundwater interactions within riverbanks of the East River in Crested Butte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunzer, J.; Williams, K. H.; Malenda, H. F.; Nararne-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    An improved understanding of the geochemical gradient created by the mixing of surface and groundwater of a river system will have considerable impact on our understanding of microorganisms, organic cycling and biogeochemical processes within these zones. In this study, the geochemical gradient in the hyporheic zone is described using a variety of geochemical properties. A system of shallow groundwater wells were installed in a series of transects along a stream bank. Each transect consists of several wells that progress away from the river bank in a perpendicular fashion. From these wells, temperature, conductivity and pH of water samples were obtained via hand pumping or bailing. These data show a clear geochemical gradient that displays a distinct zone in the subsurface where the geochemical conditions change from surface water dominated to groundwater dominated. For this study, the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado has been selected as the river of interest due the river being a relatively undisturbed floodplain. Additionally, the specific section chosen on the East River displays relatively high sinuosity meaning that these meandering sections will produce hyporheic zones that are more laterally expansive than what would be expected on a river of lower sinuosity. This increase in lateral extension of the hyporheic zone will make depicting the subtle changes in the geochemical gradient much easier than that of a river system in which the hyporheic zone is not as laterally extensive. Data has been and will be continued to be collected at different river discharges to evaluate the geochemical gradient at differing rates. Overall, this characterization of the geochemical gradient along stream banks will produce results that will aid in the further use of geochemical methods to classify and understand hyporheic exchange zones and the potential expansion of these techniques to river systems of differing geologic and geographic conditions.

  15. On the instability and constraints of the interaction between number representation and spatial attention in healthy humans: A concise review of the literature and new experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, E; Pinto, M; Merola, S; D'Onofrio, M; Doricchi, F

    2016-01-01

    caution because, like in a study by Zanolie and Pecher (2014), we recently failed to replicate this effect in a separate behavioral-event-related potentials study in preparation (Fattorini et al., 2015a). All together the results from the present series of experiments support the hypothesis that spatial coding is not an intrinsic part of number representation and that number-space interaction is determined by the use of stimulus- or response-related spatial codes in the task at hand. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A hot spot for systemic lupus erythematosus, but not for psoriatic arthritis, identified by spatial analysis suggests an interaction between ethnicity and place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maini, Mustafa; Jeyalingam, Thurarshen; Brown, Patrick; Lee, Jennifer J Y; Li, Lennon; Su, Jiandong; Gladman, Dafna D; Fortin, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using geographic information systems (GIS). Spatial analyses were carried out on 890 SLE patients and 541 psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients (controls). Age- and sex-adjusted rates for SLE/PsA for each census tract were calculated using denominator population values from the Canadian census. Spatial variations in relative risk were estimated by modeling risk as the product of a time effect, an age effect, and a spatially autocorrelated risk surface to identify hot spots. Patients within the detected hot spot were compared to those outside the hot spot to identify explanatory factors. SLE patients were predominantly female (87.75%) and the incidence rate was highest among those 15-19 years of age (2.4 cases/100,000 person-years). In an SLE hot spot containing 59 patients, 100% of the patients were female and 49.1% (n = 29) were Caucasian, while outside of the hot spot, 86.9% (n = 722) of the patients were female and 68.4% (n = 568) were Caucasian. The proportion of cases of Chinese ethnicity was significantly greater within the hot spot. An interaction was found between Chinese ethnicity and residence within the hot spot, with the risk of SLE to the Chinese population found to be twice the risk to the non-Chinese population. GIS was used to map SLE cases and a hot spot was identified after adjustment for age and sex. Ethnicity by itself did not confer an increased risk of SLE, but the interaction of ethnicity with location of residence significantly increased the risk of SLE. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Sustaining plants and people: traditional Q'eqchi' Maya botanical knowledge and interactive spatial modeling in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants for culturally relative holistic health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Todd; Abramiuk, Marc; Garagic, Denis; Fini, Nick; Meerman, Jan; Cal, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to locate culturally important, regionally scarce, and disappearing medicinal plants via a novel participatory methodology which involves healer-expert knowledge in interactive spatial modeling to prioritize conservation efforts and thus facilitate health promotion via medicinal plant resource sustained availability. These surveys, conducted in the Maya Mountains, Belize, generate ethnobotanical, ecological, and geospatial data on species which are used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers in practice. Several of these mountainous species are regionally scarce and the healers are expressing difficulties in finding them for use in promotion of community health and wellness. Based on healers' input, zones of highest probability for locating regionally scarce, disappearing, and culturally important plants in their ecosystem niches can be facilitated by interactive modeling. In the present study, this is begun by choosing three representative species to train an interactive predictive model. Model accuracy was then assessed statistically by testing for independence between predicted occurrence and actual occurrence of medicinal plants. A high level of accuracy was achieved using a small set of exemplar data. This work demonstrates the potential of combining ethnobotany and botanical spatial information with indigenous ecosystems concepts and Q'eqchi' Maya healing knowledge via predictive modeling. Through this approach, we may identify regions where species are located and accordingly promote for prioritization and application of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to protect them. This represents a significant step toward facilitating sustained culturally relative health promotion as well as overall enhanced ecological integrity to the region and the earth.

  18. Role of T cell – glial cell interactions in creating and amplifying Central Nervous System inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Huseby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS that causes the demyelination of nerve cells and destroys oligodendrocytes, neurons and axons. Historically, MS has been thought of as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of CNS white matter. However, recent studies have identified gray matter lesions in MS patients, suggesting that CNS antigens other than myelin proteins may be involved during the MS disease process. We have recently found that T cells targeting astrocyte-specific antigens can drive unique aspects of inflammatory CNS autoimmunity, including the targeting of gray matter and white matter of the brain and inducing heterogeneous clinical disease courses. In addition to being a target of T cells, astrocytes play a critical role in propagating the inflammatory response within the CNS through cytokine induced NF-ΚB signaling. Here, we will discuss the pathophysiology of CNS inflammation mediated by T cell – glial cell interactions and its contributions to CNS autoimmunity.

  19. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  20. Validation of Lectora based interactive module to improve the ability of junior high school students spatial in learning Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Septia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological developments provide opportunities for educators to develop learning media through interactive modules integrated into lectora software. The development of an interactive module based on lectora can motivate students to learn independently, to be creative, and to enjoy what they are doing. Research into the development of an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material aimed to develop an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material, with the research design consisting of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the module. The result obtained from the use of an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material that had been designed and validated and later revised showed an average value of the feasibility of content to be 3.75, the average value of the aspects of presentation was 2.94, the average value aspects of language was 3.06, and the average value of the aspects of graph was 2.86. This research enabled us to conclude that an interactive module based on lectora geometry flat side material could be categorized as valid.

  1. A family of spatial interaction models incorporating information flows and choice set constraints applied to U.S. interstate labor flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T R; Slater, P B

    1981-01-01

    "A new family of migration models belonging to the elimination by aspects family is examined, with the spatial interaction model shown to be a special case. The models have simple forms; they incorporate information flow processes and choice set constraints; they are free of problems raised by the Luce Choice Axiom; and are capable of generating intransitive flows. Preliminary calibrations using the Continuous Work History Sample [time] series data indicate that the model fits the migration data well, while providing estimates of interstate job message flows. The preliminary calculations also indicate that care is needed in assuming that destination [attraction] are independent of origins." excerpt

  2. Exploration of the dynamic properties of protein complexes predicted from spatially constrained protein-protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Yen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes are not static, but rather highly dynamic with subunits that undergo 1-dimensional diffusion with respect to each other. Interactions within protein complexes are modulated through regulatory inputs that alter interactions and introduce new components and deplete existing components through exchange. While it is clear that the structure and function of any given protein complex is coupled to its dynamical properties, it remains a challenge to predict the possible conformations that complexes can adopt. Protein-fragment Complementation Assays detect physical interactions between protein pairs constrained to ≤8 nm from each other in living cells. This method has been used to build networks composed of 1000s of pair-wise interactions. Significantly, these networks contain a wealth of dynamic information, as the assay is fully reversible and the proteins are expressed in their natural context. In this study, we describe a method that extracts this valuable information in the form of predicted conformations, allowing the user to explore the conformational landscape, to search for structures that correlate with an activity state, and estimate the abundance of conformations in the living cell. The generator is based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation that uses the interaction dataset as input and is constrained by the physical resolution of the assay. We applied this method to an 18-member protein complex composed of the seven core proteins of the budding yeast Arp2/3 complex and 11 associated regulators and effector proteins. We generated 20,480 output structures and identified conformational states using principle component analysis. We interrogated the conformation landscape and found evidence of symmetry breaking, a mixture of likely active and inactive conformational states and dynamic exchange of the core protein Arc15 between core and regulatory components. Our method provides a novel tool for prediction and

  3. From Tree Structure to Interactive Network:A Preliminary Study on Transit-Oriented Spatial Development Patterns of Village-Town Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan; WANG; Shuhua; HE; Fang; QIAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the relatively developed highway and road network in China’s eastern coastal provinces, the public transit-oriented development model(TOD) for village-town communities aims to create a network connecting the urban and rural public transportation system and the public service system, by selectively constructing 'urban-type' communities with bus stops, thus promoting the mobility of urban and rural factors and to optimize the public service system, so as to change the traditional top-down development mode with tree structure. Through the planning practice in Linyi County, Dezhou City, it is found that a TOD-based spatial development mode in village-town communities can provide references for new countryside planning and construction in China in terms of upgrading the urban-rural functional structure, satisfying local demands, optimizing local government decisions, improving the planning mode, etc.

  4. A spatial econometric panel data examination of endogenous versus exogenous interaction in Chinese province-level patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, James P.; Sheng, Yuxue

    2014-07-01

    We examine the provincial-level relationship between domestic Chinese intellectual property (IP) and knowledge stocks using a space-time panel model and data set covering monthly patent activity over the period 2002-2010. The goal of the modeling exercise is to explore the elasticity response of IP to knowledge stocks classified by type of creator (universities and research institutes, enterprises, and individuals). A focus is on spatial and time dependence in the relationship between knowledge stocks and IP, which implies spatial spillovers and diffusion over time. Many past studies of regional knowledge production have focused on patent applications as a proxy for regional output from the knowledge production process. However, this ignores the distinction between patent applications and patents granted, with the latter reflecting a decision and ability to convert knowledge produced into IP. This study differs in its focus on the regional relation between IP and knowledge stocks and the space-time dynamics of these. Using patents granted as a proxy for IP, and past patent applications as a proxy for regional knowledge stocks, allows us to explore the implied quality of knowledge production by various types of creators. Because Chinese patent applications have grown by 22 %, questions have been raised about the quantity versus quality of these applications. Our findings shed light on this issue.

