WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatial differentiated impacts

  1. Impact of spatial differentiation of nitrogen taxes on french farms’ compliance costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lungarska, Anna; Jayet, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    The spatial differentiation of input-based pollution fees should in theory decrease compliance costs in the case of nitrate pollution of water bodies from agriculture because both the damage and the compliance costs vary over space. However, the empirical evidence in the literature does not agree on the extent of the potential savings from differentiation. We address this issue in the case of France, using a mathematical programming model of agricultural supply (AROPAj). The modeling approach...

  2. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    The code of practice of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the recent international standards and technical reports from ISO are widely accepted as general frameworks for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) but they are not detailed methodological references, since international...... between modelled impact and the occurrence of actual impact. This technical report aims to contribute to a solution of the poor accuracy of the assessed impact in typical LCA resulting from the present disregard of spatial information in LCA....

  3. Impacts of ICT on the Spatial Differentiation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Piotr; Iwańczak Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of servi...

  4. Impacts of ICT on the Spatial Differentiation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.

  5. Modeling ecotoxicity impacts in vineyard production: Addressing spatial differentiation for copper fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Nancy; Antón, Assumpció; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated...... with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture. This study aims to improve...

  6. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-01

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  7. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-19

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  8. Differentiating Spatial Memory from Spatial Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Whitney N.; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2014-01-01

    The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain…

  9. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  10. Perceptual spatial differentiation of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Krevs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical studies of human perception of places at local scale are usually aimed at bet-ter understanding of human spatial perception and knowledge about the places, and of using this knowledge in spatial decision-making or spatial behaviour. Our focus on the first part of these general research aims is presented based on a case study, revealing how residents of the Municipality of Ljubljana perceive and value neighbourhoods of “their” municipality at the beginning of the century1.

  11. The challenge of legitimizing spatially differentiated regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Graversgaard, Morten; Noe, Egon

    2017-01-01

    Differentiating regulation is a promising approach to agri-environmental regulation that may potentially reduce the environmental impact of agriculture at the lowest possible costs for the farmers and society, but also possesses a number of challenges. In this article, we explore the challenges...... to the legitimacy of agri-environmental regulation that occurs when the regulatory regime changes from general regulation to differentiated regulation. The analysis is based on a case study of the implementation of the Buffer zone act in Denmark – a regulation that prevents agricultural production in a 10 (later 9......) meter fringe around selected waterbodies. We distinguish between two different ways of legitimizing: Producing knowledge and participation. We conclude that to harvest some of the obvious benefits of differentiated regulation a number of challenges must be resolved, 1) ensuring legitimacy...

  12. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  13. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sanyal

    Full Text Available Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  14. Optical spatial differentiator based on subwavelength high-contrast gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhewei; Si, Jiangnan; Yu, Xuanyi; Deng, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    An optical spatial differentiator based on subwavelength high-contrast gratings (HCGs) is proposed experimentally. The spatial differentiation property of the subwavelength HCG is analyzed by calculating its spatial spectral transfer function based on the periodic waveguide theory. By employing the FDTD solutions, the performance of the subwavelength HCG spatial differentiator was investigated numerically. The subwavelength HCG differentiator with the thickness at the nanoscale was fabricated on the quartz substrate by electron beam lithography and Bosch deep silicon etching. Observed under an optical microscope with a CCD camera, the spatial differentiation of the incident field profile was obtained by the subwavelength HCG differentiator in transmission without Fourier lens. By projecting the images of slits, letter "X," and a cross on the subwavelength HCG differentiator, edge detections of images were obtained in transmission. With the nanoscale HCG structure and simple optical implementation, the proposed optical spatial differentiator provides the prospects for applications in optical computing systems and parallel data processing.

  15. Towards spatially differentiated regulation of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer Højberg, Anker; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt

    EU member states are challenged by nitrogen loads to estuaries and inland freshwater systems impeding the achievement of good ecological status as required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). In Denmark nitrate leaching from the root zone has been reduced by 50% since 1987, but additional...... reductions of 30-50% are required to meet the objectives of the WFD. Achieving such abatements by uniform restrictions for all areas, would be very costly and inefficient as studies have shown that reduction varies spatially depending on the local hydrogeological conditions, the presence and dynamics...... of drains and hydro-biogeochemical conditions in associated riparian lowlands. Hence, a shift of paradigm in regulation practice is needed, whit a cost-effective regulation accounting for this variability and differentiate the regulations/restrictions between resilient and vulnerable areas. However...

  16. Teaching Differentials in Thermodynamics Using Spatial Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yueh; Hou, Ching-Han

    2012-01-01

    The greatest difficulty that is encountered by students in thermodynamics classes is to find relationships between variables and to solve a total differential equation that relates one thermodynamic state variable to two mutually independent state variables. Rules of differentiation, including the total differential and the cyclic rule, are…

  17. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  18. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  19. Digital differential confocal microscopy based on spatial shift transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wilson, T; Wang, H; Tan, J

    2014-11-01

    Differential confocal microscopy is a particularly powerful surface profilometry technique in industrial metrology due to its high axial sensitivity and insensitivity to noise. However, the practical implementation of the technique requires the accurate positioning of point detectors in three-dimensions. We describe a simple alternative based on spatial transformation of a through-focus series of images obtained from a homemade beam scanning confocal microscope. This digital differential confocal microscopy approach is described and compared with the traditional Differential confocal microscopy approach. The ease of use of the digital differential confocal microscopy system is illustrated by performing measurements on a 3D standard specimen. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. SMEs, banks and the spatial differentiation of access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, T.; Jones-Evans, D.

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the SME Finance Monitor and a unique dataset on the geographical location of all bank branches in 11 UK economic regions, this paper examines the relevance of spatial differentiation on SMEs’ access to bank finance during the period of economic weakness following the 2007 financial crisis. We find evidence suggesting the presence of a regional-specific effect on SMEs’ access to bank finance. Our findings show that greater functional distance between bank headquarters and branches...

  1. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  2. Differential Search Coils Based Magnetometers: Conditioning, Magnetic Sensitivity, Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeeva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental comparison of optimized search coils based magnetometers, operating either in the Flux mode or in the classical Lenz-Faraday mode, is presented. The improvements provided by the Flux mode in terms of bandwidth and measuring range of the sensor are detailed. Theory, SPICE model and measurements are in good agreement. The spatial resolution of the sensor is studied which is an important parameter for applications in non destructive evaluation. A general expression of the magnetic sensitivity of search coils sensors is derived. Solutions are proposed to design magnetometers with reduced weight and volume without degrading the magnetic sensitivity. An original differential search coil based magnetometer, made of coupled coils, operating in flux mode and connected to a differential transimpedance amplifier is proposed. It is shown that this structure is better in terms of volume occupancy than magnetometers using two separated coils without any degradation in magnetic sensitivity. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations.

  3. Reward-based spatial crowdsourcing with differential privacy preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Lefeng; Zhu, Tianqing

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the popularity of mobile devices has transformed spatial crowdsourcing (SC) into a novel mode for performing complicated projects. Workers can perform tasks at specified locations in return for rewards offered by employers. Existing methods ensure the efficiency of their systems by submitting the workers' exact locations to a centralised server for task assignment, which can lead to privacy violations. Thus, implementing crowsourcing applications while preserving the privacy of workers' location is a key issue that needs to be tackled. We propose a reward-based SC method that achieves acceptable utility as measured by task assignment success rates, while efficiently preserving privacy. A differential privacy model ensures rigorous privacy guarantee, and Laplace noise is introduced to protect workers' exact locations. We then present a reward allocation mechanism that adjusts each piece of the reward for a task using the distribution of the workers' locations. Through experimental results, we demonstrate that this optimised-reward method is efficient for SC applications.

  4. [Application of Land-use Regression Models in Spatial-temporal Differentiation of Air Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Xie, Wu-dan; Li, Jia-cheng

    2016-02-15

    With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization and motorization, air pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our country, which has negative impacts on public health and ecological environment. LUR model is one of the common methods simulating spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution at city scale. It has broad application in Europe and North America, but not really in China. Based on many studies at home and abroad, this study started with the main steps to develop LUR model, including obtaining the monitoring data, generating variables, developing models, model validation and regression mapping. Then a conclusion was drawn on the progress of LUR models in spatial-temporal differentiation of air pollution. Furthermore, the research focus and orientation in the future were prospected, including highlighting spatial-temporal differentiation, increasing classes of model variables and improving the methods of model development. This paper was aimed to popularize the application of LUR model in China, and provide a methodological basis for human exposure, epidemiologic study and health risk assessment.

  5. Spatial differentiation in characterisation modelling – what difference does it make?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Potting, José

    2004-01-01

    In the life cycle of a product, emissions take place at many different locations. The location of the sources and its surrounding condition influence the fate of the emission and the exposure it leads to but this source of variation is currently neglected in life cycle impact assessment, although...... results from the Danish LCA Methodology Development and Consensus Creation Project address this issue and provides a framework for spatially differentiated characterisation modelling together with easily applicable site-dependent factors for each European country and normalisation references for those...

  6. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  7. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He + impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H 2 O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  8. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  9. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  10. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  11. Money and exchange in an economy with spatially differentiated agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolova, Petia; Lai Tong, Charles; Deissenberg, Christophe

    2003-06-01

    The impact of money supply on the real variables and on utility is an important question in monetary economics. Most previous works study this impact in representative agent economies, often under perfect foresight. With such a framework, however, the use of fiat money as a medium of exchange cannot be endogenously explained. This paper, by contrast, considers an economy where fiat money is intrinsically necessary for exchange, due to the local structure of interaction among agents. It investigates the transitory and permanent impact of local or global injections of money on the dynamics of exchanged quantities, prices, and individual welfares, and the mechanisms that explain this evolution.

  12. Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, van der F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Verweij, P.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  13. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  14. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary

    Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

    Angela N. Mwenda

    Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that

  15. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  16. Measuring the Impact of Road Rehabilitation on Spatial Market Efficiency in Maize Markets in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, Xavier; Arndt, Channing

    2008-01-01

    to the existing literature in three ways. First, a unique data set, where road rehabilitation episodes between market pairs are identified, is developed. Second, special care is devoted to estimation of transaction costs due to the sensitivity of the PBM model to the quality of transaction costs estimates......This article analyzes the impact of road rehabilitation on the spatial market efficiency of maize markets in Mozambique. We estimate a modified version of the Parity Bounds Model (PBM) that allows us to test the impact of road rehabilitation on spatial efficiency. This article seeks to contribute....... Finally, as opposed to most existing literature that focuses on relatively distant markets, the article focuses on spatially closed markets. We find that maize markets tend to be segmented due to high transport costs. Following road rehabilitation, inefficiency and average absolute price differentials...

  17. Quantification of anthropogenic metabolism using spatially differentiated continuous MFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Georg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coefficient-based, bottom-up material flow analysis is a suitable tool to quantify inflows, outflows and stock dynamics of materials used by societies, and thus can deliver strategic knowledge needed to develop circular economy policies. Anthropogenic stocks and flows are mostly of bulk nonmetallic mineral materials related to the construction, operation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures. Consequently, it is important to be able to quantify circulating construction materials to help estimate the mass of secondary materials which can be recovered such as recycled aggregates (RA for fresh concrete in new buildings. Yet as such bulk materials are high volume but of low unit value, they are generally produced and consumed within a region. Loops are thus bounded not only by qualitative and technical restrictions but also spatially to within regions. This paper presents a regionalized continuous MFA (C-MFA approach taking account of these restrictions of local consumption, quality standards and technical limitations, illustrated using the example of Germany. Outflows and inflows of stocks are quantified at county level and generalized by regional type, considering demand and supply for recycled materials. Qualitative and technical potentials of recycling loops are operationalized by defining coefficients to reflect waste management technologies and engineering standards. Results show that 48% of outflows of concrete and bricks are suitable for high-quality recycling, while 52% of outflows do not fulfill the quality requirement and must be recovered or disposed of elsewhere. The achievable inflow to RA is limited by the building activity as well as the requirements of the construction industry, e.g. the RA fraction of fresh concrete must not exceed 32%. In addition, there exist spatial disparities in construction across the country. In Germany, such disparities mean that there will be a shortfall in RA of 6.3 Gt by the year 2020, while

  18. Impact of Spatial Scales on the Intercomparison of Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Steptoe, Michael; Chang, Zheng; Link, Robert; Clarke, Leon; Maciejewski, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Scenario analysis has been widely applied in climate science to understand the impact of climate change on the future human environment, but intercomparison and similarity analysis of different climate scenarios based on multiple simulation runs remain challenging. Although spatial heterogeneity plays a key role in modeling climate and human systems, little research has been performed to understand the impact of spatial variations and scales on similarity analysis of climate scenarios. To address this issue, the authors developed a geovisual analytics framework that lets users perform similarity analysis of climate scenarios from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) using a hierarchical clustering approach.

  19. FIND: difFerential chromatin INteractions Detection using a spatial Poisson process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekidel, Mohamed Nadhir; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q

    2018-02-12

    Polymer-based simulations and experimental studies indicate the existence of a spatial dependency between the adjacent DNA fibers involved in the formation of chromatin loops. However, the existing strategies for detecting differential chromatin interactions assume that the interacting segments are spatially independent from the other segments nearby. To resolve this issue, we developed a new computational method, FIND, which considers the local spatial dependency between interacting loci. FIND uses a spatial Poisson process to detect differential chromatin interactions that show a significant difference in their interaction frequency and the interaction frequency of their neighbors. Simulation and biological data analysis show that FIND outperforms the widely used count-based methods and has a better signal-to-noise ratio. © 2018 Djekidel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  1. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, James P.; Pindzola, M.S.; Robicheaux, F.

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  2. Selective spatial enhancement: Attentional spotlight size impacts spatial but not temporal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Shen, Elizabeth; Edwards, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An important but often neglected aspect of attention is how changes in the attentional spotlight size impact perception. The zoom-lens model predicts that a small ("focal") attentional spotlight enhances all aspects of perception relative to a larger ("diffuse" spotlight). However, based on the physiological properties of the two major classes of visual cells (magnocellular and parvocellular neurons) we predicted trade-offs in spatial and temporal acuity as a function of spotlight size. Contrary to both of these accounts, however, across two experiments we found that attentional spotlight size affected spatial acuity, such that spatial acuity was enhanced for a focal relative to a diffuse spotlight, whereas the same modulations in spotlight size had no impact on temporal acuity. This likely reflects the function of attention: to induce the high spatial resolution of the fovea in periphery, where spatial resolution is poor but temporal resolution is good. It is adaptive, therefore, for the attentional spotlight to enhance spatial acuity, whereas enhancing temporal acuity does not confer the same benefit.

  3. Identification of two-phase flow pattern by using specific spatial frequency of differential pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong

    1992-11-01

    It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given

  4. Spatial analysis of digital technologies and impact on socio - cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of digital technologies and ascertain whether digital technologies have significant impact on socio - cultural values or not. Moran's index and Getis and Ord's statistic were used for cluster and hotspots analysis. The unique locations of digital technologies ...

  5. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  6. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a "Mental Line"? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presaghi, Fabio; Rullo, Marika

    2018-01-01

    Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one's own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup-outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers) which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small-large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC). In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit) position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3). Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  7. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a “Mental Line”? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Presaghi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one’s own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup–outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small–large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3. Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  8. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  9. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part IV. The impact of anthropogenous nitrogen deposition on the diversity and functionality of soil organisms; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht IV. Der Einfluss anthropogener Stickstoffeintraege auf die Diversitaet und Funktion von Bodenorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Wolters, Volkmar [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieroekologie

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at Institute of Animal Ecology (Justus Liebig University Giessen) focused on a Meta-Analysis about the impact of N-deposition on the diversity of soil organisms. Based on 1457 relevant publications soil organisms are threatened most in semi-natural ecosystems and experimental increases of nitrogen reduced soil organism diversity in forest ecosystems. Fungi communities were affected most seriously, with a strong decline of diversity in Mycorrhiza communities in response to experimental nitrogen addition. If N-deposition generally affects soil fauna and bacterial communities remains unclear, as the database is either too small or as results are not unequivocal. Those limitations are also present summarizing the impact of N-deposition on functions and services provided by soil organisms, the current literature database does not provide enough results to predict the impact of N-deposition on decomposition processes and nutrient cycling in soils. (orig.)

  10. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part IV. The impact of anthropogenous nitrogen deposition on the diversity and functionality of soil organisms; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht IV. Der Einfluss anthropogener Stickstoffeintraege auf die Diversitaet und Funktion von Bodenorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Wolters, Volkmar [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieroekologie

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at Institute of Animal Ecology (Justus Liebig University Giessen) focused on a Meta-Analysis about the impact of N-deposition on the diversity of soil organisms. Based on 1457 relevant publications soil organisms are threatened most in semi-natural ecosystems and experimental increases of nitrogen reduced soil organism diversity in forest ecosystems. Fungi communities were affected most seriously, with a strong decline of diversity in Mycorrhiza communities in response to experimental nitrogen addition. If N-deposition generally affects soil fauna and bacterial communities remains unclear, as the database is either too small or as results are not unequivocal. Those limitations are also present summarizing the impact of N-deposition on functions and services provided by soil organisms, the current literature database does not provide enough results to predict the impact of N-deposition on decomposition processes and nutrient cycling in soils. (orig.)

  11. [Characteristics of temporal-spatial differentiation in landscape pattern vulnerability in Nansihu Lake wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia Xin; Li, Xin Ju

    2018-02-01

    With remote sensing images from 1985, 2000 Lantsat 5 TM and 2015 Lantsat 8 OLI as data sources, we tried to select the suitable research scale and examine the temporal-spatial diffe-rentiation with such scale in the Nansihu Lake wetland by using landscape pattern vulnerability index constructed by sensitivity index and adaptability index, and combined with space statistics such as semivariogram and spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that 1 km × 1 km equidistant grid was the suitable research scale, which could eliminate the influence of spatial heterogeneity induced by random factors. From 1985 to 2015, the landscape pattern vulnerability in the Nansihu Lake wetland deteriorated gradually. The high-risk area of landscape pattern vulnerability dramatically expanded with time. The spatial heterogeneity of landscape pattern vulnerability increased, and the influence of non-structural factors on landscape pattern vulnerability strengthened. Spatial variability affected by spatial autocorrelation slightly weakened. Landscape pattern vulnerability had strong general spatial positive correlation, with the significant form of spatial agglomeration. The positive spatial autocorrelation continued to increase and the phenomenon of spatial concentration was more and more obvious over time. The local autocorrelation mainly based on high-high accumulation zone and low-low accumulation zone had stronger spatial autocorrelation among neighboring space units. The high-high accumulation areas showed the strongest level of significance, and the significant level of low-low accumulation zone increased with time. Natural factors, such as temperature and precipitation, affected water-level and landscape distribution, and thus changed the landscape patterns vulnerability of Nansihu Lake wetland. The dominant driver for the deterioration of landscape patterns vulnerability was human activities, including social economy activity and policy system.

  12. Differential Recruitment of Parietal Cortex during Spatial and Non-spatial Reach Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Michel Bernier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location. In order to isolate the processes specific to reaching and to control for visuospatial attentional factors, the reaching task was contrasted to a finger movement task. Functional MRI and electroencephalography (EEG were used to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of reach-related activity in the parieto-frontal cortex. Reach planning with advance knowledge of target location induced robust blood oxygenated level dependent and EEG responses across parietal and premotor regions contralateral to the reaching arm. In contrast, reach preparation without knowledge of target location was associated with a significant BOLD response bilaterally in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, EEG alpha- and beta-band activity was restricted to parietal scalp sites, the magnitude of the latter being correlated with reach reaction times. These results suggest an intermediate stage of sensorimotor transformations in bilateral parietal cortex when target location is not specified.

  13. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part II. The model BERN - assessment of vegetation change and biodiversity; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht II. Das BERN-Modell - ein Bewertungsmodell fuer die oberirdische Biodiversitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Schlutow, Angela; Kraft, Philipp; Scheuschner, Thomas; Weigelt-Kirchner, Regine [OEKO-DATA - Ecosystem Analysis and Environmental Data Management, Strausberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OEKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at OEKO-DATA initially concentrated on the development of the BERN-model. About 14 585 vegetation inventories from all over Germany and other 2 914 relevant inventories evaluated from neighboring countries were integrated in BERN database. With this model, the vegetation changes as a function of variations in the location conditions could be identified due to the implementation of the corresponding time series of geochemical and climate parameters from MoBiLE. A validation of the MoBiLE-BERN-coupling was carried out at Level II sites. From the dynamics of the vegetation development in the context of location changes could be derived critical loads and limits. Also the current regeneration potential as well as a harmonious natural balance of location factors could be determined. Likewise, the potential of danger to biodiversity and the livelihood opportunities of plant species or societies could be demonstrated. The most distinct dependence of biodiversity change could be detected on the alterations of

  14. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Winston, Jenna; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1), or a minimal (Experiment 2) influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  15. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Golob

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1, or a minimal (Experiment 2 influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  16. Inheritance of silicate differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    It is pointed out that the implication of the popular giant impact model of lunar origin (e.g., Hartmann and Davis, 1975; Cameron and Ward, 1976; Stevenson, 1987) is that any depth-related silicate differentiation within the impactor (and/or the earth) at the time of the impact must be partly inherited by the preferentially peripheral matter that forms the moon. This paper presents calculations of the magnitude of the net differentiation of the protolunar matter for a variety of elements and scenarios, with different assumptions regarding the geometries of the 'sampled' peripheral zones, the relative proportions of the earth-derived to impactor-derived matter in the final moon, and the degree to which the impactor mantle had crystallized prior to the giant impact. It is shown that these differention effects constrain the overall plausibility of the giant impact hypothesis.

  17. The timing of differentiation of adult hippocampal neurons is crucial for spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. It remains unknown, however, how new neurons become functionally integrated into spatial circuits and contribute to hippocampus-mediated forms of learning and memory. To investigate these issues, we used a mouse model in which the differentiation of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons can be anticipated by conditionally expressing the pro-differentiative gene PC3 (Tis21/BTG2 in nestin-positive progenitor cells. In contrast to previous studies that affected the number of newly generated neurons, this strategy selectively changes their timing of differentiation. New, adult-generated dentate gyrus progenitors, in which the PC3 transgene was expressed, showed accelerated differentiation and significantly reduced dendritic arborization and spine density. Functionally, this genetic manipulation specifically affected different hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks, including contextual fear conditioning, and selectively reduced synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Morphological and functional analyses of hippocampal neurons at different stages of differentiation, following transgene activation within defined time-windows, revealed that the new, adult-generated neurons up to 3-4 weeks of age are required not only to acquire new spatial information but also to use previously consolidated memories. Thus, the correct unwinding of these key memory functions, which can be an expression of the ability of adult-generated neurons to link subsequent events in memory circuits, is critically dependent on the correct timing of the initial stages of neuron maturation and connection to existing circuits.

  18. Uncertainties in Coastal Ocean Color Products: Impacts of Spatial Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sarkar, Sudipta; Franz, Bryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demands for ocean color (OC) products with improved accuracy and well characterized, per-retrieval uncertainty budgets, it is vital to decompose overall estimated errors into their primary components. Amongst various contributing elements (e.g., instrument calibration, atmospheric correction, inversion algorithms) in the uncertainty of an OC observation, less attention has been paid to uncertainties associated with spatial sampling. In this paper, we simulate MODIS (aboard both Aqua and Terra) and VIIRS OC products using 30 m resolution OC products derived from the Operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat-8, to examine impacts of spatial sampling on both cross-sensor product intercomparisons and in-situ validations of R(sub rs) products in coastal waters. Various OLI OC products representing different productivity levels and in-water spatial features were scanned for one full orbital-repeat cycle of each ocean color satellite. While some view-angle dependent differences in simulated Aqua-MODIS and VIIRS were observed, the average uncertainties (absolute) in product intercomparisons (due to differences in spatial sampling) at regional scales are found to be 1.8%, 1.9%, 2.4%, 4.3%, 2.7%, 1.8%, and 4% for the R(sub rs)(443), R(sub rs)(482), R(sub rs)(561), R(sub rs)(655), Chla, K(sub d)(482), and b(sub bp)(655) products, respectively. It is also found that, depending on in-water spatial variability and the sensor's footprint size, the errors for an in-situ validation station in coastal areas can reach as high as +/- 18%. We conclude that a) expected biases induced by the spatial sampling in product intercomparisons are mitigated when products are averaged over at least 7 km × 7 km areas, b) VIIRS observations, with improved consistency in cross-track spatial sampling, yield more precise calibration/validation statistics than that of MODIS, and c) use of a single pixel centered on in-situ coastal stations provides an optimal sampling size for

  19. Genetic differentiation over a small spatial scale of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Allison T; Ross, Max S; Schall, Jos J; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

    2016-10-18

    The geographic scale and degree of genetic differentiation for arthropod vectors that transmit parasites play an important role in the distribution, prevalence and coevolution of pathogens of human and wildlife significance. We determined the genetic diversity and population structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator over spatial scales from 0.56 to 3.79 km at a study region in northern California. The study was provoked by observations of differentiation at fine spatial scales of a lizard malaria parasite vectored by Lu. vexator. A microsatellite enrichment/next-generation sequencing protocol was used to identify variable microsatellite loci within the genome of Lu. vexator. Alleles present at these loci were examined in four populations of Lu. vexator in Hopland, CA. Population differentiation was assessed using Fst and D (of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards), and the program Structure was used to determine the degree of subdivision present. The effective population size for the sand fly populations was also calculated. Eight microsatellite markers were characterized and revealed high genetic diversity (uHe = 0.79-0.92, Na = 12-24) and slight but significant differentiation across the fine spatial scale examined (average pairwise D = 0.327; F ST  = 0.0185 (95 % bootstrapped CI: 0.0102-0.0264). Even though the insects are difficult to capture using standard methods, the estimated population size was thousands per local site. The results argue that Lu. vexator at the study sites are abundant and not highly mobile, which may influence the overall transmission dynamics of the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and other parasites transmitted by this species.

  20. Extent of Night Warming and Spatially Heterogeneous Cloudiness Differentiate Temporal Trend of Greenness in Mountainous Tropics in the New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Qiong; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-25

    Tropical forests have essential functions in global C dynamics but vulnerable to changes in land cover land use (LCLUC) and climate. The tropics of Caribbean are experiencing warming and drying climate and diverse LCLUC. However, large-scale studies to detect long-term trends of C and mechanisms behind are still rare. Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), we investigated greenness trend in the Greater Antilles Caribbean during 2000-2015, and analyzed trend of vegetation patches without LCLUC to give prominence to climate impacts. We hypothesized that night warming and heavy cloudiness would reduce EVI in this mountainous tropical region. Over the 15 years, EVI decreased significantly in Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, but increased in Cuba partly due to its strong reforestation. Haiti had the largest decreasing trend because of continuous deforestation for charcoals. After LCLUC was excluded, EVI trend still varied greatly, decreasing in the windward but increasing in the leeward of Puerto Rico. Nighttime warming reinforced by spatially heterogeneous cloudiness was found to significantly and negatively correlate with EVI trend, and explained the spatial pattern of the latter. Although cooled daytime and increased rainfall might enhance EVI, nighttime warming dominated the climate impacts and differentiated the EVI trend.

  1. Spatially differentiated strategies for reducing nitrate loads from agriculture in two Danish catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2018-01-01

    Nutrient loss from agriculture is the largest source of diffuse water pollution in Denmark. To reduce nutrient loads a number of solutions have been implemented, but this has been insufficient to achieve the environmental objectives without unacceptable repercussions for agricultural production...... reducing the source loading or enhancing the natural reduction (denitrification) of N after it is leached from the root zone of agricultural crops. In this study, a new method of spatially differentiated analysis for two Danish catchments (Odense and Norsminde) was conducted that reach across...... the individual farms to achieve selected N-load reduction targets. It includes application of cover crops within current crop rotations, set-a-side application on high N-load areas, and changes in agricultural management based on maps of N-reduction available for two different spatial scales, considering soil...

  2. Intraspecific spatial genetic differentiation of a Daphnia species within a long narrow reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrusek, A.; Seďa, Jaromír; Macháček, Jiří; Říha, Milan; Prchalová, Marie; Schwenk, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 715, č. 1 (2013), s. 169-180 ISSN 0018-8158. [International Symposium on Cladocera /9./. Verbania-Palanza, 02.10.2011-08.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600960901; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : environmental gradients * spatial distribution * interspecific hybridization Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2013

  3. Impact of Spatial Pumping Patterns on Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenges exist to manage groundwater resources while maintaining a balance between groundwater quantity and quality because of anthropogenic pumping activities as well as complex subsurface environment. In this study, to address the impact of spatial pumping pattern on groundwater management, a mixed integer nonlinear multi-objective model is formulated by integrating three objectives within a management framework to: (i) maximize total groundwater withdrawal from potential wells; (ii) minimize total electricity cost for well pumps; and (iii) attain groundwater level at selected monitoring locations as close as possible to the target level. Binary variables are used in the groundwater management model to control the operative status of pumping wells. The NSGA-II is linked with MODFLOW to solve the multi-objective problem. The proposed method is applied to a groundwater management problem in the complex Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana. Results show that (a) non-dominated trade-off solutions under various spatial distributions of active pumping wells can be achieved. Each solution is optimal with regard to its corresponding objectives; (b) operative status, locations and pumping rates of pumping wells are significant to influence the distribution of hydraulic head, which in turn influence the optimization results; (c) A wide range of optimal solutions is obtained such that decision makers can select the most appropriate solution through negotiation with different stakeholders. This technique is beneficial to finding out the optimal extent to which three objectives including water supply concern, energy concern and subsidence concern can be balanced.

  4. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  5. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Banfi

    Full Text Available Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191 of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling. Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect. Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing, we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing. Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the

  6. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Chiara; Kemény, Ferenc; Gangl, Melanie; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina; Landerl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191) of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling). Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials) was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect). Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing), we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing). Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the causal status of

  7. Annual Precipitation Fluctuation and Spatial Differentiation Characteristics of the Horqin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the main water source for vegetation survival in arid and semi-arid areas. However, previous studies always focus on the effects of precipitation in different time scales, but ignore the effects of precipitation in different spatial scales. To further study the effects of precipitation fluctuation in different spatial scales, we used the wavelet analysis method to analyze its temporal and spatial change based on data from eighteen meteorological stations during 1961–2015 in Horqin region. Results showed that: (1 from the overall tendency of precipitation changes, the precipitation inter-annual variations in Horqin region had the tendency of gradually decreasing from the southeast (District IV to the northwest; (2 the precipitation anomalies of District I–IV between 1960 and 1980 were small and approximate to the normal value; (3 in the time scale of 23–32 years, the cyclical fluctuations were very significant and the annual precipitation underwent two cyclical fluctuations from a period of low precipitation to a period of high precipitation; and (4 as results of analyzing the spatial wavelet variance of sub-region, the main cycle of precipitation in District I, District II and District III was between 10 and 11 years, while the main cycle of precipitation in District IV was 25 years. The main conclusions include the following. (1 This region tended to be arid, and the precipitation gradually decreased from the southeast (District IV to northwest (District I. (2 The influence of spatial differentiation characteristics on precipitation fluctuation in this region was cyclical fluctuation, which gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest. The length of the cyclical change period gradually shortened. In the first main cycle, whose annual precipitation changes were most significant, the changing characteristic was District IV and District I decreased from 25 years to 10 years. (3 Predicated from the cyclical

  8. The impact of spatial concentration on enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borisovna Davidson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reveal the impact of spatial concentration of business in the Russian cities on enterprise productivity. The hypotheses are the following: urbanization level and home market potential positively affect enterprise performance; localization economies are positive and start decreasing after some point due to congestion and excessive competition; regional transport infrastructure, business climate and human capital positively affect enterprise performance. We use firm level data augmented with city and regional data. Fixed effects are applied in order to deal with endogeneity. Agglomeration economies are considered in the light of opportunities for knowledge spillovers, input sharing and labor market pooling. Our results confirm that agglomeration economies and home market potential are important for the enterprise performance. We find positive urbanization and diversity economies, while localization economies have an inverted U shape. Results can be used to improve regional policy. For instance, significance of home market potential emphasizes the importance of transport infrastructure. Significance of agglomeration effects implies that if a sufficiently large number of firms work in a city, performance of each firm improves.

  9. Aspects of decision support in water management--example Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) I--spatially differentiated evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ute; Brüggemann, Rainer; Pudenz, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    Decisions about sustainable development demand spatially differentiated evaluations. As an example, we demonstrate the evaluation of water management strategies in the cities of Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) with respect to their ecological effects in 14 sections of the surface water system. Two decision support systems were compared, namely PROMETHEE, which is designed to obtain a clear decision (linear ranking), and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), normally providing more than one favourable solution (partial order). By PROMETHEE, the spatial differentiation had unwanted effects on the result, negating the stakeholders determined weighting of indicators. Therefore, the stakeholder can barely benefit from the convenience of obtaining a clear decision (linear ranking). In contrast, the result obtained by HDT was not influenced by spatial differentiation. Furthermore, HDT provided helpful tools to analyse the evaluation result, such as the concept of antagonistic indicators to discover conflicts in the evaluation process.

  10. Pod systems: an equivariant ordinary differential equation approach to dynamical systems on a spatial domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmhirst, Toby; Stewart, Ian; Doebeli, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present a class of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which we call 'pod systems', that offers a new perspective on dynamical systems defined on a spatial domain. Such systems are typically studied as partial differential equations, but pod systems bring the analytic techniques of ODE theory to bear on the problems, and are thus able to study behaviours and bifurcations that are not easily accessible to the standard methods. In particular, pod systems are specifically designed to study spatial dynamical systems that exhibit multi-modal solutions. A pod system is essentially a linear combination of parametrized functions in which the coefficients and parameters are variables whose dynamics are specified by a system of ODEs. That is, pod systems are concerned with the dynamics of functions of the form Ψ(s, t) = y 1 (t) φ(s; x 1 (t)) + ··· + y N (t) φ(s; x N (t)), where s in R n is the spatial variable and φ: R n × R d → R. The parameters x i in R d and coefficients y i in R are dynamic variables which evolve according to some system of ODEs, x-dot i = G i (x, y) and y-dot i = H i (x, y), for i = 1, ..., N. The dynamics of Ψ in function space can then be studied through the dynamics of the x and y in finite dimensions. A vital feature of pod systems is that the ODEs that specify the dynamics of the x and y variables are not arbitrary; restrictions on G i and H i are required to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ in function space are well defined (that is, that trajectories are unique). One important restriction is symmetry in the ODEs which arises because Ψ is invariant under permutations of the indices of the (x i , y i ) pairs. However, this is not the whole story, and the primary goal of this paper is to determine the necessary structure of the ODEs explicitly to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ are well defined

  11. The Impact of Residual Vision in Spatial Skills of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2011-01-01

    Loss of vision is believed to have a great impact on the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The aims of the present study are to examine the performance of individuals with visual impairments on spatial tasks and the impact of residual vision on processing these tasks. In all, 28 individuals with visual impairments--blindness or low…

  12. National Spatial Data Clearinghouses: Worldwide development and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crompvoets, J.W.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years many countries have spent considerable resources on developing their own National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) in order to manage and utilise spatial data assets more efficiently, reduce the cost of data production, and eliminate duplication of data acquisition. One of

  13. Preliminary experimental insights into differential heat impact among lithic artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bustos-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thermally altered and broken flint artifacts is common at archaeological sites. Most studies focus their attention on the effects of heat treatment on flint to improve knapping qualities, disregarding the effects of fire over flint under uncontrolled conditions. This paper aims to show how under uncontrolled heating processes flint artifacts develop different heat alterations (such as levels of breakage, presence of scales, etc. as a result of vertical distribution, volume or raw material and to establish a gradient of rock changes and behavior. Artifacts where macroscopically analyzed and a series of uncontrolled heating experiments through the distribution of flint blanks under two hearths were carried out, allowing a comparison of the before and after of the blanks. Preliminary results show how levels of breakage, surface alteration or development of heat alteration features can be differentiated according to artifact volume, vertical distribution and level of surface alteration. Results also show how two different raw materials react differently to similar thermal impact, and how surface alteration reacts at different rhythm in the case of recycled artifacts. We conclude that levels of thermal alteration can be differentiated through macroscopic analysis of flint surface.

  14. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  15. The impact of spatial resolution on resolving spatial precipitation patterns in the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonekamp, P.N.J.; Collier, S.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Frequently used gridded meteorological datasets poorly represent precipitation in the Himalaya due to their relatively low spatial resolution and the associated coarse representation of the complex topography. Dynamical downscaling using high-resolution atmospheric models may improve the accuracy

  16. The impact of spatial resolution on resolving spatial precipitation patterns in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Bonekamp, P.N.J.; Collier, S.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Frequently used gridded meteorological datasets poorly represent precipitation in the Himalaya due to their relatively low spatial resolution and the associated coarse representation of the complex topography. Dynamical downscaling using high-resolution atmospheric models may improve the accuracy and quality of the precipitation fields, as simulations at higher spatial resolution are more capable of resolving the interaction between the topography and the atmosphere. However, most physics par...

  17. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed....

  18. Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Biochar Application Through Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, I.; Archontoulis, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to study the environmental (emissions, soil quality) and production (yield) impacts of biochar application at regional scales we coupled the APSIM-Biochar model with the pSIMS parallel platform. So far the majority of biochar research has been concentrated on lab to field studies to advance scientific knowledge. Regional scale assessments are highly needed to assist decision making. The overall objective of this simulation study was to identify areas in the USA that have the most gain environmentally from biochar's application, as well as areas which our model predicts a notable yield increase due to the addition of biochar. We present the modifications in both APSIM biochar and pSIMS components that were necessary to facilitate these large scale model runs across several regions in the United States at a resolution of 5 arcminutes. This study uses the AgMERRA global climate data set (1980-2010) and the Global Soil Dataset for Earth Systems modeling as a basis for creating its simulations, as well as local management operations for maize and soybean cropping systems and different biochar application rates. The regional scale simulation analysis is in progress. Preliminary results showed that the model predicts that high quality soils (particularly those common to Iowa cropping systems) do not receive much, if any, production benefit from biochar. However, soils with low soil organic matter ( 0.5%) do get a noteworthy yield increase of around 5-10% in the best cases. We also found N2O emissions to be spatial and temporal specific; increase in some areas and decrease in some other areas due to biochar application. In contrast, we found increases in soil organic carbon and plant available water in all soils (top 30 cm) due to biochar application. The magnitude of these increases (% change from the control) were larger in soil with low organic matter (below 1.5%) and smaller in soils with high organic matter (above 3%) and also dependent on biochar

  19. [Occurrence and spatial differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soils from Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Cao, Shan-Ping; Sun, Jian-Lin; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-01

    188 surface soil samples were collected in Shenzhen of China to determine the occurrence and spatial differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), based on which we studied the correlation between PAHs concentrations and urbanization levels, as well as the PAHs ecological risk. The total concentrations of 28 PAHs (sigma28 PAHs), 16 EPA PAHs (sigma 16 PAHs) and 7 carcinogenic PAHs (sigma7 CarPAHs) ranged from 5 to 7939 ng x g(-1), 2 to 6745 ng x g(-1) and not detected to 3786 ng x g(-1), respectively. 8 kinds of land use types according to sigma16 PAHs average levels in descending order were: transportation lands, commercial lands, industrial lands, agricultural lands, residential lands, urban green space, orchards and woodland. And sigma16 PAHs of construction and non-construction lands samples were mainly derived from combustion of various fossil fuels with contribution of 75.1% and 68.2%, respectively. Significant positive correlation was also found between PAHs concentrations of high molecular weight and urbanization levels. And PAHs pollution in the top soils of Shenzhen was at a low-end level of the world.

  20. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  1. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  2. Social and Spatial Continuities and Differentiations among Portuguese Ciganos: Regional Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Maria Manuela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of people and societies marked by ethnic, social, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity is a subject that still generates controversies in contemporary societies. The “Ciganos’ situation” is an unavoidable issue that crosses the boundaries of different European countries, which leads to controversy and ambivalence in the so-called multicultural and/or intercultural societies characterised by the principle of universalism. In Portugal, despite the social and economic transformations that have occurred, the problems of exclusion and poverty among Ciganos persist. They are still considered the poorest ethnic group, with the worst housing conditions, lest schooling and the main target of racism and discrimination. The Portuguese Ciganos are not a homogeneous community. The diversity and plurality are not always easy to grasp by the glare generated by the adoption of interpretive perspectives that are reductively linear and deterministic of the Portuguese Ciganos. For the purpose of outlining a national picture of Portuguese Ciganos, a national study was developed that combines both qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches. The central goal of this article is to present the main results obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out to Ciganos persons and to discuss the social and spatial continuities and differentiations among Ciganos in Portugal.

  3. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Boasen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG. However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG. With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13 in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  4. Task context impacts visual object processing differentially across the cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Baker, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception reflects an integration of “bottom-up” (sensory-driven) and “top-down” (internally generated) signals. Although models of visual processing often emphasize the central role of feed-forward hierarchical processing, less is known about the impact of top-down signals on complex visual representations. Here, we investigated whether and how the observer’s goals modulate object processing across the cortex. We examined responses elicited by a diverse set of objects under six distinct tasks, focusing on either physical (e.g., color) or conceptual properties (e.g., man-made). Critically, the same stimuli were presented in all tasks, allowing us to investigate how task impacts the neural representations of identical visual input. We found that task has an extensive and differential impact on object processing across the cortex. First, we found task-dependent representations in the ventral temporal and prefrontal cortex. In particular, although object identity could be decoded from the multivoxel response within task, there was a significant reduction in decoding across tasks. In contrast, the early visual cortex evidenced equivalent decoding within and across tasks, indicating task-independent representations. Second, task information was pervasive and present from the earliest stages of object processing. However, although the responses of the ventral temporal, prefrontal, and parietal cortex enabled decoding of both the type of task (physical/conceptual) and the specific task (e.g., color), the early visual cortex was not sensitive to type of task and could only be used to decode individual physical tasks. Thus, object processing is highly influenced by the behavioral goal of the observer, highlighting how top-down signals constrain and inform the formation of visual representations. PMID:24567402

  5. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part III. Modelling the effects of N-deposition on the biodiversity of plant communities in temperate forests; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht III. Modellierung der Wirkung der Stickstoff-Deposition auf die biologische Vielfalt der Pflanzengesellschaften von Waeldern der gemaessigten Breiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Martin [Waldkunde-Institut Eberswalde GmbH - W.I.E., Bad Freienwalde (Oder) (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physico-chemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at the Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde concentrated on modeling the effect of N-deposition on plant biodiversity in forests of the Northeast German lowlands. The model approach is based on 722 probability density functions modeling the distribution of about 400 plant species over chemical top-soil parameters C/N-ratio and pH-value. On this base an indicator value model was developed and applied to the analysis of forest vegetation dynamics due to N-deposition-induced top soil dynamics since the middle of the last century. Threshold values for deposition-induced changes of top soil were derived for most important forest ecosystems types on sites not influenced by ground water. These threshold values correspond to four different classes of endangering of plant biodiversity. Coupling with the biogeochemical process model of IMK-IFU yielded projections of endangering of plant biodiversity for selected forest sites up to the year 2050. (orig.)

  6. Generating spatial precipitation ensembles: impact of temporal correlation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, O.; Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Weerts, A. H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-09-01

    Sound spatially distributed rainfall fields including a proper spatial and temporal error structure are of key interest for hydrologists to force hydrological models and to identify uncertainties in the simulated and forecasted catchment response. The current paper presents a temporally coherent error identification method based on time-dependent multivariate spatial conditional simulations, which are conditioned on preceding simulations. A sensitivity analysis and real-world experiment are carried out within the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. Precipitation fields are simulated for pixels of 10 km × 10 km resolution. Uncertainty analyses in the simulated fields focus on (1) the number of previous simulation hours on which the new simulation is conditioned, (2) the advection speed of the rainfall event, (3) the size of the catchment considered, and (4) the rain gauge density within the catchment. The results for a sensitivity analysis show for typical advection speeds >20 km h-1, no uncertainty is added in terms of across ensemble spread when conditioned on more than one or two previous hourly simulations. However, for the real-world experiment, additional uncertainty can still be added when conditioning on a larger number of previous simulations. This is because for actual precipitation fields, the dynamics exhibit a larger spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, by thinning the observation network with 50%, the added uncertainty increases only slightly and the cross-validation shows that the simulations at the unobserved locations are unbiased. Finally, the first-order autocorrelation coefficients show clear temporal coherence in the time series of the areal precipitation using the time-dependent multivariate conditional simulations, which was not the case using the time-independent univariate conditional simulations. The presented work can be easily implemented within a hydrological calibration and data assimilation framework and can be used as an

  7. Generating spatial precipitation ensembles: impact of temporal correlation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rakovec

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound spatially distributed rainfall fields including a proper spatial and temporal error structure are of key interest for hydrologists to force hydrological models and to identify uncertainties in the simulated and forecasted catchment response. The current paper presents a temporally coherent error identification method based on time-dependent multivariate spatial conditional simulations, which are conditioned on preceding simulations. A sensitivity analysis and real-world experiment are carried out within the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. Precipitation fields are simulated for pixels of 10 km × 10 km resolution. Uncertainty analyses in the simulated fields focus on (1 the number of previous simulation hours on which the new simulation is conditioned, (2 the advection speed of the rainfall event, (3 the size of the catchment considered, and (4 the rain gauge density within the catchment. The results for a sensitivity analysis show for typical advection speeds >20 km h−1, no uncertainty is added in terms of across ensemble spread when conditioned on more than one or two previous hourly simulations. However, for the real-world experiment, additional uncertainty can still be added when conditioning on a larger number of previous simulations. This is because for actual precipitation fields, the dynamics exhibit a larger spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, by thinning the observation network with 50%, the added uncertainty increases only slightly and the cross-validation shows that the simulations at the unobserved locations are unbiased. Finally, the first-order autocorrelation coefficients show clear temporal coherence in the time series of the areal precipitation using the time-dependent multivariate conditional simulations, which was not the case using the time-independent univariate conditional simulations. The presented work can be easily implemented within a hydrological calibration and data assimilation

  8. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chuanglin; Liu, Haimeng; Li, Guangdong; Sun, Dongqi; Miao, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variati...

  9. Augmented GNSS Differential Corrections Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation Sensitivity to Spatial Correlation Modeling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazelie Kassabian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs. This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold.

  10. Impact of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation on tumor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chalise

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary bladder cancer is classified as urothelial or non-urothelial. Ninenty percent of bladder cancer are urothelial and has propensity for divergent differentiation. Squamous differentiation is associated with unfavourable prognostic features. The aim of this study is to determine the significance of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation in relation to tumor stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion in radical cystectomy and partial cystectomy specimen.Materials and methods: This prospective study was done among 51 patients who underwent radical cystectomy or partial cystectomy at Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital from 1st August 2013 to 31st December 2015. Received specimen was grossed following standard protocol and histopathological evaluation was done in relation to tumor type, depth of invasion, Lymphovascular and perineural invasion.Results: Pure urothelial carcinoma comprises 47.1% of cases. Among the divergent differentiation, urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation was the commonest one (39.2% followed by glandular differentiation (5.9%, sarcomatoid differentiation (3.9%, clear cell variant (2.0% and squamous along with sarcomatoid variant (2.0%. Statistical significant correlation was found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and tumor stage (p<0.012. Statistically significant correlation was also found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.012 as well as perineural invasion (p=0.037.Conclusion:  Most common divergent differentiation was squamous differentiation. Urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation was associated with higher stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion. So it is mandatory to search for the divergent differentiation in urothelial carcinoma as this may be associated with unfavourable prognosis.

  11. Temporal and spatial scaling impacts on extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, B.; Berg, P.; Haerter, J. O.; Jacob, D.; Moseley, C.

    2015-01-01

    Both in the current climate and in the light of climate change, understanding of the causes and risk of precipitation extremes is essential for protection of human life and adequate design of infrastructure. Precipitation extreme events depend qualitatively on the temporal and spatial scales at which they are measured, in part due to the distinct types of rain formation processes that dominate extremes at different scales. To capture these differences, we first filter large datasets of high-resolution radar measurements over Germany (5 min temporally and 1 km spatially) using synoptic cloud observations, to distinguish convective and stratiform rain events. In a second step, for each precipitation type, the observed data are aggregated over a sequence of time intervals and spatial areas. The resulting matrix allows a detailed investigation of the resolutions at which convective or stratiform events are expected to contribute most to the extremes. We analyze where the statistics of the two types differ and discuss at which resolutions transitions occur between dominance of either of the two precipitation types. We characterize the scales at which the convective or stratiform events will dominate the statistics. For both types, we further develop a mapping between pairs of spatially and temporally aggregated statistics. The resulting curve is relevant when deciding on data resolutions where statistical information in space and time is balanced. Our study may hence also serve as a practical guide for modelers, and for planning the space-time layout of measurement campaigns. We also describe a mapping between different pairs of resolutions, possibly relevant when working with mismatched model and observational resolutions, such as in statistical bias correction.

  12. Adolescent binge drinking linked to abnormal spatial working memory brain activation: differential gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F

    2011-10-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Heat stress and occupational health and safety – spatial and temporal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of climatic health hazards on the general population has been discussed in many studies but limited focus is placed on developing a relationship between climate and its effects on occupational health. Long working hours with high physical activity can cause health problems for workers ranging from mild heat cramps to severe heat stroke leading to death. The paper presents the possible risk of heat hazard to outdoor workers, using the example of Warsaw. The heat stress hazard, defined by WBGT values above 26 and 28°C and UTCI above 32 and 38°C, is assessed from two perspectives: its spatial distribution on a local scale and its temporal changes during the 21st century due to climate change. City centre and industrial districts were identified as the places with the greatest heat stress hazard. The number of heat stress days in a year (as predicted for the 21st century is increasing, meaning that heat-related illnesses are more likely to have a direct impact on workers’ health.

  14. Density dependence of the fine-differential disturbed gamma-gamma-spatial correlation in gaseous 111InI-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetter, K.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for measuring a time-differential disturbed angular correlation was developed. Using this instrument the disturbance of the spatial correlation of the γ-quanta of the 171-245 keV γ-γ-cascade in 111 Cd was examined in dependence of the density of the gaseous 111 InI-systems and the time difference between the emission of the both γ-quanta. (BBOE)

  15. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  16. Genetic differentiation across multiple spatial scales of the Red Sea of the corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Monroe, Alison

    2015-12-01

    Observing populations at different spatial scales gives greater insight into the specific processes driving genetic differentiation and population structure. Here we determined population connectivity across multiple spatial scales in the Red Sea to determine the population structures of two reef building corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa. The Red sea is a 2,250 km long body of water with extremely variable latitudinal environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and microsatellite markers were used to determine distinct lineages and to look for genetic differentiation among sampling sites. No distinctive population structure across the latitudinal gradient was discovered within this study suggesting a phenotypic plasticity of both these species to various environments. Stylophora pistillata displayed a heterogeneous distribution of three distinct genetic populations on both a fine and large scale. Fst, Gst, and Dest were all significant (p-value<0.05) and showed moderate genetic differentiation between all sampling sites. However this seems to be byproduct of the heterogeneous distribution, as no distinct genetic population breaks were found. Stylophora pistillata showed greater population structure on a fine scale suggesting genetic selection based on fine scale environmental variations. However, further environmental and oceanographic data is needed to make more inferences on this structure at small spatial scales. This study highlights the deficits of knowledge of both the Red Sea and coral plasticity in regards to local environmental conditions.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  18. Gravitational Forces in the Spatial Impacts of Urban Sprawl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Noronha Vaz, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    Urban sprawl has become an increasing concern in Europe, given the abandonment of rural areas and loss of natural landscapes. In southern Europe remarkable changes have been witnessed in the last few decades concerning land-use and socio-economic growth. Much of this change has had an impact on the

  19. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M

    2015-06-16

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation.

  20. Impact of spatial dimension on structural ordering in metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Tanaka, Hajime; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2017-08-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) have so far attracted considerable attention for their applications as bulk materials. However, new physics and applications often emerge by dimensional reduction from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D). Here, we study, by molecular dynamics simulations, how the liquid-to-glass transition of a binary Cu_{50}Zr_{50} MG is affected by spatial dimensionality. We find clear evidence that crystal-like structural ordering controls both dynamic heterogeneity and slow dynamics, and thus plays a crucial role in the formation of the 2DMG. Although the 2DMG reproduces the dynamical behaviors of its 3D counterpart by considering Mermin-Wagner-type fluctuations specific to 2D, this atomic-scale structural mechanism is essentially different from that for the 3DMG in which icosahedral clusters incompatible with crystallographic symmetry play a key role in glassy behaviors. Our finding provides a structural mechanism for the formation of 2DMGs, which cannot be inferred from the knowledge of 3DMGs. The results suggest a structural basis for the glass transition in 2DMG and provide possible explanations for some previous experimental observations in ultrathin film MGs.

  1. Impact of precipitation spatial resolution on the hydrological response of an integrated distributed water resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Suhua; Sonnenborg, Torben; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable to hydrological models, and the spatial variability of the input is expected to impact the hydrological response predicted by a distributed model. In this study, the effect of spatial resolution of precipitation on runoff , recharge and groundwater head...... of the total catchment and runoff discharge hydrograph at watershed outlet. On the other hand, groundwater recharge and groundwater head were both aff ected. The impact of the spatial resolution of precipitation input is reduced with increasing catchment size. The effect on stream discharge is relatively low...... was analyzed in the Alergaarde catchment in Denmark. Six different precipitation spatial resolutions were used as inputs to a physically based, distributed hydrological model, the MIKE SHE model. The results showed that the resolution of precipitation input had no apparent effect on annual water balance...

  2. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  3. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-05-01

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Accuracy and impact of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration to improve indoor residual spraying spatial coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J; Pollard, Derek; Winters, Anna M; Winters, Benjamin; Sikaala, Chadwick; Renn, Silvia; Larsen, David A

    2018-02-23

    the use of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration. These spatial aids can guide costly IRS planning and implementation leading to attainment of higher spatial coverage, and likely improve disease impact.

  5. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  6. Modeling the Impacts of Spatial Heterogeneity in the Castor Watershed on Runoff, Sediment, and Phosphorus Loss Using SWAT: I. Impacts of Spatial Variability of Soil Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluwade, Alaba; Madramootoo, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Spatial accuracy of hydrologic modeling inputs influences the output from hydrologic models. A pertinent question is to know the optimal level of soil sampling or how many soil samples are needed for model input, in order to improve model predictions. In this study, measured soil properties were clustered into five different configurations as inputs to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) simulation of the Castor River watershed (11-km 2 area) in southern Quebec, Canada. SWAT is a process-based model that predicts the impacts of climate and land use management on water yield, sediment, and nutrient fluxes. SWAT requires geographical information system inputs such as the digital elevation model as well as soil and land use maps. Mean values of soil properties are used in soil polygons (soil series); thus, the spatial variability of these properties is neglected. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of spatial variability of soil properties on the prediction of runoff, sediment, and total phosphorus using SWAT. The spatial clustering of the measured soil properties was undertaken using the regionalized with dynamically constrained agglomerative clustering and partitioning method. Measured soil data were clustered into 5, 10, 15, 20, and 24 heterogeneous regions. Soil data from the Castor watershed which have been used in previous studies was also set up and termed "Reference". Overall, there was no significant difference in runoff simulation across the five configurations including the reference. This may be attributable to SWAT's use of the soil conservation service curve number method in flow simulation. Therefore having high spatial resolution inputs for soil data may not necessarily improve predictions when they are used in hydrologic modeling.

  7. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000-13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species' Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of cacao.

  8. Spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on climatic suitability using the Universal Thermal Climate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Xueming; Xi, Jianchao; Feng, Zhangxian

    2017-11-01

    As a result of global warming and the gradual exacerbation of the urban heat island effect, vacationing in the summer to escape the heat has become a compelling tourism demand. This study examines the spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on meteorological observations and tourism resources data from 1960 to 2014. The Universal Thermal Climate Index and analytic hierarchy process model were used to analyze climatic suitability. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of China's summer tourism resources exhibits a double-peak characteristic, with concentrations in the mid- and high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Second, the most influential destinations in China based on the composite index were Guiyang, Qingdao, Harbin, and Dalian. These findings can helpful for people who are planning their summer vacations, as well as tourism managers who benefit from such increases in the number of tourists.

  9. Impact of the spatial structure on the returns of the stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Díaz Contreras

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, economies are integrated in commercial, financial, social, and cultural terms. Integration facilitates the transmission of impacts associated with economic events originated in one region to other regions, generating unexpected fluctuations at domestic level. Hence, investors may face higher uncertainty and unexpected effects on economic development may be observed. This research shows a significant spatial dependence in stock returns for the America’s countries. Therefore, we demonstrate that there exist spatial externalities, which facilitate that changes affecting to stock returns of each country are spread through the continent, impacting also to the rest of American countries’ returns.

  10. Research on the Spatial Differentiation and Driving Factors of Tourism Enterprises’ Efficiency: Chinese Scenic Spots, Travel Agencies, and Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sustainable industry in the economy that optimizes the industrial structure. Thus, as a core part of this market, tourism enterprises perform a key role in the effective operation of this industry. This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA and Malmquist index (MI models to calculate the efficiency of Chinese tourism enterprises between 2005 and 2014. Results showed that: (1 The efficiency and the total factor productivity change index (TFPC of tourism enterprises remained low, and both have decreased. (2 The efficiency of regional tourism enterprises across China cloud be characterized as high in the east region, low in the central region, and high in both northeast and western regions. (3 The efficiency levels of the cities of Beijing and Shanghai were ahead of the country over the period of this study, while Chongqing, Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia all possess a number of obvious advantages in the western region. (4 Centers of overall tourism enterprise efficiency mainly moved in a southeast-to-northwest direction over the period of this research. (5 The spatial autocorrelation of tourism enterprise efficiencies is also assessed in this study, and the results show that the comprehensive efficiency (CE of tourism enterprises in southeastern coastal regions of China tended to a certain spatial agglomeration effect, while the correlation between the central region and northern China was not significant. (6 The Geodetector model is applied to analyze the key factors driving the spatial differentiation of tourism enterprise efficiencies, and the results show that the degree of opening to the outside world, potential human capital, and traffic conditions were the most important factors driving spatial differentiation in the efficiency of tourism enterprises.

  11. Differential melt scaling for oblique impacts on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Wong, Stephanie M. Wong; Kring, David A. Kring

    2012-01-01

    Analytical estimates of melt volumes produced by a given projectile and contained in a given impact crater are derived as a function of impact velocity, impact angle, planetary gravity, target and projectile densities, and specific internal energy of melting. Applications to impact events and impact craters on the Earth, Moon, and Mars are demonstrated and discussed. The most probable oblique impact (45°) produces ∼1.6 times less melt volume than a vertical impact, and ∼1.6 and 3.7 times more melt volume than impacts with 30° and 15° trajectories, respectively. The melt volume for a particular crater diameter increases with planetary gravity, so a crater on Earth should have more melt than similar-size craters on Mars and the Moon. The melt volume for a particular projectile diameter does not depend on gravity, but has a strong dependence on impact velocity, so the melt generated by a given projectile on the Moon is significantly larger than on Mars. Higher surface temperatures and geothermal gradients increase melt production, as do lower energies of melting. Collectively, the results imply thinner central melt sheets and a smaller proportion of melt particles in impact breccias on the Moon and Mars than on Earth. These effects are illustrated in a comparison of the Chicxulub crater on Earth, linked to the Cretaceous–Tertiary mass extinction, Gusev crater on Mars, where the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed, and Tsiolkovsky crater on the Moon. The results are comparable to those obtained from field and spacecraft observations, other analytical expressions, and hydrocode simulations.

  12. Differential effects of non-informative vision and visual interference on haptic spatial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volcic, Robert; Van Rheede, Joram J.; Postma, Albert; Kappers, Astrid M L

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-informative vision and visual interference upon haptic spatial processing, which supposedly derives from an interaction between an allocentric and egocentric reference frame. To this end, a haptic parallelity task served as baseline

  13. Changing characteristics and spatial differentiation of spring precipitation in Southwest China during 1961-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪兰; 张强; 张俊国; 胡文超; 郭俊琴; 王胜

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze spring precipitation from 92 meteorological stations spanning between 1961 and 2012 to understand temporal–spatial variability and change of spring precipitation over Southwest China. Various analysis meth-ods are used for different purposes, including empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and rotated EOF (REOF) for analyzing spatial structure change of precipitation anomaly, and Mann–Kendall testing method to determine whether there were abrupt changes during the analyzed time span. We find that the first spatial mode of the precipitation has a domain uniform structure;the second is dominated by a spatial dipole;and the third contains five variability centers. 2000s is the decade of largest amount of precipitation while 1990s the decade of smallest amount of precipitation. Year-to-year differ-ence of that region is large:the amount of the largest precipitation year doubles that of the smallest precipitation year. We also find that spring precipitation in Southwest China experienced a few abrupt changes: sudden increase at 1966, sudden decrease at 1979, and sudden increase at 1995. We speculate that the spring precipitation will increase gradually in the next two decades.

  14. Changing characteristics and spatial differentiation of spring precipitation in Southwest China during 1961–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong-Lan; Zhang Qiang; Zhang Jun-Guo; Hu Wen-Chao; Guo Jun-Qin; Wang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze spring precipitation from 92 meteorological stations spanning between 1961 and 2012 to understand temporal–spatial variability and change of spring precipitation over Southwest China. Various analysis methods are used for different purposes, including empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and rotated EOF (REOF) for analyzing spatial structure change of precipitation anomaly, and the Mann–Kendall testing method to determine whether there were abrupt changes during the analyzed time span. We find that the first spatial mode of the precipitation has a domain uniform structure; the second is dominated by a spatial dipole; and the third contains five variability centers. The 2000s is the decade with the largest amount of precipitation while the 1990s is the decade with the smallest amount of precipitation. The year-to-year difference of that region is large: the amount of the largest precipitation year doubles that of the smallest precipitation year. We also find that spring precipitation in Southwest China experienced a few abrupt changes: a sudden increase at 1966, a sudden decrease at 1979, and a sudden increase at 1995. We speculate that the spring precipitation will increase gradually in the next two decades. (paper)

  15. High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

    OpenAIRE

    Keith M. Drake; Meghan R. Longacre; Todd MacKenzie; Linda J. Titus; Michael L. Beach; Andrew G. Rundle; Madeline A. Dalton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among numerous health benefits, sports participation has been shown to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Schools represent an ideal environment for increasing sports participation, but it is unclear how access and choice influence participation and whether characteristics of the school sports program differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic pro...

  16. The impact of path crossing on visuo-spatial serial memory: encoding or rehearsal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    The determinants of visuo-spatial serial memory have been the object of little research, despite early evidence that not all sequences are equally remembered. Recently, empirical evidence was reported indicating that the complexity of the path formed by the to-be-remembered locations impacted on recall performance, defined for example by the presence of crossings in the path formed by successive locations (Parmentier, Elford, & Maybery, 2005). In this study, we examined whether this effect reflects rehearsal or encoding processes. We examined the effect of a retention interval and spatial interference on the ordered recall of spatial sequences with and without path crossings. Path crossings decreased recall performance, as did a retention interval. In line with the encoding hypothesis, but in contrast with the rehearsal hypothesis, the effect of crossing was not affected by the retention interval nor by tapping. The possible nature of the impact of path crossing on encoding mechanisms is discussed.

  17. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  18. Spatial differentiation of gene expression in Aspergillus niger colony grown for sugar beet pulp utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Isabelle; Zhou, Miaomiao; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; Downes, Damien J.; Todd, Richard B.; Kloezen, Wendy; Post, Harm; Heck, Albert J. R.; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of plant biomass to fermentable sugars is of critical importance for the use of plant materials for biofuels. Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous organisms and major plant biomass degraders. Single colonies of some fungal species can colonize massive areas as large as five soccer stadia. During growth, the mycelium encounters heterogeneous carbon sources. Here we assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a major determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus nige...

  19. Spatial Differentiation of Landscape Values in the Murray River Region of Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Pfueller, Sharron; Whitelaw, Paul; Winter, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    This research advances the understanding of the location of perceived landscape values through a statistically based approach to spatial analysis of value densities. Survey data were obtained from a sample of people living in and using the Murray River region, Australia, where declining environmental quality prompted a reevaluation of its conservation status. When densities of 12 perceived landscape values were mapped using geographic information systems (GIS), valued places clustered along the entire river bank and in associated National/State Parks and reserves. While simple density mapping revealed high value densities in various locations, it did not indicate what density of a landscape value could be regarded as a statistically significant hotspot or distinguish whether overlapping areas of high density for different values indicate identical or adjacent locations. A spatial statistic Getis-Ord Gi* was used to indicate statistically significant spatial clusters of high value densities or “hotspots”. Of 251 hotspots, 40% were for single non-use values, primarily spiritual, therapeutic or intrinsic. Four hotspots had 11 landscape values. Two, lacking economic value, were located in ecologically important river red gum forests and two, lacking wilderness value, were near the major towns of Echuca-Moama and Albury-Wodonga. Hotspots for eight values showed statistically significant associations with another value. There were high associations between learning and heritage values while economic and biological diversity values showed moderate associations with several other direct and indirect use values. This approach may improve confidence in the interpretation of spatial analysis of landscape values by enhancing understanding of value relationships.

  20. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001-2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and -21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  1. The Impact of Varying Statutory Arrangements on Spatial Data Sharing and Access in Regional NRM Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial information plays an important role in many social, environmental and economic decisions and increasingly acknowledged as a national resource essential for wider societal and environmental benefits. Natural Resource Management is one area where spatial information can be used for improved planning and decision making processes. In Australia, state government organisations are the custodians of spatial information necessary for natural resource management and regional NRM bodies are responsible to regional delivery of NRM activities. The access and sharing of spatial information between government agencies and regional NRM bodies is therefore as an important issue for improving natural resource management outcomes. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of spatial information access, sharing and use with varying statutory arrangements and its impacts on spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in catchment management sector in Australia. Further, it critically examined whether any trends and significant variations exist due to different institutional arrangements (statutory versus non-statutory) or not. A survey method was used to collect primary data from 56 regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies responsible for catchment management in Australia. Descriptive statistics method was used to show the similarities and differences between statutory and non-statutory arrangements. The key factors which influence sharing and access to spatial information are also explored. The results show the current statutory and administrative arrangements and regional focus for natural resource management is reasonable from a spatial information management perspective and provides an opportunity for building SDI at the catchment scale. However, effective institutional arrangements should align catchment SDI development activities with sub-national and national SDI development activities to address catchment management issues. We found minor

  2. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  3. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  4. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siyoum, A.D.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Pankhurst, A.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable

  5. Electron-impact ionization doubly differential cross sections of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Fursa, Dmitry V; Stelbovics, Andris T

    2003-01-01

    The convergent close-coupling (CCC) method is applied to the calculation of electron-helium ionization doubly differential cross sections (DDCSs) at low to intermediate incident energies. We re-examine the CCC calculations and measurements of Roeder et al (1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 1309-22) by making allowance for the step-function behaviour of the underlying CCC-calculated amplitudes. As done previously, the experimental DDCS were normalized at energies below 100 eV using the 100 eV CCC calculation to determine analyser properties at several secondary energies. In addition, substantially larger calculations are presented, to check the convergence. The agreement between the experiment and the calculations as a whole is much improved on the situation reported earlier

  6. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The Magic Carpet (MC) is a new electronic device translating the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Test (CBT) to navigational space. In this study, the MC and the CBT were used to assess spatial memory for navigation and for reaching, respectively. Our hypothesis was that school-age children would not treat MC stimuli as navigational paths, assimilating them to reaching sequences. Ninety-one healthy children aged 6 to 11 years and 18 adults were enrolled. Overall short-term memory performance (span) on both tests, effects of sequence geometry, and error patterns according to a new classification were studied. Span increased with age on both tests, but relatively more in navigational than in reaching space, particularly in males. Sequence geometry specifically influenced navigation, not reaching. The number of body rotations along the path affected MC performance in children more than in adults, and in women more than in men. Error patterns indicated that navigational sequences were increasingly retained as global paths across development, in contrast to separately stored reaching locations. A sequence of spatial locations can be coded as a navigational path only if a cognitive switch from a reaching mode to a navigation mode occurs. This implies the integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames, of visual and idiothetic cues, and access to long-term memory. This switch is not yet fulfilled at school age due to immature executive functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part I. Simulations of nutrient cycle and leaching form German forest ecosystems considering changes in deposition and climate; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht I. Simulationen oekosystemarer Stoffumsetzungen und Stoffaustraege aus Waldoekosystemen in Duetschland unter Beruecksichtigung geaenderter Stoffeintraege und Klimabedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wochele, Sandra; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Grote, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (DE). Inst. for Meteorology and Climate Research Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physico-chemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Waldkunde Institute Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at IMK-IFU initially concentrated on the implementation of the soil acidification model SAFE into the biogeochemical model framework MoBiLE already developed at IMK-IFU. Based on different deposition and climate scenarios prediction of the soil C/N ratio, nitrogen losses (N{sub 2}O emissions) into the atmosphere and via nitrate leaching into the hydrosphere were made using the biogeochemical Forest-DNDC-SAFE model (realized from the MoBiLE framework). Additionally changes in base saturation and pH values were simulated for the period 1920-2060. Simulation results for 62 Level II sites in Germany show, that with the decline of the SO{sub 4}{sup -} deposition soil acidification could be mitigated, although sites with high nitrogen deposition (> 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) do recover slower than others with lower nitrogen deposition. At most sites the decline in nitrogen deposition did not yet lead to a regeneration concerning nutrient status (significant re-widening of the C/N ratio) and

  8. Spatial unmixing for environmental impact monitoring of mining using UAS and WV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Goossens, M.; Reusen, I.; Tote, C.

    2012-04-01

    The three principal activities of the mineral resources mining industry - mining, mineral processing and metallurgical extraction - all produce waste. The environmental impact of these activities depends on many factors, in particular, the type of mining and the size of the operation. The effects of the mining (extraction) stage tend to be mainly local, associated with surface disturbance, the production of large amounts of solid waste material, and the spread of chemically reactive particulate matter to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Many studies have shown the potential of remote sensing for environmental impact monitoring, e.g., [1]. However, its applicability has been limited due to the inherent spatial-spectral and temporal trade-off of most sensors. More recently, miniaturization of sensors makes it possible to capture color images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with a very high spatial resolution. In addition, the UAS can be deployed in a very flexible manner, allowing high temporal resolution imaging. More detailed spectral information is available from multispectral images, albeit at lower spatial resolution. Combining both types of images using image fusion can help to overcome the spatial-spectral trade-off and provide a new tool for more detailed monitoring of environmental impacts. Within the framework of the ImpactMin project, funded by the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission, the objective of this study is to implement and apply the spatial unmixing algorithm, as proposed by [2], on images of the 'Vihovici Coal Mine' area, located in the Mostar Valley, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A WorldView2 (WV2) satellite image will be employed, which provides 8-band multispectral data at a spatial resolution of 2m. High spatial resolution images, obtained by a SmartPlanes UAS, will provide RGB data with 0.05m spatial resolution. The spatial unmixing technique is based on the idea that a linear mixing model can be used to perform the downscaling of

  9. Geo-Spatial Support for Assessment of Anthropic Impact on Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Piragnolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a methodology where geo-spatial analysis tools are used to quantify risk derived from anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed with a focus on simplification and the quality of standard procedures set on flora and fauna protected by the European Directives. In this study case, the DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses is applied using spatial procedures in a geographical information system (GIS framework. This approach can be inserted in a multidimensional space as the analysis is applied to each threat, pressure and activity and also to each habitat and species, at the spatial and temporal scale. Threats, pressures and activities, stress and indicators can be managed by means of a geo-database and analyzed using spatial analysis functions in a tested GIS workflow environment. The method applies a matrix with risk values, and the final product is a geo-spatial representation of impact indicators, which can be used as a support for decision-makers at various levels (regional, national and European.

  10. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  11. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on Internet addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Romano

    Full Text Available The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.

  12. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on Internet addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michela; Osborne, Lisa A; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.

  13. Differential Psychological Impact of Internet Exposure on Internet Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Michela; Osborne, Lisa A.; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and aut...

  14. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  15. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Modeling spatial navigation in the presence of dynamic obstacles: a differential games approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darekar, Anuja; Goussev, Valery; McFadyen, Bradford J; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2018-03-01

    Obstacle circumvention strategies can be shaped by the dynamic interaction of an individual (evader) and an obstacle (pursuer). We have developed a mathematical model with predictive and emergent components, using experimental data from seven healthy young adults walking toward a target while avoiding collision with a stationary or moving obstacle (approaching head-on, or diagonally 30° left or right) in a virtual environment. Two linear properties from the predictive component enable the evader to predict the minimum distance between itself and the obstacle at all times, including the future intersection of trajectories. The emergent component uses the classical differential games model to solve for an optimal circumvention while reaching the target, wherein the locomotor strategy is influenced by the obstacle, target, and the evader velocity. Both model components were fitted to a different set of experimental data obtained from five poststroke and healthy participants to derive the minimum predicted distance (predictive component) and obstacle influence dimensions (emergent component) during circumvention. Minimum predicted distance between evader and pursuer was kept constant when the evader was closest to the obstacle in all participants. Obstacle influence dimensions varied depending on obstacle approach condition and preferred side of circumvention, reflecting differences in locomotor strategies between poststroke and healthy individuals. Additionally, important associations between model outputs and observed experimental outcomes were found. The model, supported by experimental data, suggests that both predictive and emergent processes can shape obstacle circumvention strategies in healthy and poststroke individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Obstacle circumvention during goal-directed locomotion is modeled with a new mathematical approach comprising both predictive and emergent elements. The major novelty is using differential games solutions to illustrate the

  17. Analysis of the impact of immigration on labour market using spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonyankina, Tatiana

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of immigration on employment and unemployment of a host country. The question to answer is: How does employment/unemployment in the host country change after an increase in number of immigrants? The analysis is taking into account only legal immigrants in recession period. The model is combining classical regression of cross-sectional data with spatial econometrics models where cross-section dependencies are captured by a spatial matrix. The intention is by using spatial models analyse the sensitivity of employment/unemployment rate on change in a share of immigration in a region. The used panel data are based on the Labour force survey and on available macro data in Eurostat for 3 European countries (Germany, Austria and Czech Republic) grouped into cells by NUTS regions in a recession period.

  18. Intelligent Virtual Reality and its Impact on Spatial Skills and Academic Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the training of intelligent virtual reality, through the use of computer games, can improve spatial skills especially visualization and enhances academic achievements. Through an experiment of using Tetris software, two objectives were achieved: developing spatial as well as intelligence skills and enhancing academic achievements, focusing on mathematics. This study followed studies dealing with the impact on putting the learner into action in 3d space software. During teaching a transition from 2d to 3d spatial perception and operation occurred. A positive transfer from 3d virtual reality rotation training to structural induction skills, by means of mental imaging, was also achieved. At the same time the motivation for learning was enhanced, without using extrinsic reinforcements. The duration of concentration while using the intelligent software increased gradually up to 60 minutes.

  19. Differential cross sections for single ionization of H2 by 75keV proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, U; Schulz, M; Madison, D H

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) and doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of H 2 by 75 keV proton impact using the molecular 3 body distorted wave Eikonal initial state (M3DW-EIS) approach. Previously published measured DDCS-P (differential in the projectile scattering angle and integrated over the ejected electron angles) found pronounced structures at relatively large angles which were interpreted as an interference resulting from the two-centered potential of the molecule.

  20. SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT. AN EXAMPLE OF COASTAL DISTRICTS OF ZACHODNIOPOMORSKIE VOIVODESHIP IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Klonowska-Matynia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to analyse and asses spatial diversity and seasonality of unemployment rate on labour market in selected seaside districts (rural, urban and rural-urban in the Zachodniopomorskie voivodeship in Poland. The following thesis was formulated: the location of the examined districts in the coastal zone determines their nature tourism and similar behaviour in the observed seasonal unemployment changes. Seasonal changes of the monthly unemployment rate were studied in the period 2001--2012. Data from the Central Statistical Office, Regional Data Bank and the Regional Labour Office in Szczecin were used in research process. The results confirm the authors’ assumptions about a relatively high sensitivity of the surveyed markets to seasonal changes, which is determined by the tourist nature of the area of the surveyed districts. There is no reason to assess that all the coastal districts react in a similar way. It has been observed that rural markets are more sensitive to seasonal unemployment changes in relation to the urban markets.