  5. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  7. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  8. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Bychkov, M. L.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Kulbatskii, D. S.; Arvaniti, M.; Dolejší, Eva; Schaer, T.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Thomsen, M. S.; Doležal, Vladimír; Bertrand, D.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Aug 3 (2016), s. 30698 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05696S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ion channel * signalling * molecular modelling * protein–protein interaction networks * solution-state NMR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  9. Delineation of spatial-temporal patterns of groundwater/surface-water interaction along a river reach (Aa River, Belgium) with transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Tolche, Abebe Debele; Ghysels, Gert; Nossent, Jiri; Schneidewind, Uwe; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2017-12-01

    Among the advances made in analytical and numerical analysis methods to quantify groundwater/surface-water interaction, one methodology that stands out is the use of heat as an environmental tracer. A large data set of river and riverbed temperature profiles from the Aa River in Belgium has been used to examine the spatial-temporal variations of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Exchange fluxes were calculated with the numerical heat-transport code STRIVE. The code was applied in transient mode to overcome previous limitations of steady-state analysis, and allowed for the calculation of model quality. In autumn and winter the mean exchange fluxes reached -90 mm d-1, while in spring and early summer fluxes were -42 mm d-1. Predominantly gaining conditions occurred along the river reach; however, in a few areas the direction of flow changed in time. The river banks showed elevated fluxes up to a factor of 3 compared to the center of the river. Higher fluxes were detected in the upstream section of the reach. Due to the influence of exchange fluxes along the river banks, larger temporal variations were found in the downstream section. The exchange fluxes at the river banks seemed more driven by variable local exchange flows, while the center of the river was dominated by deep and steady regional groundwater flows. These spatial and temporal differences in groundwater/surface-water exchange show the importance of long-term investigations on the driving forces of hyporheic processes across different scales.

  10. Delineation of spatial-temporal patterns of groundwater/surface-water interaction along a river reach (Aa River, Belgium) with transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Tolche, Abebe Debele; Ghysels, Gert; Nossent, Jiri; Schneidewind, Uwe; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2018-05-01

    Among the advances made in analytical and numerical analysis methods to quantify groundwater/surface-water interaction, one methodology that stands out is the use of heat as an environmental tracer. A large data set of river and riverbed temperature profiles from the Aa River in Belgium has been used to examine the spatial-temporal variations of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Exchange fluxes were calculated with the numerical heat-transport code STRIVE. The code was applied in transient mode to overcome previous limitations of steady-state analysis, and allowed for the calculation of model quality. In autumn and winter the mean exchange fluxes reached -90 mm d-1, while in spring and early summer fluxes were -42 mm d-1. Predominantly gaining conditions occurred along the river reach; however, in a few areas the direction of flow changed in time. The river banks showed elevated fluxes up to a factor of 3 compared to the center of the river. Higher fluxes were detected in the upstream section of the reach. Due to the influence of exchange fluxes along the river banks, larger temporal variations were found in the downstream section. The exchange fluxes at the river banks seemed more driven by variable local exchange flows, while the center of the river was dominated by deep and steady regional groundwater flows. These spatial and temporal differences in groundwater/surface-water exchange show the importance of long-term investigations on the driving forces of hyporheic processes across different scales.

  11. Search for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions using dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-04-24

    A search is presented for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV using dijet angular distributions. The search is based on a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Dijet angular distributions are found to be in agreement with the perturbative QCD predictions that include electroweak corrections. Limits on the contact interaction scale from a variety of models at next-to-leading order in QCD corrections are obtained. A benchmark model in which only left-handed quarks participate is excluded up to a scale of 9.0 (11.7) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference at 95% confidence level. Lower limits between 6.0 and 8.4 TeV on the scale of virtual graviton exchange are extracted for the Arkani-Hamed--Dimopoulos--Dvali model of extra spatial dimensions.

  12. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...

  13. Creating the living brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  14. Spatial pattern analysis of cruise ship-humpback whale interactions in and near Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karin; Gende, Scott M; Logsdon, Miles G; Klinger, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interactions between large ships and large whales is important to estimate risks posed to whales by ships. The coastal waters of Alaska are a summer feeding area for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) as well as a prominent destination for large cruise ships. Lethal collisions between cruise ships and humpback whales have occurred throughout Alaska, including in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP). Although the National Park Service (NPS) establishes quotas and operating requirements for cruise ships within GBNP in part to minimize ship-whale collisions, no study has quantified ship-whale interactions in the park or in state waters where ship traffic is unregulated. In 2008 and 2009, an observer was placed on ships during 49 different cruises that included entry into GBNP to record distance and bearing of whales that surfaced within 1 km of the ship's bow. A relative coordinate system was developed in ArcGIS to model the frequency of whale surface events using kernel density. A total of 514 whale surface events were recorded. Although ship-whale interactions were common within GBNP, whales frequently surfaced in front of the bow in waters immediately adjacent to the park (west Icy Strait) where cruise ship traffic is not regulated by the NPS. When ships transited at speeds >13 knots, whales frequently surfaced closer to the ship's midline and ship's bow in contrast to speeds slower than 13 knots. Our findings confirm that ship speed is an effective mitigation measure for protecting whales and should be applied to other areas where ship-whale interactions are common.

  15. Laboratory incubation experiments assessing the factor interactions affecting urine-derived nitrous oxide emissions from spatially and temporally variable upland pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Alice; Loick, Nadine; Marsden, Karina; Chadwick, Dave; Whelan, Mick; Rao Ravella, Sreenivas; Mead, Andrew; Cardenas, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Urine patches deposited to soils by grazing animals represent hot-spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Hargreaves et al., 2015), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) and precursor of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Urine N2O emissions are produced via nitrification of ureolysis-derived ammonium (NH4+) and/or subsequent nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) denitrification (Kool et al., 2006). The dominant process and the N2O fluxes generated depend on interactions between urine characteristics (e.g. nitrogen [N] concentration and volume), soil characteristics (e.g. carbon [C] availability and pH) and preceding and prevailing environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture and temperature; Bergstermann et al., 2011; Butterbach-Bahl et al., 2013; Dijkstra et al., 2013). The spatial and temporal variability of these interactions in grazing systems is potentially large and greatly increases the uncertainty associated with N2O emission estimates from such systems. In particular, the contribution of extensively managed upland agroecosystems, which occupy ca. 5.5 million hectares in the UK and provide the bulk of land for sheep farming (Pollott & Stone, 2004), to UK GHG emissions is poorly defined. Improving understanding of the interactions between the wide range of factors affecting urine-derived N2O production and emission from pasture soils and considering this in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of the grazing environment could therefore be extremely valuable in improving the accuracy of N2O emission estimates from such systems. The factorial laboratory incubation experiments presented have been designed to assess the interactive effects of factors such as urine N concentration, volume and soil moisture affecting soil N2O (and nitric oxide [NO], nitrogen gas [N2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) production and emissions (García-Marco et al., 2014) using the state-of-the-art Denitrification Incubation System (DENIS). This work forms part of a wider project

  16. Stock market dynamics created by interacting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Riad Remita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a stock market model, consisting in a large number of agents, going eventually to infinity, and evaluate the stock price under the influence of opinions of different agents. Next we study the behavior of prices when the market is very nervous; there appear discontinuities (phase transitions which can be interpreted as stock market crashes.

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  20. Investigation of the spatial structure and interactions of the genome at sub-kilobase-pair resolution using T2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger W W; Kockx, Christel E M; Lesnussa, Michael; Kepper, Nick; Zuin, Jessica; Imam, A M Ali; van de Werken, Harmen J G; Wendt, Kerstin S; Knoch, Tobias A; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Grosveld, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) and its derivatives (e.g., 4C, 5C and Hi-C) are used to analyze the 3D organization of genomes. We recently developed targeted chromatin capture (T2C), an inexpensive method for studying the 3D organization of genomes, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Here, we present the protocol for T2C based on capture, describing all experimental steps and bio-informatic tools in full detail. T2C offers high resolution, a large dynamic interaction frequency range and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Its resolution is determined by the resulting fragment size of the chosen restriction enzyme, which can lead to sub-kilobase-pair resolution. T2C's high coverage allows the identification of the interactome of each individual DNA fragment, which makes binning of reads (often used in other methods) basically unnecessary. Notably, T2C requires low sequencing efforts. T2C also allows multiplexing of samples for the direct comparison of multiple samples. It can be used to study topologically associating domains (TADs), determining their position, shape, boundaries, and intra- and inter-domain interactions, as well as the composition of aggregated loops, interactions between nucleosomes, individual transcription factor binding sites, and promoters and enhancers. T2C can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques in ∼7-8 d. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments.

  1. Interaction between age and perceptual similarity in olfactory discrimination learning in F344 rats: relationships with spatial learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Burke, Sara N.; Setlow, Barry; Smith, David W.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits. Taking advantage of rodents’ exceptional olfactory abilities, the present study applied rigorous psychophysical techniques to the evaluation of discrimination learning in young and aged F344 rats. Aging did not influence odor detection thresholds or the ability to discriminate between perceptually distinct odorants. In contrast, aged rats were disproportionately impaired relative to young on problems that required discriminations between perceptually similar olfactory stimuli. Importantly, these disproportionate impairments in discrimination learning did not simply reflect a global learning impairment in aged rats, as they performed other types of difficult discriminations on par with young rats. Among aged rats, discrimination deficits were strongly associated with spatial learning deficits. These findings reveal a new, sensitive behavioral approach for elucidating the neural mechanisms of cognitive decline associated with normal aging. PMID:28259065

  2. Spatial variability in selenium and mercury interactions in a key recreational fish species: Implications for human health and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.J.; Butler, E.C.V.; Macleod, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • THg and Se concentrations in fish varied between estuary regions but all maintained positive Se:Hg ratios. • Regional negative selenium health benefit values (Se HBVs) were evident suggesting increased Hg toxicity risk. • Single all-encompassing Se HBV for any given species may not be appropriate when there is strong site fidelity. • The results highlight the importance of including Se in assessments of seafood safety. -- Abstract: Selenium’s (Se) protective effects against mercury (Hg) toxicity have been demonstrated; however, this is seldom considered in health assessments, where dietary exposure is still evaluated by Hg concentration alone. Se:Hg ratios and selenium health benefit values (Se HBVs) offer a more comprehensive seafood safety model. Here we describe total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations in fish from a Hg-polluted estuary. Spatial variation in THg, MeHg and Se was evident, though all regions maintained Se:Hg ratio values >1. Se HBV varied between regions and in one region mean negative values (−5.17) were evident. This study provides the first evidence that quoting a single all-encompassing Se HBV is not appropriate when species demonstrate strong site fidelity. It highlights the need for research into Se–Hg relationships in environments with established Hg pollution and reinforces the assertion that Se concentration be considered in assessments of human health risk to Hg exposure

  3. Probing spatial properties of electronic excitation in water after interaction with temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Thomas; Sarpe, Cristian; Jelzow, Nikolai [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Lillevang, Lasse H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Götte, Nadine; Zielinski, Bastian [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Balling, Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Senftleben, Arne [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Baumert, Thomas, E-mail: baumert@physik.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Temporally asymmetric shaped femtosecond laser pulses lead to excitation over smaller area and larger depth in water. • Transient optical properties are measured radially resolved by spectral interference in an imaging geometry. • Radially resolved spectral interference shows indications of nonlinear propagation effects at high fluences. - Abstract: In this work, laser excitation of water under ambient conditions is investigated by radially resolved common-path spectral interferometry. Water, as a sample system for dielectric materials, is excited by ultrashort bandwidth-limited and temporally asymmetric shaped femtosecond laser pulses, where the latter start with an intense main pulse followed by a decaying pulse sequence, i.e. a temporal Airy pulse. Spectral interference in an imaging geometry allows measurements of the transient optical properties integrated along the propagation through the sample but radially resolved with respect to the transverse beam profile. Since the optical properties reflect the dynamics of the free-electron plasma, such measurements reveal the spatial characteristics of the laser excitation. We conclude that temporally asymmetric shaped laser pulses are a promising tool for high-precision laser material processing, as they reduce the transverse area of excitation, but increase the excitation inside the material along the beam propagation.