  1. Spatial control of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation using ion-beam induced thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cellular films can be obtained ion-beam irradiation and cell culture. • Film shapes were controlled by patterned irradiation. • Cellular films were firmly attached each other. • Tubular constructions were fabricated by wide-patterned irradiation. • Nerve growth direction was controlled by varying the pattern widths. - Abstract: In this study, cellular films were fabricated by ion-beam irradiation into poly-L-lactic acid sheets and cell culture. The cellular film shapes can be controlled by pattern masks. We performed spatial cell patterning using three types of cells: fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve-like cells. First, multi-layered cellular construct was fabricated by stacking fibroblast cellular films. When three cellular films were stacked and incubated, these films firmly attached to each other. Second, tubular constructs were fabricated by endothelial cell culture on linearly patterned surfaces with wide widths of 80, 120, 160, and 200 μm. The patterned cellular films were rounded into vessel-like structure. The diameters of the constructs depend upon the pattern widths. Finally, we controlled cell attachment and nerve growth of nerve-like cells by using linearly patterned surfaces with narrow widths of 10, 30, and 50 μm. Nerve growth direction was controlled by varying the pattern widths. In the case of 10 μm, the attached cells and nerve growth were straight on the patterned thin films. These cell patterning techniques are expected to have applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and in vitro tissue modeling

  2. The Inter-Disciplinary Impact of Computerized Application of Spatial Visualization on Motor and Concentration Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present inter-disciplinary research is aimed at investigating the impact of computerized application of spatial visualization on motor and concentration skills. An experiment composed of experimental and control groups for checking the central hypothesis among subjects of the same age group was carried out by physical education MA students. Virtual simulations offer MA students and teachers the unique opportunity to observe and manipulate normally inaccessible objects, variables and processes in real time. The research design focused on a qualitative research comparing the pupils' percents of success in spatial visualization and motor skills between pre- and post- training. The findings showed that just as the students realized the experimental group pupils' achievements, the computer's inter-disciplinary impact on motor performance and concentration skills became clear to the MA students. The virtual computerized training based on spatial visualization mostly contributed to the inter-disciplinary research, physical education and communication. All the findings lead to the conclusion that computerized application of spatial visualization seem to mediate between virtual reality and developing motor skills in real time involving penalty kick, basketball, jumping, etc.

  3. Oscillatory activity reflects differential use of spatial reference frames by sighted and blind individuals in tactile attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jonathan T W; Buchholz, Verena N; Föcker, Julia; Engel, Andreas K; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2015-08-15

    Touch can be localized either on the skin in anatomical coordinates, or, after integration with posture, in external space. Sighted individuals are thought to encode touch in both coordinate systems concurrently, whereas congenitally blind individuals exhibit a strong bias for using anatomical coordinates. We investigated the neural correlates of this differential dominance in the use of anatomical and external reference frames by assessing oscillatory brain activity during a tactile spatial attention task. The EEG was recorded while sighted and congenitally blind adults received tactile stimulation to uncrossed and crossed hands while detecting rare tactile targets at one cued hand only. In the sighted group, oscillatory alpha-band activity (8-12Hz) in the cue-target interval was reduced contralaterally and enhanced ipsilaterally with uncrossed hands. Hand crossing attenuated the degree of posterior parietal alpha-band lateralization, indicating that attention deployment was affected by external spatial coordinates. Beamforming suggested that this posture effect originated in the posterior parietal cortex. In contrast, cue-related lateralization of central alpha-band as well as of beta-band activity (16-24Hz) were unaffected by hand crossing, suggesting that these oscillations exclusively encode anatomical coordinates. In the blind group, central alpha-band activity was lateralized, but did not change across postures. The pattern of beta-band activity was indistinguishable between groups. Because the neural mechanisms for posterior alpha-band generation seem to be linked to developmental vision, we speculate that the lack of this neural mechanism in blind individuals is related to their preferred use of anatomical over external spatial codes in sensory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Telecommuting on Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Household Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Pendyala, Ram M.; Goulias, Konstandinos G.; Kitamura, Ryuichi

    1992-01-01

    A spatial and temporal analysis of travel diary data collected during the State of California Telecommuting Pilot project is performed to determine the impacts of telecommuting on household travel behavior. The analysis is based on geocoded trip data where missing trips and trip attributes have been augmented to the extent possible. The results confirm the earlier finding that the Pilot Project telecommuters substantially reduced travel; on telecommuting days, the telecommuters made virtually...

  5. Spatial connectivity, scaling, and temporal trajectories as emergent urban stormwater impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, T.; Gironas, J. A.; Hale, R. L.; Mejia, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban watersheds are structurally complex systems comprised of multiple components (e.g., streets, pipes, ponds, vegetated swales, wetlands, riparian corridors, etc.). These multiple engineered components interact in unanticipated and nontrivial ways with topographic conditions, climate variability, land use/land cover changes, and the underlying eco-hydrogeomorphic dynamics. Such interactions can result in emergent urban stormwater impacts with cascading effects that can negatively influence the overall functioning of the urban watershed. For example, the interaction among many detention ponds has been shown, in some situations, to synchronize flow volumes and ultimately lead to downstream flow amplifications and increased pollutant mobilization. Additionally, interactions occur at multiple temporal and spatial scales requiring that urban stormwater dynamics be represented at the long-term temporal (decadal) and across spatial scales (from the single lot to the watershed scale). In this study, we develop and implement an event-based, high-resolution, network hydro-engineering model (NHEM), and demonstrate an approach to reconstruct the long-term regional infrastructure and land use/land cover conditions of an urban watershed. As the study area, we select an urban watershed in the metropolitan area of Scottsdale, Arizona. Using the reconstructed landscapes to drive the NHEM, we find that distinct surficial, hydrologic connectivity patterns result from the intersection of hydrologic processes, infrastructure, and land use/land cover arrangements. These spatial patters, in turn, exhibit scaling characteristics. For example, the scaling of urban watershed dispersion mechanisms shows altered scaling exponents with respect to pre-urban conditions. For example, the scaling exponent associated with geomorphic dispersion tends to increase for urban conditions, reflecting increased surficial path heterogeneity. Both the connectivity and scaling results can be used to

  6. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  7. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  8. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2004-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  9. Does the edge effect impact on the measure of spatial accessibility to healthcare providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kihal, Wahida; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Souris, Marc; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-12-11

    Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application. This study was carried out in the department of Nord, France. The statistical unit we use is the French census block known as 'IRIS' (Ilot Regroupé pour l'Information Statistique), defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The geographical accessibility indicator used is the "Index of Spatial Accessibility" (ISA), based on the E2SFCA algorithm. We calculated ISA for the pregnant women population by selecting three types of healthcare providers: general practitioners, gynecologists and midwives. We compared ISA variation when accounting or not edge effect in urban and rural zones. The GIS method was then employed to determine global and local autocorrelation. Lastly, we compared the relationship between socioeconomic distress index and ISA, when accounting or not for the edge effect, to fully evaluate its impact. The results revealed that on average ISA when offer and demand beyond the boundary were included is slightly below ISA when not accounting for the edge effect, and we found that the IRIS value was more likely to deteriorate than improve. Moreover, edge effect impact can vary widely by health provider type. There is greater variability within the rural IRIS group than within the urban IRIS group. We found a positive correlation between socioeconomic distress variables and composite ISA. Spatial analysis results (such as Moran's spatial

  10. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. R. Mateo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale river models (GRMs are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  11. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Cherry May R.; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Champathong, Adisorn; Vaze, Jai; Oki, Taikan

    2017-10-01

    Global-scale river models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC) is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC) is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  12. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  13. Low Spatial Genetic Differentiation Associated with Rapid Recolonization in the New Zealand Fur Seal Arctocephalus forsteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Robertson, Bruce C; Salis, Alexander T; Kalinin, Aleksandr; Best, Hugh; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Population declines resulting from anthropogenic activities are of major consequence for the long-term survival of species because the resulting loss of genetic diversity can lead to extinction via the effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious mutations, and loss of adaptive potential. Otariid pinnipeds have been exploited commercially to near extinction with some species showing higher demographic resilience and recolonization potential than others. The New Zealand fur seal (NZFS) was heavily impacted by commercial sealing between the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but has recolonized its former range in southern Australia. The species has also recolonized its former range in New Zealand, yet little is known about the pattern of recolonization. Here, we first used 11 microsatellite markers (n = 383) to investigate the contemporary population structure and dispersal patterns in the NZFS (Arctocephalus forsteri). Secondly, we model postsealing recolonization with 1 additional mtDNA cytochrome b (n = 261) marker. Our data identified 3 genetic clusters: an Australian, a subantarctic, and a New Zealand one, with a weak and probably transient subdivision within the latter cluster. Demographic history scenarios supported a recolonization of the New Zealand coastline from remote west coast colonies, which is consistent with contemporary gene flow and with the species' high resilience. The present data suggest the management of distinct genetic units in the North and South of New Zealand along a genetic gradient. Assignment of individuals to their colony of origin was limited (32%) with the present data indicating the current microsatellite markers are unlikely sufficient to assign fisheries bycatch of NZFSs to colonies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates

  15. The Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene on Trauma and Spatial Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Miller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.

  16. The Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene on Trauma and Spatial Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica K; McDougall, Siné; Thomas, Sarah; Wiener, Jan

    2017-11-27

    The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.

  17. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  18. Facing the challenge of Arctic fisheries management within a context of spatially differentiated ecological-economic externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Sundet, Jan

    inherent in these species’ introductions. The challenges of effectively managing these species are particularly high, mainly due to their twofold role as invasive species and market commodities. Part of the balancing act needed for a solution to the spread of the RKC has been directed at spatial...... less open to the spread of invasive species are now responsible for the expansiveness of the problem. At stake are unique species and co-evolved systems that have taken millennia to develop. Even small-scale disturbances in the pristine Arctic ecosystems are likely to have outsized impacts both...... on an ecological and on an economic level. This work discusses optimal management approaches regarding threats from invasive species on an international scale in order to delineate international policy characteristics that may reduce overall damages and costs. The purposeful introduction of the Red King Crab (RKC...

  19. The impact of land use and spatial changes on desertification risk in degraded areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Wijitkosum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use, which relates to land cover, is one of the influential factors associated with desertification risk. A study was conducted on the impact of land use and spatial changes on desertification risk in Huay Sai Royal Development Study Centre in southern Thailand. The study used spatial analysis and the MEDALUS model to investigate the extent of land degradation, land use changes and desertification risk in the study area from 1990 to 2010. The Study examined three groups of factors: soils, climate and human activity to classify the severity of desertification risk. The study findings indicate that most areas (74.4% in the Huay Sai area were at high risk of desertification, and the risk remained high (77.2% in 2010. However, the areas classified as at severe risk of desertification decreased at 4.2% per annum. The study finds that land use changes influenced desertification risk.

  20. The spatial impact of neighbouring on the exports activities of COMESA countries by using spatial panel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzalouh, L.; Ismail, M. T.; Rahman, R. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, spatial panel models were used and the method for selecting the best model amongst the spatial fixed effects model and the spatial random effects model to estimate the fitting model by using the robust Hausman test for analysis of the exports pattern of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern African (COMESA) countries. And examine the effects of the interactions of the economic statistic of explanatory variables on the exports of the COMESA. Results indicated that the spatial Durbin model with fixed effects specification should be tested and considered in most cases of this study. After that, the direct and indirect effects among COMESA regions were assessed, and the role of indirect spatial effects in estimating exports was empirically demonstrated. Regarding originality and research value, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to examine exports between COMESA and its member countries through spatial panel models using XSMLE, which is a new command for spatial analysis using STATA.

  1. Multilevel Spatial Structure Impacts on the Pollination Services of Comarum palustre (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Laurent; Mayer, Carolin; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation accelerate pollinator decline, consequently disrupting ecosystem processes such as pollination. To date, the impacts of multilevel spatial structure on pollination services have rarely been addressed. We focused on the effects of population spatial structure on the pollination services of Comarum palustre at three levels (i.e. within-population, between-populations and landscape). For three years, we investigated 14 Belgian populations, which differed in their within-population flower density, population surface, closure (i.e. proportion of the population edge that consisted of woody elements) and isolation (i.e. percentage of woody area cover within a 500 m radius from the population centre). We tested whether these spatial characteristics impact on pollinator abundance and visitation rate and thus, reproductive success of C. palustre. Insects were observed in 15 randomly-chosen plots in each population. We tested for pollen limitation with supplemental hand-cross pollination. Bumble bees and solitary bees were the major pollinators through all populations. Within populations, plots with high flower densities attracted high numbers of bumble bees and other insects. High bumble bee and solitary bee abundance was observed in populations presenting high proportions of woody edges and in populations within landscapes presenting high proportions of woody areas. Seed set resulting from open pollination varied with bumble bee and solitary bee visitation rate, leading to increased pollen limitation when pollinators were scarce. Since the reproductive success depended on the visitation rate of the main pollinators, which depended on multilevel spatial structure, wetland management plans should pay special attention to favour a mosaic of biotopes, including nesting sites and food resources for insects. This study particularly supports the relevance of a mix wetlands and woody habitats to bees. PMID:24915450

  2. Multilevel spatial structure impacts on the pollination services of Comarum palustre (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, Laurent; Mayer, Carolin; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation accelerate pollinator decline, consequently disrupting ecosystem processes such as pollination. To date, the impacts of multilevel spatial structure on pollination services have rarely been addressed. We focused on the effects of population spatial structure on the pollination services of Comarum palustre at three levels (i.e. within-population, between-populations and landscape). For three years, we investigated 14 Belgian populations, which differed in their within-population flower density, population surface, closure (i.e. proportion of the population edge that consisted of woody elements) and isolation (i.e. percentage of woody area cover within a 500 m radius from the population centre). We tested whether these spatial characteristics impact on pollinator abundance and visitation rate and thus, reproductive success of C. palustre. Insects were observed in 15 randomly-chosen plots in each population. We tested for pollen limitation with supplemental hand-cross pollination. Bumble bees and solitary bees were the major pollinators through all populations. Within populations, plots with high flower densities attracted high numbers of bumble bees and other insects. High bumble bee and solitary bee abundance was observed in populations presenting high proportions of woody edges and in populations within landscapes presenting high proportions of woody areas. Seed set resulting from open pollination varied with bumble bee and solitary bee visitation rate, leading to increased pollen limitation when pollinators were scarce. Since the reproductive success depended on the visitation rate of the main pollinators, which depended on multilevel spatial structure, wetland management plans should pay special attention to favour a mosaic of biotopes, including nesting sites and food resources for insects. This study particularly supports the relevance of a mix wetlands and woody habitats to bees.

  3. Multilevel spatial structure impacts on the pollination services of Comarum palustre (Rosaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Somme

    Full Text Available Habitat destruction and fragmentation accelerate pollinator decline, consequently disrupting ecosystem processes such as pollination. To date, the impacts of multilevel spatial structure on pollination services have rarely been addressed. We focused on the effects of population spatial structure on the pollination services of Comarum palustre at three levels (i.e. within-population, between-populations and landscape. For three years, we investigated 14 Belgian populations, which differed in their within-population flower density, population surface, closure (i.e. proportion of the population edge that consisted of woody elements and isolation (i.e. percentage of woody area cover within a 500 m radius from the population centre. We tested whether these spatial characteristics impact on pollinator abundance and visitation rate and thus, reproductive success of C. palustre. Insects were observed in 15 randomly-chosen plots in each population. We tested for pollen limitation with supplemental hand-cross pollination. Bumble bees and solitary bees were the major pollinators through all populations. Within populations, plots with high flower densities attracted high numbers of bumble bees and other insects. High bumble bee and solitary bee abundance was observed in populations presenting high proportions of woody edges and in populations within landscapes presenting high proportions of woody areas. Seed set resulting from open pollination varied with bumble bee and solitary bee visitation rate, leading to increased pollen limitation when pollinators were scarce. Since the reproductive success depended on the visitation rate of the main pollinators, which depended on multilevel spatial structure, wetland management plans should pay special attention to favour a mosaic of biotopes, including nesting sites and food resources for insects. This study particularly supports the relevance of a mix wetlands and woody habitats to bees.

  4. The Effect of Teaching Geometry Which is Differentiated Based on the Parallel Curriculum for Gifted/Talented Students on Spatial Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak KOK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of teaching geometry which is differentiated based on the parallel curriculum for gifted/talented students on spatial ability. For this purpose; two units as “Polygons” and “Geometric Objects” of 5th grade mathematics book has been taken and formed a new differentiated geometry unit. In this study, pretest and posttest designs of experimental model were used. The study was conducted in Istanbul Science and Art Center, which offers differentiated program to those who are gifted and talented students after school, in the city of İstanbul and participants were 30 students being 15 of them are experimental group and the other 15 are control group. Experimental group students were underwent a differentiated program on “Polygons” and “Geometric Objects” whereas the other group continued their normal program without any differentiation. Spatial Ability Test developed by Talented Youth Center of John Hopkins University was used to collect data. Above mentioned test was presented to both groups of the study. Collected data was analyzed by Mann Whitney-U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test which is in the statistics program. It is presented as a result of the study that the program prepared for the gifted and talented students raised their spatial thinking ability.

  5. Ionization of molecules by electron impact: Differential and total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezkallah, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Houamer, S., E-mail: hosalim@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Dal Cappello, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Institut de Physique, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Charpentier, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz UMR 7554, ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Roy, A.C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

    2011-12-01

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate differential and total ionization cross sections of a set of small molecules, namely, HF, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by electron impact. The molecular targets are described by single center molecular orbitals consisting of linear combinations of atomic orbitals (MO-LCAO). First, we have considered electron momentum spectroscopy experiments to check the accuracy of the wave functions. The triply, doubly, singly differential and total cross sections are then evaluated in a systematic way for a variety of kinematics. The results are discussed and compared with experiments.

  6. Exploring spatial planning and functional program impact on microbial diversity and distribution in two South African hospital microbiomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nice, Jaco A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental research approach on the impact of spatial planning and functional program on the microbial load, distribution and organism diversity in hospital environments. The investigation aims to identify...

  7. Impact of spatial kinetics in severe accident analysis for a large HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    The impact on spatial kinetics on the analysis of severe accidents initiated by the unprotected withdrawal of one or more control rods is investigated for a large heavy water reactor. Large inter- and intra-assembly power shifts are observed, and the importance of detailed geometrical modeling of fuel assemblies is demonstrated. Neglect of space-time effects is shown to lead to erroneous estimates of safety margins, and of accident consequences in the event safety margins are exceeded. The results and conclusions are typical of what would be expected for any large, loosely coupled core

  8. Differential cross sections for single ionization of H2 by 75-keV proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, U.; Schulz, M.; Madison, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated triply differential cross sections (TDCS) and doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of H 2 by 75-keV proton impact using the molecular three-body distorted-wave-eikonal initial-state (M3DW-EIS) approach. Previously published measured DDCS (differential in the projectile scattering angle and integrated over the ejected electron angles) found pronounced structures at relatively large angles that were interpreted as an interference resulting from the two-centered potential of the molecule. Theory treating H 2 as atomic H multiplied by a molecular interference factor only predicts the observed structure when assumptions are made about the molecular orientation. Here we apply the M3DW-EIS method, which does not rely on such an ad hoc approach, but rather treats the interference from first principles.

  9. Forecasting climate change impacts on plant populations over large spatial extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Homer, Collin G.; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R.; Adler, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant population models are powerful tools for predicting climate change impacts in one location, but are difficult to apply at landscape scales. We overcome this limitation by taking advantage of two recent advances: remotely sensed, species-specific estimates of plant cover and statistical models developed for spatiotemporal dynamics of animal populations. Using computationally efficient model reparameterizations, we fit a spatiotemporal population model to a 28-year time series of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) percent cover over a 2.5 × 5 km landscape in southwestern Wyoming while formally accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We include interannual variation in precipitation and temperature as covariates in the model to investigate how climate affects the cover of sagebrush. We then use the model to forecast the future abundance of sagebrush at the landscape scale under projected climate change, generating spatially explicit estimates of sagebrush population trajectories that have, until now, been impossible to produce at this scale. Our broadscale and long-term predictions are rooted in small-scale and short-term population dynamics and provide an alternative to predictions offered by species distribution models that do not include population dynamics. Our approach, which combines several existing techniques in a novel way, demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to model population responses to environmental change that play out at spatial scales far greater than the traditional field study plot.

  10. The impact of natural transformation on adaptation in spatially structured bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Engelstädter, Jan

    2014-06-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural transformation and the formation of highly structured populations in bacteria are interconnected. In spite of growing evidence about this connection, little is known about the dynamics of natural transformation in spatially structured bacterial populations. In this work, we model the interdependency between the dynamics of the bacterial gene pool and those of environmental DNA in space to dissect the effect of transformation on adaptation. Our model reveals that even with only a single locus under consideration, transformation with a free DNA fragment pool results in complex adaptation dynamics that do not emerge in previous models focusing only on the gene shuffling effect of transformation at multiple loci. We demonstrate how spatial restriction on population growth and DNA diffusion in the environment affect the impact of transformation on adaptation. We found that in structured bacterial populations intermediate DNA diffusion rates predominantly cause transformation to impede adaptation by spreading deleterious alleles in the population. Overall, our model highlights distinctive evolutionary consequences of bacterial transformation in spatially restricted compared to planktonic bacterial populations.

  11. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Schmidt, Allison; Romanuk, Tamara; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i) quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii) assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii) compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of food-web analysis

  12. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of

  13. Should different impact assessment instruments be integrated? Evidence from English spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Ryo; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence to the question as to whether integration of different instruments is achieving its aim in supporting sustainable decision making, focusing on SEA inclusive sustainability appraisal (SA) and other impact assessments (IAs) currently used in English spatial planning. Usage of IAs in addition to SA is established and an analysis of the integration approach (in terms of process, output, and assessor) as well as its effectiveness is conducted. It is found that while integration enhances effectiveness to some extent, too much integration, especially in terms of the procedural element, appears to diminish the overall effectiveness of each IA in influencing decisions as they become captured by the balancing function of SA. -- Highlights: ► The usage of different impact assessments in English spatial planning is clarified. ► The relationship between integration approach and effectiveness is analyzed. ► Results suggest that integration does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. ► Careful consideration is recommended upon process integration

  14. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K; Barrett, Steven R H; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-01-01

    Aviation NO x emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NO x on O 3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O 3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry–transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O 3 production due to aviation NO x emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NO x emitted in October causes 40% more O 3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4–5 times more tropospheric O 3 per unit NO x than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O 3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O 3 -producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O 3 -producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O 3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NO x emissions. (letter)

  15. Should different impact assessment instruments be integrated? Evidence from English spatial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Ryo, E-mail: tajima.ryo@nies.go.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G5-9 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokoyama City, Kanagawa, 226-8502 (Japan); Fischer, Thomas B., E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence to the question as to whether integration of different instruments is achieving its aim in supporting sustainable decision making, focusing on SEA inclusive sustainability appraisal (SA) and other impact assessments (IAs) currently used in English spatial planning. Usage of IAs in addition to SA is established and an analysis of the integration approach (in terms of process, output, and assessor) as well as its effectiveness is conducted. It is found that while integration enhances effectiveness to some extent, too much integration, especially in terms of the procedural element, appears to diminish the overall effectiveness of each IA in influencing decisions as they become captured by the balancing function of SA. -- Highlights: ► The usage of different impact assessments in English spatial planning is clarified. ► The relationship between integration approach and effectiveness is analyzed. ► Results suggest that integration does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. ► Careful consideration is recommended upon process integration.

  16. The impact of strain-specific immunity on Lyme disease incidence is spatially heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchikian, Camilo E; Nadelman, Robert B; Nowakowski, John; Schwartz, Ira; Wormser, Gary P; Brisson, Dustin

    2017-12-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence. The estimated reduction in the number of Lyme disease cases is greater in epidemiologic models that explicitly include the spatial distribution of Lyme disease cases reported at the county level than those that utilize nationwide data. strain-specific immunity has the greatest epidemiologic impact in geographic areas with the highest Lyme disease incidence due to the greater proportion of people that have been previously infected and have developed strain-specific immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of spatial organization on a novel auxotrophic interaction among soil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Zerfaß, Christian; Feng, Song; Eichmann, Ruth; Asally, Munehiro; Schäfer, Patrick; Soyer, Orkun S

    2018-06-01

    A key prerequisite to achieve a deeper understanding of microbial communities and to engineer synthetic ones is to identify the individual metabolic interactions among key species and how these interactions are affected by different environmental factors. Deciphering the physiological basis of species-species and species-environment interactions in spatially organized environments requires reductionist approaches using ecologically and functionally relevant species. To this end, we focus here on a defined system to study the metabolic interactions in a spatial context among the plant-beneficial endophytic fungus Serendipita indica, and the soil-dwelling model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Focusing on the growth dynamics of S. indica under defined conditions, we identified an auxotrophy in this organism for thiamine, which is a key co-factor for essential reactions in the central carbon metabolism. We found that S. indica growth is restored in thiamine-free media, when co-cultured with B. subtilis. The success of this auxotrophic interaction, however, was dependent on the spatial and temporal organization of the system; the beneficial impact of B. subtilis was only visible when its inoculation was separated from that of S. indica either in time or space. These findings describe a key auxotrophic interaction in the soil among organisms that are shown to be important for plant ecosystem functioning, and point to the potential importance of spatial and temporal organization for the success of auxotrophic interactions. These points can be particularly important for engineering of minimal functional synthetic communities as plant seed treatments and for vertical farming under defined conditions.

  18. Inheritance of magma ocean differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    The giant impact model for the Moon has won widespread support. It seems to satisfactorily explain the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and the strong depletion of FeNi in the Moon. This model is usually assumed to entail no significant fractionation of nonvolatile lithophile elements relative to a simple binary mixture of impactor silicates plus protoearth silicates. Although the Earth may have been hot enough before the impact to be completely molten, analysis of the likely number and timing of major impacts in the prehistory of the impactor indicates that a fully molten, undifferentiated condition for that relatively small body is unlikely. Given selective sampling by the giant impact, any significant vertical differentiation within the noncore portion of the impactor would have been largely inherited by the Moon.

  19. Differential item functioning magnitude and impact measures from item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Marjorie; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    Measures of magnitude and impact of differential item functioning (DIF) at the item and scale level, respectively are presented and reviewed in this paper. Most measures are based on item response theory models. Magnitude refers to item level effect sizes, whereas impact refers to differences between groups at the scale score level. Reviewed are magnitude measures based on group differences in the expected item scores and impact measures based on differences in the expected scale scores. The similarities among these indices are demonstrated. Various software packages are described that provide magnitude and impact measures, and new software presented that computes all of the available statistics conveniently in one program with explanations of their relationships to one another.

  20. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High cell density suppresses BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to produce macroscopic spatial patterning in a unidirectional perfusion culture chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shota; Le, Minh Nguyen Tuyet; Kusama, Yuta; Nakatani, Eri; Suga, Mika; Furue, Miho K; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-04-19

    Spatial pattern formation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitors are major factors for the formation of spatial patterns during embryogenesis. However, spatial patterning of the human embryo is unclear because of ethical issues and isotropic culture environments resulting from conventional culture dishes. Here, we utilized human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and a simple anisotropic (unidirectional perfusion) culture chamber, which creates unidirectional conditions, to measure the cell community effect. The influence of cell density on BMP4-induced differentiation was explored during static culture using a conventional culture dish. Immunostaining of the early differentiation marker SSEA-1 and the mesendoderm marker BRACHYURY revealed that high cell density suppressed differentiation, with small clusters of differentiated and undifferentiated cells formed. Addition of five-fold higher concentration of BMP4 showed similar results, suggesting that suppression was not caused by depletion of BMP4 but rather by high cell density. Quantitative RT-PCR array analysis showed that BMP4 induced multi-lineage differentiation, which was also suppressed under high-density conditions. We fabricated an elongated perfusion culture chamber, in which proteins were transported unidirectionally, and hiPSCs were cultured with BMP4. At low density, the expression was the same throughout the chamber. However, at high density, SSEA-1 and BRACHYURY were expressed only in upstream cells, suggesting that some autocrine/paracrine factors inhibited the action of BMP4 in downstream cells to form the spatial pattern. Human iPSCs cultured in a perfusion culture chamber might be useful for studying in vitro macroscopic pattern formation in human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Magneto-thermal-acoustic differential-frequency imaging of magnetic nanoparticle with magnetic spatial localization: a theoretical prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing

    2017-02-01

    The magneto-thermo-acoustic effect that we predicted in 2013 refers to the generation of acoustic-pressure wave from magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) when thermally mediated under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) at a pulsed or frequency-chirped application. Several independent experimental studies have since validated magneto-thermoacoustic effect, and a latest report has discovered acoustic-wave generation from MNP at the second-harmonic frequency of the AMF when operating continuously. We propose that applying two AMFs with differing frequencies to MNP will produce acoustic-pressure wave at the summation and difference of the two frequencies, in addition to the two second-harmonic frequencies. Analysis of the specific absorption dynamics of the MNP when exposed to two AMFs of differing frequencies has shown some interesting patterns of acoustic-intensity at the multiple frequency components. The ratio of the acoustic-intensity at the summation-frequency over that of the difference-frequency is determined by the frequency-ratio of the two AMFs, but remains independent of the AMF strengths. The ratio of the acoustic-intensity at the summation- or difference-frequency over that at each of the two second-harmonic frequencies is determined by both the frequency-ratio and the field-strength-ratio of the two AMFs. The results indicate a potential strategy for localization of the source of a continuous-wave magneto-thermalacoustic signal by examining the frequency spectrum of full-field non-differentiating acoustic detection, with the field-strength ratio changed continuously at a fixed frequency-ratio. The practicalities and challenges of this magnetic spatial localization approach for magneto-thermo-acoustic imaging using a simple envisioned set of two AMFs arranged in parallel to each other are discussed.

  3. Impact of socioeconomic inequalities on geographic disparities in cancer incidence: comparison of methods for spatial disease mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goungounga, Juste Aristide; Gaudart, Jean; Colonna, Marc; Giorgi, Roch

    2016-10-12

    The reliability of spatial statistics is often put into question because real spatial variations may not be found, especially in heterogeneous areas. Our objective was to compare empirically different cluster detection methods. We assessed their ability to find spatial clusters of cancer cases and evaluated the impact of the socioeconomic status (e.g., the Townsend index) on cancer incidence. Moran's I, the empirical Bayes index (EBI), and Potthoff-Whittinghill test were used to investigate the general clustering. The local cluster detection methods were: i) the spatial oblique decision tree (SpODT); ii) the spatial scan statistic of Kulldorff (SaTScan); and, iii) the hierarchical Bayesian spatial modeling (HBSM) in a univariate and multivariate setting. These methods were used with and without introducing the Townsend index of socioeconomic deprivation known to be related to the distribution of cancer incidence. Incidence data stemmed from the Cancer Registry of Isère and were limited to prostate, lung, colon-rectum, and bladder cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2007 in men only. The study found a spatial heterogeneity (p 1.2). The multivariate HBSM found a spatial correlation between lung and bladder cancers (r = 0.6). In spatial analysis of cancer incidence, SpODT and HBSM may be used not only for cluster detection but also for searching for confounding or etiological factors in small areas. Moreover, the multivariate HBSM offers a flexible and meaningful modeling of spatial variations; it shows plausible previously unknown associations between various cancers.

  4. Functional and Taxonomic Differentiation of Macrophyte Assemblages Across the Yangtze River Floodplain Under Human Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; García Molinos, Jorge; Zhang, Xiaolin; Xu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and the consequent extirpations of species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. One of the main gaps in the assessment of biodiversity change in freshwater ecosystems is our limited understanding regarding how taxonomic and functional facets of macrophyte assemblages respond to human impacts on regional scales. Here, we assess the temporal (before 1970s against after 2000s) changes in taxonomic and functional richness and compositional dissimilarities, partitioned into its turnover and nestedness components, of freshwater macrophyte assemblages across the floodplain lakes of the Yangtze River in China. We found that functional and taxonomic assemblage differentiation occurred simultaneously under increasing human impact, concomitant to a general decrease in functional and taxonomic richness. However, this effect weakened when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. Macrophyte species with large dispersal range and submersed life form were significantly more susceptible to extirpation. The impact of human activities on differentiation was complex but habitat loss and fishery intensity were consistently the main drivers of assemblage change in these lakes, whereas water quality (i.e., light pollution and nutrient enrichment) had weaker effects. Further, macrophyte taxonomic and functional differentiation was mainly driven by the nestedness component of dissimilarity, accounting for changes in assemblage composition related to changes in species richness independent of species replacement. This result, markedly different from previous studies on freshwater fish assemblages conducted in these lakes, represents a novel contribution toward achieving a more holistic understanding of how human impacts contribute to shape community assemblages in natural ecosystems.

  5. Bias-correction and Spatial Disaggregation for Climate Change Impact Assessments at a basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Cho; Koike, Toshio; Yamamoto, Akio; Nemoto, Toshihoro; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    Basin-scale climate change impact studies mainly rely on general circulation models (GCMs) comprising the related emission scenarios. Realistic and reliable data from GCM is crucial for national scale or basin scale impact and vulnerability assessments to build safety society under climate change. However, GCM fail to simulate regional climate features due to the imprecise parameterization schemes in atmospheric physics and coarse resolution scale. This study describes how to exclude some unsatisfactory GCMs with respect to focused basin, how to minimize the biases of GCM precipitation through statistical bias correction and how to cover spatial disaggregation scheme, a kind of downscaling, within in a basin. GCMs rejection is based on the regional climate features of seasonal evolution as a bench mark and mainly depends on spatial correlation and root mean square error of precipitation and atmospheric variables over the target region. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Japanese 25-uear Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) are specified as references in figuring spatial pattern and error of GCM. Statistical bias-correction scheme comprises improvements of three main flaws of GCM precipitation such as low intensity drizzled rain days with no dry day, underestimation of heavy rainfall and inter-annual variability of local climate. Biases of heavy rainfall are conducted by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitting over a peak over threshold series. Frequency of rain day error is fixed by rank order statistics and seasonal variation problem is solved by using a gamma distribution fitting in each month against insi-tu stations vs. corresponding GCM grids. By implementing the proposed bias-correction technique to all insi-tu stations and their respective GCM grid, an easy and effective downscaling process for impact studies at the basin scale is accomplished. The proposed method have been examined its applicability to some of the basins in various climate

  6. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Quy Giang; Le Thi Giang; Kosuke Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) coupled with downscaled global climate models...

  7. Projecting the impacts of climate change on skipjack tuna abundance and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueri, Sibylle; Bopp, Laurent; Maury, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Climate-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment are expected to increasingly stress marine ecosystems, with important consequences for fisheries exploitation. Here, we use the APECOSM-E numerical model (Apex Predator ECOSystem Model - Estimation) to evaluate the future impacts of climate change on the physiology, spatial distribution, and abundance of skipjack tuna, the worldwide most fished species of tropical tuna. The main novelties of our approach lie in the mechanistic link between environmental factors, metabolic rates, and behavioral responses and in the fully three dimensional representation of habitat and population abundance. Physical and biogeochemical fields used to force the model are provided by the last generation of the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model run from 1990 to 2100 under a 'business-as-usual' scenario (RCP8.5). Our simulations show significant changes in the spatial distribution of skipjack tuna suitable habitat, as well as in their population abundance. The model projects deterioration of skipjack habitat in most tropical waters and an improvement of habitat at higher latitudes. The primary driver of habitat changes is ocean warming, followed by food density changes. Our projections show an increase of global skipjack biomass between 2010 and 2050 followed by a marked decrease between 2050 and 2095. Spawning rates are consistent with population trends, showing that spawning depends primarily on the adult biomass. On the other hand, growth rates display very smooth temporal changes, suggesting that the ability of skipjack to keep high metabolic rates in the changing environment is generally effective. Uncertainties related to our model spatial resolution, to the lack or simplification of key processes and to the climate forcings are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of Corporate Reputation on Brand Differentiation: An Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Afshin; Vatanpour, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Rajabzadeh, Ali; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The influence of company reputation or what is often referred to as corporate reputation on branding strategy and producing intangible asset for different industries has been researched in western countries, but there is a gap for the generalizability of findings to countries out of the United State and Europe. To establish the western researcher's external validity of theories in other countries and to obtain a better understanding of the influences of branding and company reputation on pharmaceutical business markets, the researchers applied this study for Iran, a country in the Middle East. The obtained results using SEM (by P.L.S. 2.0 software) showed a good relationship between value creation and brand differentiation (β =0.360 and t-value = 3.167), between corporate communication and brand differentiation (β = 0.022 and t-value = 3.668), and between strategic resources and brand differentiation (β = 0.289 and t-value = 2.247). This study is a pioneering attempt in Iran to measure the impact of corporate reputation on brand differentiation strategy.

  9. Impact of Corporate Reputation on Brand Differentiation: An Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    vahabzadeh, Afshin; vatanpour, Hossein; dinarvand, Rasoul; rajabzadeh, Ali; salamzadeh, Jamshid; mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The influence of company reputation or what is often referred to as corporate reputation on branding strategy and producing intangible asset for different industries has been researched in western countries, but there is a gap for the generalizability of findings to countries out of the United State and Europe. To establish the western researcher’s external validity of theories in other countries and to obtain a better understanding of the influences of branding and company reputation on pharmaceutical business markets, the researchers applied this study for Iran, a country in the Middle East. The obtained results using SEM (by P.L.S. 2.0 software) showed a good relationship between value creation and brand differentiation (β =0.360 and t-value = 3.167), between corporate communication and brand differentiation (β = 0.022 and t-value = 3.668), and between strategic resources and brand differentiation (β = 0.289 and t-value = 2.247). This study is a pioneering attempt in Iran to measure the impact of corporate reputation on brand differentiation strategy. PMID:29552075

  10. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. ► Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. ► Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. ► Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. ► GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global

  11. Visual attention to spatial and non-spatial visual stimuli is affected differentially by age: effects on event-related brain potentials and performance data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    To assess selective attention processes in young and old adults, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were recorded. Streams of visual stimuli were presented from left or right locations (Experiment 1) or from a central location and comprising two different spatial frequencies

  12. Selective attention to spatial and non-spatial visual stimuli is affected differentially by age: Effects on event-related brain potentials and performance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2006-01-01

    To assess selective attention processes in young and old adults, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were recorded. Streams of visual stimuli were presented from left or right locations (Experiment 1) or from a central location and comprising two different spatial frequencies

  13. A Spatially Intelligent Public Participation System for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact assessment (EIA is a decision-making process that evaluates the possible significant effects that a proposed project may exert on the environment. The EIA scoping and reviewing stages often involve public participation. Although its importance has long been recognized, public participation in the EIA process is often regarded as ineffective, due to time, budget, resource, technical and procedural constraints, as well as the complexity of environmental information. Geographic Information System (GIS and Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI have the potential to contribute to data collection, sharing and presentation, utilize local user-generated content to benefit decision-making and increase public outreach. This research integrated GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining and mobile technology to design a spatially intelligent framework that presented and shared EIA information effectively to the public. A spatially intelligent public participative system (SIPPS was also developed as a proof-of-concept of the framework. The research selected the Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP as the pilot study area. Survey questionnaires were designed to collect feedback and conduct evaluation. Results show that SIPPS was able to improve the effectiveness of public participation, promote environmental awareness and achieve good system usability.

  14. Temporal-Spatial Patterns of Natural Disaster and Societal Impact in Historical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies pertinent to the relationship between climate change and human society in historical China from both temporal and spatial perspectives are extremely rare at present. In this research, panel data on natural disasters (flood and drought) and their societal impacts (famine, cannibalism, war and the variation of population density) at provincial and decadal scales during 1-1910 AD were applied to mathematical statistics such as correlation, regression and Granger causality analysis as well as raster overlay and spatial visualization. Results show that generally there is high consistency among different variables and most of them cluster in eastern part of China, especially in the north. More in-depth examinations indicate that drought is the primary contributor to famine and cannibalism compared with flood, whatever in time and space domain; whilst severe even out-of-control famine (i.e. cannibalism) is more likely to incur war than ordinary famine per se. Also, the pivotal role of population in the nexus of meteorological catastrophes and human miseries is affirmed that population is not only affected by natural calamities and social disorder but also exerts its effect on war. Our findings may lay the foundation for further insightful probes in scientific community and provide some implications for contemporary policymakers with respect to climatic anomalies-induced social crises in the future.

  15. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  16. Impact of Mutual Coupling and Polarization of Antennas on BER Performances of Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at studying the impacts of mutual coupling, matching networks, and polarization of antennas on performances of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO systems employing Spatial Multiplexing (SM. In particular, the uncoded average Bit Error Rate (BER of MIMO systems is investigated. An accurate signal analysis framework based on circuit network parameters is presented to describe the transmit/receive characteristics of the matched/unmatched antenna array. The studied arrays consist of matched/unmatched compact copolarization and polarization diversity antenna array. Monte-Carlo numerical simulations are used to study the BER performances of the SM MIMO systems using maximum-likelihood and/or zero-forcing detection schemes. The simulation results demonstrate that the use of matching networks can improve the BER performance of SM MIMO systems significantly, and the BER performance deterioration due to antenna orientation randomness can be compensated by use of polarization diversity antenna arrays.

  17. Impact of spatially correlated pore-scale heterogeneity on drying porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Oshri; Fantinel, Paolo; Lühder, Wieland; Goehring, Lucas; Holtzman, Ran

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of spatially-correlated heterogeneity on isothermal drying of porous media. We combine a minimal pore-scale model with microfluidic experiments with the same pore geometry. Our simulated drying behavior compares favorably with experiments, considering the large sensitivity of the emergent behavior to the uncertainty associated with even small manufacturing errors. We show that increasing the correlation length in particle sizes promotes preferential drying of clusters of large pores, prolonging liquid connectivity and surface wetness and thus higher drying rates for longer periods. Our findings improve our quantitative understanding of how pore-scale heterogeneity impacts drying, which plays a role in a wide range of processes ranging from fuel cells to curing of paints and cements to global budgets of energy, water and solutes in soils.

  18. Spatial Impact of the Road Infrastructure Development in Romania. An Accessibility Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITUS MAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the spatial structure of accessibility in Romania before and after the implementation of some major national and/or European road infrastructure projects. This study suggests a new index for accessibility measurement by combining gravity-based models with Place Rank and adapting it to the Romanian system of settlements. Based on the GIS estimation of travel time, this index evaluates not only the geographical position of a specific community relative to the road network, but also the level of accessibility of rural and urban communities to the social services located in central places. The GIS-based maps indicate the existing disparities (between well-connected and isolated regions in terms of accessibility to the central places and the impact of new infrastructure projects on these disparities. The resulting maps can be used as efficient tools for transport planning and development at different scales (international, national, regional and local.

  19. Telecommuting's differential impact on work-family conflict: is there no place like home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Veiga, John F; Simsek, Zeki

    2006-11-01

    The literature on the impact of telecommuting on work-family conflict has been equivocal, asserting that telecommuting enhances work-life balance and reduces conflict, or countering that it increases conflict as more time and emotional energy are allocated to family. Surveying 454 professional-level employees who split their work time between an office and home, the authors examined how extensively working in this mode impacts work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, as well as the contextual impact of job autonomy, scheduling flexibility, and household size. As hypothesized, the findings suggest that telecommuting has a differential impact on work-family conflict, such that the more extensively individuals work in this mode, the lower their work-to-family conflict, but the higher their family-to-work conflict. Additionally, job autonomy and scheduling flexibility were found to positively moderate telecommuting's impact on work-to-family conflict, but household size was found to negatively moderate telecommuting's impact on family-to-work conflict, suggesting that contextual factors may be domain specific. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  1. The impact of configural superiority on the processing of spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Barr, Shawn; Bromfield, W Drew; Srinath, Aparna; Zhang, Jack; Gold, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    The impact of context on perception has been well documented for over a century. In some cases, the introduction of context to a set of target features may produce a unified percept, leading to a quicker and more accurate classification; a configural superiority effect (Pomerantz, Sager, & Stoever, 1977). Although this effect has been well characterized in terms of the stimulus features that produce the effect, the specific impact context has on the spatial strategies adopted by observers when making perceptual judgments remains unclear. Here, we sought to address this question by using the methods of response classification and ideal observer analysis. In our main experiment, we used a stimulus set known to produce the configural superiority effect and found that although observers were faster in the presence of context, they were actually less efficient at extracting stimulus information. This surprising result was attributable to the use of a spatial strategy in which observers relied on redundant, noninformative features in the presence of context. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that the mere presence of added context led to these strategic shifts. Our results support previous notions about the nature of the perceptual shifts that are induced by the configural superiority effect. However, they also show that configural processing is more nuanced than originally thought: Although observers may be faster at making judgments when context induces the percept of a configural whole, there appears to be a hidden cost in terms of the efficiency with which information is used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The spatial and temporal `cost' of volcanic eruptions: assessing economic impact, business inoperability, and spatial distribution of risk in the Auckland region, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Garry W.; Smith, Nicola J.; Kim, Joon-hwan; Cronin, Shane J.; Proctor, Jon N.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanic risk assessment has historically concentrated on quantifying the frequency, magnitude, and potential diversity of physical processes of eruptions and their consequent impacts on life and property. A realistic socio-economic assessment of volcanic impact must however take into account dynamic properties of businesses and extend beyond only measuring direct infrastructure/property loss. The inoperability input-output model, heralded as one of the 10 most important accomplishments in risk analysis over the last 30 years (Kujawaski Syst Eng. 9:281-295, 2006), has become prominent over the last decade in the economic impact assessment of business disruptions. We develop a dynamic inoperability input-output model to assess the economic impacts of a hypothetical volcanic event occurring at each of 7270 unique spatial locations throughout the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. This field of at least 53 volcanoes underlies the country's largest urban area, the Auckland region, which is home to 1.4 million people and responsible for 35.3% (NZ201481.2 billion) of the nation's GDP (Statistics New Zealand 2015). We apply volcanic event characteristics for a small-medium-scale volcanic eruption scenario and assess the economic impacts of an `average' eruption in the Auckland region. Economic losses are quantified both with, and without, business mitigation and intervention responses in place. We combine this information with a recent spatial hazard probability map (Bebbington and Cronin Bull Volcanol. 73(1):55-72, 2011) to produce novel spatial economic activity `at risk' maps. Our approach demonstrates how business inoperability losses sit alongside potential life and property damage assessment in enhancing our understanding of volcanic risk mitigation.

  3. Factors Impacting Spatial Patterns of Snow Distribution in a Small Catchment near Nome, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover plays an important role in the climate, hydrology and ecological systems of the Arctic due to its influence on the water balance, thermal regimes, vegetation and carbon flux. Thus, snow depth and coverage have been key components in all the earth system models but are often poorly represented for arctic regions, where fine scale snow distribution data is sparse. The snow data currently used in the models is at coarse resolution, which in turn leads to high uncertainty in model predictions. Through the DOE Office of Science Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic, high resolution snow distribution data is being developed and applied in catchment scale models to ultimately improve representation of snow and its interactions with other model components in the earth system models . To improve these models, it is important to identify key factors that control snow distribution and quantify the impacts of those factors on snow distribution. In this study, two intensive snow depth surveys (1 to 10 meters scale) were conducted for a 2.3 km2 catchment on the Teller road, near Nome, AK in the winter of 2016 and 2017. We used a statistical model to quantify the impacts of vegetation types, macro-topography, micro-topography, and meteorological parameters on measured snow depth. The results show that snow spatial distribution was similar between 2016 and 2017, snow depth was spatially auto correlated over small distance (2-5 meters), but not spatially auto correlated over larger distance (more than 2-5 meters). The coefficients of variation of snow depth was above 0.3 for all the snow survey transects (500-800 meters long). Variation of snow depth is governed by vegetation height, aspect, slope, surface curvature, elevation and wind speed and direction. We expect that this empirical statistical model can be used to estimate end of winter snow depth for the whole watershed and will further develop the model using data from other arctic regions to estimate

  4. The practical impact of differential item functioning analyses in a health-related quality of life instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results.......Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results....

  5. Exposure Through Runoff and Ground Water Contamination Differentially Impact Behavior and Physiology of Crustaceans in Fluvial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alexandra N; Belanger, Rachelle M; Moore, Paul A

    2018-06-19

    Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This study used agonistic encounters in crayfish Orconectes virilis as a behavioral assay to investigate impact of sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, 80, and 160 µg/L) delivered by methods mimicking ground water and surface runoff influx into flow-through exposure arenas for a total of 23 h. Each experimental animal participated in a dyadic fight trial with an unexposed opponent. Fight duration and intensity were analyzed. Experimental crayfish hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissue samples were analyzed for cytochrome P450 and acetylcholinesterase levels to discern mechanism of detoxification and mode of action of atrazine. Atrazine delivered via runoff decreased crayfish overall fight intensity and contrastingly ground water delivery increased overall fight intensity. The behavioral differences were mirrored by increases in cytochrome P450 activity, whereas no differences were found in acetylcholinesterase activity. This study demonstrates that method of delivery into fluvial systems has differential effects on both behavior and physiology of organisms and emphasizes the need for the consideration of delivery pathway in ecotoxicological studies and water-impairment standards.

  6. Impact of salience on differential trust across political institutions in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyons, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 347-374 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : institutional trust * differential trust * levels of governance Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/7d7047e037681cf48a31b640b79c369edcf64350_13-3-02Lyons17.indd.pdf

  7. Doubly differential cross sections for ionization of helium by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, H.; Werner, U.; Roy, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Glauber approximation is used to calculate doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) for electron-impact ionization of helium at incident energies of 100, 300, and 500 eV. Angular dependences of the cross sections are presented for the primary (scattered) electrons. The present calculation is done for the case where the energy of the primary electron is large compared with that of the secondary (ejected) electron. A comparison is made of the present DDCS with the results of other calculations and experiment

  8. An adaptive framework to differentiate receiving water quality impacts on a multi-scale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Tränckner, J; Helm, B; Kroll, S; Dirckx, G; Krebs, P

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in recent years towards sustainable and coherent water resources management on a river basin scale has changed the subject of investigations to a multi-scale problem representing a great challenge for all actors participating in the management process. In this regard, planning engineers often face an inherent conflict to provide reliable decision support for complex questions with a minimum of effort. This trend inevitably increases the risk to base decisions upon uncertain and unverified conclusions. This paper proposes an adaptive framework for integral planning that combines several concepts (flow balancing, water quality monitoring, process modelling, multi-objective assessment) to systematically evaluate management strategies for water quality improvement. As key element, an S/P matrix is introduced to structure the differentiation of relevant 'pressures' in affected regions, i.e. 'spatial units', which helps in handling complexity. The framework is applied to a small, but typical, catchment in Flanders, Belgium. The application to the real-life case shows: (1) the proposed approach is adaptive, covers problems of different spatial and temporal scale, efficiently reduces complexity and finally leads to a transparent solution; and (2) water quality and emission-based performance evaluation must be done jointly as an emission-based performance improvement does not necessarily lead to an improved water quality status, and an assessment solely focusing on water quality criteria may mask non-compliance with emission-based standards. Recommendations derived from the theoretical analysis have been put into practice.

  9. Theoretical calculation of fully differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Junfang; Madison, D H; Peacher, J L

    2006-01-01

    We have recently proposed the orientation averaged molecular orbital (OAMO) approximation for calculating fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for electron-impact ionization of molecules averaged over all molecular orientations. Orientation averaged FDCS were calculated for electron-impact ionization of nitrogen molecules using the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) and the molecular three-body distorted wave (M3DW) approximation. In this paper, we use the same methods to examine the FDCS for ionization of hydrogen molecules. It is found that the DWIA yields reasonable results for high-energy incident electrons. While the DWIA breaks down for low-energy electrons, the M3DW gives reasonable results down to incident-electron energies around 35 eV

  10. Impact of neighborhood separation on the spatial reciprocity in the prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chengyi; Miao, Qin; Zhang, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel game model in which interaction and learning neighborhood is not identical. • The separation between interaction and learning neighborhood can largely influence the cooperative behaviors. • Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to verify the evolution of cooperation. • When IN is fixed to be 4, medium-sized LN = 8 is the optimal size to promote the cooperation. • When LN is fixed to be 4, the cooperation can also be highly enhanced when IN > 4. -- Abstract: The evolutionary game theory is a very powerful tool to understand the collective cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In the spatial game model, the payoff is often first obtained within a specific neighborhood (i.e., interaction neighborhood) and then the focal player imitates or learns the behavior of a randomly selected one inside another neighborhood which is named after the learning neighborhood. However, most studies often assume that the interaction neighborhood is identical with the learning neighborhood. Beyond this assumption, we present a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game model to discuss the impact of separation between interaction neighborhood and learning neighborhood on the cooperative behaviors among players on the square lattice. Extensive numerical simulations demonstrate that separating the interaction neighborhood from the learning neighborhood can dramatically affect the density of cooperators (ρ C ) in the population at the stationary state. In particular, compared to the standard case, we find that the medium-sized learning (interaction) neighborhood allows the cooperators to thrive and substantially favors the evolution of cooperation and ρ C can be greatly elevated when the interaction (learning) neighborhood is fixed, that is, too little or much information is not beneficial for players to make the contributions for the collective cooperation. Current results are conducive to further analyzing and understanding the emergence of

  11. Mapping the impacts of thermoelectric power generation: a global, spatially explicit database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is associated with environmental pressures resulting from emissions to air and water, as well as water consumption. The need to achieve global coverage in related studies has become pressing in view of climate change. At the same time, the ability to quantify impacts from power production on a high resolution remains pertinent, given their highly regionalized nature, particularly when it comes to water-related impacts. Efforts towards global coverage have increased in recent years, but most work on the impacts of global electricity production presents a coarse geographical differentiation. Over the past few years we have begun a concerted effort to create and make available a global georeferenced inventory of thermoelectric power plant operational characteristics and emissions, by modelling the relevant processes on the highest possible level: that of a generating unit. Our work extends and enhances a commercially available global power plant database, and so far includes: - Georeferencing the generating units and populating the gaps in their steam properties. - Identifying the cooling system for 92% of the global installed thermoelectric power capacity. - Using the completed steam property data, along with local environmental temperature data, to systematically solve the Rankine cycle for each generating unit, involving: i) distinguishing between simple, reheat, and cogenerative cycles, and accounting for particularities in nuclear power cycles; ii) accounting for the effect of different cooling systems (once-through, recirculating (wet tower), dry cooling) on the thermodynamic cycle. One of the direct outcomes of solving the Rankine cycle is the cycle efficiency, an indispensable parameter in any study related to power production, including the quantification of air emissions and water consumption. Another direct output, for those units employing once-through cooling, is the rate of heat rejection to water, which can lead to

  12. Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex impairs retrieval but has differential effect on spatial memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Janine I; Köhler, Cristiano A; Radiske, Andressa; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-11-01

    Active memories can incorporate new information through reconsolidation. However, the notion that memory retrieval is necessary for reconsolidation has been recently challenged. Non-reinforced retrieval induces hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on this process is abolished when retrieval of the learned spatial preference is hindered through mPFC inactivation but not when it is blocked by deactivation of dorsal CA1. Our results do not fully agree with the hypothesis that retrieval is unneeded for reconsolidation. Instead, they support the idea that a hierarchic interaction between the hippocampus and the mPFC controls spatial memory in the MWM, and indicate that this cortex is sufficient to retrieve the information essential to reconsolidate the spatial memory trace, even when the hippocampus is inactivated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Guidelines on radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Impact on clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, M.; Pixberg, M.K.; Schober, O.; Doerr, U.; Dietlein, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Grimm, J.; Zajic, T.; Nestle, U.; Ladner, S.; Sepehr-Rezai, S.; Rosenbaum, S.; Puskas, C.; Fostitsch, P.; Heinecke, A.; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.; Schmid, K.W.; Dralle, H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: For the examination of the impact on clinical practice of the guidelines for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), treatment data from the ongoing multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS) were analyzed. Patients, methods: patients were randomized to adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (RTx) or no RTx in addition to standard therapy in TNM stages pT4 pNO/1/x MO/x (UICC, 5 th ed. 1997). All patients were to receive the same treatment regimen consisting of thyroidectomy, ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT), and a diagnostic 131 I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) 3-4 months after RIT. Results: Of 339 eligible patients enrolled between January 2000 and March 2004, 273 could be analyzed. Guideline recommendations by the German Society for Nuclear Medicine from 1999 and 1992 were complied with within 28% and 82% with regard to the interval between surgery and RIT (4 vs. 4-6 weeks), in 33% and 84% with regard to 131 I activity for RIT (1-3 vs. 1-4 GBq; ±10%), and in 16% and 60% with regard to 131 I activity for WBS (100-300 vs. 100-400 MBq; ±10%). Conclusions: the 1999 guideline revision appears to have had little impact on clinical practice. Further follow-up will reveal if guideline compliance had an effect on outcomes. (orig.)

  14. Doubly differential single and multiple ionization of krypton by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, O. G. de; Gavin, J.; DuBois, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    Differential measurements for single and multiple ionization of Kr by 240 and 500 eV electron impact are presented. Using a pulsed extraction field, Kr + , Kr 2+ , and Kr 3+ ions were measured in coincidence with scattered electrons for energy losses up to 120 eV and scattering angles between 16 degree sign and 90 degree sign . Scaling properties of the doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) are investigated as a function of energy loss, scattering angle, and momentum transfer. It is shown that scaling the DDCS as outlined by Kim and Inokuti and plotting them versus a parameter consisting of the momentum transfer divided by the square root of the impact energy times 1-cos(θ), where θ is the scattering angle, yielded similar curves, but with different magnitudes, for single and multiple ionization. Normalizing these curves together produced two universal curves, one appropriate for single and multiple electron emission at larger scattering angles (θ≥30 degree sign ) and one appropriate for small scattering angles (θ<30 degree sign )

  15. The impact of the Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants' capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group.

  16. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  17. Spatial Scientometrics and Scholarly Impact : A Review of Recent Studies, Tools, and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen; Hoekman, Jarno

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a research program to analyze spatial aspects of the science system which we called “spatial scientometrics” (Frenken, Hardeman, & Hoekman, 2009). The aim of this chapter is to systematically review recent (post-2008) contributions to spatial scientometrics on the basis of a

  18. Differentiation of Forebrain and Hippocampal Dopamine 1-Class Receptors, D1R and D5R, in Spatial Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariñana, Joshua; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Activation of prefrontal cortical (PFC), striatal, and hippocampal dopamine 1-class receptors (D1R and D5R) is necessary for normal spatial information processing. Yet the precise role of the D1R versus the D5R in the aforementioned structures, and their specific contribution to the water-maze spatial learning task remains unknown. D1R- and D5R- specific in situ hybridization probes showed that forebrain restricted D1R and D5R KO mice (F-D1R/D5R KO) displayed D1R mRNA deletion in the medial (m)PFC, dorsal and ventral striatum, and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. D5R mRNA deletion was limited to the mPFC, the CA1 and DG hippocampal subregions. F-D1R/D5R KO mice were given water-maze training and displayed subtle spatial latency differences between genotypes and spatial memory deficits during both regular and reversal training. To differentiate forebrain D1R from D5R activation, forebrain restricted D1R KO (F-D1R KO) and D5R KO (F-D5R KO) mice were trained on the water-maze task. F-D1R KO animals exhibited escape latency deficits throughout regular and reversal training as well as spatial memory deficits during reversal training. F-D1R KO mice also showed perseverative behavior during the reversal spatial memory probe test. In contrast, F-D5R KO animals did not present observable deficits on the water-maze task. Because F-D1R KO mice showed water-maze deficits we tested the necessity of hippocampal D1R activation for spatial learning and memory. We trained DG restricted D1R KO (DG-D1R KO) mice on the water-maze task. DG-D1R KO mice did not present detectable spatial memory deficit, but did show subtle deficits during specific days of training. Our data provides evidence that forebrain D5R activation plays a unique role in spatial learning and memory in conjunction with D1R activation. Moreover, these data suggest that mPFC and striatal, but not DG D1R activation are essential for spatial learning and memory. PMID:26174222

  19. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  20. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831026; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141376074

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  1. Impact of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions on the spatial rainfall distribution in the Central Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Breil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a Regional Climate Model (RCM the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are described by a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer Model (SVAT. In the presented study two SVATs of different complexity (TERRA-ML and VEG3D are coupled to the RCM COSMO-CLM (CCLM to investigate the impact of different representations of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions on the West African Monsoon (WAM system. In contrast to TERRA-ML, VEG3D comprises a more detailed description of the land-atmosphere coupling by including a vegetation layer in its structural design, changing the treatment of radiation and turbulent fluxes. With these two different model systems (CCLM-TERRA-ML and CCLM-VEG3D climate simulations are performed for West Africa and analyzed. The study reveals that the simulated spatial distribution of rainfall in the Sahel region is substantially affected by the chosen SVAT. Compared to CCLM-TERRA-ML, the application of CCLM-VEG3D results in higher near surface temperatures in the Sahel region during the rainy season. This implies a southward expansion of the Saharian heat-low. Consequently, the mean position of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ is also shifted to the south, leading to a southward displacement of tracks for Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS, developing in connection with the AEJ. As a result, less precipitation is produced in the Sahel region, increasing the agreement with observations. These analyses indicate that soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions impact the West African Monsoon system and highlight the benefit of using a more complex SVAT to simulate its dynamics.

  2. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006. Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern.

  3. Future malaria spatial pattern based on the potential global warming impact in South and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate-H climate model with the A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios for the years 2050 and 2100 and CLIMEX software for projections to illustrate the potential impact of climate change on the spatial distributions of malaria in China, India, Indochina, Indonesia, and The Philippines based on climate variables such as temperature, moisture, heat, cold and dryness. The model was calibrated using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records. The areas in which malaria has currently been detected are consistent with those showing high values of the ecoclimatic index in the CLIMEX model. The match between prediction and reality was found to be high. More than 90% of the observed malaria distribution points were associated with the currently known suitable climate conditions. Climate suitability for malaria is projected to decrease in India, southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, eastern Borneo, and the region bordering Cambodia, Malaysia and the Indonesian islands, while it is expected to increase in southern and south-eastern China and Taiwan. The climatic models for Anopheles mosquitoes presented here should be useful for malaria control, monitoring, and management, particularly considering these future climate scenarios.

  4. Climate change impact assessment on flow regime by incorporating spatial correlation and scenario uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallam, P.; Qin, X. S.

    2017-07-01

    Flooding risk is increasing in many parts of the world and may worsen under climate change conditions. The accuracy of predicting flooding risk relies on reasonable projection of meteorological data (especially rainfall) at the local scale. The current statistical downscaling approaches face the difficulty of projecting multi-site climate information for future conditions while conserving spatial information. This study presents a combined Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) stochastic weather generator and multi-site rainfall simulator RainSim (CLWRS) approach to investigate flow regimes under future conditions in the Kootenay Watershed, Canada. To understand the uncertainty effect stemming from different scenarios, the climate output is fed into a hydrologic model. The results showed different variation trends of annual peak flows (in 2080-2099) based on different climate change scenarios and demonstrated that the hydrological impact would be driven by the interaction between snowmelt and peak flows. The proposed CLWRS approach is useful where there is a need for projection of potential climate change scenarios.

  5. Future malaria spatial pattern based on the potential global warming impact in South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2016-11-21

    We used the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate-H climate model with the A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios for the years 2050 and 2100 and CLIMEX software for projections to illustrate the potential impact of climate change on the spatial distributions of malaria in China, India, Indochina, Indonesia, and The Philippines based on climate variables such as temperature, moisture, heat, cold and dryness. The model was calibrated using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records. The areas in which malaria has currently been detected are consistent with those showing high values of the ecoclimatic index in the CLIMEX model. The match between prediction and reality was found to be high. More than 90% of the observed malaria distribution points were associated with the currently known suitable climate conditions. Climate suitability for malaria is projected to decrease in India, southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, eastern Borneo, and the region bordering Cambodia, Malaysia and the Indonesian islands, while it is expected to increase in southern and south-eastern China and Taiwan. The climatic models for Anopheles mosquitoes presented here should be useful for malaria control, monitoring, and management, particularly considering these future climate scenarios.

  6. Global impacts of the meat trade on in-stream organic river pollution: the importance of spatially distributed hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, intensive livestock farming has become a significant source of organic river pollution. As the international meat trade is growing rapidly, the environmental impacts of meat production within one country can occur either domestically or internationally. The goal of this paper is to quantify the impacts of the international meat trade on global organic river pollution at multiple scales (national, regional and gridded). Using the biological oxygen demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we compute the spatially distributed organic pollution in global river networks with and without a meat trade, where the without-trade scenario assumes that meat imports are replaced by local production. Our analysis reveals a reduction in the livestock population and production of organic pollutants at the global scale as a result of the international meat trade. However, the actual environmental impact of trade, as quantified by in-stream BOD concentrations, is negative; i.e. we find a slight increase in polluted river segments. More importantly, our results show large spatial variability in local (grid-scale) impacts that do not correlate with local changes in BOD loading, which illustrates: (1) the significance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of hydrological processes along river networks, and (2) the limited value of looking at country-level or global averages when estimating the actual impacts of trade on the environment.

  7. Human mobility and time spent at destination: impact on spatial epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-12-07

    Host mobility plays a fundamental role in the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Previous theoretical works based on the integration of network theory into the metapopulation framework have shown that the heterogeneities that characterize real mobility networks favor the propagation of epidemics. Nevertheless, the studies conducted so far assumed the mobility process to be either Markovian (in which the memory of the origin of each traveler is lost) or non-Markovian with a fixed traveling time scale (in which individuals travel to a destination and come back at a constant rate). Available statistics however show that the time spent by travelers at destination is characterized by wide fluctuations, ranging from a single day up to several months. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the chance and duration of mixing events among hosts and may therefore have a strong impact on the spread of an emerging disease. Here, we present an analytical and a computational study of epidemic processes on a complex subpopulation network where travelers have memory of their origin and spend a heterogeneously distributed time interval at their destination. Through analytical calculations and numerical simulations we show that the heterogeneity of the length of stay alters the expression of the threshold between local outbreak and global invasion, and, moreover, it changes the epidemic behavior of the system in case of a global outbreak. Additionally, our theoretical framework allows us to study the effect of changes in the traveling behavior in response to the infection, by considering a scenario in which sick individuals do not leave their home location. Finally, we compare the results of our non-Markovian framework with those obtained with a classic Markovian approach and find relevant differences between the two, in the estimate of the epidemic invasion potential, as well as of the timing and the pattern of its spatial spread. These results highlight the importance of

  8. Erasing and blurring memories: The differential impact of interference on separate aspects of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Fidalgo, Celia; Barense, Morgan D; Lee, Andy C H; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Interference disrupts information processing across many timescales, from immediate perception to memory over short and long durations. The widely held similarity assumption states that as similarity between interfering information and memory contents increases, so too does the degree of impairment. However, information is lost from memory in different ways. For instance, studied content might be erased in an all-or-nothing manner. Alternatively, information may be retained but the precision might be degraded or blurred. Here, we asked whether the similarity of interfering information to memory contents might differentially impact these 2 aspects of forgetting. Observers studied colored images of real-world objects, each followed by a stream of interfering objects. Across 4 experiments, we manipulated the similarity between the studied object and the interfering objects in circular color space. After interference, memory for object color was tested continuously on a color wheel, which in combination with mixture modeling, allowed for estimation of how erasing and blurring differentially contribute to forgetting. In contrast to the similarity assumption, we show that highly dissimilar interfering items caused the greatest increase in random guess responses, suggesting a greater frequency of memory erasure (Experiments 1-3). Moreover, we found that observers were generally able to resist interference from highly similar items, perhaps through surround suppression (Experiments 1 and 4). Finally, we report that interference from items of intermediate similarity tended to blur or decrease memory precision (Experiments 3 and 4). These results reveal that the nature of visual similarity can differentially alter how information is lost from memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  10. Differential solvation of intrinsically disordered linkers drives the formation of spatially organized droplets in ternary systems of linear multivalent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Tyler S.; Holehouse, Alex S.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2018-04-01

    Intracellular biomolecular condensates are membraneless organelles that encompass large numbers of multivalent protein and nucleic acid molecules. The bodies assemble via a combination of liquid–liquid phase separation and gelation. A majority of condensates included multiple components and show multilayered organization as opposed to being well-mixed unitary liquids. Here, we put forward a simple thermodynamic framework to describe the emergence of spatially organized droplets in multicomponent systems comprising of linear multivalent polymers also known as associative polymers. These polymers, which mimic proteins and/or RNA have the architecture of domains or motifs known as stickers that are interspersed by flexible spacers known as linkers. Using a minimalist numerical model for a four-component system, we have identified features of linear multivalent molecules that are necessary and sufficient for generating spatially organized droplets. We show that differences in sequence-specific effective solvation volumes of disordered linkers between interaction domains enable the formation of spatially organized droplets. Molecules with linkers that are preferentially solvated are driven to the interface with the bulk solvent, whereas molecules that have linkers with negligible effective solvation volumes form cores in the core–shell architectures that emerge in the minimalist four-component systems. Our modeling has relevance for understanding the physical determinants of spatially organized membraneless organelles.

  11. Monitoring of Vegetation Impact Due to Trampling on Cadillac Mountain Summit Using High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kook; Daigle, John J.

    2012-11-01

    Cadillac Mountain—the highest peak along the eastern seaboard of the United States—is a major tourist destination in Acadia National Park, Maine. Managing vegetation impact due to trampling on the Cadillac Mountain summit is extremely challenging because of the large number of visitors and the general open nature of landscape in this fragile subalpine environmental setting. Since 2000, more intensive management strategies—based on placing physical barriers and educational messages for visitors—have been employed to protect threatened vegetation, decrease vegetation impact, and enhance vegetation recovery in the vicinity of the summit loop trail. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the management strategies employed. For this purpose, vegetation cover changes between 2001 and 2007 were detected using multispectral high spatial resolution remote sensing data sets. A normalized difference vegetation index was employed to identify the rates of increase and decrease in the vegetation areas. Three buffering distances (30, 60, and 90 m) from the edges of the trail were used to define multiple spatial extents of the site, and the same spatial extents were employed at a nearby control site that had no visitors. No significant differences were detected between the mean rates of vegetation increase and decrease at the experimental site compared with a nearby control site in the case of a small spatial scale (≤30 m) comparison (in all cases P > 0.05). However, in the medium (≤60 m) and large (≤90 m) spatial scales, the rates of increased vegetation were significantly greater and rates of decreased vegetation significantly lower at the experimental site compared with the control site (in all cases P Management implications are explored in terms of the spatial strategies used to decrease the impact of trampling on vegetation.

  12. A Global and Spatially Explicit Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Consumptive Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Röckström, Johan; Abbaspour, Karim; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term) and the 2090s (long term), respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental) but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell). Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security. PMID:23460901

  13. A global and spatially explicit assessment of climate change impacts on crop production and consumptive water use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Liu

    Full Text Available Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term and the 2090s (long term, respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell. Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security.

  14. The impact of high-resolution ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of non-hemolytic jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Peter; Neye, Holger; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter; Rickes, Steffen

    2010-12-01

    Because jaundice is a common reason for hospital admission. A fast and correct differential diagnosis is very important to increase treatment efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the high-resolution ultrasound in this kind of clinical setting. In a prospective study we included 30 patients and we divided them in patients with extrahepatic jaundice and patients with intrahepatic jaundice. We observed a high accuracy of the high-resolution sonography, with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100% for extrahepatic jaundice, and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for intrahepatic jaundice. We conclude that the high-resolution ultrasound should be used in the very beginning of the diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of patients with unclear jaundice.

  15. Electron capture to the continuum manifestation in fully differential cross sections for ion impact single ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    We present theoretical calculations of single ionization of He atoms by protons and multiply charged ions. The kinematical conditions are deliberately chosen in such a way that the ejected electron velocity matches the projectile impact velocity. The computed fully differential cross sections (FDCS) in the scattering plane using the continuum-distorted wave-eikonal initial state show a distinct peaked structure for a polar electron emission angle θ k = 0°. This element is absent when a first order theory is employed. Consequently, we can argue that this peak is a clear manifestation of a three-body effect, not observed before in FDCS. We discuss a possible interpretation of this new feature.

  16. Triple differential cross section for the ionization of helium by electronic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Saidou, E-mail: saidou40@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Departement de Physique, BP: 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Faye, I.G.; Diedhiou, I.A.; Tall, M.S.; Gomis, L.; Diatta, C.S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Departement de Physique, BP: 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal)

    2011-12-01

    We report results of analytical triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the single ionization of the helium iso-electronic ions by the electron impact. A two variational parameters wave function is used to evaluate the TDCS. This study shows the accuracy of the TDCS for helium atom and helium like ions in the first Born approximation (FBA) at high incident energy domain. The theory is quite acceptable as a fast calculation of the triple differential cross section, particularly at high energies where other theories and methods are cumbersome. A comparison is made of our calculations with previous results of the other theoretical methods and experiment. The FBA results obtained here with the two variational parameters wave function are in good agreement with the experiment data at high incident energy. The results show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and influence only the extrema magnitude but not their positions. The calculations presented here are extanded to the cases where the energies of the outgoing electrons are more equal.

  17. The impact of inflammation and immune activation on B cell differentiation during HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRuffin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection is characterized by continuous antigenic stimulation, chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells has previously been reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for mounting and maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development which are impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells.

  18. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  19. Methodological Choices in Muscle Synergy Analysis Impact Differentiation of Physiological Characteristics Following Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Banks

    2017-08-01

    normalization method. No outcomes were greatly impacted by output normalization method. MSA variability for some, but not all, methods successfully differentiated intrinsic physiological differences inaccessible to traditional clinical or biomechanical assessments. Our results were sensitive to methodological choices, highlighting the need for disclosure of all aspects of MSA methodology in future studies.

  20. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  1. The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Road and railway networks are one of the key factors to a country's economic growth. Inadequate infrastructural networks could be detrimental to a society if the transport between locations are hindered or delayed. Logistical hindrances can often be avoided whereas natural hindrances are more difficult to control. One natural hindrance that can have a severe adverse effect on both infrastructure and society is flooding. Intense and heavy rainfall events can trigger other natural hazards such as landslides and debris flow. Disruptions caused by landslides are similar to that of floods and increase the maintenance cost considerably. The effect on society by natural disasters is likely to increase due to a changed climate with increasing precipitation. Therefore, there is a need for risk prevention and mitigation of natural hazards. Determining susceptible areas and incorporating them in the decision process may reduce the infrastructural harm. Spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) is a part of decision analysis, which provides a set of procedures for analysing complex decision problems through a Geographic Information System (GIS). The objective and aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for inundation, landslide and debris flow susceptibility assessments through a SMCA approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. The sensitivity of the SMCA model was tested in relation to each perspective and impact on the resulting susceptibility. A least cost path function was used to compare new alternative road lines with the existing ones. This comparison was undertaken to identify the resulting differences in the susceptibility assessments using expert judgements as well as historic incidences of flooding and landslides in order to discuss the usefulness of the model in road planning.

  2. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Eddleston, Michael; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2012-04-02

    Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009) were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000), and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110) of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47%) of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74) and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10) but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95). Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  3. Investigating the impact of temporal and spatial variation in spring snow melt on summer soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, G. P.; Papuga, S. A.; Wright, C. L.; Nelson, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    monsoon, late-melt sites were wetter than early-melt sites. These preliminary results are an important step toward understanding the role that temporal and spatial variations in snow cover, which will undoubtedly be impacted by climate change, play in the carbon dynamics of these semiarid mountain environments.