  4. Evaluating spatial interaction of soil property with non-point source pollution at watershed scale: The phosphorus indicator in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Shan, Yushu; Guo, Bobo

    2012-08-15

    To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20-40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial dynamics of NPS phosphorus

  5. Evaluating spatial interaction of soil property with non‐point source pollution at watershed scale: The phosphorus indicator in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Shan, Yushu; Guo, Bobo

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20–40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. -- Highlights: ► Spatial dynamics of NPS phosphorus pollution with soil

  6. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  7. Species turnover drives β-diversity patterns across multiple spatial scales of plant-galling interactions in mountaintop grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcel Serra; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina Alves; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2018-01-01

    This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects. Local richness of galling insects and host plants increased with increasing regional richness of species, suggesting a pattern of unsaturated communities. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into local and beta components shows that local richnesses (α) of species of galling insects and host plants are low relative to regional richness; the beta (β) component incorporates most of the regional richness. The multi-scale analysis of additive partitioning showed similar patterns for galling insects and host plants with the local component (α) incorporated a small part of regional richness. Beta diversity of galling insects and host plants were mainly the result of turnover, with little contribution from nesting. Although the species composition of galling insects and host plant species varied among sample sites, mountains and even mountain ranges, local richness remained relatively low. In this way, the addition of local habitats with different landscapes substantially affects regional richness. Each mountain contributes fundamentally to the composition of regional diversity of galling insects and host plants, and so the design of future conservation strategies should incorporate multiple scales.

  8. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  9. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  10. Body size affects the strength of social interactions and spatial organization of a schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romenskyy, Maksym; Herbert-Read, James E.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2017-04-01

    While a rich variety of self-propelled particle models propose to explain the collective motion of fish and other animals, rigorous statistical comparison between models and data remains a challenge. Plausible models should be flexible enough to capture changes in the collective behaviour of animal groups at their different developmental stages and group sizes. Here, we analyse the statistical properties of schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer) through a combination of experiments and simulations. We make novel use of a Boltzmann inversion method, usually applied in molecular dynamics, to identify the effective potential of the mean force of fish interactions. Specifically, we show that larger fish have a larger repulsion zone, but stronger attraction, resulting in greater alignment in their collective motion. We model the collective dynamics of schools using a self-propelled particle model, modified to include varying particle speed and a local repulsion rule. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the fish schools are reproduced by our model, thereby capturing a number of features of the behaviour and development of schooling fish.

  11. Ferroan Dolomitization by Seawater Interaction with Mafic Igneous Dikes and Carbonate Host Rock at the Latemar Platform, Dolomites, Italy: Numerical Modeling of Spatial, Temporal, and Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blomme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous publications address the petrogenesis of the partially dolomitized Latemar carbonate platform, Italy. A common factor is interpretation of geochemical data in terms of heating via regional igneous activity that provided kinetically favorable conditions for replacement dolomitization. New field, petrographic, XRD, and geochemical data demonstrate a spatial, temporal, and geochemical link between replacement dolomite and local mafic igneous dikes that pervasively intrude the platform. Dikes are dominated by strongly altered plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Significantly, where ferroan dolomite is present, it borders dikes. We hypothesize that seawater interacted with mafic minerals, causing Fe enrichment in the fluid that subsequently participated in dolomitization. This hypothesis was tested numerically through thermodynamic (MELTS, Arxim-GEM and reactive flow (Arxim-LMA simulations. Results confirm that seawater becomes Fe-enriched during interaction with clinopyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite and plagioclase (anorthite-albite-orthoclase solid solutions. Reaction of modified seawater with limestone causes ferroan and nonferroan replacement dolomitization. Dolomite quantities are strongly influenced by temperature. At 40 to 80°C, ferroan dolomite proportions decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that Latemar dolomitization likely occurred at lower temperatures. This relationship between igneous dikes and dolomitization may have general significance due to the widespread association of carbonates with rifting-related igneous environments.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  16. ARCGIS ONLINE UTILIZATION AS MEDIA SUBMISSION OF THE SPATIAL INFORMATION IN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Faruq Hamdani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of technology has encouraged the delivery of information to be more interactive. Technology is the provision of spatial information via ArcGIS Online. ArcGIS Online is a geographic information system based on Web developed by ESRI to use, create, analyze, and share maps. ArcGIS Online can be used to present the spatial data Malang. The results of the analysis in the form of presentation of spatial information Malang in the shape of an interactive map that contains a general overview of Malang, geographical conditions, and social conditions of Malang through a feature story map in ArcGIS Online.

  17. Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Fragnière, Emilie; Costanzo, Floriana; Di Vara, Silvia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps. The spatial response learning system depends on the striatum and creates fixed stimulus-response representations, also known as habits. Indeed, no study assessing WS spatial competence has used tasks which selectively target these two spatial memory systems. Here, we report that individuals with WS exhibit a dissociation in their spatial abilities subserved by these two memory systems. As compared to typically developing (TD) children in the same mental age range, place learning performance was impaired in individuals with WS. In contrast, their spatial response learning performance was facilitated. Our findings in individuals with WS and TD children suggest that place learning and response learning interact competitively to control the behavioral strategies normally used to support human spatial navigation. Our findings further suggest that the neural pathways supporting place learning may be affected by the genetic deletion that characterizes WS, whereas those supporting response learning may be relatively preserved. The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Atomistic simulation study of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a transparent overlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Eaman T.; Shugaev, Maxim; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V., E-mail: lz2n@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4745 (United States); Lin, Zhibin; Hainsey, Robert F. [Electro Scientific Industries, Inc., 13900 NW Science Park Drive, Portland, Oregon 97229 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The distinct characteristics of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a solid transparent overlayer are investigated in a series of atomistic simulations. The simulations are performed with a computational model combining classical molecular dynamics (MD) technique with a continuum description of the laser excitation, electron-phonon equilibration, and electronic heat transfer based on two-temperature model (TTM). Two methods for incorporation of the description of a transparent overlayer into the TTM-MD model are designed and parameterized for Ag-silica system. The material response to the laser energy deposition is studied for a range of laser fluences that, in the absence of the transparent overlayer, covers the regimes of melting and resolidification, photomechanical spallation, and phase explosion of the overheated surface region. In contrast to the irradiation in vacuum, the spatial confinement by the overlayer facilitates generation of sustained high-temperature and high-pressure conditions near the metal-overlayer interface, suppresses the generation of unloading tensile wave, decreases the maximum depth of melting, and prevents the spallation and explosive disintegration of the surface region of the metal target. At high laser fluences, when the laser excitation brings the surface region of the metal target to supercritical conditions, the confinement prevents the expansion and phase decomposition characteristic for the vacuum conditions leading to a gradual cooling of the hot compressed supercritical fluid down to the liquid phase and eventual solidification. The target modification in this case is limited to the generation of crystal defects and the detachment of the metal target from the overlayer.

  19. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  20. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  1. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  12. Food web heterogeneity and succession in created saltmarshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, M C; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Whitcraft, CR; Rismondo, A.; McMillan, P.; Gonzales, J P; Levin, L A

    2015-01-01

    1. Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for reestablishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. 2. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure, with focus on bottom–up driven changes in macroinvertebrate consumer assemblages in the salt marshes of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. We combined quantified estimates of the changing community composition with stable isotope data (13C:12C and 15N:14N) to compare the general trophic structure between created (2–14 years) marshes and reference sites and along topographic elevation gradients within salt marshes. 3. Macrofaunal invertebrate consumers exhibited local, habitat-specific trophic patterns. Stable isotope-based trophic structure changed with increasing marsh age, in particular with regards to mid-elevation (Salicornia) habitats. In young marshes, the mid-elevation consumer signatures resembled those of unvegetated ponds. The mid elevation of older and natural marshes had a more distinct Salicornia-zone food web, occasionally resembling that of the highest (Sarcocornia-dominated) elevation. In summary, this indicates that primary producers and availability of vascular plant detritus structure consumer trophic interactions and the flow of carbon. 4. Functionally different consumers, subsurface-feeding detritivores (Oligochaeta) and surface grazers (Hydrobia sp.), showed distinct but converging trajectories of isotopic change over time, indicating that successional development may be asymmetric between ‘brown’ (detrital) guilds and ‘green’ (grazing) guilds in the food web. 5. Synthesis and applications

  13. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  14. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  15. Creating an effective poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, H M; Arslanian, C

    2000-01-01

    One way to build knowledge in nursing is to share research findings or clinical program outcomes. The dissemination of these findings is often a difficult final step in a project that has taken months or years to complete. One method of sharing findings in a relaxed and informal setting is a poster presentation. This method is an effective form for presenting findings using an interactive approach. The milieu of a poster presentation enables the presenters to interact and dialogue with colleagues. Guidelines for size and format require that the poster is clear and informative. Application of design helps to create visually appealing posters. This article summarizes elements of designing and conducting a poster presentation.

  16. Creating organizational cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...

  17. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  18. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  20. Creating Customer Delight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes that college admissions officers interested in improving service should focus on creating customer delight rather than simply satisfaction, studying the system when things go wrong rather than placing blame, establishing employee well-being as the highest priority of the organization, providing necessary tools and training…

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  2. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  3. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  5. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  6. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops lessons about how and why the founders and ventures involved in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) manage the process of venture creation. The meta-analysis of the 86 case studies is based upon as conceptual model (from a systemic literature review), linked to illustra...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  7. Create Your State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  8. Creating a Third Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author laments higher education's lack of concern towards the development of teaching in the public schools over the last half of the 20th century. Most of academe's work on the topic of teacher training has been done at the branches of state universities that needed to make money and create a niche. The author observes that…

  9. CLOUD-BASED PLATFORM FOR CREATING AND SHARING WEB MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Gatera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of cloud computing is one the most important thing happening in information technology today. While many things are moving into the cloud, this trend has also reached the Geographic Information System (GIS world. For the users of GIS technology, the cloud opens new possibilities for sharing web maps, applications and spatial data. The goal of this presentation/demo is to demonstrate ArcGIS Online which is a cloud-based collaborative platform that allows to easily and quickly create interactive web maps that you can share with anyone. With ready-to-use content, apps, and templates you can produce web maps right away. And no matter what you use - desktops, browsers, smartphones, or tablets - you always have access to your content.