  4. The Impact of Visual-Spatial Attention on Reading and Spelling in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations of visual-spatial attention with word reading fluency and spelling in 92 third grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Word reading fluency was measured with a timed reading task whereas spelling was measured with a dictation task. Results showed that visual-spatial attention was a unique predictor of…

  5. Impacts of neighboring countries on military expenditures : A dynamic spatial panel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilyurt, M. Ensar; Elhorst, J. Paul

    Using the latest spatial econometric techniques and data pertaining to 144 countries over the period 1993-2007, this article tests and compares four frequently used spatial econometric models and eight matrices describing the mutual relationships among the countries, all within a common framework,

  6. Impacts of neighboring countries on military expenditures : A dynamic spatial panel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesilyurt, M. Ensar; Elhorst, J. Paul

    2017-01-01

    Using the latest spatial econometric techniques and data pertaining to 144 countries over the period 1993-2007, this article tests and compares four frequently used spatial econometric models and eight matrices describing the mutual relationships among the countries, all within a common framework,

  7. Spatial uncertainty in bias corrected climate change projections and hydrogeological impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Sonnenborg, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Model pairing, this paper analyses the relationship between complexity and robustness of three distribution-based scaling (DBS) bias correction methods applied to daily precipitation at various spatial scales. Hydrological simulations are forced by CM inputs to assess the spatial uncertainty......The question of which climate model bias correction methods and spatial scales for correction are optimal for both projecting future hydrological changes as well as removing initial model bias has so far received little attention. For 11 climate models (CMs), or GCM/RCM – Global/Regional Climate...... signals. The magnitude of spatial bias seen in precipitation inputs does not necessarily correspond to the magnitude of biases seen in hydrological outputs. Variables that integrate basin responses over time and space are more sensitive to mean spatial biases and less so on extremes. Hydrological...

  8. Geographical modelling based on spatial differentiation of fire brigade actions: A case study of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popelínský Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes crisis situations solved by The Fire Rescue Service of the South Moravian Region (FRS in the city of Brno during 24 weeks between 7th April 2013 and 20th September 2013. The article deals briefly with all FRS actions and then focuses on fires. The open-access database of FRS is used for analysis. It is accessed from a database of the innovative web application StreetAlert, which allows users to learn about current fire brigade actions in the specified distance from the mobile phone. The data are processed in PostgreSQL and then spatial analysis is performed using the most detailed administrative division of the city – basic settlement units. As this division of urban space is used also in the most recent Czech census (2011, it is possible to use sociodemographic statistical data for comparison. The article identifies spatial regularities in the distribution of fires, describes the structure of the fires in terms of the type of event (fires of waste, fires of grass and forest, fires of buildings, discovers their possible dependence on the specific characteristics of urban space, finds potentially dangerous places (kernel density analysis, draws valid conclusions applicable to similar settlements, and shows the possible use of the data for local government. The main benefit of the research lies in revealing the spatial distribution of the examined phenomena.

  9. Impact of Spatial Resolution on Wind Field Derived Estimates of Air Pressure Depression in the Hurricane Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the near surface horizontal wind field in a hurricane with spatial resolution of order 1–10 km are possible using airborne microwave radiometer imagers. An assessment is made of the information content of the measured winds as a function of the spatial resolution of the imager. An existing algorithm is used which estimates the maximum surface air pressure depression in the hurricane eye from the maximum wind speed. High resolution numerical model wind fields from Hurricane Frances 2004 are convolved with various HIRAD antenna spatial filters to observe the impact of the antenna design on the central pressure depression in the eye that can be deduced from it.

  10. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschale Dagnachew Siyoum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable poor households to move out of poverty and food insecurity, whereas better-off and labour rich households used credit to improve their livelihoods. For poor households, rather than achieving long-term livelihood improvements, access to credit only means short-term consumption smoothing with a risk of being trapped into a cycle of indebtedness. Participation in a safety net programme could, to some extent, break through this cycle, because such participation enhanced the credit-worthiness of poor households. The paper is based on ethnographic research, including a survey of 106 households,and a series of monthly in-depth interviews with a group of 15 households in the district of Ebinat, northern Ethiopia, over an 18-month period, from February 2009 to July 2010.

  11. Differential impacts of participation in organized activities and maltreatment types on adolescent academic and socioemotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonyoung; Mihalec-Adkins, Brittany; Mishra, Aura A; Christ, Sharon L

    2018-04-01

    Participation in organized activities has been largely regarded as beneficial for academic and socioemotional development for adolescents, but the impacts of various types of organized activities for adolescents at risk for maltreatment have been rarely tested. In this study, we investigated the differential impacts of five types of maltreatment exposure (physical maltreatment, sexual maltreatment, neglect, other type, and multiple types) on the associations between four types of organized activities (mentored groups, art and music clubs, sport clubs, and academic clubs) and academic and socioemotional development (school engagement, delinquency, depressive symptoms, and trauma symptoms) of adolescents who were investigated by Child Protective Services (CPS) for maltreatment exposure. Data came from a national, longitudinal sample of 790 adolescents in contact with CPS in the U.S. After controlling for demographic characteristics of participants and prior levels of each outcome, multiple linear regression models were fitted to the data with interactions between the organized activities and the maltreatment types. The main findings of this study included: 1) adolescents who participated in mentored groups, sport clubs, and academic clubs reported higher levels of school engagement; 2) adolescents who participated in academic clubs reported fewer depressive symptoms; 3) adolescents who participated in art and music clubs reported more trauma symptoms compared to non-participants; and 4) the effects of participation in mentored groups on delinquency and trauma symptoms differed by maltreatment type. These results indicate both possible benefits and risks of organized activity participation for adolescents with certain maltreatment exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The regional economic impacts of bypasses : a longitudinal study incorporating spatial panel econometrics and multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This paper will describe an integrated approach to documenting and quantifying the impacts of bypasses : on small communities, with a focus on what economic impacts, if any, occur, and how these impacts : change over time. Two similarly sized communi...

  13. Spatial variation of particle number concentration in school microscale environments and its impact on exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Crilley, Leigh R; Laiman, Rusdin; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    It has not yet been established whether the spatial variation of particle number concentration (PNC) within a microscale environment can have an effect on exposure estimation results. In general, the degree of spatial variation within microscale environments remains unclear, since previous studies have only focused on spatial variation within macroscale environments. The aims of this study were to determine the spatial variation of PNC within microscale school environments, in order to assess the importance of the number of monitoring sites on exposure estimation. Furthermore, this paper aims to identify which parameters have the largest influence on spatial variation as well as the relationship between those parameters and spatial variation. Air quality measurements were conducted for two consecutive weeks at each of the 25 schools across Brisbane, Australia. PNC was measured at three sites within the grounds of each school, along with the measurement of meteorological and several other air quality parameters. Traffic density was recorded for the busiest road adjacent to the school. Spatial variation at each school was quantified using coefficient of variation (CV). The portion of CV associated with instrument uncertainty was found to be 0.3, and, therefore, CV was corrected so that only noninstrument uncertainty was analyzed in the data. The median corrected CV (CVc) ranged from 0 to 0.35 across the schools, with 12 schools found to exhibit spatial variation. The study determined the number of required monitoring sites at schools with spatial variability and tested the deviation in exposure estimation arising from using only a single site. Nine schools required two measurement sites and three schools required three sites. Overall, the deviation in exposure estimation from using only one monitoring site was as much as 1 order of magnitude. The study also tested the association of spatial variation with wind speed/direction and traffic density, using partial

  14. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadziabdic, D.; Vito, L.; Windham, M. T.; Pscheidt, J. W.; Trigiano, R. N.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-87 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Thousand cankers disease * Juglans nigra * Geosmithia morbida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2014

  15. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Veljo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of

  16. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole; Taubenheim, Jan; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC

  17. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.fiedler@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Taubenheim, Jan [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  18. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  19. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Gbegbelegbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  20. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Degdegui, M.; Hasine, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The association of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer, and its prognosis significance remain controversial. We investigate the prognosis impact of this association by reviewing our series of patients being followed for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the department of nuclear medicine of Sahloul. Among the 350 patients followed in our department, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved CLT, with infiltration of the non- tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as controls. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. The frequency of papillary thyroid cancer was significantly higher in the group with CTL (90% vs 74%; p=0.05). The larger diameter of the tumor didn't differ significantly (p= 0.36) between the group with TLC (mean=2.7; SD=1.98) and the control group 3.08 (SD=1.66). There was also no significant difference in capsular infiltration (37% vs 36%; p=0.96), nodal metastases (47% vs 43%; p=0.74), multicentric tumors (37% vs 38%; p=0.99) and bilateral tumors (20% vs 22%; p=0.9). At initial presentation, distant metastases were less frequent in patients with coexisting CLT and DTC (3% vs 12%, p<1%). Nevertheless, if we consider only patients with papillary thyroid cancer, the difference was not statistically significant (0% vs 6%; p=0.23). During the follow-up (mean 4 years), there was no significant difference in nodal relapse (20% vs 8% p=0.1), and distant metastasis (6% vs 3%: p=0.45). No death was noted in the first group, and two were observed in the second (patients with follicular thyroid cancer). The most striking result of this study is the total absence of significant impact of CLT on the prognosis of DTC. Our results seem to be on opposite to those of the majority of authors, underlying the complexity of this entity. We think that some factors specific to our population (iodine diet, ethnical

  1. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, Laura E; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater–surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity. (paper)

  2. The Postischemic Environment Differentially Impacts Teratoma or Tumor Formation After Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seminatore, CH.; Polentes, J.; Ellman, D.; Kozubenko, Nataliya; Itier, V.; Tine, S.; Tritschler, L.; Brenot, M.; Guidou, E.; Blondeau, J.; Lhuillier, M.; Bugi, A.; Aubry, L.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva; Perrier, A. L.; Finsen, B.; Onteniente, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2010), s. 153-159 ISSN 0039-2499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : brain transplantation * human embryonic stem cells * neural differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.756, year: 2010

  3. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  4. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: ► Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. ► Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. ► Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. ► HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  5. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The impact of symbolic and non-symbolic quantity on spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    Full Text Available An implicit mapping of number to space via a "mental number line" occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number--especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high--and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner.

  7. Anxiety disorders and onset of cardiovascular disease: the differential impact of panic, phobias and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Neeltje M; ten Have, Margreet; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Tuithof, Marlous; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered. 5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioral variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR: 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical and experimental differential cross sections for electron impact excitation of the electronic bands of furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; da Costa, R. F.; do N. Varella, M. T.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    We report results from a joint experimental and theoretical investigation into electron scattering from the important industrial species furfural (C5H4O2). Specifically, differential cross sections (DCSs) have been measured and calculated for the electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of C5H4O2. The measurements were carried out at energies in the range 20-40 eV, and for scattered-electron angles between 10° and 90°. The energy resolution of those experiments was typically ˜80 meV. Corresponding Schwinger multichannel method with pseudo-potential calculations, for energies between 6-50 eV and with and without Born-closure, were also performed for a sub-set of the excited electronic-states that were accessed in the measurements. Those calculations were undertaken at the static exchange plus polarisation-level using a minimum orbital basis for single configuration interaction (MOB-SCI) approach. Agreement between the measured and calculated DCSs was qualitatively quite good, although to obtain quantitative accord, the theory would need to incorporate even more channels into the MOB-SCI. The role of multichannel coupling on the computed electronic-state DCSs is also explored in some detail.

  9. Differential impact of student behaviours on group interaction and collaborative learning: medical students' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2016-08-22

    Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.

  10. Differential cross sections for electron impact excitation of the electronic bands of phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-14

    We report results from a joint theoretical and experimental investigation into electron scattering from the important organic species phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). Specifically, differential cross sections (DCSs) have been measured and calculated for the electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH. The measurements were carried out at energies in the range 15–40 eV, and for scattered-electron angles between 10{sup ∘} and 90{sup ∘}. The energy resolution of those experiments was typically ∼80 meV. Corresponding Schwinger multichannel method with pseudo-potentials calculations, with and without Born-closure, were also performed for a sub-set of the excited electronic-states that were accessed in the measurements. Those calculations were conducted at the static exchange plus polarisation (SEP)-level using a minimum orbital basis for single configuration interaction (MOBSCI) approach. Agreement between the measured and calculated DCSs was typically fair, although to obtain quantitative accord, the theory would need to incorporate even more channels into the MOBSCI.

  11. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric...... data. Results: We observed an association of LIN28B (rs7759938) with age at thelarche (P year, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.42) and age at menarche (P = 0.005, 0.17 year, 0.05 to 0.29). FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) minor allele count...... was associated with age at thelarche (P = 0.004, 0.19 year, 0.06 to 0.31) but not with age at menarche (P = 0.97; all adjusted for body mass index z scores). Conclusion: Our results indicate a differential impact of specific genetic loci on age at thelarche and menarche in healthy girls....

  12. Theoretical and experimental differential cross sections for electron impact excitation of the electronic bands of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.

    2016-01-01

    We report results from a joint experimental and theoretical investigation into electron scattering from the important industrial species furfural (C 5 H 4 O 2 ). Specifically, differential cross sections (DCSs) have been measured and calculated for the electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of C 5 H 4 O 2 . The measurements were carried out at energies in the range 20–40 eV, and for scattered-electron angles between 10° and 90°. The energy resolution of those experiments was typically ∼80 meV. Corresponding Schwinger multichannel method with pseudo-potential calculations, for energies between 6–50 eV and with and without Born-closure, were also performed for a sub-set of the excited electronic-states that were accessed in the measurements. Those calculations were undertaken at the static exchange plus polarisation-level using a minimum orbital basis for single configuration interaction (MOB-SCI) approach. Agreement between the measured and calculated DCSs was qualitatively quite good, although to obtain quantitative accord, the theory would need to incorporate even more channels into the MOB-SCI. The role of multichannel coupling on the computed electronic-state DCSs is also explored in some detail.

  13. Theoretical and experimental differential cross sections for electron impact excitation of the electronic bands of furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Câmpus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-900 (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-900 (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo 09210-580 (Brazil); Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-859 (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, Curitiba, Paraná 81531-990 (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P., E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-859 (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-03-28

    We report results from a joint experimental and theoretical investigation into electron scattering from the important industrial species furfural (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}). Specifically, differential cross sections (DCSs) have been measured and calculated for the electron-impact excitation of the electronic states of C{sub 5}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}. The measurements were carried out at energies in the range 20–40 eV, and for scattered-electron angles between 10° and 90°. The energy resolution of those experiments was typically ∼80 meV. Corresponding Schwinger multichannel method with pseudo-potential calculations, for energies between 6–50 eV and with and without Born-closure, were also performed for a sub-set of the excited electronic-states that were accessed in the measurements. Those calculations were undertaken at the static exchange plus polarisation-level using a minimum orbital basis for single configuration interaction (MOB-SCI) approach. Agreement between the measured and calculated DCSs was qualitatively quite good, although to obtain quantitative accord, the theory would need to incorporate even more channels into the MOB-SCI. The role of multichannel coupling on the computed electronic-state DCSs is also explored in some detail.

  14. Differential impact of diverse anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation checkpoint pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agner, Jeppe; Falck, Jacob; Lukas, Jiri; Bartek, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    When exposed to DNA-damaging insults such as ionizing radiation (IR) or ultraviolet light (UV), mammalian cells activate checkpoint pathways to halt cell cycle progression or induce cell death. Here we examined the ability of five commonly used anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action to activate the Chk1/Chk2-Cdc25A-CDK2/cyclin E cell cycle checkpoint pathway, previously shown to be induced by IR or UV. Whereas exposure of human cells to topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, or adriamycin resulted in rapid (within 1 h) activation of the pathway including degradation of the Cdc25A phosphatase and inhibition of cyclin E/CDK2 kinase activity, taxol failed to activate this checkpoint even after a prolonged treatment. Unexpectedly, although the alkylating agent cisplatin also induced degradation of Cdc25A (albeit delayed, after 8-12 h), cyclin E/CDK2 activity was elevated and DNA synthesis continued, a phenomena that correlated with increased E2F1 protein levels and consequently enhanced expression of cyclin E. These results reveal a differential impact of various classes of anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation pathway, and indicate that the kinetics of checkpoint induction, and the relative balance of key components within the DNA damage response network may dictate whether the treated cells arrest their cell cycle progression

  15. Impact of quenching failure of Cy dyes in differential gel electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE is a technology widely used for protein expression analysis. It is based on labelling with fluorescent Cy dyes. In comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis experiments, however, unspecific labelling using N-hydroxy-succinimide-ester-based labelling protocols was recently detected. Cross-talk was observed due to failure of the quenching process. Here, the impact of this effect for DIGE experiments was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments to test quenching efficiency were performed in replicate using Escherichia coli lysate. Parameters such as the amount of dye and quencher were varied. Labelling and quenching were reversed in one experiment. Differences in protein spot volumes due to limited quenching were determined. For some spots twice the volume was detected underscoring the importance of proper control of silencing of active dye. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It could be demonstrated that uncontrolled labelling increased protein spot volume, even doubling it in some cases. Moreover, proteins responded differently to the protocol. Such unpredictable and unspecific processes are not acceptable in protein regulation studies so that it is necessary to validate the correct amount of quencher for individual samples before the DIGE experiment is performed. Increase of the concentration of lysine, which is used as quencher, from 10 mM to 2500 mM, was sufficient to silence the dye. Alternatively, active dye molecules can be removed by filtration.

  16. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  17. Spatial-Temporal Synchrophasor Data Characterization and Analytics in Smart Grid Fault Detection, Identification, and Impact Causal Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Gao, David Wenzhong; Zhang, Jun Jason; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    An approach of big data characterization for smart grids (SGs) and its applications in fault detection, identification, and causal impact analysis is proposed in this paper, which aims to provide substantial data volume reduction while keeping comprehensive information from synchrophasor measurements in spatial and temporal domains. Especially, based on secondary voltage control (SVC) and local SG observation algorithm, a two-layer dynamic optimal synchrophasor measurement devices selection algorithm (OSMDSA) is proposed to determine SVC zones, their corresponding pilot buses, and the optimal synchrophasor measurement devices. Combining the two-layer dynamic OSMDSA and matching pursuit decomposition, the synchrophasor data is completely characterized in the spatial-temporal domain. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characterization approach, SG situational awareness is investigated based on hidden Markov model based fault detection and identification using the spatial-temporal characteristics generated from the reduced data. To identify the major impact buses, the weighted Granger causality for SGs is proposed to investigate the causal relationship of buses during system disturbance. The IEEE 39-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system are employed to validate and evaluate the proposed approach.

  18. Characterization of Impact Damage in Ultra-High Performance Concrete Using Spatially Correlated Nanoindentation/SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, R. D.; Allison, P. G.; Chandler, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Little work has been done to study the fundamental material behaviors and failure mechanisms of cement-based materials including ordinary Portland cement concrete and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPCs) under high strain impact and penetration loads at lower length scales. These high strain rate loadings have many possible effects on UHPCs at the microscale and nanoscale, including alterations in the hydration state and bonding present in phases such as calcium silicate hydrate, in addition to fracture and debonding. In this work, the possible chemical and physical changes in UHPCs subjected to high strain rate impact and penetration loads were investigated using a novel technique wherein nanoindentation measurements were spatially correlated with images using scanning electron microscopy and chemical composition using energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. Results indicate that impact degrades both the elastic modulus and indentation hardness of UHPCs, and in particular hydrated phases, with damage likely occurring due to microfracturing and debonding.

  19. Differential sharing and distinct co-occurrence networks among spatially close bacterial microbiota of bark, mosses and lichens‬‬.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Ines Aline; Cernava, Tomislav; Erlacher, Armin; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the intermicrobiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures. Corresponding co-occurrence analysis indicated that the lichen microbial network is less complex and less densely interconnected than the moss- and bark-associated networks. Several potential generalists and specialists were identified for the selected habitats. Generalists belonged mainly to Proteobacteria, with Sphingomonas as the most abundant genus. The generalists comprise microorganisms with generally beneficial features, such as nitrogen fixation or other supporting functions, according to a metagenomic analysis. We argue that beneficial strains shared among hosts contribute to ecological stability of the host biocoenoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Estradiol treatment in preadolescent females enhances adolescent spatial memory and differentially modulates hippocampal region-specific phosphorylated ERK labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Brianne C; Keeley, Robin J; Holahan, Matthew R

    2012-10-24

    Estrogen levels in rats are positively correlated with enhanced memory function and hippocampal dendritic spine density. There is much less work on the long-term effects of estradiol manipulation in preadolescent rats. The present work examined how injections of estradiol during postnatal days 19-22 (p19-22; preadolescence) affected water maze performance and hippocampal phosphorylated ERK labeling. To investigate this, half of the estradiol- and vehicle-treated female rats were trained on a water maze task 24h after the end of estradiol treatment (p23-27) while the other half was not trained. All female rats were tested on the water maze from p40 to p44 (adolescence) and hippocampal pERK1/2 labeling was assessed as a putative marker of neuronal plasticity. During adolescence, preadolescent-trained groups showed lower latencies than groups without preadolescent training. Retention data revealed lower latencies in both estradiol groups, whether preadolescent trained or not. Immunohistochemical detection of hippocampal pERK1/2 revealed elevations in granule cell labeling associated with the preadolescent trained groups and reductions in CA1 labeling associated with estradiol treatment. These results show a latent beneficial effect of preadolescent estradiol treatment on adolescent spatial performance and suggest an organizational effect of prepubescent exogenously applied estradiol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A diagnostic imaging approach for online characterization of multi-impact in aircraft composite structures based on a scanning spatial-wavenumber filter of guided wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanqiang; Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Su, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring of impact and multi-impact in particular in aircraft composite structures has been an intensive research topic in the field of guided-wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM). Compared with the majority of existing methods such as those using signal features in the time-, frequency- or joint time-frequency domain, the approach based on spatial-wavenumber filter of guided wave shows superb advantage in effectively distinguishing particular wave modes and identifying their propagation direction relative to the sensor array. However, there exist two major issues when conducting online characterization of multi-impact event. Firstly, the spatial-wavenumber filter should be realized in the situation that the wavenumber of high spatial resolution of the complicated multi-impact signal cannot be measured or modeled. Secondly, it's difficult to identify the multiple impacts and realize multi-impact localization due to the overlapping of wavenumbers. To address these issues, a scanning spatial-wavenumber filter based diagnostic imaging method for online characterization of multi-impact event is proposed to conduct multi-impact imaging and localization in this paper. The principle of the scanning filter for multi-impact is developed first to conduct spatial-wavenumber filtering and to achieve wavenumber-time imaging of the multiple impacts. Then, a feature identification method of multi-impact based on eigenvalue decomposition and wavenumber searching is presented to estimate the number of impacts and calculate the wavenumber of the multi-impact signal, and an image mapping method is proposed as well to convert the wavenumber-time image to an angle-distance image to distinguish and locate the multiple impacts. A series of multi-impact events are applied to a carbon fiber laminate plate to validate the proposed methods. The validation results show that the localization of the multiple impacts are well achieved.

  2. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  3. Spatial structures of the environment and of dispersal impact species distribution in competitive metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dexiecuo; Gravel, Dominique; Chu, Chengjin; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The correspondence between species distribution and the environment depends on species' ability to track favorable environmental conditions (via dispersal) and to maintain competitive hierarchy against the constant influx of migrants (mass effect) and demographic stochasticity (ecological drift). Here we report a simulation study of the influence of landscape structure on species distribution. We consider lottery competition for space in a spatially heterogeneous environment, where the landscape is represented as a network of localities connected by dispersal. We quantified the contribution of neutrality and species sorting to their spatial distribution. We found that neutrality increases and the strength of species-sorting decreases with the centrality of a community in the landscape when the average dispersal among communities is low, whereas the opposite was found at elevated dispersal. We also found that the strength of species-sorting increases with environmental heterogeneity. Our results illustrate that spatial structure of the environment and of dispersal must be taken into account for understanding species distribution. We stress the importance of spatial geographic structure on the relative importance of niche vs. neutral processes in controlling community dynamics.

  4. Spatial structures of the environment and of dispersal impact species distribution in competitive metacommunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexiecuo Ai

    Full Text Available The correspondence between species distribution and the environment depends on species' ability to track favorable environmental conditions (via dispersal and to maintain competitive hierarchy against the constant influx of migrants (mass effect and demographic stochasticity (ecological drift. Here we report a simulation study of the influence of landscape structure on species distribution. We consider lottery competition for space in a spatially heterogeneous environment, where the landscape is represented as a network of localities connected by dispersal. We quantified the contribution of neutrality and species sorting to their spatial distribution. We found that neutrality increases and the strength of species-sorting decreases with the centrality of a community in the landscape when the average dispersal among communities is low, whereas the opposite was found at elevated dispersal. We also found that the strength of species-sorting increases with environmental heterogeneity. Our results illustrate that spatial structure of the environment and of dispersal must be taken into account for understanding species distribution. We stress the importance of spatial geographic structure on the relative importance of niche vs. neutral processes in controlling community dynamics.

  5. Linking water management to spatial development: impact from EU to local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The co-operation between water managers and spatial planners depends heavily on its basic element: competing interests. Aspects that shapes the co-operation and define its effectiveness are language (discipline related jargon), contracts, trust, personal competences, policy tuning & policy

  6. Spatial and temporal accuracy of asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations at extreme scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Komal; Donzis, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Highly resolved computational simulations on massively parallel machines are critical in understanding the physics of a vast number of complex phenomena in nature governed by partial differential equations. Simulations at extreme levels of parallelism present many challenges with communication between processing elements (PEs) being a major bottleneck. In order to fully exploit the computational power of exascale machines one needs to devise numerical schemes that relax global synchronizations across PEs. This asynchronous computations, however, have a degrading effect on the accuracy of standard numerical schemes.We have developed asynchrony-tolerant (AT) schemes that maintain order of accuracy despite relaxed communications. We show, analytically and numerically, that these schemes retain their numerical properties with multi-step higher order temporal Runge-Kutta schemes. We also show that for a range of optimized parameters,the computation time and error for AT schemes is less than their synchronous counterpart. Stability of the AT schemes which depends upon history and random nature of delays, are also discussed. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. A mechanism for the coordination of proliferation and differentiation by spatial regulation of Fus2p in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junwon; Rose, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells induce the genes required for mating prior to the completion of mitosis. To ensure proper cell cycle progression prior to mating differentiation, a key cytoplasmic regulator of cell fusion, Fus2p, is sequestered in the nucleus by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk). In response to pheromone signaling, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3p phosphorylates Ser 84 in Fus2p to drive nuclear export. We found that Fus3p becomes active and phosphorylates S84 as early as S phase, raising the question of how Cdk prevents inappropriate activation of Fus2p. Countering Fus3p, Cdk and a p21-activated kinase, Cla4p, maintain Fus2p's nuclear localization by phosphorylating Ser 67, which drives nuclear import and inhibits nuclear export. When Cdk and Cla4p activities drop after cell division, Fus3p promotes Fus2p export both via S84 phosphorylation and by down-regulating S67 phosphorylation. Thus, potential premature activation of Fus2p in mitosis is prevented by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation that overrides the mating pheromone-induced phosphorylation that drives nuclear export. PMID:22588722

  8. Partitioning the impacts of spatial and climatological rainfall variability in urban drainage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Blumensaat, Frank; Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    The performance of urban drainage systems is typically examined using hydrological and hydrodynamic models where rainfall input is uniformly distributed, i.e., derived from a single or very few rain gauges. When models are fed with a single uniformly distributed rainfall realization, the response of the urban drainage system to the rainfall variability remains unexplored. The goal of this study was to understand how climate variability and spatial rainfall variability, jointly or individually considered, affect the response of a calibrated hydrodynamic urban drainage model. A stochastic spatially distributed rainfall generator (STREAP - Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation) was used to simulate many realizations of rainfall for a 30-year period, accounting for both climate variability and spatial rainfall variability. The generated rainfall ensemble was used as input into a calibrated hydrodynamic model (EPA SWMM - the US EPA's Storm Water Management Model) to simulate surface runoff and channel flow in a small urban catchment in the city of Lucerne, Switzerland. The variability of peak flows in response to rainfall of different return periods was evaluated at three different locations in the urban drainage network and partitioned among its sources. The main contribution to the total flow variability was found to originate from the natural climate variability (on average over 74 %). In addition, the relative contribution of the spatial rainfall variability to the total flow variability was found to increase with longer return periods. This suggests that while the use of spatially distributed rainfall data can supply valuable information for sewer network design (typically based on rainfall with return periods from 5 to 15 years), there is a more pronounced relevance when conducting flood risk assessments for larger return periods. The results show the importance of using multiple distributed rainfall realizations in urban hydrology studies to capture the

  9. Impact of a Differential Learning Approach on Practical Exam Performance: A Controlled Study in a Preclinical Dental Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabel, Sven-Olav; Pabel, Anne-Kathrin; Schmickler, Jan; Schulz, Xenia; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if differential learning in a preclinical dental course impacted the performance of dental students in a practical exam (preparation of a gold partial crown) immediately after the training session and 20 weeks later compared to conventional learning. This controlled study was performed in a preclinical course in operative dentistry at a dental school in Germany. Third-year students were trained in preparing gold partial crowns by using either the conventional learning (n=41) or the differential learning approach (n=32). The differential learning approach consisted of 20 movement exercises with a continuous change of movement execution during the learning session, while the conventional learning approach was mainly based on repetition, a methodological series of exercises, and correction of preparations during the training phase. Practical exams were performed immediately after the training session (T1) and 20 weeks later (T2, retention test). Preparations were rated by four independent and blinded examiners. At T1, no significant difference between the performance (exam passed) of the two groups was detected (conventional learning: 54.3%, differential learning: 68.0%). At T2, significantly more students passed the exam when trained by the differential learning approach (68.8%) than by the conventional learning approach (18.9%). Interrater reliability was moderate (Kappa: 0.57, T1) or substantial (Kappa: 0.67, T2), respectively. These results suggest that a differential learning approach can increase the manual skills of dental students.

  10. The spatial distribution and time evolution of impact-generated magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The production of magnetic fields was revealed by laboratory hypervelocity impacts in easily vaporized targets. As quantified by pressure measurements, high frame-rate photography, and electrostatic probes, these impacts tend to produce large quantities of slightly ionized vapor, which is referred to as impact-generated plasma. Nonaligned electron density and temperature gradients within this plasma may lead to production of the observed magnetic fields. Past experiments were limited to measuring a single component of the impact-generated magnetic fields at only a few locations about the developing impact crater and consequently gave little information about the field production mechanism. To understand this mechanism, the techniques were extended to map the three components of the magnetic field both in space and time. By conducting many otherwise identical experiments with arrayed magnetic detectors, a preliminary 3-D picture was produced of impact-generated magnetic fields as they develop through time.

  11. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Guetat, P.; Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.; Legrand, J.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  12. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; Richters, J.

    2011-05-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV) indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII) data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000) and at the end of austral summer (May 2001). The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %). Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43) and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2) from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82) in dry austral winter months (June to August) and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75) during austral summer (March to May). Annual changes in spatial extend of perennial HAWA

  13. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.

    2012-04-17

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (Pa=0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  14. An LES study on the spatial variability impact of surface sensible heat flux (SHF) on the convective boundary layer (CBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. L.; Chun, J.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the spatial variability impact of surface sensible heat flux (SHF) on the convective boundary layer (CBL), using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in large eddy simulation (LES) mode. In order to investigate the response of the CBL to multi-scale feature of the surface SHF field over a local area of several tens of kilometers or smaller, an analytic surface SHF map is crated as a function of the chosen feature. The spatial variation in the SHF map is prescribed with a two-dimensional analytical perturbation field, which is generated by using the inverse transform technique of the Fourier series whose coefficients are controlled, of which spectrum to have a particular slope in the chosen range of wavelength. Then, the CBL responses to various SHF heterogeneities are summarized as a function of the spectral slope, in terms of mean structure, turbulence statistics and cross-scale processes. The range of feasible SHF heterogeneities is obtained from the SHF maps produced by a land surface model (LSM) of the WRF system. The LSM-derived SHF maps are a function of geographical data on various resolutions. Based on the numerical experiment results with the surface heterogeneities in the range, we will discuss the uncertainty in the SHF heterogeneity and its impact on the atmosphere in a numerical model. Also we will present the range of spatial scale of the surface SHF heterogeneity that significantly influence on the whole CBL. Lastly, we will report the test result of the hypothesis that the spatial variability of SHF is more representative of surface thermal heterogeneity than is the latent heat flux over the local area of several tens of kilometers or smaller.

  15. Differential spatial expression of A- and B-type CDKs, and distribution of auxins and cytokinins in the open transverse root apical meristem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Leonardo; Salimonti, Amelia; Muto, Antonella; Jones, Jessica; Rogers, Hilary J; Francis, Dennis; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2011-05-01

    Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in most cells in the RAM regardless of their proliferative

  16. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  17. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  18. Walking a Tight Line: Management of Arctic Fisheries in the Presence of Spatially Differentiated Ecological-Economic Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Sundet, Jan

    king crab (RKC) and the accidental introduction of the snow crab in the Barents Sea, and the red king crab’s recent identification in Icelandic waters, are used to develop the discussion of the tradeoffs, local, regional and international governance opportunities and failures, and intervention...... perturbations in the fragile Arctic ecosystems are likely to have outsized impacts both ecologically and economically. This work discusses the optimal management of international invasive species threats in order to minimize overall damages and costs. The related cases of the purposeful introduction of the red...... incentives of open access fisheries. We analyze whether such a solution would be feasible for the newer but more rapidly expanding snow crab invasion....

  19. Narcissism and romantic relationships: The differential impact of narcissistic admiration and rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Stefanie N; Gerlach, Tanja M; Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Grosz, Michael P; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D

    2017-02-01

    Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism: Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry. Both dimensions serve the central narcissistic goal of gaining and maintaining a grandiose self-view, but do so by different processes: Admiration is characterized by the tendency to promote the positivity of one's self-view by seeking social admiration (assertive self-enhancement). Rivalry is characterized by the tendency to protect oneself from a negative self-view by derogating others (antagonistic self-protection). Across 7 studies (total N = 3,560) using diverse measures and methodological approaches (self-, peer, and partner reports, as well as interpersonal perception measures in video-based studies, face-to-face laboratory encounters, and online surveys), we show that the short-term romantic appeal associated with narcissism is primarily attributable to the dimension of Admiration, whereas the long-term romantic problems associated with narcissism are primarily attributable to the dimension of Rivalry. These results highlight the utility of a 2-dimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism for explaining its heterogeneous romantic outcomes. The findings further underscore the idea that different facets of personality traits might impact different aspects of romantic relationship quality, depending on the stage of the relationship. Such a more nuanced view increases the predictive validity of personality traits in social relationship research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Burley

    Full Text Available Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, myogenic index and differentiation and catabolic processes (cortisol. Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP. Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs and evening (PM: 1800 hrs, with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05. Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  1. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05). Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  2. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otto

    2011-05-01

    (March to May. Annual changes in spatial extend of perennial HAWA indicate alterations in annual water supply generated from snow melt.

  3. A new method for odour impact assessment based on spatial and temporal analyses of community response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, P.; Nicell, J.; Sikdar, A.

    2002-01-01

    Odorous emission from stationary sources account for the majority of air pollution complaints to regulatory agencies. Sometimes regulators rely on nuisance provisions of common law to assess odour impact, which is highly subjective. The other commonly used approach, the dilution-to-threshold principle, assumes that an odour is a problem simply if detected, without regard to the fact that a segment of the population can detect the odour at concentrations below the threshold. The odour impact model (OIM) represents a significant improvement over current methods for quantifying odours by characterizing the dose-response relationship of the odour. Dispersion modelling can be used in conjunction with the OIM to estimate the probability of response in the surrounding vicinity, taking into account the local meteorological conditions. The objective of this research is to develop an objective method of assessing the impact of odorous airborne emissions. To this end, several metrics were developed to quantify the impact of an odorous stationary source on the surrounding community. These 'odour impact parameters' are: maximum concentration, maximum probability of response, footprint area, probability-weighted footprint area and the number of people responding to the odour. These impact parameters were calculated for a stationary odour source in Canada. Several remediation scenarios for reducing the odour impact were proposed and their effect on the impact parameters calculated. (author)

  4. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  5. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  6. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. R. Mateo; C. M. R. Mateo; D. Yamazaki; D. Yamazaki; H. Kim; A. Champathong; J. Vaze; T. Oki; T. Oki

    2017-01-01

    Global-scale river models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development...

  7. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Cherry May R.; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Champathong, Adisorn; Vaze, Jai; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Global-scale River Models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representation of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction,...

  8. THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RESOLUTIONS IN TROPICAL SUMMER RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples’ life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007, accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG. However, the models’ resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF and cumulative distribution functions(CDF of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  9. The Impact of Spatial and Temporal Resolutions in Tropical Summer Rainfall Distribution: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Chiu, L. S.; Hao, X.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples' life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007), accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). However, the models' resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling) procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days) and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions(CDF) of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS) test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  10. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T.; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P.; Rötter, Reimund P.; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations. PMID:27055028

  11. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P; Rötter, Reimund P; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  12. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  13. Differential elastic electron scattering cross sections for CCl4 by 1.5-100 eV energy electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Horie, M.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Buckman, S. J.; Tanaka, H.

    2011-12-01

    We report absolute elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections for electron interactions with CCl4. The incident electron energy range is 1.5-100 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varies from 15°-130°. The absolute scale of the differential cross section was set using the relative flow technique with helium as the reference species. Comparison with previous total cross sections shows good agreement. Atomic-like behaviour in this scattering system is shown here for the first time, and is further investigated by comparing the CCl4 elastic cross sections to recent results on the halomethanes and atomic chlorine at higher impact energies [H. Kato, T. Asahina, H. Masui, M. Hoshino, H. Tanaka, H. Cho, O. Ingólfsson, F. Blanco, G. Garcia, S. J. Buckman, and M. J. Brunger, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074309 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3319761.

  14. Spatial Extent of the Impact of Transported Road Materials on the Ecological Function of Forested Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    Roads have varied ecological impacts on the adjacent plant and soil environment due to physical and chemical disturbances resulting from roadway construction, roadside maintenance, and vehicle deposition. The two main areas influenced by a road are t...

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Frazier, Melanie; Potapenko, John; Casey, Kenneth S; Koenig, Kellee; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia Stewart; Rockwood, R Cotton; Selig, Elizabeth R; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Walbridge, Shaun

    2015-07-14

    Human pressures on the ocean are thought to be increasing globally, yet we know little about their patterns of cumulative change, which pressures are most responsible for change, and which places are experiencing the greatest increases. Managers and policymakers require such information to make strategic decisions and monitor progress towards management objectives. Here we calculate and map recent change over 5 years in cumulative impacts to marine ecosystems globally from fishing, climate change, and ocean- and land-based stressors. Nearly 66% of the ocean and 77% of national jurisdictions show increased human impact, driven mostly by climate change pressures. Five percent of the ocean is heavily impacted with increasing pressures, requiring management attention. Ten percent has very low impact with decreasing pressures. Our results provide large-scale guidance about where to prioritize management efforts and affirm the importance of addressing climate change to maintain and improve the condition of marine ecosystems.

  16. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  17. Hourly pattern of allergenic alder and birch pollen concentrations in the air: Spatial differentiation and the effect of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka, K.; Kasprzyk, I.

    2018-06-01

    In temperate climate widespread alder and birch are an important source of strong aeroallergens. The diurnal pattern of airborne pollen concentrations depends on the rhythm of pollen release from anthers as well as weather conditions, convection air currents, long-distance transport, pollen trap location and local vegetation. The aim of the study was to present a diurnal pattern of Alnus (alder) and Betula (birch) pollen concentrations in the air in a horizontal and vertical gradient and examine the weather parameters that had the greatest impact on the pattern. The study was conducted in Rzeszów City, southeast Poland over three years. Pollen grains were collected using a Hirst volumetric spore trap at three sampling points: two at 12 m the agl, and one at 1.5 m agl. Data were analysed using circular statistics and a nonlinear function. For alder, three models of hourly patterns were elaborated and the most common presented early morning minimum and early afternoon maximum. For birch, the most common model has one peak at night and a marked decrease in concentrations in early morning, although a second model has peak during early afternoon. A model with 3 peaks is much less common. These models are characteristic for warm temperate climate regions, where alders and birches are common. The diurnal patterns did not depend on the localization of traps or proximity of the pollen source, although these factors influenced the hourly concentrations, with higher values observed at roof level. Significant relationships between the hourly pollen counts and meteorological parameters were observed only for alder. Three incidents of increasing birch pollen concentrations were observed during the first two hours of precipitation and linked to a convection effect. Unstable weather conditions caused by air convection might strongly modify the circadian pattern and cause the nightly peaks concentrations. The general results are that people suffering from allergies may be exposed

  18. The Impact of Virtual Simulations, Communication and Peer Reviewing on Spatial Intelligence and Mathematical Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at enabling special education pupils to use computers in everyday life, and improving spatial intelligence and mathematical achievements through computers. The method of training focuses on enabling pupils to create computer simulations, communicate by electronic mail while evaluating each other’s products and navigate Internet sites. The creation of such simulations is based on manipulations of the virtual environment similar to the real world as much as possible in order to utilize the unique characteristics of the computer such as spatial visualization. The researcher taught the teachers the basics of the use of computer and trained them how to use the method in their classroom. Then the teachers used the method with their special education pupils in accordance with their cognitive and motor abilities. The objects were taken from the pupils’ everyday environment. The teachers trained the pupils in pairs. Such procedures were held among different populations. The teachers improved their mastery of computers. In spite of their lack of experience before the experiment, they built high-level PowerPoint presentations and used them with their pupils in the classroom including even virtual simulations. They sent their products by Electronic mail (E-Mail for the peer reviewing process and navigated relevant Internet sites. The teachers reported pupils’ high motivation and their success in the various virtual activities. As a result, the spatial intelligence and mathematical achievements of the pupils were improved. The teacher-pupil interaction and the social relationships between the pupils were also improved.

  19. Spatial and temporal trends in water quality in a Mediterranean temporary river impacted by sewage effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Picot, Bernadette

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how changes in hydrological conditions can affect the water quality of a temporary river that receives direct inputs of sewage effluents. Data from 12 spatial surveys of the Vène river were examined. Physico-chemical parameters, major ion, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed. ANOVA revealed significant spatial differences for conductivity and major ion but no significant spatial differences for nutrient concentrations even if higher average concentrations were observed at stations located downstream from sewage effluent discharge points. Significant temporal differences were observed among all the parameters. Karstic springs had a marked dilution effect on the direct disposal of sewage effluents. During high-flow periods, nutrient concentrations were high to moderate whereas nutrient concentrations ranged from moderate to bad at stations located downstream from the direct inputs of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. Principal component analysis showed that water quality parameters that explained the water quality of the Vène river were highly dependent on hydrological conditions. Cluster analysis showed that when the karstic springs were flowing, water quality was homogeneous all along the river, whereas when karstic springs were dry, water quality at the monitoring stations was more fragmented. These results underline the importance of considering hydrological conditions when monitoring the water quality of temporary rivers. In view of the pollution observed in the Vène river, "good water chemical status" can probably only be achieved by improving the management of sewage effluents during low-flow periods.

  20. Spitzer Observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 During Deep Impact : Water and Dust Production and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005 (rh = 1.506 AU). Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ΔSpitzer = 0.72 AU) at different times around the Deep Impact event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations (Lisse et al 2006, Sciences 313, 635) were taken from the Spitzer data archive. We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 µm spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. On the first stage we studied the water ν2 vibrational band emission at 6.4µm, which is present in most spectra. The water production rate before impact is deduced ( 4.25e27 molecules/sec). In order to study both the amount and origin of the water molecules released after impact, we used extractions centered on the nucleus and along the length of the slit. We analyzed the spatial distribution of water and its time evolution with a time-dependent model which describes the evolution of the water cloud after impact. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the evolution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  1. Impact of delay on disease outbreak in a spatial epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia-Xia; Wang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    One of the central issues in studying epidemic spreading is the mechanism on disease outbreak. In this paper, we investigate the effects of time delay on disease outbreak in spatial epidemics based on a reaction-diffusion model. By mathematical analysis and numerical simulations, we show that when time delay is more than a critical value, the disease outbreaks. The obtained results show that the time delay is an important factor in the spread of the disease, which may provide new insights on disease control.

  2. Impacts of ozone air pollution and temperature extremes on crop yields: Spatial variability, adaptation and implications for future food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Amos P. K.; Val Martin, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Ozone air pollution and climate change pose major threats to global crop production, with ramifications for future food security. Previous studies of ozone and warming impacts on crops typically do not account for the strong ozone-temperature correlation when interpreting crop-ozone or crop-temperature relationships, or the spatial variability of crop-to-ozone sensitivity arising from varietal and environmental differences, leading to potential biases in their estimated crop losses. Here we develop an empirical model, called the partial derivative-linear regression (PDLR) model, to estimate the spatial variations in the sensitivities of wheat, maize and soybean yields to ozone exposures and temperature extremes in the US and Europe using a composite of multidecadal datasets, fully correcting for ozone-temperature covariation. We find generally larger and more spatially varying sensitivities of all three crops to ozone exposures than are implied by experimentally derived concentration-response functions used in most previous studies. Stronger ozone tolerance is found in regions with high ozone levels and high consumptive crop water use, reflecting the existence of spatial adaptation and effect of water constraints. The spatially varying sensitivities to temperature extremes also indicate stronger heat tolerance in crops grown in warmer regions. The spatial adaptation of crops to ozone and temperature we find can serve as a surrogate for future adaptation. Using the PDLR-derived sensitivities and 2000-2050 ozone and temperature projections by the Community Earth System Model, we estimate that future warming and unmitigated ozone pollution can combine to cause an average decline in US wheat, maize and soybean production by 13%, 43% and 28%, respectively, and a smaller decline for European crops. Aggressive ozone regulation is shown to offset such decline to various extents, especially for wheat. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering ozone regulation

  3. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales

  4. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA) Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales.

  5. Methods for specifying spatial boundaries of cities in the world: The impacts of delineation methods on city sustainability indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Mori, Koichiro

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze how different definitions and methods for delineating the spatial boundaries of cities have an impact on the values of city sustainability indicators. It is necessary to distinguish the inside of cities from the outside when calculating the values of sustainability indicators that assess the impacts of human activities within cities on areas beyond their boundaries. For this purpose, spatial boundaries of cities should be practically detected on the basis of a relevant definition of a city. Although no definition of a city is commonly shared among academic fields, three practical methods for identifying urban areas are available in remote sensing science. Those practical methods are based on population density, landcover, and night-time lights. These methods are correlated, but non-negligible differences exist in their determination of urban extents and urban population. Furthermore, critical and statistically significant differences in some urban environmental sustainability indicators result from the three different urban detection methods. For example, the average values of CO 2 emissions per capita and PM 10 concentration in cities with more than 1 million residents are significantly different among the definitions. When analyzing city sustainability indicators and disseminating the implication of the results, the values based on the different definitions should be simultaneously investigated. It is necessary to carefully choose a relevant definition to analyze sustainability indicators for policy making. Otherwise, ineffective and inefficient policies will be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis the temporal and spatial impact of water harvesting on Aforestation processes, at the Northen Negev region, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, E.; Egozi, R.; Goldshlager, N.

    2012-04-01

    Water availability in arid regions is a major limiting factor, which affect plant development. Therefore, knowledge about preliminary and ongoing spatial & temporal conditions (e.g. land surface properties, hydrological regime and vegetation dynamics) can improve greatly afforestation practice. The Ambassadors forest is one of the Jewish National Fund (JNF) new afforestation projects (initiated on 2005), which rely on water harvesting irrigation systems, located at the northern Negev region, Israel. Temporal and spatial processes are studied utilizing ground, air-borne and space-borne techniques for assessment of surface processes, that take place due to significant land-use change. Since 2005 the area shows significant variation of surface energy balance components which impact the spatial and temporal forest generation. Both human and climate affect these parameters, hence their influence is essential for future study of the region. Parameters of surface Albedo & Temperature and Vegetation dynamics are gathered by space-borne sensors (e.g. MODIS, Landsat & ALI) and verified at field scale in conjunction with ground-truth measurements of climate and soil properties. In addition, the project study various scenarios that might result from diverse climate trajectories that impact soil formation factors and therefore forest development. Preliminary results show that surface physical & ecoligical properties had changed significantly since the aforestation project began, comparing previous years. Sharp increase of surface albedo detected since 2005 that raised from 0.25 to 0.32, while vegetation density, estimated from NDVI, had dropped from annaul average of 0.21 down to 0.13 during 10-year time period. These changes are related to human interferance. The current paper presents the first phase of the long-term study of the Remote Sensing analysis and the current surface monitoring phase.

  8. 124I-PET dosimetry in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer: therapeutic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Jentzen, W.; Goerges, R.; Knust, J.; Bockisch, A.; Marlowe, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of 124 I-positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry on post-primary surgery therapy in radioiodine-naive patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients, material, methods: In each of 28 thyroidectomized patients with high-risk DTC (one or more of pT4, pN1 or pM1), we gave 23-50 MBq of 124 I as an oral capsule and performed PET dosimetry to calculate the individualized therapeutic 131 I activity that would, insofar as possible, achieve a radioiodine dose ≥ 100 Gy to all metastases without exceeding 2 Gy to the blood (a surrogate for bone marrow toxicity). We thus determined the absorbed lesion dose per GBq of administered 131 I activity (LDpA) based on serial PET (4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after oral 124 I intake) and PET/computed tomography (25 h after 124 I intake) and the critical blood activity (CBA) based on blood and whole-body radiation counting (2, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 h after 124 I intake). We compared the dosimetry-based interventions with our standard empirical protocol. Results: 25 patients had a total of 126 iodine-positive metastases. 18 (72%) of the 25 had solely iodine-avid metastases, while seven (28%) had both iodine-avid and -non-avid metastases. In two patients (8%), none of the iodine-avid metastases could have been practically treated with a sufficient radiation dose. Relative to the empirical protocol, 124 I-PET dosimetry findings changed management in 7 (25%) patients, e. g. allowing application of activities >11 GBq 131 I. Further changes included implementation of hematological back-up in a patient found to be at risk of life-threatening marrow toxicity, and early multimodal therapy in 9 (32%) patients. Conclusion: 124 I-PET dosimetry is a useful routine procedure in advanced DTC and may allow safer or more effective radioiodine activities and earlier multimodal interventions than do standard empirical protocols. (orig.)

  9. {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer: therapeutic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Jentzen, W.; Goerges, R.; Knust, J.; Bockisch, A. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Petrich, T. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Marlowe, R.J.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of {sup 124}I-positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry on post-primary surgery therapy in radioiodine-naive patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients, material, methods: In each of 28 thyroidectomized patients with high-risk DTC (one or more of pT4, pN1 or pM1), we gave 23-50 MBq of {sup 124}I as an oral capsule and performed PET dosimetry to calculate the individualized therapeutic {sup 131}I activity that would, insofar as possible, achieve a radioiodine dose {>=} 100 Gy to all metastases without exceeding 2 Gy to the blood (a surrogate for bone marrow toxicity). We thus determined the absorbed lesion dose per GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) based on serial PET (4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after oral {sup 124}I intake) and PET/computed tomography (25 h after {sup 124}I intake) and the critical blood activity (CBA) based on blood and whole-body radiation counting (2, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 h after {sup 124}I intake). We compared the dosimetry-based interventions with our standard empirical protocol. Results: 25 patients had a total of 126 iodine-positive metastases. 18 (72%) of the 25 had solely iodine-avid metastases, while seven (28%) had both iodine-avid and -non-avid metastases. In two patients (8%), none of the iodine-avid metastases could have been practically treated with a sufficient radiation dose. Relative to the empirical protocol, {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry findings changed management in 7 (25%) patients, e. g. allowing application of activities >11 GBq {sup 131}I. Further changes included implementation of hematological back-up in a patient found to be at risk of life-threatening marrow toxicity, and early multimodal therapy in 9 (32%) patients. Conclusion: {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry is a useful routine procedure in advanced DTC and may allow safer or more effective radioiodine activities and earlier multimodal interventions than do standard empirical protocols. (orig.)

  10. Spatial patterns of coral survivorship: impacts of adult proximity versus other drivers of localized mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Gibbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific enemies may promote prey coexistence through negative distance- and density-dependent survival of juveniles near conspecific adults. We tested this mechanism by transplanting juvenile-sized fragments of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis and Seriatopora hystrix 3, 12, 24 and 182 cm up- and down-current of conspecific adults and monitoring their survival and condition over time. We also characterized the spatial distribution of P. damicornis and S. hystrix within replicate plots on three Fijian reef flats and measured the distribution of small colonies within 2 m of larger colonies of each species. Juvenile-sized transplants exhibited no differences in survivorship as a function of distance from adult P. damicornis or S. hystrix. Additionally, both P. damicornis and S. hystrix were aggregated rather than overdispersed on natural reefs. However, a pattern of juveniles being aggregated near adults while larger (and probably older colonies were not suggests that greater mortality near large adults could occur over longer periods of time or that size-dependent mortality was occurring. While we found minimal evidence of greater mortality of small colonies near adult conspecifics in our transplant experiments, we did document hot-spots of species-specific corallivory. We detected spatially localized and temporally persistent predation on P. damicornis by the territorial triggerfish Balistapus undulatus. This patchy predation did not occur for S. hystrix. This variable selective regime in an otherwise more uniform environment could be one mechanism maintaining diversity of corals on Indo-Pacific reefs.

  11. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto, E-mail: alby@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gohar, Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 99 acad. Krasin str., Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-03-11

    In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons. The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to (1) neutron counting errors; (2) geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and (3) quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions. This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. The work investigated the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly of Belarus, which has been operated with three different fuel enrichments in the fast zone either: high (90%) and medium (36%), medium (36%), or low (21%) enriched uranium fuel.

  12. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-01-01

    In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons. The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to (1) neutron counting errors; (2) geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and (3) quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions. This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. The work investigated the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly of Belarus, which has been operated with three different fuel enrichments in the fast zone either: high (90%) and medium (36%), medium (36%), or low (21%) enriched uranium fuel.

  13. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  14. Impacts of habitat degradation and stream spatial location on biodiversity in a disturbed riverine landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Kristensen, Esben Astrup

    2015-01-01

    gradients. We used macrophyte, fish and macroinvertebrate data from Danish lowland streams to investigate whether (1) high connectivity in reaches situated in lower parts of the stream network (downstream sites) generates high α-diversity, while dispersal limitation and high habitat heterogeneity across......The ongoing degradation of freshwater habitat quality and subsequent losses of biodiversity is alarming. One key to successful freshwater management is to understand how different scale-dependent diversity components (i.e. γ-, α- and β-diversity) change along present-day anthropogenic impact...... the more isolated upper reaches (headwater sites) generate high β-diversity, (2) γ-, α- and β- diversity decrease with increasing hydromorphological impact and (3) high connectivity in downstream reaches buffers against impacts on biodiversity. Results showed that α-diversity was higher in downstream sites...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quy Giang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT coupled with downscaled global climate models (GCMs was employed for simulation. Soil erosion in the watershed was mostly found as “hill-slope erosion”, which occurred seriously in the upstream area where topography is dominated by numerous steep hills with sparse vegetation cover. However, under the impact of climate change, it is very likely that soil erosion rate in the downstream area will increase at a higher rate than in its upstream area due to a greater increase in precipitation. Seasonally, soil erosion is predicted to increase significantly in the warmer and wetter climate of the wet season, when higher erosive power of an increased amount and intensity of rainfall is accompanied by higher sediment transport capacity. The results of this study provide useful information for decision makers to plan where and when soil conservation practice should be focused.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the differentiation of human naive CD4{sup +} T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lanxia; Bai Yuanyuan; Zhu Dunwan; Song Liping; Wang Hai; Dong Xia; Zhang Hailing; Leng Xigang, E-mail: lengxg@bme.org.cn [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Lab of Bioengineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2011-06-15

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most widely studied polymers in non-viral gene delivery since it is a cationic polysaccharide that forms nanoparticles with DNA and hence protects the DNA against digestion by DNase. However, the impact of CS/DNA nanoparticle on the immune system still remains poorly understood. Previous investigations did not found CS/DNA nanoparticles had any significant impact on the function of human and murine macrophages. To date, little is known about the interaction between CS/DNA nanoparticles and naive CD4{sup +} T cells. This study was designed to investigate whether CS/DNA nanoparticles affect the initial differentiation direction of human naive CD4{sup +} T cells. The indirect impact of CS/DNA nanoparticles on naive CD4{sup +} T cell differentiation was investigated by incubating the nanoparticles with human macrophage THP-1 cells in one chamber of a transwell co-incubation system, with the enriched human naive CD4{sup +} T cells being placed in the other chamber of the transwell. The nanoparticles were also co-incubated with the naive CD4{sup +} T cells to explore their direct impact on naive CD4{sup +} T cell differentiation by measuring the release of IL-4 and IFN-{gamma} from the cells. It was demonstrated that CS/DNA nanoparticles induced slightly elevated production of IL-12 by THP-1 cells, possibly owing to the presence of CpG motifs in the plasmid. However, this macrophage stimulating activity was much less significant as compared with lipopolysaccharide and did not impact on the differentiation of the naive CD4{sup +} T cells. It was also demonstrated that, when directly exposed to the naive CD4{sup +} T cells, the nanoparticles induced neither the activation of the naive CD4{sup +} T cells in the absence of recombinant cytokines (recombinant human IL-4 or IFN-{gamma}) that induce naive CD4{sup +} T cell polarization, nor any changes in the differentiation direction of naive CD4{sup +} T cells in the presence of the corresponding

  17. Evaluation of the impact of chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the differentiation of human naive CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanxia; Bai, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Liping; Wang, Hai; Dong, Xia; Zhang, Hailing; Leng, Xigang

    2011-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most widely studied polymers in non-viral gene delivery since it is a cationic polysaccharide that forms nanoparticles with DNA and hence protects the DNA against digestion by DNase. However, the impact of CS/DNA nanoparticle on the immune system still remains poorly understood. Previous investigations did not found CS/DNA nanoparticles had any significant impact on the function of human and murine macrophages. To date, little is known about the interaction between CS/DNA nanoparticles and naive CD4+ T cells. This study was designed to investigate whether CS/DNA nanoparticles affect the initial differentiation direction of human naive CD4+ T cells. The indirect impact of CS/DNA nanoparticles on naive CD4+ T cell differentiation was investigated by incubating the nanoparticles with human macrophage THP-1 cells in one chamber of a transwell co-incubation system, with the enriched human naive CD4+ T cells being placed in the other chamber of the transwell. The nanoparticles were also co-incubated with the naive CD4+ T cells to explore their direct impact on naive CD4+ T cell differentiation by measuring the release of IL-4 and IFN-γ from the cells. It was demonstrated that CS/DNA nanoparticles induced slightly elevated production of IL-12 by THP-1 cells, possibly owing to the presence of CpG motifs in the plasmid. However, this macrophage stimulating activity was much less significant as compared with lipopolysaccharide and did not impact on the differentiation of the naive CD4+ T cells. It was also demonstrated that, when directly exposed to the naive CD4+ T cells, the nanoparticles induced neither the activation of the naive CD4+ T cells in the absence of recombinant cytokines (recombinant human IL-4 or IFN-γ) that induce naive CD4+ T cell polarization, nor any changes in the differentiation direction of naive CD4+ T cells in the presence of the corresponding cytokines.

  18. Evaluation of the impact of chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the differentiation of human naive CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lanxia; Bai Yuanyuan; Zhu Dunwan; Song Liping; Wang Hai; Dong Xia; Zhang Hailing; Leng Xigang

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most widely studied polymers in non-viral gene delivery since it is a cationic polysaccharide that forms nanoparticles with DNA and hence protects the DNA against digestion by DNase. However, the impact of CS/DNA nanoparticle on the immune system still remains poorly understood. Previous investigations did not found CS/DNA nanoparticles had any significant impact on the function of human and murine macrophages. To date, little is known about the interaction between CS/DNA nanoparticles and naive CD4 + T cells. This study was designed to investigate whether CS/DNA nanoparticles affect the initial differentiation direction of human naive CD4 + T cells. The indirect impact of CS/DNA nanoparticles on naive CD4 + T cell differentiation was investigated by incubating the nanoparticles with human macrophage THP-1 cells in one chamber of a transwell co-incubation system, with the enriched human naive CD4 + T cells being placed in the other chamber of the transwell. The nanoparticles were also co-incubated with the naive CD4 + T cells to explore their direct impact on naive CD4 + T cell differentiation by measuring the release of IL-4 and IFN-γ from the cells. It was demonstrated that CS/DNA nanoparticles induced slightly elevated production of IL-12 by THP-1 cells, possibly owing to the presence of CpG motifs in the plasmid. However, this macrophage stimulating activity was much less significant as compared with lipopolysaccharide and did not impact on the differentiation of the naive CD4 + T cells. It was also demonstrated that, when directly exposed to the naive CD4 + T cells, the nanoparticles induced neither the activation of the naive CD4 + T cells in the absence of recombinant cytokines (recombinant human IL-4 or IFN-γ) that induce naive CD4 + T cell polarization, nor any changes in the differentiation direction of naive CD4 + T cells in the presence of the corresponding cytokines.

  19. Modelling climate change impact on the spatial distribution of fresh water snails hosting trematodes in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ulrik B; Stendel, Martin; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2014-12-12

    Freshwater snails are intermediate hosts for a number of trematodes of which some are of medical and veterinary importance. The trematodes rely on specific species of snails to complete their life cycle; hence the ecology of the snails is a key element in transmission of the parasites. More than 200 million people are infected with schistosomes of which 95% live in sub-Saharan Africa and many more are living in areas where transmission is on-going. Human infection with the Fasciola parasite, usually considered more of veterinary concern, has recently been recognised as a human health problem. Many countries have implemented health programmes to reduce morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis, and control programmes to mitigate food-borne fascioliasis. As these programmes are resource demanding, baseline information on disease prevalence and distribution becomes of great importance. Such information can be made available and put into practice through maps depicting spatial distribution of the intermediate snail hosts. A biology driven model for the freshwater snails Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis was used to make predictions of snail habitat suitability by including potential underlying environmental and climatic drivers. The snail observation data originated from a nationwide survey in Zimbabwe and the prediction model was parameterised with a high resolution Regional Climate Model. Georeferenced prevalence data on urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis and fascioliasis was used to calibrate the snail habitat suitability predictions to produce binary maps of snail presence and absence. Predicted snail habitat suitability across Zimbabwe, as well as the spatial distribution of snails, is reported for three time slices representative for present (1980-1999) and future climate (2046-2065 and 2080-2099). It is shown from the current study that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe, with distinct high- and low

  20. The Urban Heat Island Impact in Consideration of Spatial Pattern of Urban Landscape and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Sung, S.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    Preceding study has established a clear relationship between land surface temperature and area of land covers. However, only few studies have specifically examined the effects of spatial patterns of land covers and urban structure. To examine how much the local climate is affected by the spatial pattern in highly urbanized city, we investigated the correlation between land surface temperature and spatial patterns of land covers. In the analysis of correlation, we categorized urban structure to four different land uses: Apartment residential area, low rise residential area, industrial area and central business district. Through this study, we aims to examine the types of residential structure and land cover pattern for reducing urban heat island and sustainable development. Based on land surface temperature, we investigated the phenomenon of urban heat island through using the data of remote sensing. This study focused on Daegu in Korea. This city, one of the hottest city in Korea has basin form. We used high-resolution land cover data and land surface temperature by using Landsat8 satellite image to examine 100 randomly selected sample sites of 884.15km2 (1)In each land use, we quantified several landscape-levels and class-level landscape metrics for the sample study sites. (2)In addition, we measured the land surface temperature in 3 year hot summer seasons (July to September). Then, we investigated the pattern of land surface temperature for each land use through Ecognition package. (3)We deducted the Pearson correlation coefficients between land surface temperature and each landscape metrics. (4)We analyzed the variance among the four land uses. (5)Using linear regression, we determined land surface temperature model for each land use. (6)Through this analysis, we aims to examine the best pattern of land cover and artificial structure for reducing urban heat island effect in highly urbanized city. The results of linear regression showed that proportional land

  1. The impact of ants on mineral soil properties and processes at different spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Risch, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Soil dwelling ants are important soil engineers that have a large impact on the soil ecosystem. This is reflected in the alteration of soil properties by ants due to burrowing activities, the accumulation of organic matter and other nutrients in the soil, which, in turn, alters soil physical,

  2. An Analysis of the Neighborhood Impacts of a Mortgage Assistance Program: A Spatial Hedonic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Wenhua; Ma, Jielai; Murdoch, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Down payment or closing cost assistance is an effective program in addressing the wealth constraints of low-and moderate-income homebuyers. However, the spillover effect of such programs on the neighborhood is unknown. This paper estimates the impact of the City of Dallas Mortgage Assistance Program (MAP) on nearby home values using a hedonic…

  3. Modeling spatially explicit fire impact on gross primary production in interior Alaska using satellite images coupled with eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Welp, Lisa R.; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shuguang

    2013-01-01

    In interior Alaska, wildfires change gross primary production (GPP) after the initial disturbance. The impact of fires on GPP is spatially heterogeneous, which is difficult to evaluate by limited point-based comparisons or is insufficient to assess by satellite vegetation index. The direct prefire and postfire comparison is widely used, but the recovery identification may become biased due to interannual climate variability. The objective of this study is to propose a method to quantify the spatially explicit GPP change caused by fires and succession. We collected three Landsat images acquired on 13 July 2004, 5 August 2004, and 6 September 2004 to examine the GPP recovery of burned area from 1987 to 2004. A prefire Landsat image acquired in 1986 was used to reconstruct satellite images assuming that the fires of 1987–2004 had not occurred. We used a light-use efficiency model to estimate the GPP. This model was driven by maximum light-use efficiency (Emax) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR). We applied this model to two scenarios (i.e., an actual postfire scenario and an assuming-no-fire scenario), where the changes in Emax and FPAR were taken into account. The changes in Emax were represented by the change in land cover of evergreen needleleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, and shrub/grass mixed, whose Emax was determined from three fire chronosequence flux towers as 1.1556, 1.3336, and 0.5098 gC/MJ PAR. The changes in FPAR were inferred from NDVI change between the actual postfire NDVI and the reconstructed NDVI. After GPP quantification for July, August, and September 2004, we calculated the difference between the two scenarios in absolute and percent GPP changes. Our results showed rapid recovery of GPP post-fire with a 24% recovery immediately after burning and 43% one year later. For the fire scars with an age range of 2–17 years, the recovery rate ranged from 54% to 95%. In addition to the averaging

  4. Spatial extent and dynamics of dam impacts on tropical island freshwater fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat connectivity is vital to the persistence of migratory fishes. Native tropical island stream fish assemblages composed of diadromous species require intact corridors between ocean and riverine habitats. High dams block fish migration, but low-head artificial barriers are more widespread and are rarely assessed for impacts. Among all 46 drainages in Puerto Rico, we identified and surveyed 335 artificial barriers that hinder fish migration to 74.5% of the upstream habitat. We also surveyed occupancy of native diadromous fishes (Anguillidae, Eleotridae, Gobiidae, and Mugilidae) in 118 river reaches. Occupancy models demonstrated that barriers 2 meters (m) high restricted nongoby fish migration and extirpated those fish upstream of 4-m barriers. Gobies are adapted to climbing and are restricted by 12-m barriers and extirpated upstream of 32-m barriers. Our findings quantitatively illustrate the extensive impact of low-head structures on island stream fauna and provide guidance for natural resource management, habitat restoration, and water development strategies.

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Benjamin S.; Frazier, Melanie; Potapenko, John; Casey, Kenneth S.; Koenig, Kellee; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia Stewart; Rockwood, R. Cotton; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Walbridge, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Human pressures on the ocean are thought to be increasing globally, yet we know little about their patterns of cumulative change, which pressures are most responsible for change, and which places are experiencing the greatest increases. Managers and policymakers require such information to make strategic decisions and monitor progress towards management objectives. Here we calculate and map recent change over 5 years in cumulative impacts to marine ecosystems globally from fishing, climate ch...

  6. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  7. Measuring the impact of spatial network layout on community social cohesion: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crispin H V; Fone, David L; Chiaradia, Alain J F

    2014-04-11

    There is now a substantial body of research suggesting that social cohesion, a collective characteristic measured by the levels of trust, reciprocity and formation of strong social bonds within communities, is an important factor in determining health. Of particular interest is the extent to which factors in the built environment facilitate, or impede, the development of social bonds. Severance is a characteristic of physical environments which is hypothesized to inhibit cohesion. In the current study we test a number of characteristics of spatial networks which could be hypothesized to relate either to severance, or directly to community cohesion. Particular focus is given to our most promising variable for further analysis (Convex Hull Maximum Radius 600 m). In the current study we analysed social cohesion as measured at Enumeration District level, aggregated from a survey of 10,892 individuals aged 18 to 74 years in the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Cohort Study, 2001. In a data mining process we test 16 network variables on multiple scales. The variable showing the most promise is validated in a test on an independent data set. We then conduct a multivariate regression also including Townsend deprivation scores and urban/rural status as predictor variables for social cohesion. We find convex hull maximum radius at a 600 m scale to have a small but highly significant correlation with social cohesion on both data sets. Deprivation has a stronger effect. Splitting the analysis by tertile of deprivation, we find that the effect of severance as measured by this variable is strongest in the most deprived areas. A range of spatial scales are tested, with the strongest effects being observed at scales that match typical walking distances. We conclude that physical connectivity as measured in this paper has a significant effect on social cohesion, and that our measure is unlikely to proxy either deprivation or the urban/rural status of communities. Possible

  8. Differential cross sections and cross-section ratios for the electron-impact excitation of the neon 2p53s configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Wrkich, J.; Larsen, M.; Kleiban, G.; Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Brunger, M.J.; Teubner, P.J.O.; Crowe, A.; Fontes, C.J.; Clark, R.E.H.; Zeman, V.; Bartschat, K.; Madison, D.H.; Srivastava, R.; Stauffer, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Electron-impact differential cross-section measurements for the excitation of the 2p 5 3s configuration of Ne are reported. The Ne cross sections are obtained using experimental differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of the n=2 levels of atomic hydrogen [Khakoo et al., Phys. Rev. A 61, 012701-1 (1999)], and existing experimental helium differential cross-section measurements, as calibration standards. These calibration measurements were made using the method of gas mixtures (Ne and H followed by Ne and He), in which the gas beam profiles of the mixed gases are found to be the same within our experimental errors. We also present results from calculations of these differential cross sections using the R-matrix and unitarized first-order many-body theory, the distorted-wave Born approximation, and relativistic distorted-wave methods. Comparison with available experimental differential cross sections and differential cross-section ratios is also presented

  9. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  10. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  11. [The impact of psilocybin on visual perception and spatial orientation--neuropsychological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Mikolaj; Bala, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin is a substance of natural origin, occurring in hallucinogenic mushrooms (most common in the Psilocybe family). After its synthesis in 1958 research began on its psychoactive properties, particularly strong effects on visual perception and spatial orientation. Due to the very broad spectrum of psilocybin effects research began on the different ranges of its actions--including the effect on physiological processes (such as eye saccada movements). Neuro-imaging and neurophysiological research (positron emission tomography-PET and electroencephalography-EEG), indicate a change in the rate of metabolism of the brain and desync cerebral hemispheres. Experimental studies show the changes in visual perception and distortion from psilocybin in the handwriting style of patients examined. There are widely described subjective experiences reported by the subjects. There are also efforts to apply testing via questionnaire on people under the influence of psilocybin, in the context of the similarity of psilocybin-induced state to the initial stages of schizophrenia, as well as research aimed at creating an 'artificial' model of the disease.

  12. Impact of a spatial repellent on malaria incidence in two villages in Sumba, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafruddin, Din; Bangs, Michael J; Sidik, Dian; Elyazar, Iqbal; Asih, Puji B S; Chan, Krisin; Nurleila, Siti; Nixon, Christian; Hendarto, Joko; Wahid, Isra; Ishak, Hasanuddin; Bøgh, Claus; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L; Baird, J Kevin

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effect of spatial repellent (SR) in households at risk of malaria in Indonesia. Following presumptive radical cure for malaria in 180 adult men representing sentinels of new infection in four clusters within two villages, all households were given either metofluthrin or placebo mosquito coils. Weekly blood smear screening and human-landing mosquito catches were done throughout the 6 months intervention. Malaria infections occurred in 61 subjects living in placebo households and 31 subjects living in SR coil households, suggesting a 52% protective effect of SR. Likewise, anopheles indoor human landing rates were 32% lower in homes receiving SR coils. Differences in the malaria attack rate between SR- and placebo-treated homes was significant when not accounting for the effects of clustering. When the analysis was adjusted for intra-cluster correlation, the differences between SR- and placebo-treated homes were not statistically significant. The findings provide evidence of SR public health benefit and support a larger trial statistically powered to detect those effects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating, Part I: Spatial Variability of Mean Flow, Turbulent Exchange and Pollutant Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    As urbanization progresses, more realistic methods are required to analyze the urban microclimate. However, given the complexity and computational cost of numerical models, the effects of realistic representations should be evaluated to identify the level of detail required for an accurate analysis. We consider the realistic representation of surface heating in an idealized three-dimensional urban configuration, and evaluate the spatial variability of flow statistics (mean flow and turbulent fluxes) in urban streets. Large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy balance model are employed, and the heating distribution of urban surfaces is parametrized using sets of horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers, characterizing thermal stratification and heating orientation with respect to the wind direction. For all studied conditions, the thermal field is strongly affected by the orientation of heating with respect to the airflow. The modification of airflow by the horizontal heating is also pronounced for strongly unstable conditions. The formation of the canyon vortices is affected by the three-dimensional heating distribution in both spanwise and streamwise street canyons, such that the secondary vortex is seen adjacent to the windward wall. For the dispersion field, however, the overall heating of urban surfaces, and more importantly, the vertical temperature gradient, dominate the distribution of concentration and the removal of pollutants from the building canyon. Accordingly, the spatial variability of concentration is not significantly affected by the detailed heating distribution. The analysis is extended to assess the effects of three-dimensional surface heating on turbulent transfer. Quadrant analysis reveals that the differential heating also affects the dominance of ejection and sweep events and the efficiency of turbulent transfer (exuberance) within the street canyon and at the roof level, while the vertical variation of these parameters is less

  14. AHP-based spatial analysis of water quality impact assessment due to change in vehicular traffic caused by highway broadening in Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Polash; Ghose, Mrinal Kanti; Pradhan, Ratika

    2018-05-01

    Spatial analysis of water quality impact assessment of highway projects in mountainous areas remains largely unexplored. A methodology is presented here for Spatial Water Quality Impact Assessment (SWQIA) due to highway-broadening-induced vehicular traffic change in the East district of Sikkim. Pollution load of the highway runoff was estimated using an Average Annual Daily Traffic-Based Empirical model in combination with mass balance model to predict pollution in the rivers within the study area. Spatial interpolation and overlay analysis were used for impact mapping. Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Water Quality Status Index was used to prepare a composite impact map. Model validation criteria, cross-validation criteria, and spatial explicit sensitivity analysis show that the SWQIA model is robust. The study shows that vehicular traffic is a significant contributor to water pollution in the study area. The model is catering specifically to impact analysis of the concerned project. It can be an aid for decision support system for the project stakeholders. The applicability of SWQIA model needs to be explored and validated in the context of a larger set of water quality parameters and project scenarios at a greater spatial scale.

  15. Narcissism and romantic relationships : The differential impact of narcissistic admiration and rivalry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurst, S.N.; Gerlach, T.M.; Dufner, M.; Rauthmann, J.F.; Grosz, M.P.; Küfner, A.C.P.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Back, M.D.

    Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic

  16. Land markets, risk and distress sales in Nicaragua: the impact of income shocks on rural differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Masset, E.

    2003-01-01

    Farmers in the Nicaragua countryside face substantial risk due to legal uncertainty regarding property rights, price fluctuations and limited access to rural financial markets. Income shocks can lead to obligations to sell land, can fuel differentiation processes, and can drive people into poverty.

  17. The Differential Impact of Wealth versus Income in the College-Going Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    College is increasingly essential for economic and social mobility. Current research and public policy devotes significant attention to race, income, and socioeconomic factors in college access. Yet, wealth's role, as differentiated from income, is largely unexplored. This paper examines the differences between wealth and income in the…

  18. The Price Differential's Impact on Retention, Recruitment, and Quality in a Public University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michale W.; O'Toole, Dennis; Wetzel, James

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 467 business students at Virginia Commonwealth University investigated results of the business school's tuition differential pricing strategy, which charges a higher tuition in order to provide students with strong computer and technological instruction and support. Results indicated the additional services created added value for…

  19. Greenhouse gas emission controls : differentiated vs. flat rate targets : impacts and concerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydanek, D.