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can practice with this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready ...

  11. Creating spatial awareness in unmanned ground robots using SLAM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -SLAM assumes that at each observation, the robot observes atleast two landmarks f1 and .... eight further divisions of its volume, it allows multi-resolution planning. .... The graphical model perspective for probabilistic inference is used. In the ...

  12. Creating spatial awareness in unmanned ground robots using SLAM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensor data to get information of the environment, to formulate its plan to achieve the given goals, to plan a path for movement to a designated location, to allow the robot to update itself con- tinuously to incorporate observed changes in its plans, etc. Among these activities, autonomous movement is very important for mobile ...

  13. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  14. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  15. CREATING TEACHING AND LEARNING OBJECTS THROUGH INTERACTIVE DIGITAL BLACKBOARD (IDB CREACIÓN DE OBJETOS DE ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE MEDIANTE EL USO DIDÁCTICO DE LA PIZARRA DIGITAL INTERACTIVA (PDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Dorado Perea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The virtual Laboratory of Educative Technology is a research and development project which has been funded by the 2009 research grant at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona UAB, (Spain. Its aim is to improve the IT skills of both lecturers and students, in the use of technological tools, like the IDB, with the purpose of triggering the processes of information communication in the classroom. Ultimately it focuses in an improvement in the processes of education and learning.This article describes the experience carried out in the Research Group of Methodologies in Education and Multimedia (MEM at the Education Faculty at UAB. Through interactive and collaborative communication in Internet, it has been selecting, designing and creating materials and situations.The incorporation of this simple and reasonable technology, in its diverse modalities, as well as being user-friendly, allows the participant the double perspective of action and reflection. It also allows for an analysis and evaluation of the generation process, obtention of results, encouraging therefore dynamic collaboration and the generation knowledge.El Laboratorio virtual de Tecnología Educativa es un proyecto de innovación e investigación enmarcado en el plan de ayudas 2009 de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, que tiene por finalidad mejorar las competencias digitales del profesorado y alumnado, en el uso de herramientas tecnológicas, como ahora la PDI, con el fin de optimizar los procesos de transmisión de información y comunicación en el aula, y en definitiva repercutir en mejores logros en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje.Este artículo incursiona en la experiencia llevada a cabo desde el grupo de investigación de Metodologías en Educación y Multimedia (MEM, por diversos profesores y alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la UAB, seleccionando, diseñando y creando contenidos y dinámicas educativas transmisivas, interactivas y colaborativas, a

  16. Spatial Complementarity and the Coexistence of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P.; Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric — ecological pressure — we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each

  17. Towards democracy in spatial planning through spatial information built by communities: The investigation of spatial information built by citizens from participatory mapping to volunteered geographic information in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudono, Adipandang

    2017-06-01

    Recently, crowd-sourced information is used to produce and improve collective knowledge and community capacity building. Triggered by broadening and expanding access to the Internet and cellular telephones, the utilisation of crowd-sourcing for policy advocacy, e-government and e-participation has increased globally [1]. Crowd-sourced information can conceivably support government’s or general social initiatives to inform, counsel, and cooperate, by engaging subjects and empowering decentralisation and democratization [2]. Crowd-sourcing has turned into a major technique for interactive mapping initiatives by urban or rural community because of its capability to incorporate a wide range of data. Continuously accumulated spatial data can be sorted, layered, and envisioned in ways that even beginners can comprehend with ease. Interactive spatial visualization has the possibility to be a useful democratic planning tool to empower citizens participating in spatial data provision and sharing in government programmes. Since the global emergence of World Wide Web (WWW) technology, the interaction between information providers and users has increased. Local communities are able to produce and share spatial data to produce web interfaces with territorial information in mapping application programming interfaces (APIs) public, such as Google maps, OSM and Wikimapia [3][4][5]. In terms of the democratic spatial planning action, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is considered an effective voluntary method of helping people feel comfortable with the technology and other co-participants in order to shape coalitions of local knowledge. This paper has aim to investigate ‘How is spatial data created by citizens used in Indonesia?’ by discussing the characteristics of spatial data usage by citizens to support spatial policy formulation, starting with the history of participatory mapping to current VGI development in Indonesia.

  18. High Resolution Mesoscale Weather Data Improvement to Spatial Effects for Dose-Rate Contour Plot Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    radiation with diurnal cycle and interaction with clouds, shallow convection, an interactive surface hydrology , and horizontal and vertical diffusion...file (New Surface.txt) which was created ! by saving an Excel File as a tab- delimited text file. The data for this file comes from Google ! Earth, and...Mississippi River Basin to the Spatial Distribution of Initial Soil Moisture,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, NO. D22. (31 OCT 2002) 15

  19. Creating a practice website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-26

    A website is a window to the outside world. For a dental practice, it may be the first point of contact for a prospective new patient and will therefore provide them with their 'first impression'; this may be days or weeks before actually visiting the practice. This section considers the different ways of creating a dental practice website and lists some of the main dental website design companies. It also describes what factors make a successful website and offers advice on how to ensure that it complies with current regulations and recommendations.

  20. Interacting with molecular structures : user performance versus system complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van R.; Martens, J.B.; Kok, A.J.F.; van Tienen, M.H.A.; Blach, R.; Kjems, E.

    2005-01-01

    Effective interaction in a virtual environment requires that the user can adequately judge the spatial relationships between the objects in a 3D scene. In order to accomplish adequate depth perception, existing virtual environments create useful perceptual cues through stereoscopy, motion parallax

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? ... non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no ... You can practice with this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations ...

  2. Create a Classroom Blog!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, Eric; Horejsi, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Science education blogs can serve as powerful digital lab notebooks that contain text, images, and videos. Each blog entry documents a moment in time, but becomes interactive with the addition of readers' comments. Blogs can provide a realistic experience of the peer-review process and generate evolving descriptions of observations through time.…

  3. Creating corporate advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  4. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  5. Creating Space and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Refslund Christensen, Dorthe

    referred to through accounts of ‘how death occurred’; second, a present time constituted by emotional and social stress and, thirdly, a wishful time or subjunctive mode articulating relational potentialities of these children and inventing memories with them (“I wish you would have lived to….”). We analyze......This paper explores relations between ritualized spatiality and the conceptions of time reflected in memorial websites such as the Danish site Mindet.dk, a narrowly framed, socially protective online community in which individuals can perform their grief through design of individual entries...... (‘memories’) for their deceased loved ones and get personal, social support in their mourning processes through communication with other mourners, through mutual appreciation of each other’s postings and through emotional labor reflected on the individual sites. The main focus in this paper is how online...

  6. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.

  7. Creating Life in an Urban Space

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Kirsten I.

    1999-01-01

    Creating Life in an Urban Space Kirsten Fredrickson Abstract Towns contain spaces defined by human interaction with their surroundings. In any town, certain places seem inviting while others seem cold and unfriendly. This is the result of subtle design decisions that directly effect the character of a place. This investigation focuses on the interaction of architecture in our daily lives and how it affects us in ways that we often overlook. The life of a town is in its rela...

  8. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  9. Co-Creating Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    We are now in a new age of stakeholder engagement. Thanks to the World Wide Web, social media, and advances in mobile and interactive communications and information technologies, networked individuals around the globe are no longer passive and docile recipients of dispensed instructions and development assistance. They are active participants and collaborators in the value creation process, and cocreators of solutions with a wide range of private-public-social enterprises. Thanks to the Wo...

  10. Creating With Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  11. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  12. Spatial mathematics theory and practice through mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Arlinghaus, Sandra Lach

    2013-01-01

    In terms of statistics, GIS offers many connections. With GIS, data are gathered, displayed, summarized, examined, and interpreted to discover patterns. Spatial Mathematics: Theory and Practice through Mapping uses GIS as a platform to teach mathematical concepts and skills through visualization of numbers. It examines theory and practice from disparate academic disciplines such as geography, mathematics, physics, and general social science. This approach allows students to grapple with biodiversity, crime, natural hazards, climate, energy, water, and other relevant real-world issues of the twenty-first century. Includes QR Codes Linked to Animated Maps, a Mapping Activity Site, or to an Interactive Webpage, Creating an Interactive Resource That Stays Relevant The book integrates competing philosophical views of the world: synthesis and analysis. These two approaches yield different results and employ different tools. This book considers both approaches to looking at real-world issues that have mathematics as...

  13. Creating an outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerge, J B

    2000-01-01

    Four constructs used to build a framework for outcomes management for a large midwestern tertiary hospital are described in this article. A system framework outlining a model of clinical integration and population management based in Steven Shortell's work is discussed. This framework includes key definitions of high-risk patients, target groups, populations and community. Roles for each level of population management and how they were implemented in the health care system are described. A point of service framework centered on seven dimensions of care is the next construct applied on each nursing unit. The third construct outlines the framework for role development. Three roles for nursing were created to implement strategies for target groups that are strategic disease categories; two of those roles are described in depth. The philosophy of nursing practice is centered on caring and existential advocacy. The final construct is the modification of the Dartmouth model as a common framework for outcomes. System applications of the scorecard and lessons learned in the 2-year process of implementation are shared

  14. Creating a disability mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S E

    1992-01-01

    People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.

  15. Considerations of How to Study Learning Processes when Students use GIS as an Instrument for Developing Spatial Thinking Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2012-01-01

    be studied. We empirically analyse students’ learning processes and the influences of teaching practice in an introductory course in GIS. We show that students have different strategies for creating their personal instrument for spatial thinking and how teaching interacts with the students’ learning...

  16. Spatially Referenced Educational Achievement Data Exploration: A Web-Based Interactive System Integration of GIS, PHP, and MySQL Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Wang, Kening; Mckenzie, Sarah; Anderson, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Effective exploration of spatially referenced educational achievement data can help educational researchers and policy analysts speed up gaining valuable insight into datasets. This article illustrates a demo system developed in the National Office for Research on Measurement and Evaluation Systems (NORMES) for supporting Web-based interactive…

  17. Spatial Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Krogh, Peter; Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational artifacts and interfaces. It does so by identifying overlapping ideals and characteristics in the interaction design concepts of Collective Interaction and Kinesthetic Empathy Interaction with schools of thought in architecture...