    1997-01-01

    Continuing the discussion on differentiation in greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables for all nations, the different implications of differentiation vs. flat rate controls were examined. A scenario of how different targets for different countries based on national circumstances might be implemented, was presented. Implications of differentiation for the Dow Chemical Company were also reviewed. For more than 20 years, Dow has practiced leading edge energy efficiency in environmental management systems and has committed to a series of environmental, health and safety goals. The company believes that at the international level, fully differentiated targets and timetables need to be negotiated, party by party, by the 150 nations who agreed to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. It was suggested that a strong disincentive exists to delivering energy efficiency beyond compliance. It was predicted that despite efficiency, the energy intensive assets in place today in Annex I countries will be disadvantaged and prematurely retired as the costs of greenhouse gas emission controls grow and exert pressure to move productive capacity offshore

  20. Impact of Geography and Climate on the Genetic Differentiation of the Subtropical Pine Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Southwest China is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by complex topography, heterogeneous regional climates and rich flora. The processes and driving factors underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested across taxa to gain a general understanding of the evolution of biodiversity and speciation in the region. In this study, we examined the role played by historically neutral processes, geography and environment in producing the current genetic diversity of the subtropical pine Pinus yunnanensis. We used genetic and ecological methods to investigate the patterns of genetic differentiation and ecological niche divergence across the distribution range of this species. We found both continuous genetic differentiation over the majority of its range, and discrete isolated local clusters. The discrete differentiation between two genetic groups in the west and east peripheries is consistent with niche divergence and geographical isolation of these groups. In the central area of the species' range, population structure was shaped mainly by neutral processes and geography rather than by ecological selection. These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape. Our findings differ from other phylogenetic studies that identified the historical drainage system in the region as the primary factor shaping population structure, and highlight the heterogeneous contributions that geography and environment have made to genetic diversity among taxa in southwest China.

  1. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as

  2. Impacts of Karkheh Dam on Spatial Pattern of Riparian Zones in Karkheh National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective river ecosystem management requires that the existing hydrologic regime be characterized in terms of the natural hydrologic regime and the degree to which the human-altered regime differs from natural conditions. This is known as Range of Variation Approach (RVA and can be used for variation of stream flow, range of variation and appraisal of dam impacts on riparian zones. In this paper, we used 31 hydrologic parameters, classified into five groups, monthly flow indices, extreme flow indices, timing indices, high-flow and low-flow indices, and rate of change, to assess hydrologic regime alteration in downstream of Karkheh dam. For this, purpose the hydrologic parameters of Pay-Pol hydrometric station have been taken. into consideration. As the Riparian ecosystems are highly dependent on and sensitive to variation in the hydrological cycle, the focus of this study was the 50-meter buffer of the Karkheh River. To examine the impacts caused by the variation of hydrologic regime, we tested if this variation and 8 different landscape metrics in the study area are correlated. The results showed that variation of hydrologic regime had a significant impact on the landscape structure of riparian zone in Karkheh downstream and caused isolation in landscape pattern of the woodland cover. Therefore, landscape structure in Karkheh downstream is highly correlated to hydrologic processes of upstream of the river. It can be concluded that an effective water management strategy is keeping safe the ecological condition and integrity of the riparian zone of Karkheh. This happens when all the hydrologic parameters are in the natural range of variation as they were before dam construction.

  3. The impact of the glial spatial buffering on the K(+) Nernst potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, H R

    2011-09-01

    Astrocytes play a critical role in CNS metabolism, regulation of volume and ion homeostasis of the interstitial space. Of special relevance is their clearance of K(+) that is released by active neurons into the extracellular space. Mathematical analysis of a modified Nernst equation for the electrochemical equilibrium of neuronal plasma membranes, suggests that K(+) uptake by glial cells is not only relevant during neuronal activity but also has a non-neglectable impact on the basic electrical membrane properties, specifically the resting membrane potential, of neurons and might be clinically valuable as a factor in the genetics and epigenetics of the epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis complex.

  4. Spatial Hedonic Models for Measuring the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Real Estate

    OpenAIRE

    Okmyung Bin; Ben Poulter; Christopher F. Dumas; John C. Whitehead

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a unique integration of geospatial and hedonic property data to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on coastal real estate in North Carolina. North Carolina’s coastal plain is one of several large terrestrial systems around the world threatened by rising sea-levels. High-resolution topographic LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are used to provide accurate inundation maps for all properties that will be at risk under six different sea-level rise scenarios. A simulation...

  5. Impact of Megacity Jobs-Housing Spatial Mismatch on Commuting Behaviors: A Case Study on Central Districts of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This studyutilized the mobile signaling data to conductthe impact analysis of jobs-housing spatial mismatch on commuting behavior, with eight typical employment centers of three categories selected as the research subjects. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and indictors including commuting distance, accessibilities from cumulative opportunity model etc., this study demonstrates that (a cumulative percentage of short commuting distance (e.g., less than 3 km reflects the jobs-housing spatial match between employment centers and their peripheral areas; and (b combining the indicators of employed population and area covered within a certain space-time range among indictors of accessibility, it is possible to identify the degree of jobs-housing balance and efficiency of the transport system. According to the evaluation radar maps, the authors believe that employment centers could be divided into three categories: those with a gathering power, those with improvable functions, and those with local adjustment potentials. Possible measures including controlling the gathering power of the city centers, improving the function mix and transport facilities, and optimizing the overall local environment, etc. could be made to achieve jobs-housing balance in central districts and their peripheral areas as a whole. Besides, the study, proceeding from the perspective of commuters, suggests that optimization of jobs-housing distribution along banded corridors would be more efficient than those within the traditional region so as to reduce commuting traffic load.

  6. PHYSICAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT: A GIS ANALYSIS WITH EMPHASIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS-CASE STUDY NALOS CITY, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naghibi, H. Shirmohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned urban developments have led to changes in uncontrollable urban spatial structure. For this reasons, informed guidance, principle organization and spatial planning are necessary for urban sprawl and development. In this research, different forms of urban development were considered and development basic barriers including rivers, topography, geology, ecological conditions, facilities and industries were determined and the role of each one was surveyed. Development trends that are based on effective parameters especially environmental impacts were modeled with Geographic Information Systems. The quality of urban planning and management can be upgraded when available and valid data are handled in an advanced manner with the aid of Geographic Information Systems. The innovative technology can support planning and decision making by offering relatively quick response on analytical questions and monitoring issues. Experienced expert determined the degree and primacy of urban sprawl and development parameters generally and for nalos case study, these parameters and criteria and their weights were marked, then were modeled with Geographic Information Systems for nalos developments. With using GIS and it capabilities in calculation of land size forecasting for Nalos development and its positioning we could take a step in planning directions such as sustainable development achievements.

  7. The Impacts of Technical Progress on Sulfur Dioxide Kuznets Curve in China: A Spatial Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used in case the coefficient estimates are biased due to the negligence of spatial dependence. With the provincial panel data of China from 2004 to 2014, this is the first research that finds an inverse N-trajectory of the relationship between SO2 emission and economic growth and confirms the beneficial impacts of technical advancement on SO2 emission abatement. The empirical results also suggest that the industrial structure change is an important driving force of the SO2 EKC. In addition, the direct and spillover effects of determinants on sulfur emission are clarified and estimated by a correct approach. Finally, we check the stability of our conclusions on the EKC shape for SO2 and technical progress effects when controlling for different variables and specifications, through which we find the turning points are sensitive to variables selections.

  8. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  9. Understanding the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies of a high involvement service (investment advisory services) and a high involvement product (precious jewellery) on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Gauri

    2009-01-01

    While marketing literature has largely focused on high and low involvement purchases and the positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty; the differentiating impacts of communication strategies for a high involvement service and a high involvement product on customer satisfaction and loyalty has received little academic attention. Consequently, this study examines the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies for investment advisory services and precious jewe...

  10. Explanation of climate and human impacts on sediment discharge change in Darwinian hydrology: Derivation of a differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie; Zhang, Lu

    2018-04-01

    The assessment for impacts of climate variability and human activities on suspended sediment yield (SSY) change has long been a question of great interest. However, the sediment generation processes are sophisticated with high nonlinearity and great uncertainty, which give rise to extreme complexity for SSY change assessment in Newtonian approach. Consequently, few approaches can be simply but widely applied to decompose impacts of climatic variability and human activities on SSY change. Thus, it is an urgent need to develop advanced methods that are simple and robust. Since that the Newtonian approach is hardly achievable due to limitation of either observations or knowledge of mechanisms, there have been repeated calls to capture the hydrologic system in Darwinian approach for hydrological change prediction or explanation. As streamflow is the carrier of suspended sediment, SSY change are thus documented in changes of sediment concentrated flow and suspended sediment concentration - water discharge (C-Q) relationships. By deduced corollaries, a differential equation of sediment discharge change was derived to explicitly decompose impacts of climate variability and human activities in Darwinian hydrology. Besides, a new form of sediment rating curves was proposed and curved as C-Q relationships and probability distribution of sediment concentrated flow. River sediment flux can be revealed by this representation, which simply elucidates mechanism of SSY generation covering a range of time scales from finer than rainfall-event to long term. By the new sediment rating curves, the differential equation was partly solved using a segmentation algorithm proposed and validated in this paper, and then was submitted to water balance framework expressed by Budyko-type equation. Thus, for catchment management, hydrologists can obtain explicit explanation of how climate variation and human activities propagate through landscape and result in sediment discharge change. The

  11. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  12. Single ionization of Ne, Ar and Kr by proton impact: Single differential distributions in energy and angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S [CONICET and Dto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET and Universidad de Buenos Aires C1428EGA (Argentina); Olson, R E, E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.a [Physics Department, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present a theoretical study of singly differential cross sections in energy and angle for the single ionization of neon, argon and krypton by proton impact. Theoretical results obtained by means of the Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model are compared to those provided by the First Born Approximation (FBA) and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method as well as to experimental data from several laboratories. We note in particular for argon, that the CDW-EIS model does not reproduce the experimental data as accurately as expected, while the CTMC instead is in very good agreement.

  13. The impact of share wave elastography in differentiation of hepatic hemangioma from malignant liver tumors in pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özmen, Evrim; Adaletli, İbrahim; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Emre, Şenol; Kılıç, Fahrettin; Dervişoğlu, Sergülen; Kuruğoğlu, Sebuh; Şenyüz, Osman Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated the impact of share wave elastography technique in differentiation hepatic hemangiomas from malignant liver tumors in pediatric population. • Share wave technique can increase the diagnostic capability of conventional ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children. • Share wave elastography is a potential adjunctive diagnostic technique for pediatric liver tumors. - Abstract: Objective: In children it is crucial to differentiate malignant liver tumors from the most common benign tumor, hepatic hemangiomas since the treatment strategies are quite different. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of shear wave elastography (SWE) technique in differentiation of malignant hepatic tumors and hepatic hemangiomas. Methods: Twenty patients with hepatic tumor were included in our study. Two radiologists performed SWE for 13 patients with malignant hepatic tumors including hepatoblastoma (n = 7), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3), metastasis (n = 2), embryonal sarcoma (n = 1) and 7 patients with hepatic hemangioma. All of our patients were between the age of 1 and 192 months (mean age: 56.88 months). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was achieved to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of SWE and to determine the optimal cut-off value in differentiation hepatic hemangioma from malignant hepatic tumors. Results: The mean SWE values (in kPa) for the first observer were 46.94 (13.8–145) and 22.38 (6.6–49.6) and those for the second observer were 57.91 (11–237) and 23.87 (6.4–57.5), respectively for malignant hepatic tumors and hepatic hemangiomas. The SWE values of malignant hepatic tumors were significantly higher than those of hepatic hemangioma (p = 0.02). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect (0.81). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of SWE for differentiating the hepatic hemangioma from malignant hepatic tumors was 0.77 with a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 66

  14. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Marino Merlo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation, and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained.

  15. Differential and total cross sections for the ionization of water molecule by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houamer, S.; Dal Cappello, C.; Mansouri, A.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented to calculate multiply differential and total cross sections of the ionization of H 2 O molecule in the vapour phase. The wave function of the target is described by molecular orbitals consisting of a linear combination of slater type atomic orbitals centered on the heaviest atom which is the oxygen atom in this case. The calculations are carried out in the first Born approximation where the projectile is described by a plane wave while the ejected electron is described by a coulomb wave taking into account its interaction with the residual ion. The spherical average over the Euler solid angle due to the randomly oriented gaseous target molecule is carried out analytically using the rotation matrix properties. The differential and total cross sections are thus evaluated without any special difficulty and compared with experiments and distorted wave calculations. Fair agreements are observed

  16. Investigation of impact-parameter dependent double differential electron emission probabilities in proton-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.

    1986-07-01

    The process of ionization in ion-atom collisions was investigated. Thus absolute double differential electron emission yields were measured for the collision system H + +He. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results partially calculated in this work. For the coincidence measurements an electron time-of-flight spectrometer with a large solid angle was constructed. For the measurement of the scattered projectiles a fast position sensitive ion detector and a data preprocessing unit were developed. (orig.)

  17. Price and Product Pooling: Impact on Development and Operation of Differentiated Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jill E.; Kerr, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Price pooling has long been used as a means to deal with risk in the marketing of agricultural commodities. For commodities, product pooling may also generate potential benefits through economies of scale or the provision of market power. Yet there has also been a growing interest in product differentiation and the development of value chains as a means to increase returns to farmers. This article explores the question of whether price or product pooling is compatible with a strategy of pro-a...

  18. [Spatial temporal differentiation of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions and balance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: an economic input- output analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the open economic region is the basis for differentiating the emission responsibility, which is attracting increasing attention of decision-makers'attention. The spatial and temporal characteristics of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, as well as carbon balance, in 1997, 2002 and 2007 of JING- JIN-JI region were analyzed by the Economic Input-Output-Life Cycle Assessment model. The results revealed that both the product- based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the region have been increased by about 4% annually. The percentage of CO2 emissions embodied in trade was 30% -83% , to which the domestic trading added the most. The territorial and consumption-based CO2 emissions in Hebei province were the predominant emission in JING-JIN-JI region, and the increasing speed and emission intensity were stronger than those of Beijing and Tianjin. JING-JIN-JI region was a net inflow region of CO2 emissions, and parts of the emission responsibility were transferred. Beijing and Tianjin were the net importers of CO2 emissions, and Hebei was a net outflow area of CO2 emissions. The key CO2 emission departments in the region were concentrated, and the similarity was great. The inter-regional mechanisms could be set up for joint prevention and control work. - Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water and smelting and pressing of metals had the highest reliability on CO2 emissions, and took on the responsibility of other departments. The EIO-LCA model could be used to analyze the product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, which is helpful for the delicate management of regional CO2 emissions reduction and policies making, and stimulating the reduction cooperation at regional scale.

  19. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-10-27

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply.

  20. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 impacts chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJM Welting

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletogenesis and bone fracture healing involve endochondral ossification, a process during which cartilaginous primordia are gradually replaced by bone tissue. In line with a role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the endochondral ossification process, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were reported to negatively affect bone fracture healing due to impaired osteogenesis. However, a role for COX-2 activity in the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification has not been addressed before. We show that COX-2 activity fulfils an important regulatory function in chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Our data reveal essential cross-talk between COX-2 and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2 during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. BMP-2 mediated chondrocyte hypertrophy is associated with increased COX-2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity by NSAIDs (e.g., Celecoxib decreases hypertrophic differentiation in various chondrogenic models in vitro and in vivo, while leaving early chondrogenic development unaltered. Our findings demonstrate that COX-2 activity is a novel factor partaking in chondrocyte hypertrophy in the context of endochondral ossification and these observations provide a novel etiological perspective on the adverse effects of NSAIDs on bone fracture healing and have important implications for the use of NSAIDs during endochondral skeletal development.

  1. The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.; Broed, R.

    2002-03-01

    In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several

  2. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  3. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  4. River-floodplain Hydrologic Connectivity: Impact on Temporal and Spatial Floodplain Water Quality and Productivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. L.; Ahearn, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Grosholz, E.

    2003-12-01

    Nutrient spiraling and cycling are critical processes for floodplain systems, but these have not been well studied in western North America. Floodplain production and function relies on the integrity of river-floodplain interactions, particularly during periods of hydrologic connectivity. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the importance of the timing and duration of river-floodplain hydrologic connectivity, (2) link flood event water quality to subsequent primary and secondary production, and (3) identify temporal and spatial patterns of floodplain production. The Cosumnes River watershed transports surface runoff and snowmelt from the Sierra Nevadas to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. It is one of the few watersheds in California that has no major water diversions or impoundments; therefore the river responds to the natural watershed hydrology. The study site in southern Sacramento County is an unmanaged experimental floodplain, one of the few remaining floodplains in California. Weekly and flood-event water quality and macroinvertebrate sampling was conducted during the flood season from January through June in 2001 and 2002. Both water years were characterized by historically low river flows. On average, volatile suspended solids in the water column increased from 5 mg/l to 10 mg/l during early season periods of hydrologic connectivity (December - February), suggesting that during watershed flushing flood events, the river acts as a source of nutrients and organic matter to the floodplain. Following a flood event, invertebrate concentrations decreased on average from 26,000 individuals/m3 to 9,000 individuals/m3 for zooplankton and from 350 individuals/m2 to 65 individuals/m2 for benthic macro-invertebrate, suggesting a net dilution of invertebrates during flood events. Chlorophyll a (chl-a) levels were also diluted during flood events, on average from 25 ppb to 5 ppb. Zooplankton densities and chl-a levels quickly rose after flood events. On

  5. Impact of the spectral and spatial properties of natural light on indoor gas-phase chemistry: Experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquet, M; Guo, F; Mendez, M; Ward, M; Coudert, S; Batut, S; Hecquet, C; Blond, N; Fittschen, C; Schoemaecker, C

    2018-05-01

    The characteristics of indoor light (intensity, spectral, spatial distribution) originating from outdoors have been studied using experimental and modeling tools. They are influenced by many parameters such as building location, meteorological conditions, and the type of window. They have a direct impact on indoor air quality through a change in chemical processes by varying the photolysis rates of indoor pollutants. Transmittances of different windows have been measured and exhibit different wavelength cutoffs, thus influencing the potential of different species to be photolysed. The spectral distribution of light entering indoors through the windows was measured under different conditions and was found to be weakly dependent on the time of day for indirect cloudy, direct sunshine, partly cloudy conditions contrary to the light intensity, in agreement with calculations of the transmittance as a function of the zenithal angle and the calculated outdoor spectral distribution. The same conclusion can be drawn concerning the position within the room. The impact of these light characteristics on the indoor chemistry has been studied using the INCA-Indoor model by considering the variation in the photolysis rates of key indoor species. Depending on the conditions, photolysis processes can lead to a significant production of radicals and secondary species. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Impact of the discreteness of low-fluence ion beam processing on the spatial architecture of GaN nanostructures fabricated by surface charge lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiginyanu, I.M.; Volciuc, O.; Gutowski, J.; Stevens-Kalceff, M.A.; Popa, V.; Wille, S.; Adelung, R.; Foell, H.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the discrete nature of ion beam processing used as a component in the approach of surface charge lithography leads to spatial modulation of the edges of the GaN nanostructures such as nanobelts and nanoperforated membranes. According to the performed Monte Carlo simulations, the modulation of the nanostructure edges is caused by the stochastic spatial distribution of the radiation defects generated by the impacting ions and related recoils. The obtained results pave the way for direct visualization of the networks of radiation defects induced by individual ions impacting a solid-state material. (authors)

  7. Spatial variations in water composition at a northern Canadian lake impacted by mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncur, M.C.; Ptacek, C.J.; Blowes, D.W.; Jambor, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Release of acid drainage from mine-waste disposal areas is a problem of international scale. Contaminated surface water, derived from mine wastes, originates both as direct surface runoff and, indirectly, as subsurface groundwater flow. At Camp Lake, a small Canadian Shield lake that is in northern Manitoba and is ice-covered 6 months of the year, direct and indirect release of drainage from an adjacent sulfide-rich tailings impoundment has severely affected the quality of the lake water. Concentrations of the products from sulfide oxidation are extremely high in the pore waters of the tailings impoundment. Groundwater and surface water derived from the impoundment discharge into a semi-isolated shallow bay in Camp Lake. The incorporation of this aqueous effluent has altered the composition of the lake water, which in turn has modified the physical limnology of the lake. Geochemical profiles of the water column indicate that, despite its shallow depth (6 m), the bay is stratified throughout the year. The greatest accumulation of dissolved metals and SO 4 is in the lower portion of the water column, with concentrations up to 8500 mg L -1 Fe, 20,000 mg L -1 SO 4 , 30 mg L -1 Zn, 100 mg L -1 Al, and elevated concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni. Meromictic conditions and very high solute concentrations are limited to the bay. Outside the bay, solute concentrations are lower and some stratification of the water column exists. Identification of locations and composition of groundwater discharge relative to lake bathymetry is a fundamental aspect of understanding chemical evolution and physical stability of mine-impacted lakes

  8. Spatial allocation of future landscape patterns for biomass and alleviation of hydrologic impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssegane, H.; Negri, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. Concurrently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase of 2 to 4°C over the next 100 years above the preindustrial baseline, beginning as early as 2016 to 2035 over all seasons in the North America. This climate change is projected to further strain water resources currently stressed by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops on strategically selected sub-field areas in an agricultural landscape has the potential to increase the environmental and economic sustainability if location and choice of the crops result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and therefore cause minimal indirect land use change. This study identified sub-field marginal areas in an agricultural watershed using soil-based environmental sustainability criteria and a crop productivity index. Future landscape patterns (FLPs) were developed by allocating bioenergy crops (switchgrass: Panicum virgatum or shrub willows: Salix spp.) to these marginal areas (20% of the watershed). SWAT hydrologic model and dynamically downscaled climatic projection were used to asses impact of climate change on extreme flow conditions, total annual production of commodity and bioenergy crops, and water quality under current and future landscape patterns for the mid-21st century (2045-2055) and late 21st century (2085-2095) climatic projections. The frequency of flood and drought conditions was projected to increase while the corresponding durations to decrease. Sediment yields were projected to increase by 85% to 170% while FLPs would mitigate this increase by 26% to 32%.

  9. Impacts on Poverty of Encroaching Salinity on the Bengal (GBM) Delta: A Spatial Case Study in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako Johnson, F.; Hutton, C.; Hornby, D.; Lazar, A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2014-12-01

    Salinity intrusion is a major climate and human induced hazard in coastal deltaic regions resulting in substantial adverse effects on crop production. Impacts are ‎exacerbated by intensified cyclones, sea level rise and storm surges. In this regard, many farmers in the populous Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta of ‎Bangladesh have adopted saline shrimp (Bagda) farming with associated displacement of tenant farmers and potential long term damage to the soil through chemicals used to enhance shrimp production. Despite the impact of salinity intrusion on the environment and the commonly perceived effects of shrimp farming on poverty, there has not been any systematic study that examines the associative relationships between salinisation, shrimp farming and poverty in this delta region. Using the 2011 Bangladesh Population and Housing Census and 2010 LandSat remote sensing data this study examines the spatially explicit impact of salinization as well as saline and freshwater shrimp farming on poverty in the Delta, ‎accounting for important environmental and socio-economic predictors. The findings shows that after accounting for important environmental and socioeconomic predictors, levels and intensities of salinization as well as the extent of saline and freshwater shrimp farming in a union are significantly associated with poverty. The results of the study demonstrate that increases in levels and intensities of salinity increases the probability of a union being in the poorest quintile. As such saline water shrimp farming has the potential to reduce poverty only at high intensities, whilst low levels of freshwater shrimp farming are associated with a reduction in poverty.

  10. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  11. Fully differential cross sections for Li2+-impact ionization of Li(2s) and Li(2p)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Omid; Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Fabian Ciappina, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    A semiclassical impact parameter version of the continuum distorted wave-Eikonal initial state theory is developed to study the differential ionization of Li atoms in collisions with Li2+ ions. Both post and prior forms of the transition amplitude are considered. The fully differential cross sections are calculated for the lithium targets in their ground and their first excited states and for the projectile ions at 16 MeV impact energy. The role of the inter-nuclear interaction as well as the significance of the post-prior discrepancy in the ejected electron spectra are investigated. The obtained results for ejection of the electron into the azimuthal plane are compared with the recent measurements and with their corresponding values obtained using a fully quantum mechanical version of the theory. In most of the cases, the consistency of the present approach with the experimental and the quantum theoretical data is reasonable. However, for 2p-state ionization, in the cases where no experimental data exist, there is a considerable difference between the two theoretical approaches. This difference is questionable and further experiments are needed to judge which theory makes a more accurate description of the collision dynamics.

  12. The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina; De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the role of gender segregation and pay structure in explaining gender wage differentials of full-time salaried workers in Spain. Data from the 1995 and 2002 Wage Structure Surveys reveal that raw gender wage gaps decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 over the seven-year period. Average differences in the base wage and wage complements decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 and from 0.59 to 0.40, respectively. However, the gender wage gap is still large after accounting for work...

  13. Examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation with Latina/o immigrants exposed to adapted parent training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, J Rubén; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Rodríguez, Melanie M Domenech; Dates, Brian; Tams, Lisa; Bernal, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical studies aimed at examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical and prevention interventions. This prevention study consisted of a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the impact of 2 differentially culturally adapted versions of the evidence-based parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTOR). The sample consisted of 103 Latina/o immigrant families (190 individual parents). Each family was allocated to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) a culturally adapted PMTO (CA), (b) culturally adapted and enhanced PMTO (CE), and (c) a wait-list control. Measurements were implemented at baseline (T1), treatment completion (T2) and 6-month follow up (T3). Multilevel growth modeling analyses indicated statistically significant improvements on parenting skills for fathers and mothers (main effect) at 6-month follow-up in both adapted interventions, when compared with the control condition. With regard to parent-reported child behaviors, child internalizing behaviors were significantly lower for both parents in the CE intervention (main effect), compared with control at 6-month follow-up. No main effect was found for child externalizing behaviors. However, a Parent × Condition effect was found indicating a significant reduction of child externalizing behaviors for CE fathers compared with CA and control fathers at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Present findings indicate the value of differential cultural adaptation research designs and the importance of examining effects for both mothers and fathers, particularly when culturally focused and gender variables are considered for intervention design and implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Modelling spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts under climate changes over the Nenjiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Wanchang

    2017-10-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model was adopted for investigating spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts of climate change over the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB) based on a set of gridded forcing dataset at 1/12th degree resolution from 1970 to 2013. Basin-scale changes in the input forcing data and the simulated hydrological variables of the NRB, as well as station-scale changes in discharges for three major hydrometric stations were examined, which suggested that the model was performed fairly satisfactory in reproducing the observed discharges, meanwhile, the snow cover and evapotranspiration in temporal and spatial patterns were simulated reasonably corresponded to the remotely sensed ones. Wetland maps produced by multi-sources satellite images covering the entire basin between 1978 and 2008 were also utilized for investigating the responses and feedbacks of hydrological regimes on wetland dynamics. Results revealed that significant decreasing trends appeared in annual, spring and autumn streamflow demonstrated strong affection of precipitation and temperature changes over the study watershed, and the effects of climate change on the runoff reduction varied in the sub-basin area over different time scales. The proportion of evapotranspiration to precipitation characterized several severe fluctuations in droughts and floods took place in the region, which implied the enhanced sensitiveness and vulnerability of hydrologic regimes to changing environment of the region. Furthermore, it was found that the different types of wetlands undergone quite unique variation features with the varied hydro-meteorological conditions over the region, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. This study provided effective scientific basis for water resource managers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies that address the consequences of climate changes.

  15. Differential Impact of Anastomotic Leak in Patients With Stage IV Colonic or Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Rolff, Hans Christian; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak has a negative impact on the prognosis of patients who undergo colorectal cancer resection. However, data on anastomotic leak are limited for stage IV colorectal cancers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anastomotic leak on survival....... PATIENTS: Patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2013 and underwent elective resection of their primary tumors were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality depending on the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were...... the administration of and time to adjuvant chemotherapy, metastasectomy rate, and risk factors for leak. RESULTS: Of the 774 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who were included, 71 (9.2%) developed anastomotic leaks. Anastomotic leak had a significant impact on the long-term survival of patients with colon...

  16. Electron double differential distribution in ionization of helium by 8 keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Agnihotri, A.; Mahtre, N.; Tribedi, L.C.; Kasthurirangan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Electrons emitted from He in collision with 8 keV electrons were measured in the energy range from 1 to 400 eV and wide range of observation angles between 30 deg and 150 deg. The measured energy and angular distribution of double differential cross sections (DOCS) of these electrons are compared with the theoretical calculation provided by R.D. Rivarola et al. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCSs over solid angle and emission energy. For the calculation of DDCS for He a first-order Born approximation is employed. Within the framework of this model, both the incident and the scattered electrons are described by plane waves, whereas the initial atomic bound state is described by a Lowdin's wavefunction and the final continuum state for the ionized electron is chosen taken into account the interaction between the emitted electron and the residual target at large asymptotic separations. The experimental data is in reasonably good agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  17. TGM5 mutations impact epidermal differentiation in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigors, Manuela; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Cobzaru, Cristina; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Suárez, Jose; Faletra, Flavio; Aho, Heikki; Mäkelä, Leeni; Kern, Johannes S; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by acral blistering and peeling of the outermost layers of the epidermis. It is caused by mutations in the gene for transglutaminase 5, TGM5. Here, we report on clinical and molecular findings in 11 patients and extend the TGM5 mutation database by four, to our knowledge, previously unreported mutations: p.M1T, p.L41P, p.L214CfsX15, and p.S604IfsX9. The recurrent mutation p.G113C was found in 9 patients, but also in 3 of 100 control individuals in a heterozygous state, indicating that APSS might be more widespread than hitherto expected. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate that expression and distribution of several epidermal differentiation markers and corneodesmosin (CDSN) is altered in APSS keratinocytes and skin. Although the expression of transglutaminases 1 and 3 was not changed, we found an upregulation of keratin 1, keratin 10, involucrin, loricrin, and CDSN, probably as compensatory mechanisms for stabilization of the epidermal barrier. Our results give insights into the consequences of TGM5 mutations on terminal epidermal differentiation.

  18. The Impact of Differential Payroll Tax Subsidies on Minimum Wage Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P Kramarz (Piotr); Th. Philippon

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we study the impact of changes of total labor costs on employment of low-wage workers in France in a period, 1990 to 1998, that saw sudden and large changes in these costs. We use longitudinal data from the French Labor Force survey (? enqu?te emploi ?) in order to

  19. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen; Timothy J. Fahey

    2015-01-01

    Acid deposition induced losses of calcium (Ca) from northeastern forests have had negative effects on forest health for decades, including the mobilization of potentially phytotoxic aluminum (Al) from soils. To evaluate the impact of changes in Ca and Al availability on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus...

  20. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  1. Testicular impact of the treatment with I-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebel, G.; Gutierrez, S.; Fadel, A.; Suarez, S.; Levalle, O.

    2007-01-01

    Young patients carriers differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are treated with high doses of I-131 for much of his life with very good prognosis and projects with paternity. However, there is scarce information on the effect of radioiodine on the male gonad and their future fertility. This therapy may compromise on a temporary and / or definitively the role of the germinal cells. The testicular irradiation depends on the blood flow, the dose of I-131 administered and of the presence or absence of metastasis pelvic near to the gonads. A single dose of 100 mCi of I-131 throws an absorbed dose at gonadal level of 50-150 cGy. It has been reported that absorbed doses of 50 cGy can produce transitory decrease spermatogenesis and higher doses can also affect the function of the Leydig cells [es

  2. Experimental and theoretical double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Murat; Ozer, Zehra Nur, E-mail: zehraerengil@aku.edu.tr; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut [e-COL Laboratory, Department of Physics, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar 03200 (Turkey); Champion, Christophe [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Gradignan 33170 (France)

    2016-04-28

    Experimental and theoretical double differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron-induced ionization of methane (CH{sub 4}) are here reported for primary energies ranging from 50 eV to 350 eV and ejection angles between 25° and 130°. Experimental DDCSs are compared with theoretical predictions performed within the first Born approximation Coulomb wave. In this model, the initial molecular state is described by using single center wave functions, the incident (scattered) electron being described by a plane wave, while a Coulomb wave function is used for modeling the secondary ejected electron. A fairly good agreement may be observed between theory and experiment with nevertheless an expected systematic overestimation of the theory at low-ejection energies (<50 eV).

  3. Spatial Graduation of Fuel Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietveld, P.; Van Vuuren, D. [Tinbergen Institute, Labor, Region and Environment, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bruinsma, F. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-06-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes in various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of solving the problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher further away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for the Netherlands. We will analyse impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as the Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to substantial changes in fuelling behaviour, even when the graduation curve is not steep. Depending on the graduation profile implemented, the spatial differentiation of fuel tax will give rise to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with decreasing fuel sales. 9 refs.

  4. Spatial Graduation of Fuel Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.; Van Vuuren, D.; Bruinsma, F.

    1999-06-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes in various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of solving the problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher further away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for the Netherlands. We will analyse impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as the Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to substantial changes in fuelling behaviour, even when the graduation curve is not steep. Depending on the graduation profile implemented, the spatial differentiation of fuel tax will give rise to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with decreasing fuel sales. 9 refs

  5. Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Anichkin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Termites play the key role in biogeochemical transformation of organic matter acting as "moderators" of fluxes of carbon and other nutrients. They destroy not only leave litter but also coarse woody debris. Termites translocate considerable masses of dead organic materials into their houses, which leads to significant accumulations of organic matter in termite mounds. We studied the impact of termite mounds on redistribution of CO2 fluxes from soils in semi-deciduous monsoon tropical forests of southern Vietnam. Field study was performed in the Cat Tien National Park (11°21'-11°48'N, 107°10'-107°34'E). The spatial and temporary dynamics of CO2 fluxes from soils (Andosols) populated by termites were studied in plain lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia calyculata Kurz) monsoon tropical forests. The rate of CO2 emission from the soil surface was measured by closed chamber method two-three times per month from November 2010 to December 2011. Permanent cylindrical PVC chambers (9 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height) were installed beyond the areas occupied by termite mounds (5 replications). Litter was not removed from the soil surface before the measurements. To estimate the spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emission fluxes from soils populated by termites, a special 'termite' plot (TerPl) was equipped. It was 10×10 m in size and included three termite mounds: one mound built up by Globitermes sulphureus and two mounds populated by termites of the Odontotermes genus. Overall, 52 PVC chambers were installed permanently on the 'termite' plot (ca. 1 m apart from one another). The CO2 emission rate from TerPl was also measured by chamber closed method once in the dry season (April) and twice through the wet season (July and August). The average rate of CO2 emission from termite mounds was two times higher than that from the surrounding area (SurAr). In the dry season, it comprised 91±7 mg C/m2/h from the surrounding soils and 196±16 mg C/m2/h from the termite mounds. In the

  6. Assessing the spatial impact of climate on wheat productivity and the potential value of climate forecasts at a regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enli; Xu, J.; Jiang, Q.; Austin, J.