  18. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  19. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  20. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  1. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  2. Spatially Resolved Carbon Isotope and Elemental Analyses of the Root-Rhizosphere-Soil System to Understand Below-ground Nutrient Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, E. H.; Ilhardt, P.; Tucker, A. E.; Huggett, N. L.; Rosnow, J. J.; Krogstad, E. J.; Moran, J.

    2017-12-01

    The intimate relationships between plant roots, rhizosphere, and soil are fostered by the release of organic compounds from the plant (through various forms of rhizodeposition) into soil and the simultaneous harvesting and delivery of inorganic nutrients from the soil to the plant. This project's main goal is to better understand the spatial controls on bi-directional nutrient exchange through the rhizosphere and how they impact overall plant health and productivity. Here, we present methods being developed to 1) spatially track the release and migration of plant-derived organics into the rhizosphere and soil and 2) map the local inorganic geochemical microenvironments within and surrounding the rhizosphere. Our studies focused on switchgrass microcosms containing soil from field plots at the Kellogg Biological Station (Hickory Corners, Michigan), which have been cropped with switchgrass for nearly a decade. We used a 13CO2 tracer to label our samples for both one and two diel cycles and tracked subsequent movement of labeled organic carbon using spatially specific δ13C analysis (with 50 µm resolution). The laser ablation-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA-IRMS) approach allowed us to map the extent of 13C-label migration into roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding soil. Preliminary results show the expected decrease of organic exudates with distance from a root and that finer roots (<0.1 mm) incorporated more 13C-label than thicker roots, which likely correlates to specific root growth rates. We are adapting both laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to spatially map inorganic nutrient content in the exact same samples used for LA-IRMS analysis. Both of these methods provide rapid surface mapping of a wide range of elements (with high dynamic range) at 150 μm spatial resolution. Preliminary results show that, based on elemental content, we can distinguish between roots, rhizosphere

  3. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000947.htm Creating a family health history To use the sharing ... Many health problems tend to run in families. Creating a family history can help you and your ...

  4. Creating dynamic UI with Android fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced tutorial that guides you through everything you need to know about dynamic UI design for Android devices.This book is for developers with a basic understanding of Android programming who would like to improve the appearance and usability of their applications. Whether you're looking to create a more interactive user experience, create more dynamically adaptive UIs, provide better support for tablets and smartphones in a single app, reduce the complexity of managing your app UIs, or you are just trying to expand your UI design philosophy, then this book is for you.

  5. Creating e-learning games with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Horachek, David

    2014-01-01

    Unity is a fully integrated development engine providing the required functionality to create games and interactive 3D content, while reducing the time, effort, and cost of developing the content. Nowadays, many people have started to use Unity in an eLearning setting as it allows them to create real-world scenarios, or models, for training purposes. With Unity, one can develop video games that are not only fun, but are also effective teaching and learning tools. When properly designed, an engaging game is an ideal platform for the presentation, testing, and application of learning objectives.

  6. Creating library tutorials for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Heidi

    2010-04-01

    This article describes one librarian's experiences with creating, promoting, and assessing online library tutorials. Tutorials were designed to provide on-demand and accessible library instruction to nursing students at Michigan State University. Topics for tutorials were chosen based on the librarian's liaison experiences and suggestions from nursing faculty. The tutorials were created using Camtasia and required the application of several tools and techniques. Tutorials were promoted through Web pages, the ANGEL course management system, blog posts, librarian interactions, e-mails, and more. In order to assess the tutorials' perceived effectiveness, feedback was gathered using a short survey. Future plans for the nursing tutorials project are also discussed.

  7. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Wu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    ContextInteractions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs.ObjectivesWe used the mechanistic ecosystem-fire process model FireBGCv2 to model interactions of wildland fire, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) under current and future climates, across three diverse study areas.MethodsWe assessed changes in tree basal area as a measure of landscape response over a 300-year simulation period for the Crown of the Continent in north-central Montana, East Fork of the Bitterroot River in western Montana, and Yellowstone Central Plateau in western Wyoming, USA.ResultsInteracting disturbances reduced overall basal area via increased tree mortality of host species. Wildfire decreased basal area more than beetles or rust, and disturbance interactions modeled under future climate significantly altered landscape basal area as compared with no-disturbance and current climate scenarios. Responses varied among landscapes depending on species composition, sensitivity to fire, and pathogen and beetle suitability and susceptibility.ConclusionsUnderstanding disturbance interactions is critical for managing landscapes because forest responses to wildfires, pathogens, and beetle attacks may offset or exacerbate climate influences, with consequences for wildlife, carbon, and biodiversity.

  8. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) coupled with reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokogawa, D., E-mail: d.yokogawa@chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-09-07

    Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced.

  9. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  10. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  11. Analysis of shape and spatial interaction of synaptic vesicles using data from focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Sporring, Jon

    2015-01-01

    deviations from spherical shape and systematic trends in their orientation. We studied three-dimensional representations of synapses obtained by manual annotation of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) images of male mouse brain. The configurations of synaptic vesicles were regarded...... in excitatory synapses appeared to be of oblate ellipsoid shape and in inhibitory synapses appeared to be of cigar ellipsoid shape, and followed a systematic pattern regarding their orientation towards the active zone. Moreover, there was strong evidence of spatial alignment in the orientations of pairs...

  12. Spatially variable stage-driven groundwater-surface water interaction inferred from time-frequency analysis of distributed temperature sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez; Johnson, Carole D.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater-surface water exchange is essential for improving understanding of contaminant transport between aquifers and rivers. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FODTS) provides rich spatiotemporal datasets for quantitative and qualitative analysis of groundwater-surface water exchange. We demonstrate how time-frequency analysis of FODTS and synchronous river stage time series from the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, Washington, provides spatial information on the strength of stage-driven exchange of uranium contaminated groundwater in response to subsurface heterogeneity. Although used in previous studies, the stage-temperature correlation coefficient proved an unreliable indicator of the stage-driven forcing on groundwater discharge in the presence of other factors influencing river water temperature. In contrast, S-transform analysis of the stage and FODTS data definitively identifies the spatial distribution of discharge zones and provided information on the dominant forcing periods (≥2 d) of the complex dam operations driving stage fluctuations and hence groundwater-surface water exchange at the 300-Area.

  13. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Creating the next generation control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new 1980's style support package for future accelerator control systems is proposed. It provides a way to create accelerator applications software without traditional programming. Visual Interactive Applications (VIA) is designed to meet the needs of expanded accelerator complexes in a more cost effective way than past experience with procedural languages by using technology from the personal computer and artificial intelligence communities. 4 refs

  15. The spatial glaciological data infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Khromova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial and rapid environmental changes require developing methods which could be able to manage huge information flows, to optimize processes of the data acquisition, storage, analysis, and exchange. Such facilities can be provided by the newly developed GIS technologies. Digital data bases are used as the key component of the GIS methods. We present the system of glaciological data management, developed in the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences (IGRAS. Digital Atlas «Snow and Ice on the Earth», glacier inventories and digital library are the basic structures making possible objective presentation of the glaciological knowledge and data. The system provides the data integration, access to the data base, and makes possible using the GIS techniques for analysis. Data integration technologies are designed to form the united information space of subject areas of the spatial data. The objects of integration in our study are the information resources of glaciology, accumulated in a distributed system of data on the IGRAS web servers and geoportals in forms of data and metadata bases, structured (in a particular format data files, object data files (plain text, documents, images, etc., and electronic atlases. The best option for formation of a large-scale distributed environment, integration of many information resources of glaciology is to provide the so-called interoperability of data. This refers to compliance with certain rules or usage of additional software tools that allows interaction between various spatial data. These are standards to which the integrated information resources of glaciology should satisfy. The result of integration of the glaciological data technology application is the series of software and technology solutions. The main result of this work is creation of geoportals «Electronic Earth» (www.webgeo.ru, «The Nature and Resources of the Russian North» (www.north.webgeo.ru, «IPY-IGRAS» (www

  16. Effect of temperature extremes on the spatial dynamics of predator–prey interactions: a case study with dragonfly nymphs and newt larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, January (2014), s. 12-16 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Climate change * Dragonfly * Heat waves * Newt * Predator–prey interaction * Thermal stress * Thermal adaptation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2014

  17. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Klaus J. Puettmann; J. Renée Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Summary1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment to better understand options for managing forests under climate change. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (δ...

  18. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  19. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, climate considerations have received increasing attention from urban designers and land-use planners. Because of legal binding requirements and/or a growing awareness regarding climate change, scholars and practitioners have already started to think about urban designs and land-use patterns that may contribute to face the climate change challenge. (e.g. Bulkeley, 2006; Shaw et al., 2007; Davoudi et al., 2009) The thorough analysis of spatial planning documents - e.g. SCoT (Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale) adopted in the Île-de-France Region (i.e. Paris region) - we have made and will report on has revealed the two main ways through which climate change action is thought about and for which measures are encouraged at the territorial level: 1. via mitigation strategy, i.e. solutions to either limit atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions or to capture them (e.g. urban structures that aim at limiting transportation-related emissions by promoting compact settlements, bioclimatic principles in urban and architectural designs that aim at reducing energetic consumption). Such solutions will in fine affect the global level of CO2 in the atmosphere, and thereby contribute to limit global warming. Local/regional effects may however not be felt by citizens and decision makers as they depend on the magnitude of the changes at the global scale; 2. via adaptation strategy, i.e. solutions to cope with adverse local/regional consequences of climate change. The global climate in this case is seen as a driver of local changes. Actions will be undertaken to moderate negative impacts of global climate change, potentially at costs, by reducing the vulnerability of local human communities and biological ecosystems on the concerned area (e.g. flood prevention systems, countermeasures to urban heat islands). We can wonder whether this traditional way of approaching the climate change action, based on a double mitigation-adaptation strategy, does not restrain the

  20. An Interactive Tool for Animating Biology, and Its Use in Spatial and Temporal Modeling of a Cancerous Tumor and Its Microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naamah Bloch

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize the ongoing events of a computational model of biology is critical, both in order to see the dynamics of the biological system in action and to enable interaction with the model from which one can observe the resulting behavior. To this end, we have built a new interactive animation tool, SimuLife, for visualizing reactive models of cellular biology. SimuLife is web-based, and is freely accessible at http://simulife.weizmann.ac.il/. We have used SimuLife to animate a model that describes the development of a cancerous tumor, based on the individual components of the system and its environment. This has helped in understanding the dynamics of the tumor and its surrounding blood vessels, and in verifying the behavior, fine-tuning the model accordingly, and learning in which way different factors affect the tumor.

  1. If you pick up the children, I'll do the groceries: spatial differences in between-partner interactions in out-of-home household activities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanen, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have been conducted about the allocation of household duties within households, little is known about the impact of land use and accessibility on the distribution of out-of- home household tasks between spouses and about men's participation in such activities. This paper addresses this impact, while controlling for the impact of household structure, life cycle, employment status and hours, access to transport systems, and interactions among activities in persons' activity s...

  2. Creating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark; Laursen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches an...

  3. Uncertainty in spatial planning proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is distinctive of spatial planning as it arises from the necessity to co-ordinate the various interests within the area, from the urgency of adopting spatial planning decisions, the complexity of the environment, physical space and society, addressing the uncertainty of the future and from the uncertainty of actually making the right decision. Response to uncertainty is a series of measures that mitigate the effects of uncertainty itself. These measures are based on two fundamental principles – standardization and optimization. The measures are related to knowledge enhancement and spatial planning comprehension, in the legal regulation of changes, in the existence of spatial planning as a means of different interests co-ordination, in the active planning and the constructive resolution of current spatial problems, in the integration of spatial planning and the environmental protection process, in the implementation of the analysis as the foundation of spatial planners activities, in the methods of thinking outside the parameters, in forming clear spatial concepts and in creating a transparent management spatial system and also in the enforcement the participatory processes.

  4. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  5. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  6. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  7. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  8. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  9. Examples of geodiversity - biodiversity interactions in the concise guide Inspiration Treasure House Earth, a tool for spatial planning with geodiversity and geoheritage at community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van der Graaff, Evert; de Groof, Arthur; Doornbos, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    SIKB is a Dutch network organisation, set up to guarantee a minimum quality of soil management. The network encompasses both the private and the public sector. Their activities include the development of decision-making procedures and rendering of services for soil remediation and soil handling, i.a. through standardisation and certification. Each year SIKB produces concise hand-outs to assist and improve soil management. In 2000 the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture then responsible for earth heritage management, commissioned the Stichting Geomorfologie & Landschap to find out how geoheritage and geodiversity were cared for at the community level. The conclusion was that concern for geomorphology, geology, soil and their importance for landscape management and spatial planning was minimal in most Dutch communities. They were only mentioned in the descriptive paragraphs of the local community plan, often very short and using complex terminology not to be understood by any community member. Only in few communities it had resulted in geoheritage protection or attention for preserving the geodiversity of the area. Therefore, in 2007, SIKB and Geoheritage NL produced a hand-out to improve attention for geoheritage and geodiversity at the level of the local community. They produced a concise guide to get geoheritage and geodiversity within the different levels of the spatial plan of the local communities, then called bestemmingsplan now named structuurplan. This hand-out was a success: it had four re-prints and people are still interested in receiving a copy, although it is out of print. Yet, those working with it explained in a special meeting to evaluate the hand-out that it was too thorough a product to inspire decision makers and their colleagues in the local community. Apart from this, SIKB preferred not to make a reprint, but to come with a new product to revive attention. In 2013 we started to develop a hand-out which focusses on examples clarifying why attention for

  10. Assimilation of Polder aerosol optical thickness into LMD2-Inca model in order to study aerosol-climate interactions; Etude des interactions entre aerosols et climat: assimilation des observations spatiales de Polder dans LMDz-Inca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, S.

    2004-12-15

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and indirect (impacts on cloud microphysics) effects. The anthropogenic perturbation due to aerosol emissions is of the same order of magnitude than the one due to greenhouse gases, but less well known. To improve our knowledge, we need to better know aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Indeed, aerosol modeling still suffers from large uncertainties in sources and transport, while satellite observations are incomplete (no detection in the presence of clouds, no information on the vertical distribution or on the chemical nature). Moreover, field campaigns are localized in space and time. This study aims to reduce uncertainties in aerosol distributions, developing assimilation of satellite data into a chemical transport model. The basic idea is to combine information obtained from spatial observation (optical thickness) and modeling studies (aerosol types, vertical distribution). In this study, we assimilate data from the POLDER space-borne instrument into the LMDz-INCA model. The results show the advantage of merging information from different sources. In many regions, the method reduces uncertainties on aerosol distribution (reduction of RMS error). An application of the method to the study of aerosol impact on cloud microphysics is shown. (author)

  11. Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P

    2007-01-01

    Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes

  12. The interactive microbial ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Bidle, K.D.; Pedrós-Alió, C.; Legrand, C.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms inhabit diverse environments and interact over different spatial and temporal scales. To fully understand how these interactions shape genome structures, cellular responses, lifestyles, community ecology and biogeochemical cycles, integration of diverse approaches and data is

  13. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  14. Semantic Interaction for Sensemaking: Inferring Analytical Reasoning for Model Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endert, A; Fiaux, P; North, C

    2012-12-01

    Visual analytic tools aim to support the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. Their success often depends on the ability to leverage capabilities of mathematical models, visualization, and human intuition through flexible, usable, and expressive interactions. Spatially clustering data is one effective metaphor for users to explore similarity and relationships between information, adjusting the weighting of dimensions or characteristics of the dataset to observe the change in the spatial layout. Semantic interaction is an approach to user interaction in such spatializations that couples these parametric modifications of the clustering model with users' analytic operations on the data (e.g., direct document movement in the spatialization, highlighting text, search, etc.). In this paper, we present results of a user study exploring the ability of semantic interaction in a visual analytic prototype, ForceSPIRE, to support sensemaking. We found that semantic interaction captures the analytical reasoning of the user through keyword weighting, and aids the user in co-creating a spatialization based on the user's reasoning and intuition.

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G

    2009-01-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  17. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  18. Connecting mathematics learning through spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-03-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.

  19. PHREEQC, Modeling of Geochemical Reactions, Calculation of pH, Redox Potential. PHREEQCI, Windows Interactive Version of PHREEQC. PHRQCGRF, code to create graphs from the data generated by PHREEQC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhust, David L.

    2005-01-01

    , solutions, phases, and lengths of character strings. A new equation solver that optimizes a set of equalities subject to both equality and inequality constraints is used to determine the thermodynamically stable set of phases in equilibrium with a solution. A more complete Newton-Raphson formulation, master-species switching, and scaling of the algebraic equations reduce the number of failures of the numerical method in PHREEQC relative to PHREEQE. PHRQCGRF is a separate code available for Windows 95 and MS-DOS that can be used to create a variety of graphs from the data generated by PHREEQC. The output data from PHREEQC may be plotted against distance, time, or other data listed in the PHREEQC selected output file, and a series of data versus distance graphs can be animated. PHRQCGRF can also extract the data of interest from the PHREEQC transport results and write the data sets to an external file. PHRQCGRF helps visualize PHREEQC transport output files generated by using the - SELECTED O UTPUT - keyword in a PHREEQC simulation. PHREEQC does not perform any geochemical modeling, but uses these files as the starting point for its various features. Once a file is specified, several options allow the user to choose exactly how to extract the data of interest. Data may be plotted against distance at a particular time, against time at a particular distance, against other data at a particular time or distance, or several data versus distance plots can be animated within a specified time interval. Additionally, results of PHREEQC transport simulations can be compared to measured field data, or PHREEQC simulations can be compared to other PHREEQC simulations. As an alternative to graphing, the extracted data sets may be written to an external file. Except for the extracting feature, the result of PHRQCGRF s data processing is the presentation of a graph reflecting the user s choices. PHRQCGRF also offers flexibility in how an extracted data set is displayed. Different features of

  20. Creating Interdisciplinarity within Monodisciplinary Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine

    discrepancies in the use of the term interdisciplinarity, which have repercussions for the practices and incentives of creating interdisciplinary education, research and collaboration. Overall, the thesis shows that interdisciplinary teaching and learning practices have to engage in a continuous balancing...

  1. Application of Google Maps API service for creating web map of information retrieved from CORINE land cover databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilibarda Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Google Maps API application based on Ajax technology as standard web service; facilitate users with publication interactive web maps, thus opening new possibilities in relation to the classical analogue maps. CORINE land cover databases are recognized as the fundamental reference data sets for numerious spatial analysis. The theoretical and applicable aspects of Google Maps API cartographic service are considered on the case of creating web map of change in urban areas in Belgrade and surround from 2000. to 2006. year, obtained from CORINE databases.

  2. Positive effects of creating mandalas

    OpenAIRE

    Toroš, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present master’s thesis is to examine the psychological effects of creating mandalas and to give recommendations for a better use of the mandalas in the practice of art assistance in order to help in this way others and oneself. Mandalas are sacred symbols, used in Hinduism and Buddhist religion practices as tools for meditation and concentration. They are geometrical representations of the creation of the cosmos and schemas of all that was created. Jung sat the foundations...

  3. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia properties of nanoparticles inside lysosomes using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations: Influence of key parameters and dipolar interactions, and evidence for strong spatial variation of heating power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, R. P.; Carrey, J.; Respaud, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the influence of dipolar interactions in magnetic hyperthermia experiments is of crucial importance for fine optimization of nanoparticle (NP) heating power. In this study we use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate hysteresis loops that correctly account for both time and temperature. This algorithm is shown to correctly reproduce the high-frequency hysteresis loop of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic NPs without any ad hoc or artificial parameters. The algorithm is easily parallelizable with a good speed-up behavior, which considerably decreases the calculation time on several processors and enables the study of assemblies of several thousands of NPs. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic NPs dispersed inside spherical lysosomes is studied as a function of several key parameters: volume concentration, applied magnetic field, lysosome size, NP diameter, and anisotropy. The influence of these parameters is illustrated and comprehensively explained. In summary, magnetic interactions increase the coercive field, saturation field, and hysteresis area of major loops. However, for small amplitude magnetic fields such as those used in magnetic hyperthermia, the heating power as a function of concentration can increase, decrease, or display a bell shape, depending on the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the coercive/saturation fields of the NPs. The hysteresis area is found to be well correlated with the parallel or antiparallel nature of the dipolar field acting on each particle. The heating power of a given NP is strongly influenced by a local concentration involving approximately 20 neighbors. Because this local concentration strongly decreases upon approaching the surface, the heating power increases or decreases in the vicinity of the lysosome membrane. The amplitude of variation reaches more than one order of magnitude in certain conditions. This transition occurs on a thickness corresponding to approximately

  5. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  6. Connecting Mathematics Learning through Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…

  7. Spatial housing economics: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meen, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the Virtual Special Issue surveys the development of spatial housing economics from its roots in neo-classical theory, through more recent developments in social interactions modelling, and touching on the role of institutions, path dependence and economic history. The survey also points to some of the more promising future directions for the subject that are beginning to appear in the literature. The survey covers elements hedonic models, spatial econometrics, neighbourh...

  8. Spatial Variability of Metals in Surface Water and Sediment in the Langat River and Geochemical Factors That Influence Their Water-Sediment Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ying Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the controlling factors that influence the metals’ behavior water-sediment interaction facies and distribution of elemental content (75As, 111Cd, 59Co, 52Cr, 60Ni, and 208Pb in water and sediment samples in order to assess the metal pollution status in the Langat River. A total of 90 water and sediment samples were collected simultaneously in triplicate at 30 sampling stations. Selected metals were analyzed using ICP-MS, and the metals’ concentration varied among stations. Metal concentrations of water ranged between 0.08–24.71 μg/L for As, <0.01–0.53 μg/L for Cd, 0.06–6.22 μg/L for Co, 0.32–4.67 μg/L for Cr, 0.80–24.72 μg/L for Ni, and <0.005–6.99 μg/L for Pb. Meanwhile, for sediment, it ranged between 4.47–30.04 mg/kg for As, 0.02–0.18 mg/kg for Cd, 0.87–4.66 mg/kg for Co, 4.31–29.04 mg/kg for Cr, 2.33–8.25 mg/kg for Ni and 5.57–55.71 mg/kg for Pb. The average concentration of studied metals in the water was lower than the Malaysian National Standard for Drinking Water Quality proposed by the Ministry of Health. The average concentration for As in sediment was exceeding ISQG standards as proposed by the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines. Statistical analyses revealed that certain metals (As, Co, Ni, and Pb were generally influenced by pH and conductivity. These results are important when making crucial decisions in determining potential hazardous levels of these metals toward humans.

  9. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  10. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 2. Accelerated method for measuring and predicting stress tolerance. Can we unravel the mysteries of the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Nishio, John N

    2010-09-01

    A simple method using the O(2) electrode that allows examination of the response of respiration and photosynthesis in leaf slices or algae to anoxia and high light under different temperatures useful for the examination of the interactions among photosynthesis, photorespiration, and respiration is described. The method provides a quantifiable assessment of stress tolerance that also permits us to examine fundamental biochemically and genetically related responses involved in stress tolerance and the cooperation among organelles. Additionally, we demonstrated a role for compounds, such as NO(-)(3) and oxaloacetate, as protective agents against photoinhibition, and we examined the role of dark adaptation in the activation of photosynthesis and NO(-)(3)-dependent O(2) oxygen evolution. A physiological and ecological role of a dark period (night) in stress tolerance is presented. Utilizing the method to follow changes in such metabolic activities as protein synthesis, protein conformation states, enzymes activity, carbon metabolism, and gene expression at different points during the treatments will be educational.

  11. On Creating and Sustaining Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses an initiative aimed at creating direct and long lasting influence on the use and development of telemedicine and telehealth by healthcare professionals, patients and citizens. The initiative draws on ideas, insights, and lessons learned from Participatory Design...... (PD) as well as from innovation theory and software ecosystems. Last, but not least, the ongoing debate on public finances/economy versus tax evasion by major private companies has been an important element in shaping the vision and creating support for the initiative. This vision is about democratic...

  12. Journaling: creating space for "I".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jennell P

    2010-01-01

    As nurses engaged in a caring profession, it is critical that we learn not only to care for others but also to care for ourselves. To care effectively for ourselves, we must create the space and time in which to do this. Journaling is one tool that scholars offer as a way to create this space. Although there is no clear consensus about the best techniques for journaling, there is evidence that journaling, as a reflective, meditative activity, can promote creativity, self-awareness, and personal development.

  13. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building......This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...

  14. Creating Interactive Teaching Methods for ASTRO 101 That Really Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Adams, J. P.; Bailey, J. M.; Huggins, D.; Jones, L. V.; Slater, T. F.

    2004-05-01

    Acknowledging that lecture-based teaching methods are insufficient at promoting significant conceptual gains for students in the introductory astronomy course for non-science majors (ASTRO 101) is only the first step. But then, what can you do besides lecture? The Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona has been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of learner-centered instructional materials that put students in an active role in the classroom. With the support of an NSF CCLI (9952232) and NSF Geosciences Education (9907755) awards, we have designed and field-tested a set of innovative instructional materials called Lecture Tutorials. These Lecture Tutorial activities are intended for use with collaborative student learning groups and are designed specifically to be easily integrated into existing conventional lecture-based courses. As such, these instructional materials directly address the needs of heavily loaded teaching faculty in that they offer effective, learner-centered, classroom-ready activities that do not require any outside equipment/staffing or a drastic course revision for implementation. Each 15-minute Lecture-Tutorial poses a carefully crafted sequence of conceptually challenging, Socratic-dialogue driven questions, along with graphs and data tables, all designed to encourage students to reason critically about conceptually challenging and commonly taught topics in astronomy. The materials are based on research into student beliefs and reasoning difficulties and make use of a conceptual change instructional framework that promotes the intellectual engagement of students. Our research into the effectiveness of the Lecture Tutorials illustrates that traditional lectures alone make unsatisfactory gains on student understanding; however, supplementing traditional instruction with the lecture tutorials helps students make impressive conceptual gains over traditional instruction. In addition to the Lecture Tutorials we will discuss our current development of another set of engaging conceptual exercises that may have special benefit in the ASTRO 101 classroom known as Ranking Tasks.

  15. Gaming Worlds: Secondary Students Creating An Interactive Video Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amanda; Ho, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Since the summer of 2006, the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metroplex, has invited secondary students to participate in their summer SEED program on campus. The program was developed by the Dean of the School of Architecture and the Chair of the Art + Art History Department. SEED (Strategies, Events, Episodes +…

  16. Creating Standardized Video Recordings of Multimodal Interactions across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth; Bee, Nikolaus

    2009-01-01

    the literature is often too anecdotal to serve as the basis for modeling a system’s behavior, making it necessary to collect multimodal corpora in a standardized fashion in different cultures. In this chapter, the challenges of such an endeavor are introduced and solutions are presented by examples from a German......-Japanese project that aims at modeling culture-specific behaviors for Embodied Conversational Agents....

  17. Getting healthier : creating interactive cooking tools for kids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spermon, M.; Bruns, M.; Zampollo, F.; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Cooking lessons are believed to be the basis for a healthy lifestyle for both children and adults. However, while children learn their eating habits during childhood, most people only learn to cook from the age of sixteen onwards. Therefore, it is suggested that people should learn to cook during

  18. Creating networking adaptive interactive hybrid systems : A methodic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to coordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. Some envisioned application domains for such systems are defense, crisis management, traffic management, public

  19. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  20. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  1. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  2. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  3. Creating a New Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Considering that having a quality teacher is the foremost in-school predictor of students' success, ensuring teacher excellence is vital to the nation's educational system. In "Creating a New Teaching Profession," diverse scholars assess the state of human capital development in the teaching profession today and how to progress.

  4. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  5. Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David

    2011-01-01

    Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.

  6. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    assistance and to Evi Fricke, Werner Haustein , Werner Mohren, Stephen R. Ellis, and Heiner Deubel for their valuable contributions to...by Harris et al. (1979) at the Mayo Clinic and Herman et al. (1984) at the University of Pennsylvania in the area of medical imaging. In 1983, Jaffey...graphics techniques for interactive visualization of data based on surface representations. The groundwork for this was done by Herman et al. Work

  7. How spatial context influences entrepreneurial value creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how rural communities are enriched by entrepreneurial value-creating activities that go beyond job creation and growth. In addition, this study explores how spatial context influences these value-creating activities. This qualitative case-based study shows that rural......-being of the community. Thus, this study contributes to an in-depth understanding of how and why entrepreneurship can create multiple forms of value in rural areas as well as how value creation behaviours are motivated by the spatial context. In addition, it provides explanations why not all rural entrepreneurs...... entrepreneurs create 14 types of value for their communities, ranging from purely economic to socioeconomic and to social value. The reasons why rural entrepreneurs create value, not only for themselves, but value that benefits the community is partly explained by their desire to contribute positively...

  8. The village and the city: a diagnostic study of the spatial embedding patterns in villages absorbed by cities in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Ghatam, W.

    2009-01-01

    During the growth of cities villages are frequently absorbed into the fabric of that conurbation. But what are the consequences of this? To what extent and how well do these villages become part of the overall fabric of the city? What is the effect on the village and the wider city? How do these villages interact with the configuration of the city to create a rich spatial urban structure? This study focuses on the spatial distribution of the internal and edge commercial activity w...

  9. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  10. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population.

  11. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  12. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  13. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  14. Creating a Space for Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjer, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    and creativity. But the relational dependence between the physical space, pedagogics and organisation is widely overlooked when designing these new learning environments as a new spatial design in itself is expected to change the way we teach and learn. Simply changing the space is not enough (Imms & Byers, 2017......) and the intentions of the space can only be fully realised if the inhabitants of the schools completely understand and support the pedagogical principles informing the provision of these spaces (Burke, 2016). This is why three things should be aligned in order for an ILE to work intendedly: creative teaching (the...... teacher), space (the designer) and organisation (management). With my research, I would like to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between the physical learning environment and creative learning processes and the potential of the space as a tool to stimulate creativity. In my poster...

  15. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  16. Supporting SMEs in creating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.

  17. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  18. Independent effects of bottom-up temporal expectancy and top-down spatial attention. An audiovisual study using rhythmic cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eJones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention to a spatial location has shown enhance perception and facilitate behaviour for events at attended locations. However, selection relies not only on where but also when an event occurs. Recently, interest has turned to how intrinsic neural oscillations in the brain entrain to rhythms in our environment, and, stimuli appearing in or out of synch with a rhythm have shown to modulate perception and performance. Temporal expectations created by rhythms and spatial attention are two processes which have independently shown to affect stimulus processing but it remains largely unknown how, and if, they interact. In four separate tasks, this study investigated the effects of voluntary spatial attention and bottom-up temporal expectations created by rhythms in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. In each task the participant used an informative cue, either colour or pitch, to direct their covert spatial attention to the left or right, and respond as quickly as possible to a target. The lateralized target (visual or auditory was then presented at the attended or unattended side. Importantly, although not task relevant, the cue was a rhythm of either flashes or beeps. The target was presented in or out of sync (early or late with the rhythmic cue. The results showed participants were faster responding to spatially attended compared to unattended targets in all tasks. Moreover, there was an effect of rhythmic cueing upon response times in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. Responses were faster to targets presented in sync with the rhythm compared to when they appeared too early in both crossmodal tasks. That is, rhythmic stimuli in one modality influenced the temporal expectancy in the other modality, suggesting temporal expectancies created by rhythms are crossmodal. Interestingly, there was no interaction between top-down spatial attention and rhythmic cueing in any task suggesting these two processes largely influenced

  19. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  20. Multidimensional extended spatial evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krześlak, Michał; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the classical hawk-dove model using mixed spatial evolutionary games (MSEG). In these games, played on a lattice, an additional spatial layer is introduced for dependence on more complex parameters and simulation of changes in the environment. Furthermore, diverse polymorphic equilibrium points dependent on cell reproduction, model parameters, and their simulation are discussed. Our analysis demonstrates the sensitivity properties of MSEGs and possibilities for further development. We discuss applications of MSEGs, particularly algorithms for modelling cell interactions during the development of tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Envisioning the Educational Possibilities of User-Created Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, David M.; Modaress, Nellie

    2008-01-01

    Educational games and simulations can engage students in higher-level cognitive thinking, such as interpreting, analyzing, discovering, evaluating, acting, and problem solving. Recent technical advances in multiplayer, user-created virtual worlds have significantly expanded the capabilities of user interaction and development within these…

  2. E-gaze : create gaze communication for peoplewith visual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.; Osawa, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gaze signals are frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues. However, these signals and cues are hardly accessible for people with visual disability. A conceptual design of E-Gaze glasses is proposed, assistive to create gaze communication between blind and sighted people

  3. Creating responsible partnerships in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Spitzer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Organisations do not provide sufficient time and effort to seek out companies for partners that would, with the assistance of responsible cooperation, contribute to better quality offers and consequently to increased income and the good reputation of both companies. Responsibilities and ethics is where organizations on bothsides would take on and accept their own norms, tasks, obligations and be aware that in a relationship there is a need to give explanations and justify one’s actions, such partnerships will be long and prosperous. This requires a great deal of knowledge and maturity together with a very important personal characteristic that is care. This study examines whether the creation of long term partnerships through responsible and more personal (friendlyrelations brings the organization to greater success.Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine how important it is for organizations in the tourism industry to build long term relationships, what it should be based on and whether companies are willing to change the current methods of operations.Method: The method of research was an interview with individuals that had a certain position within a tourism company and had contacts with partners and were obligated to see out new ones. A paradigm model was built and the responses analysed.Results: The survey results are encouraging. The interviews showed that respondents were aware that it is necessary to have long term and responsible partnerships. They recognized that in today’s world there is a lack of collaboration that is based on understanding andthat there should be more relations on a personal level. It isrequired that this changes in the future. The participants specifically highlight financial irresponsibility in many companies that destroys collaboration.Organization: With the help of this study, the author attempts to contribute ideas to organizations on how to create solid collaboration with partners, as

  4. Creating a Space for Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjer, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Space shapes us but is also shaped by the way we interact with and act within the space. In recent years many schools are being built or rebuilt based on student-centred learning with smaller classrooms and large innovative learning environments (ILEs), expected to foster collaboration and creati......Space shapes us but is also shaped by the way we interact with and act within the space. In recent years many schools are being built or rebuilt based on student-centred learning with smaller classrooms and large innovative learning environments (ILEs), expected to foster collaboration...... teacher), space (the designer) and organisation (management). With my research, I would like to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between the physical learning environment and creative learning processes and the potential of the space as a tool to stimulate creativity. In my poster...... presentation at ‘Educational Architecture’ I will present a case study from my PhD-project where I developed a new ILE at a Danish municipal school in collaboration with the design agency Rune Fjord Studio. A starting point for the project was to examine if and how involving teachers and management...

  5. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.

  6. The impact parameter dependence of swift electron-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    In quantal collision theories, momentum and energy are usually taken to be good quantal variables. Classical collision theory, on the other hand, uses position and time to describe interactions between a probe and a target. In modern physics one may wish to express quantal theories in terms of spacelike variables. For example, experiments are now common in which one measures, by means of a narrowly focused beam of swift electrons, the distribution in energy of losses experienced in a very small region of space. Also, in experiments with channeled ions, and in microdosimetry, one is interested in the spatial coherence of unlocalized excitations created by swift ions and electrons, and their ultimate localization through transfer of energy to, e.g., single-particle excitations. In this lecture the author describes work, done in part in collaboration with Professor Howie, on some aspects of the spatial dependence of inelastic interactions between a charged particle and a condensed matter target. 6 refs., 1 fig

  7. SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE BAIKAL REGION: PLACEMENT AND MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Beshentsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data infrastructure (SDI is created for the organization of information exchange in the country. SDI is the information- telecommunication system that provides access to the public and government authorities to spatial data resources, as well as the dissemination and exchange of data in order to improve the efficiency of their production and use [1]. SDI development is the result of society territorial activities informatization and represents a specific geographical phenomenon, which is characterized by the presence of specific natural and man-made structures, the virtual geographical environment and geoinformation resources and territorial processes of users interaction and movement of resources within the near-earth space. Reliable management of this phenomenon of the modern information society requires accurate and timely inventory data centers, telecommunication highways, reference features, geocoding of interaction participants, etc. A cartographic registration of SDI components and spatio-temporal analysis of their development will provide solution to these problems. In addition, mapping assessment of natural, social and economic conditions of accommodation SDI will establish physical and geographical features of the localization of its objects and will perform predictive modeling of their design.

  8. Multimodal Embodied Mimicry in Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    Nonverbal behaviors play an important role in communicating with others. One particular kind of nonverbal interaction behavior is mimicry. It has been argued that behavioral mimicry supports harmonious relationships in social interaction through creating affiliation, rapport, and liking between

  9. Neutral Community Dynamics and the Evolution of Species Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco Túlio P; Rangel, Thiago F

    2018-04-01

    A contemporary goal in ecology is to determine the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate recurring structural patterns in mutualistic networks. One of the great challenges is testing the capacity of neutral processes to replicate observed patterns in ecological networks, since the original formulation of the neutral theory lacks trophic interactions. Here, we develop a stochastic-simulation neutral model adding trophic interactions to the neutral theory of biodiversity. Without invoking ecological differences among individuals of different species, and assuming that ecological interactions emerge randomly, we demonstrate that a spatially explicit multitrophic neutral model is able to capture the recurrent structural patterns of mutualistic networks (i.e., degree distribution, connectance, nestedness, and phylogenetic signal of species interactions). Nonrandom species distribution, caused by probabilistic events of migration and speciation, create nonrandom network patterns. These findings have broad implications for the interpretation of niche-based processes as drivers of ecological networks, as well as for the integration of network structures with demographic stochasticity.

  10. Parents' Spatial Language Mediates a Sex Difference in Preschoolers' Spatial-Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruden, Shannon M; Levine, Susan C

    2017-11-01

    Do boys produce more terms than girls to describe the spatial world-that is, dimensional adjectives (e.g., big, little, tall, short), shape terms (e.g., circle, square), and words describing spatial features and properties (e.g., bent, curvy, edge)? If a sex difference in children's spatial-language use exists, is it related to the spatial language that parents use when interacting with children? We longitudinally tracked the development of spatial-language production in children between the ages of 14 and 46 months in a diverse sample of 58 parent-child dyads interacting in their homes. Boys produced and heard more of these three categories of spatial words, which we call "what" spatial types (i.e., unique "what" spatial words), but not more of all other word types, than girls. Mediation analysis revealed that sex differences in children's spatial talk at 34 to 46 months of age were fully mediated by parents' earlier spatial-language use, when children were 14 to 26 months old, time points at which there was no sex difference in children's spatial-language use.

  11. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  12. High throughput diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser processing using a spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Zheng [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: z.kuang@liv.ac.uk; Perrie, Walter [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Leach, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Sharp, Martin; Edwardson, Stuart P. [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Padgett, Miles [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Dearden, Geoff; Watkins, Ken G. [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-30

    High throughput femtosecond laser processing is demonstrated by creating multiple beams using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The diffractive multi-beam patterns are modulated in real time by computer generated holograms (CGHs), which can be calculated by appropriate algorithms. An interactive LabVIEW program is adopted to generate the relevant CGHs. Optical efficiency at this stage is shown to be {approx}50% into first order beams and real time processing has been carried out at 50 Hz refresh rate. Results obtained demonstrate high precision surface micro-structuring on silicon and Ti6Al4V with throughput gain >1 order of magnitude.

  13. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  14. Creating a National HIV Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, David H; Wood, Brian R; Karpenko, Andrew; Unruh, Kenton T; Kinney, Rebecca G; Roscoe, Clay; Nelson, John

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the HIV care provider workforce has not kept pace with an expanding HIV epidemic. To effectively address this HIV workforce shortage, a multipronged approach is needed that includes high-quality, easily accessible, up-to-date HIV education for trainees and practicing providers. Toward this objective, the University of Washington, in collaboration with the AIDS Education and Training Center National Coordinating Resource Center, is developing a modular, dynamic curriculum that addresses the entire spectrum of the HIV care continuum. Herein, we outline the general principles, content, organization, and features of this federally funded National HIV Curriculum, which allows for longitudinal, active, self-directed learning, as well as real-time evaluation, tracking, and feedback at the individual and group level. The online curriculum, which is in development, will provide a free, comprehensive, interactive HIV training and resource tool that can support national efforts to expand and strengthen the United States HIV clinical care workforce. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region

  16. Creating Large Scale Database Servers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becla, Jacek

    2001-12-14

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is designed to perform a high precision investigation of the decays of the B-meson produced from electron-positron interactions. The experiment, started in May 1999, will generate approximately 300TB/year of data for 10 years. All of the data will reside in Objectivity databases accessible via the Advanced Multi-threaded Server (AMS). To date, over 70TB of data have been placed in Objectivity/DB, making it one of the largest databases in the world. Providing access to such a large quantity of data through a database server is a daunting task. A full-scale testbed environment had to be developed to tune various software parameters and a fundamental change had to occur in the AMS architecture to allow it to scale past several hundred terabytes of data. Additionally, several protocol extensions had to be implemented to provide practical access to large quantities of data. This paper will describe the design of the database and the changes that we needed to make in the AMS for scalability reasons and how the lessons we learned would be applicable to virtually any kind of database server seeking to operate in the Petabyte region.

  17. Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.

  18. Ubiquitous Computing in Physico-Spatial Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Interaction design of pervasive and ubiquitous computing (UC) systems must take into account physico-spatial issues as technology is implemented into our physical surroundings. In this paper we discuss how one conceptual framework for understanding interaction in context, Activity Theory (AT...

  19. Efficient Interaction Recognition through Positive Action Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to decompose two-person interaction into a Positive Action and a Negative Action for more efficient behavior recognition. A Positive Action plays the decisive role in a two-person exchange. Thus, interaction recognition can be simplified to Positive Action-based recognition, focusing on an action representation of just one person. Recently, a new depth sensor has become widely available, the Microsoft Kinect camera, which provides RGB-D data with 3D spatial information for quantitative analysis. However, there are few publicly accessible test datasets using this camera, to assess two-person interaction recognition approaches. Therefore, we created a new dataset with six types of complex human interactions (i.e., named K3HI, including kicking, pointing, punching, pushing, exchanging an object, and shaking hands. Three types of features were extracted for each Positive Action: joint, plane, and velocity features. We used continuous Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to evaluate the Positive Action-based interaction recognition method and the traditional two-person interaction recognition approach with our test dataset. Experimental results showed that the proposed recognition technique is more accurate than the traditional method, shortens the sample training time, and therefore achieves comprehensive superiority.

  20. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, J.M.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J.; Farifteh, J.; Coppin, P.

    2012-01-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the