    2009-03-01

    Quantification of the spatial impact of climate on crop productivity and the potential value of seasonal climate forecasts can effectively assist the strategic planning of crop layout and help to understand to what extent climate risk can be managed through responsive management strategies at a regional level. A simulation study was carried out to assess the climate impact on the performance of a dryland wheat-fallow system and the potential value of seasonal climate forecasts in nitrogen management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia. Daily climate data (1889-2002) from 57 stations were used with the agricultural systems simulator (APSIM) to simulate wheat productivity and nitrogen requirement as affected by climate. On a good soil, simulated grain yield ranged from 7 t/ha in the east border regions. Optimal nitrogen rates ranged from 200 kgN/ha/yr. Simulated gross margin was in the range of -20/ha to 700/ha, increasing eastwards. Wheat yield was closely related to rainfall in the growing season and the stored soil moisture at sowing time. The impact of stored soil moisture increased from southwest to northeast. Simulated annual deep drainage ranged from zero in western inland to >200 mm in the east. Nitrogen management, optimised based on ‘perfect’ knowledge of daily weather in the coming season, could add value of 26˜79/ha compared to management optimised based on historical climate, with the maximum occurring in central to western part of MDB. It would also reduce the nitrogen application by 5˜25 kgN/ha in the main cropping areas. Comparison of simulation results with the current land use mapping in MDB revealed that the western boundary of the current cropping zone approximated the isolines of 160 mm of growing season rainfall, 2.5t/ha of wheat grain yield, and 150/ha of gross margin in QLD and NSW. In VIC and SA, the 160-mm isohyets corresponded relatively lower simulated yield due to less stored soil water. Impacts of other factors like soil

  7. The use of X-band polarimetric radar to assess the impact of different temporal and spatial resolution on a drainage system in Rotterdam urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, G.; Reinoso Rondinel, R.R.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of different temporal and spatial rainfall resolutions on the hydrological response of a higly urbanized area. The catchment under study is one of the pilot locations of RainGain Interreg IVB project, which aims at improving fine-scale measurement and prediction

  8. SPATIAL SEGMENTATION WITHIN METROPOLITAN LABOUR MARKET: MAPPING THE GENDER DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    DEBNATH, TANIA

    2017-01-01

    Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G; Del Águila, A; Cazorla, A; Lyamani, H; Casquero-Vera, J A; Colombi, C; Cuccia, E; Gianelle, V; Močnik, G; Alastuey, A; Olmo, F J; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behavior of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAE ff ) than to the AAE for BB (AAE bb ). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAE ff =1.1 and AAE bb =2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CM ff and CM bb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CM bb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A large-area, spatially continuous assessment of land cover map error and its impact on downstream analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon; Chen, Peng; Debats, Stephanie; Evans, Tom; Ferreira, Stefanus; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Ragazzo, Gabrielle; Sheffield, Justin; Wolf, Adam; Wood, Eric; Caylor, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess (1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and (2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, and then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security. We also evaluated maps' spatial accuracy based on how precisely they could be used to locate specific landscape features. We found that cropland maps can have substantial biases and poor accuracy at all resolutions (e.g., at 1 km resolution, up to ∼45% underestimates of cropland (bias) and nearly 50% mean absolute error (MAE, describing accuracy); at 100 km, up to 15% underestimates and nearly 20% MAE). National-scale maps derived from higher-resolution imagery were most accurate, followed by multi-map fusion products. Constraining mapped values to match survey statistics may be effective at minimizing bias (provided the statistics are accurate). Errors in downstream analyses could be substantially amplified or muted, depending on the values ascribed to cropland-adjacent covers (e.g., with forest as adjacent cover, carbon map error was 200%-500% greater than in input cropland maps, but ∼40% less for sparse cover types). The average locational error was 6 km (600%). These findings provide deeper insight into the causes and potential consequences of land cover map error, and suggest several recommendations for land

  11. The differential impact of oxytocin receptor gene in violence-exposed boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Livia C; Jones, Christopher W; Drury, Stacy S; Theall, Katherine P

    2017-06-01

    Childhood violence exposure is a prevalent public health problem. Understanding the lasting impact of violence requires an enhanced appreciation for the complex effects of violence across behavioral, physiologic, and molecular outcomes. This subject matched, cross-sectional study of 80 children explored the impact of violence exposure across behavioral, physiologic, and cellular outcomes. Externalizing behavior, diurnal cortisol rhythm, and telomere length (TL) were examined in a community recruited cohort of Black youth. Given evidence that genetic variation contributes to individual differences in response to the environment, we further tested whether a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576) moderated associations between violence and youth outcomes. Exposure to violence was directly associated with increased externalizing behavior, but no direct association of violence was found with cortisol or TL. Oxytocin genotype, however, moderated the association between violence and both cortisol and TL, suggesting that pathways linked to oxytocin may contribute to individual differences in the physiologic and molecular consequences of violence exposure. Sex differences with OXTR in cortisol and TL outcomes were also detected. Taken together, these findings suggest that there are complex pathways through which violence exposure impacts children, and that these pathways differ by both genetic variation and the sex of the child. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of the impact of precipitation spatial distribution uncertainty on predictive uncertainty of a snowmelt runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    This study is intended to quantify the impact of uncertainty about precipitation spatial distribution on predictive uncertainty of a snowmelt runoff model. This problem is especially relevant in mountain catchments with a sparse precipitation observation network and relative short precipitation records. The model analysed is a conceptual watershed model operating at a monthly time step. The model divides the catchment into five elevation zones, where the fifth zone corresponds to the catchment's glaciers. Precipitation amounts at each elevation zone i are estimated as the product between observed precipitation at a station and a precipitation factor FPi. If other precipitation data are not available, these precipitation factors must be adjusted during the calibration process and are thus seen as parameters of the model. In the case of the fifth zone, glaciers are seen as an inexhaustible source of water that melts when the snow cover is depleted.The catchment case study is Aconcagua River at Chacabuquito, located in the Andean region of Central Chile. The model's predictive uncertainty is measured in terms of the output variance of the mean squared error of the Box-Cox transformed discharge, the relative volumetric error, and the weighted average of snow water equivalent in the elevation zones at the end of the simulation period. Sobol's variance decomposition (SVD) method is used for assessing the impact of precipitation spatial distribution, represented by the precipitation factors FPi, on the models' predictive uncertainty. In the SVD method, the first order effect of a parameter (or group of parameters) indicates the fraction of predictive uncertainty that could be reduced if the true value of this parameter (or group) was known. Similarly, the total effect of a parameter (or group) measures the fraction of predictive uncertainty that would remain if the true value of this parameter (or group) was unknown, but all the remaining model parameters could be fixed

  13. Humanized TLR4/MD-2 mice reveal LPS recognition differentially impacts susceptibility to Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline M Hajjar

    Full Text Available Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4/MD-2 receptor complex activates host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, how species-specific differences in LPS recognition impact host defense remains undefined. Herein, we establish how temperature dependent shifts in the lipid A of Yersinia pestis LPS that differentially impact recognition by mouse versus human TLR4/MD-2 dictate infection susceptibility. When grown at 37°C, Y. pestis LPS is hypo-acylated and less stimulatory to human compared with murine TLR4/MD-2. By contrast, when grown at reduced temperatures, Y. pestis LPS is more acylated, and stimulates cells equally via human and mouse TLR4/MD-2. To investigate how these temperature dependent shifts in LPS impact infection susceptibility, transgenic mice expressing human rather than mouse TLR4/MD-2 were generated. We found the increased susceptibility to Y. pestis for "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 mice directly paralleled blunted inflammatory cytokine production in response to stimulation with purified LPS. By contrast, for other Gram-negative pathogens with highly acylated lipid A including Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli, infection susceptibility and the response after stimulation with LPS were indistinguishable between mice expressing human or mouse TLR4/MD-2. Thus, Y. pestis exploits temperature-dependent shifts in LPS acylation to selectively evade recognition by human TLR4/MD-2 uncovered with "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 transgenic mice.

  14. Humanized TLR4/MD-2 mice reveal LPS recognition differentially impacts susceptibility to Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Adeline M; Ernst, Robert K; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Brasfield, Alicia S; Yam, Cathy S; Newlon, Lindsay A; Kollmann, Tobias R; Miller, Samuel I; Wilson, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/MD-2 receptor complex activates host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, how species-specific differences in LPS recognition impact host defense remains undefined. Herein, we establish how temperature dependent shifts in the lipid A of Yersinia pestis LPS that differentially impact recognition by mouse versus human TLR4/MD-2 dictate infection susceptibility. When grown at 37°C, Y. pestis LPS is hypo-acylated and less stimulatory to human compared with murine TLR4/MD-2. By contrast, when grown at reduced temperatures, Y. pestis LPS is more acylated, and stimulates cells equally via human and mouse TLR4/MD-2. To investigate how these temperature dependent shifts in LPS impact infection susceptibility, transgenic mice expressing human rather than mouse TLR4/MD-2 were generated. We found the increased susceptibility to Y. pestis for "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 mice directly paralleled blunted inflammatory cytokine production in response to stimulation with purified LPS. By contrast, for other Gram-negative pathogens with highly acylated lipid A including Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli, infection susceptibility and the response after stimulation with LPS were indistinguishable between mice expressing human or mouse TLR4/MD-2. Thus, Y. pestis exploits temperature-dependent shifts in LPS acylation to selectively evade recognition by human TLR4/MD-2 uncovered with "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 transgenic mice.

  15. Impact of Hydrologic and Micro-topographic Variabilities on Spatial Distribution of Mean Soil-Nitrogen Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed agricultural fields causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional model to characterize the spatially distributed ``age" of soil-nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia-ammonium) across a watershed. We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the elapsed time since nitrogen is introduced into the soil system. Micro-topographic variability incorporates heterogeneity of nutrient transformations and transport associated with topographic depressions that form temporary ponds and produce prolonged periods of anoxic conditions, and roadside agricultural ditches that support rapid surface movement. This modeling effort utilizes 1-m Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. We find a significant correlation between hydrologic variability and mean nitrate age that enables assessment of preferential flow paths of nitrate leaching. The estimation of the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as a tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing the analysis of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes without introducing additional parameters.

  16. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.

    2011-08-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  17. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.; Hacker, Sally D.; Freidenburg, Tess; Lubchenco, Jane; Craig, Ryan; Rilov, Gil; Noble, Mae Marjore; Richmond, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  18. Double- and triple-differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, R.; Sinha, C.

    1995-01-01

    Triple- (TDCS) and double- (DDCS) differential cross sections have been calculated for single ionization in electron-helium collisions for asymmetric geometry at intermediate and medium high energies. The TDCS and DDCS results have been presented for different kinematical situations and have been compared with the corresponding experiments. In the present prescription, the final-state wave function involves the correlation between the two continuum electrons and satisfies the three-body asymptotic boundary condition (for asymmetric geometry), which is an important criterion for reliable ionization cross sections. The sensitivity of the ionization cross sections (particularly of the TDCS) with respect to the choice of the bound-state wave function of the He atom has also been studied, using two different forms of wave function of the He atom. The binary-to-recoil peak intensity ratio against momentum transfer in TDCS is found to be in closer agreement with the experiment for the simple Hylleraas wave function than for the Hartree-Fock wave function. The DDCS results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data of Mueller-Fiedler et al. [J. Phys. B 19, 1211 (1986)] for lower ejected energy (E 2 ), while for higher E 2 the results are closer to the measurements of Shyn et al. [Phys. Rev. A 19, 557 (1979)] and Avaldi et al. [Nuovo Cimento D 9, 97 (1987)

  19. Impact of Measuring Part Elements of Transformer Differential Protection on Input Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev M.V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system (EPS is a large, multi-parameter, non-linear and dynamic system. The problem of calculation of relay protection (RP settings has become more urgent nowadays. The situation is exacerbated by the active implementation of renewable energy sources, FACTS, etc., which significantly change the “traditional” EPS and their operating modes. The problem can be solved by deep analysis of functioning of main elements of RP devices in the specific operating conditions and revision of coefficients used in settings calculation. That can be done using RPs detailed mathematical models and modern EPS simulators. The results of the analysis will make it possible to formulate a new methodology for setting up RP. That is a final goal. In the framework of solving this problem, the novel approach for developing RPs’ detailed mathematical models is formulated and theoretically proved. On the basis of this approach, mathematical models of the system “instrumental transformer - auxiliary transformer - analog filter” (measuring part of digital transformer differential protection for different types of auxiliary current transformers (active and passive and filters (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel are developed. A comparative numerical analysis of their frequency and phase responses is carried out, including taking into account the magnetization of instrumental current transformers. Summarizing, the theoretical and practical studies presented in the article allows formulating requirements for RPs’ detailed mathematical models, which will be used in the further research.

  20. Ionization of liquid water by fast electron impact: multiple differential cross sections for the 1B1 orbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojon, O A; De Sanctis, M L; Stia, C R; Vuilleumier, R; Politis, M-F

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of single ionization of water molecules in liquid phase by impact of fast electrons in a coplanar geometry. Multiple differential cross sections are obtained through a first order model obtained within the framework of an independent electron approximation in which relaxation of the target is not taken into account. The wavefunctions for a single water molecule in the liquid phase are obtained through a Wannier orbital formalism and the ejected electron is described by means of Coulomb functions. We also present averaged calculations over all molecular orientations. A comparison with previous theoretical and experimental results, the latter corresponding to water in gaz phase, shows a good agreement. The main physical features of the reaction (such as binary and recoil peaks) present in measurements for vapor are also observed in the present theoretical predictions.

  1. Double ionization of the hydrogen sulfide molecule by electron impact: Influence of the target orientation on multiple differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imadouchene, N. [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Aouchiche, H., E-mail: h_aouchiche@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Champion, C. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, Boîte Postale 120, Gradignan 33175 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The double ionization of the H{sub 2}S molecule is here theoretically studied. • The orientation dependence of the differential cross sections is scrutinized. • The specific double ionizing mechanisms are clearly identified. - Abstract: Multiple differential cross sections of double ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecule impacted by electrons are here investigated within the first Born approximation. In the initial state, the incident electron is represented by a plane wave function whereas the target is described by means of a single-center molecular wave function. In the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by Coulomb wave functions coupled by the Gamow factor, whereas the scattered electron is described by a plane wave. In this work, we analyze the role played by the molecular target orientation in the double ionization of the four outermost orbitals, namely 2b{sub 1}, 5a{sub 1}, 2b{sub 2} and 4a{sub 1} in considering the particular case of two electrons ejected from the same orbital. The contribution of each final state to the double ionization process is studied in terms of shape and magnitude for specific molecular orientations and for each molecular orbital we identified the mechanisms involved in the double ionization process, namely, the Shake-Off and the Two-Step 1.

  2. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M.; Henning, Robert A.; Magley, Vicki J.; Faghri, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate—the workgroup, supervisor, and organization—work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. k-means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health. PMID:26380360

  3. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J; Faghri, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate--the workgroup, supervisor, and organization--work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. k-means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health.

  4. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees’ Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra M. Zweber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate—the workgroup, supervisor, and organization—work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. k-means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health.

  5. Ethnic differentials of the impact of Family Planning Program on contraceptive use in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Kumar Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is wide variation of family planning services use among ethnic groups in Nepal. Despite three decades of implementation the need for family planning services is substantially unmet (25Š, and there have been no systematic studies evaluating the impact of the family planning program. This study pooled data from nationally representative surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, and 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analysis of 23,381 married women of reproductive age nested within 764 clusters indicated that Muslims, Janjatis, and Dalits were significantly less likely to use contraceptives than Brahmins and Chhetries (OR=0.27, 0.88 and 0.82 respectively. The odds of using contraceptives by the Newar were higher than the odds for Brahmins and Chhetries, although it was not significant. Exposure of women to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, radio, and television increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, the impact of family planning information on contraceptive use varied according to ethnicity. We also found that modern contraceptive use varied significantly across the clusters, and the cluster-level indicators, such as mean age at marriage, mean household asset score, percentage of women with secondary education, and percentage of women working away from home, were important in explaining this.

  6. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  7. Slowing Menthol's Progress: Differential Impact of a Tobacco Tax Increase on Cigarette Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; D'Silva, Joanne; Boyle, Raymond G

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of smokers who use menthol cigarettes has increased nationally since 2004, while use of non-menthol cigarettes is declining, suggesting that menthol may be undermining the effectiveness of population level tobacco control efforts. In 2013 Minnesota passed a $1.75 cigarette tax increase. We investigated whether sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were differentially affected by the price increase. Cigarette sales data from convenience stores in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, metro area from January 2012, through May 2015, were obtained. Proportion of sales accounted for by menthol cigarettes was analyzed with segmented regression. Before the price increase, menthol cigarettes gained 2.21% (1.17, 3.12) of market share annually. Following the price increase, the trend slowed to 0.26% (-0.78, 1.56) annually. The slope before the price increase was significantly positive; the slope following the price increase did not significantly differ from zero. Sales of menthol cigarettes declined less rapidly than non-menthol cigarettes before the price increase. Sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes declined at more comparable rates after the price increase. Increasing the price of tobacco may help ensure declines in consumption are more evenly distributed across menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Using sales data, we found that a trend of increasing market share for menthol cigarettes was significantly reduced by a $1.75 cigarette price increase. These results suggest that cigarette price increases, a core tobacco control policy, may have a greater effect on menthol smokers than non-menthol smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Origins of the Xylella fastidiosa prophage-like regions and their impact in genome differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Mello Varani

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogen causing many economically important diseases, and analyses of completely sequenced X. fastidiosa genome strains allowed the identification of many prophage-like elements and possibly phage remnants, accounting for up to 15% of the genome composition. To better evaluate the recent evolution of the X. fastidiosa chromosome backbone among distinct pathovars, the number and location of prophage-like regions on two finished genomes (9a5c and Temecula1, and in two candidate molecules (Ann1 and Dixon were assessed. Based on comparative best bidirectional hit analyses, the majority (51% of the predicted genes in the X. fastidiosa prophage-like regions are related to structural phage genes belonging to the Siphoviridae family. Electron micrograph reveals the existence of putative viral particles with similar morphology to lambda phages in the bacterial cell in planta. Moreover, analysis of microarray data indicates that 9a5c strain cultivated under stress conditions presents enhanced expression of phage anti-repressor genes, suggesting switches from lysogenic to lytic cycle of phages under stress-induced situations. Furthermore, virulence-associated proteins and toxins are found within these prophage-like elements, thus suggesting an important role in host adaptation. Finally, clustering analyses of phage integrase genes based on multiple alignment patterns reveal they group in five lineages, all possessing a tyrosine recombinase catalytic domain, and phylogenetically close to other integrases found in phages that are genetic mosaics and able to perform generalized and specialized transduction. Integration sites and tRNA association is also evidenced. In summary, we present comparative and experimental evidence supporting the association and contribution of phage activity on the differentiation of Xylella genomes.

  9. Photoperiod history differentially impacts reproduction and immune function in adult Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Pyter, Leah M

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal changes in numerous aspects of mammalian immune function arise as a result of the annual variation in environmental day length (photoperiod), but it is not known if absolute photoperiod or relative change in photoperiod drives these changes. This experiment tested the hypothesis that an individual's history of exposure to day length determines immune responses to ambiguous, intermediate-duration day lengths. Immunological (blood leukocytes, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions [DTH]), reproductive, and adrenocortical responses were assessed in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised initially in categorically long (15-h light/day; 15L) or short (9L) photoperiods and were subsequently transferred to 1 of 7 cardinal experimental photoperiods between 9L and 15L, inclusive. Initial photoperiod history interacted with contemporary experimental photoperiods to determine reproductive responses: 11L, 12L, and 13L caused gonadal regression in hamsters previously exposed to 15L, but elicited growth in hamsters previously in 9L. In hamsters with a 15L photoperiod history, photoperiods history, DTH responses were largely unaffected by increases in day length. Enhancement and suppression of blood leukocyte concentrations occurred at 13L in hamsters with photoperiod histories of 15L and 9L, respectively; however, prior exposure to 9L imparted marked hysteresis effects, which suppressed baseline leukocyte concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were only enhanced in 15L hamsters transferred to 9L and, in common with DTH, were unaffected by photoperiod treatments in hamsters with a 9L photoperiod history. Photoperiod history acquired in adulthood impacts immune responses to photoperiod, but manifests in a markedly dissimilar fashion as compared to the reproductive system. Prior photoperiod exposure has an enduring impact on the ability of the immune system to respond to subsequent changes in day length.

  10. Pregnancy differentially impacts performance of latent tuberculosis diagnostics in a high-burden setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti S Mathad

    Full Text Available Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The sensitivity of the widely-used tuberculin skin test (TST, however, may be reduced during pregnancy.We performed a cross-sectional study comparing the TST with the QuantiFERON Gold In-tube (QGIT in 401 HIV-negative women presenting antepartum (n = 154, at delivery (n = 148, or postpartum (n = 99 to a government hospital in Pune, India. A subset of 60 women enrolled during pregnancy was followed longitudinally and received both tests at all three stages of pregnancy.The QGIT returned significantly more positive results than the TST. Of the 401 women in the cross-sectional study, 150 (37% had a positive QGIT, compared to 59 (14% for the TST (p<0.005. Forty-nine (12% did not have their TST read. Of 356 who had both results available, 46 (13% were concordant positive, 91 (25% were discordant (12 (3% TST+/QGIT-; 79 (22% TST-/QGIT+, and 206 (57% concordant negative. Comparison by stage of pregnancy revealed that QGIT percent positivity remained stable between antepartum and delivery, unlike TST results (QGIT 31-32% vs TST 11-17%. Median IFN-γ concentration was lower at delivery than in antepartum or postpartum (1.66 vs 2.65 vs 8.99 IU/mL, p = 0.001. During postpartum, both tests had significantly increased positives (QGIT 31% vs 32% vs 52%, p = 0.01; TST 17% vs 11% vs 25%, p<0.005. The same trends were observed in the longitudinal subset.Timing and choice of LTBI test during pregnancy impact results. QGIT was more stable and more closely approximated the LTBI prevalence in India. But pregnancy stage clearly affects both tests, raising important questions about how the complex immune changes brought on by pregnancy may impact LTBI screening.

  11. Pregnancy differentially impacts performance of latent tuberculosis diagnostics in a high-burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathad, Jyoti S; Bhosale, Ramesh; Sangar, Vikrant; Mave, Vidya; Gupte, Nikhil; Kanade, Savita; Nangude, Ashwini; Chopade, Kavita; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Deshpande, Prasad; Kulkarni, Vandana; Glesby, Marshall J; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Bharadwaj, Renu; Sambarey, Pradeep; Gupta, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The sensitivity of the widely-used tuberculin skin test (TST), however, may be reduced during pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing the TST with the QuantiFERON Gold In-tube (QGIT) in 401 HIV-negative women presenting antepartum (n = 154), at delivery (n = 148), or postpartum (n = 99) to a government hospital in Pune, India. A subset of 60 women enrolled during pregnancy was followed longitudinally and received both tests at all three stages of pregnancy. The QGIT returned significantly more positive results than the TST. Of the 401 women in the cross-sectional study, 150 (37%) had a positive QGIT, compared to 59 (14%) for the TST (p<0.005). Forty-nine (12%) did not have their TST read. Of 356 who had both results available, 46 (13%) were concordant positive, 91 (25%) were discordant (12 (3%) TST+/QGIT-; 79 (22%) TST-/QGIT+), and 206 (57%) concordant negative. Comparison by stage of pregnancy revealed that QGIT percent positivity remained stable between antepartum and delivery, unlike TST results (QGIT 31-32% vs TST 11-17%). Median IFN-γ concentration was lower at delivery than in antepartum or postpartum (1.66 vs 2.65 vs 8.99 IU/mL, p = 0.001). During postpartum, both tests had significantly increased positives (QGIT 31% vs 32% vs 52%, p = 0.01; TST 17% vs 11% vs 25%, p<0.005). The same trends were observed in the longitudinal subset. Timing and choice of LTBI test during pregnancy impact results. QGIT was more stable and more closely approximated the LTBI prevalence in India. But pregnancy stage clearly affects both tests, raising important questions about how the complex immune changes brought on by pregnancy may impact LTBI screening.

  12. Isotopic source signatures: Impact of regional variability on the δ13CH4 trend and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Aryeh I.; Coulon, Ancelin; Stenke, Andrea; Schwietzke, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate has fluctuated over the past three decades, signifying variations in methane sources and sinks. Methane isotopic ratios (δ13CH4) differ between emission categories, and can therefore be used to distinguish which methane sources have changed. However, isotopic modelling studies have mainly focused on uncertainties in methane emissions rather than uncertainties in isotopic source signatures. We simulated atmospheric δ13CH4 for the period 1990-2010 using the global chemistry-climate model SOCOL. Empirically-derived regional variability in the isotopic signatures was introduced in a suite of sensitivity simulations. These simulations were compared to a baseline simulation with commonly used global mean isotopic signatures. We investigated coal, natural gas/oil, wetland, livestock, and biomass burning source signatures to determine whether regional variations impact the observed isotopic trend and spatial distribution. Based on recently published source signature datasets, our calculated global mean isotopic signatures are in general lighter than the commonly used values. Trends in several isotopic signatures were also apparent during the period 1990-2010. Tropical livestock emissions grew during the 2000s, introducing isotopically heavier livestock emissions since tropical livestock consume more C4 vegetation than midlatitude livestock. Chinese coal emissions, which are isotopically heavy compared to other coals, increase during the 2000s leading to higher global values of δ13CH4 for coal emissions. EDGAR v4.2 emissions disagree with the observed atmospheric isotopic trend for almost all simulations, confirming past doubts about this emissions inventory. The agreement between the modelled and observed δ13CH4 interhemispheric differences improves when regional source signatures are used. Even though the simulated results are highly dependent on the choice of methane emission inventories, they emphasize that the commonly used

  13. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Minick, Kevan J.; Strickland, Michael S.; Wickings, Kyle G.; Crippen, Tawni L.; Tarone, Aaron M.; Benbow, M. Eric; Sufrin, Ness; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Pechal, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m) and temporal (3–732 days) dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C) mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold) in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding ecosystem

  14. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82% were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95] when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76] when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneshwar Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m and temporal (3–732 days dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding

  16. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Ngonyani, Hassan; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T; Mseka, Antony; Moore, Jason; Maia, Marta F; Moore, Sarah J; Lorenz, Lena M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82%) were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95]) when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76]) when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools.

  18. Differential impact of personality traits on distracted driving behaviors in teens and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Morgan N; Ross, Lesley A; McManus, Benjamin; Bishop, Haley J; Wittig, Shannon M O; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-07-01

    To determine the impact of personality on distracted driving behaviors. Participants included 120 drivers (48 teens, 72 older adults) who completed the 45-item Big Five Personality questionnaire assessing self-reported personality factors and the Questionnaire Assessing Distracted Driving (QUADD) assessing the frequency of distracted driving behaviors. Associations for all five personality traits with each outcome (e.g., number of times texting on the phone, talking on the phone, and interacting with the phone while driving) were analyzed separately for teens and older adults using negative binomial or Poisson regressions that controlled for age, gender and education. In teens, higher levels of openness and conscientiousness were predictive of greater reported texting frequency and interacting with a phone while driving, while lower levels of agreeableness was predictive of fewer reported instances of texting and interacting with a phone while driving. In older adults, greater extraversion was predictive of greater reported talking on and interacting with a phone while driving. Other personality factors were not significantly associated with distracted driving behaviors. Personality traits may be important predictors of distracted driving behaviors, though specific traits associated with distracted driving may vary across age groups. The relationship between personality and distracted driving behaviors provides a unique opportunity to target drivers who are more likely to engage in distracted driving behavior, thereby increasing the effectiveness of educational campaigns and improving driving safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  20. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global warming alters sound transmission: differential impact on the prey detection ability of echolocating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Koselj, Klemen; Zsebők, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts the biogeography and phenology of plants and animals, yet the underlying mechanisms are little known. Here, we present a functional link between rising temperature and the prey detection ability of echolocating bats. The maximum distance for echo-based prey detection is physically determined by sound attenuation. Attenuation is more pronounced for high-frequency sound, such as echolocation, and is a nonlinear function of both call frequency and ambient temperature. Hence, the prey detection ability, and thus possibly the foraging efficiency, of echolocating bats and susceptible to rising temperatures through climate change. Using present-day climate data and projected temperature rises, we modelled this effect for the entire range of bat call frequencies and climate zones around the globe. We show that depending on call frequency, the prey detection volume of bats will either decrease or increase: species calling above a crossover frequency will lose and species emitting lower frequencies will gain prey detection volume, with crossover frequency and magnitude depending on the local climatic conditions. Within local species assemblages, this may cause a change in community composition. Global warming can thus directly affect the prey detection ability of individual bats and indirectly their interspecific interactions with competitors and prey. PMID:24335559

  2. Global warming alters sound transmission: differential impact on the prey detection ability of echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Koselj, Klemen; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R

    2014-02-06

    Climate change impacts the biogeography and phenology of plants and animals, yet the underlying mechanisms are little known. Here, we present a functional link between rising temperature and the prey detection ability of echolocating bats. The maximum distance for echo-based prey detection is physically determined by sound attenuation. Attenuation is more pronounced for high-frequency sound, such as echolocation, and is a nonlinear function of both call frequency and ambient temperature. Hence, the prey detection ability, and thus possibly the foraging efficiency, of echolocating bats and susceptible to rising temperatures through climate change. Using present-day climate data and projected temperature rises, we modelled this effect for the entire range of bat call frequencies and climate zones around the globe. We show that depending on call frequency, the prey detection volume of bats will either decrease or increase: species calling above a crossover frequency will lose and species emitting lower frequencies will gain prey detection volume, with crossover frequency and magnitude depending on the local climatic conditions. Within local species assemblages, this may cause a change in community composition. Global warming can thus directly affect the prey detection ability of individual bats and indirectly their interspecific interactions with competitors and prey.

  3. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-11-02

    Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.

  4. Differential impact of lytic viruses on prokaryotic morphopopulations in a tropical estuarine system (Cochin estuary, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Vijayan; Pradeep Ram, Angia Sriram; Parvathi, Ammini; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses. High prokaryotic mortality rates, up to 42% of prokaryote population in the pre-monsoon season is further substantiated by a high virus to prokaryote ratio (VPR), suggesting that maintenance of a high number of viruses is dependent on the most active fraction of bacterioplankton. Although myoviruses were the dominant viral morphotype (mean = 43%) throughout the study period, there was significant variation among prokaryotic morphotypes susceptible to viral infection. Among them, the viral infected short rod prokaryote morphotype with lower burst estimates (mean = 18 viruses prokaryote-1) was dominant (35%) in the dry seasons whereas a substantial increase in cocci forms (30%) infected by viruses with high burst size (mean = 31 viruses prokaryote-1) was evident during the monsoon season. Such preferential infections of prokaryotic morphopopulations with respect to seasons can have a strong and variable impact on the carbon and energy flow in this tropical ecosystem.

  5. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using

  7. IMPACT OF HIV INFECTION AND TUBERCULOSIS ON THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among HIV infected individuals. In this regard, an important task is the timely detection of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. Previously, we have shown that the diagnostic value of in vitro test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube is not decreased in patients with HIV infection against the background of tuberculosis. However, it remains unclear what kind of cell populations produce IFNγ in response to specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens stimulation in vitro, because the immunodeficiency, caused by HIV, makes primarily for a decrease the abundance and attenuation functions of CD4 T-lymphocytes. The aim of thшы work was to compare the degree of differentiation of T-lymphocytes CD4 (Th and CD8 (Tcyt in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy donors against the background of HIV infection. The study data were obtained during the examination of 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without HIV infection (HIV–TB+, 23 patients with HIV infection (TB–HIV+ and 30 patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB+HIV+. The comparison group consisted of 37 healthy individuals (TB–HIV–. Аbsolute and abundance (relative content of major subpopulations of T-lymphocytes (based on the expression of CD27 marker, CD28, CD45RA and CD62L in the peripheral blood for all patients included in the study (n = 118 were evaluated by flow cytometry approach. For patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 58 QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (Qiagen, QFT test was performed. Th/Tcyt ratio was not significantly different among the groups of TB–HIV– and TB+HIV– (1.76 [1.51; 2.30] against 1.86 [1.22; 2.79], p = 0.960. At that time, the size of both subpopulations “terminally differentiated” Tcyt (Tcyt Eff, CD27–CD28– CD62L–CD45RA– Th lymphocytes and effector memory lymphocytes (Th EM, CD27–CD28+CD62L–CD45RA–, was significantly different in all four study groups. Multidirectional changes

  8. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttray, Annette; Reinisch, Carol; Miller, Jason; Ernst, William; Gillis, Patricia; Losier, Melanie; Sherry, James

    2012-01-01

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ß-endosulfan and α-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: ► We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. ► Prevalence was generally higher downstream of high intensity

  9. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttray, Annette, E-mail: amuttray@rescan.com [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Reinisch, Carol, E-mail: creinisch@mbl.edu [Visiting Scientist Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Miller, Jason, E-mail: j.miller@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ernst, William, E-mail: bill.ernst@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 45 Alderney Drive, Dartmouth, NS, Canada B2Y 2N6 (Canada); Gillis, Patricia, E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Losier, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.losier@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Atlantic Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Environmental Science Centre, P.O. Box 23005 Moncton, NB, Canada E1A 6S8 (Canada); Sherry, James, E-mail: jim.sherry@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ss-endosulfan and {alpha}-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. Black

  10. The Impact of Early Visual Deprivation on Spatial Hearing: A Comparison between Totally and Partially Visually Deprived Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Finocchietti, Sara; Cocchi, Elena; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The specific role of early visual deprivation on spatial hearing is still unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of comparing similar spatial skills at different ages and to the difficulty in recruiting young blind children from birth. In this study, the effects of early visual deprivation on the development of auditory spatial localization have been assessed in a group of seven 3–5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light) or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1.1–1.7 LogMAR), with the main aim to understand if visual experience is fundamental to the development of specific spatial skills. Our study led to three main findings: firstly, totally blind children performed overall more poorly compared sighted and low vision children in all the spatial tasks performed; secondly, low vision children performed equally or better than sighted children in the same auditory spatial tasks; thirdly, higher residual levels of visual acuity are positively correlated with better spatial performance in the dynamic condition of the auditory localization task indicating that the more residual vision the better spatial performance. These results suggest that early visual experience has an important role in the development of spatial cognition, even when the visual input during the critical period of visual calibration is partially degraded like in the case of low vision children. Overall these results shed light on the importance of early assessment of spatial impairments in visually impaired children and early intervention to prevent the risk of isolation and social exclusion. PMID:28443040

  11. Differential impact of obesity and diabetes mellitus on survival after liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amptoulach, Sousana; Gross, Gillis; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2015-12-01

    Data on the potential effect of obesity and diabetes mellitus on survival after liver resection due to colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases are very limited. Patients undergoing liver resection for CRC metastases in a European institution in 2004-2011 were retrospectively enrolled. Relevant data, such as body mass index, extent of resection, chemotherapy, and perioperative outcome, were collected from medical records. The relation of obesity and diabetes mellitus with overall and disease-free survival was assessed using adjusted Cox models. Thirty of 207 patients (14.4%) included in the study were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and 25 (12%) had diabetes mellitus. Major hepatectomy was performed in 46%. Although both obese patients and those with diabetes had higher American Society of Anesthesiologist scores (P diabetes was significantly related to primary tumor characteristics, liver metastasis features, extent or radicality of resection, extrahepatic disease at hepatectomy, preoperative or postoperative oncologic therapy, or perioperative outcome (P > 0.05 for all). Patients were followed up for a median of 39 mo posthepatectomy (interquartile range, 13-56 mo). After adjustment for confounders, obesity was an independent predictor of improved (hazard ratio, 0.305, 95% confidence interval, 0.103-0.902) and diabetes of worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.298, 95% confidence interval, 1.306-8.330). Obese patients with diabetes had also worse disease-free survival compared with the rest of the cohort (P diabetes mellitus has a negative impact on prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Differential Impact of Emphysema on Respiratory Symptoms and 6-Minute Walk Distance in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi; Akgün, Kathleen; Campo, Monica; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Shahrir, Shahida; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew; Kim, Joon; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Brown, Sheldon T; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Emphysema is more prevalent in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients independent of smoking behavior. Nonetheless, health effects of emphysema in this population are poorly understood. We determined whether emphysema is associated with a greater burden of pulmonary symptoms and a lower 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in HIV+ compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 170 HIV+ and 153 HIV- subjects in the Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) cohort study. Subjects completed a self-assessment of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing, and 6MWD testing as well as a chest computed tomography to determine emphysema severity. We used regression models to determine the association of emphysema with respiratory symptoms and 6MWD in HIV+ subjects and compared this to HIV- subjects. Models stratified by HIV status demonstrated an association between >10% radiographic emphysema and chronic cough and/or phlegm and 6MWD in HIV+ subjects. These associations persisted among the subset without airflow obstruction: those with emphysema had 4.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 14) times the odds of chronic cough and/or phlegm and walked 60 m (95% confidence interval: 26 to 93) less distance than those without emphysema. There was no association between >10% emphysema and symptoms or 6MWD in HIV- subjects. In our cohort, >10% radiographic emphysema was associated with chronic cough and/or phlegm and lower 6MWD in HIV+ but not HIV- subjects. These findings were robust even among HIV+ subjects with milder forms of emphysema and those without airflow obstruction, highlighting the clinical impact of emphysema in these patients.

  13. Differential impacts of six insecticides on a mealybug and its coccinellid predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Oliveira, Martin D; Barros, Eduardo M; Michaud, J P; Torres, Jorge B

    2018-01-01

    Broad-spectrum insecticides may disrupt biological control and cause pest resurgence due to their negative impacts on natural enemies. The preservation of sustainable pest control in agroecosystems requires parallel assessments of insecticide toxicity to target pests and their key natural enemies. In the present study, the leaf dipping method was used to evaluate the relative toxicity of six insecticides to the striped mealybug, Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its predator, Tenuisvalvae notata (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Three neurotoxic insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin, methidathion and thiamethoxam, caused complete mortality of both pest and predator when applied at their highest field rates. In contrast, lufenuron, pymetrozine and pyriproxyfen caused moderate mortality of third-instar mealybug nymphs, and exhibited low or no toxicity to either larvae or adults of the lady beetle. At field rates, lufenuron and pymetrozine had negligible effects on prey consumption, development or reproduction of T. notata, but adults failed to emerge from pupae when fourth instar larvae were exposed to pyriproxyfen. In addition, pyriproxyfen caused temporary sterility; T. notata females laid non-viable eggs for three days after exposure, but recovered egg fertility thereafter. Our results indicate that the three neurotoxic insecticides can potentially control F. dasylirii, but are hazardous to its natural predator. In contrast, lufenuron and pymetrozine appear compatible with T. notata, although they appear less effective against the mealybug. Although the acute toxicity of pyriproxyfen to T. notata was low, some pupal mortality and reduced egg fertility suggest that this material could impede the predator's numerical response to mealybug populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential impact of continuous theta-burst stimulation over left and right DLPFC on planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, Christoph P; Heinze, Katharina; Frenkel, Annekathrein; Läppchen, Claus H; Unterrainer, Josef M; Weiller, Cornelius; Lange, Rüdiger; Rahm, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Most neuroimaging studies on planning report bilateral activations of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Recently, these concurrent activations of left and right dlPFC have been shown to double dissociate with different cognitive demands imposed by the planning task: Higher demands on the extraction of task-relevant information led to stronger activation in left dlPFC, whereas higher demands on the integration of interdependent information into a coherent action sequence entailed stronger activation of right dlPFC. Here, we used continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate the supposed causal structure-function mapping underlying this double dissociation. Two groups of healthy subjects (left-lateralized stimulation, n = 26; right-lateralized stimulation, n = 26) were tested within-subject on a variant of the Tower of London task following either real cTBS over dlPFC or sham stimulation over posterior parietal cortex. Results revealed that, irrespective of specific task demands, cTBS over left and right dlPFC was associated with a global decrease and increase, respectively, in initial planning times compared to sham stimulation. Moreover, no interaction between task demands and stimulation type (real vs. sham) and/or stimulation side (left vs. right hemisphere) were found. Together, against expectations from previous neuroimaging data, lateralized cTBS did not lead to planning-parameter specific changes in performance, but instead revealed a global asymmetric pattern of faster versus slower task processing after left versus right cTBS. This global asymmetry in the absence of any task-parameter specific impact of cTBS suggests that different levels of information processing may span colocalized, but independent axes of functional lateralization in the dlPFC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Variability in δ{sup 15}N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: Differential impact of nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: inesgviana@gmail.com; Bode, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    While it is generally agreed that δ{sup 15}N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ{sup 15}N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ{sup 15}N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ{sup 15}N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ{sup 15}N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ{sup 15}N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. - Highlights: • Variability of Fucacean δ{sup 15}N indicates N sources along a salinity gradient. • δ{sup 15}N of Fucaceae and seawater are not correlated at short time scales. • Isotopic fractionation in macroalgal tissue varies at seasonal and at local scale. • Fucacean species are suitable for monitoring chronic N loadings.

  16. Exploring the differential impact of individual and organizational factors on organizational commitment of physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Felix; Kuntz, Ludwig; Enke, Christian; Roth, Bernhard; Nitzsche, Anika

    2018-03-15

    Physician and nursing shortages in acute and critical care settings require research on factors which might drive their commitment, an important predictor of absenteeism and turnover. However, the degree to which the commitment of a physician or a nurse is driven by individual or organizational characteristics in hospitals remains unclear. In addition, there is a need for a greater understanding of how antecedent-commitment relationships differ between both occupational groups. Based on recent findings in the literature and the results of a pilot study, we investigate the degree to which selected individual and organizational characteristics might enhance an employee's affective commitment working in the field of neonatal intensive care. Moreover, our aim is to examine the different antecedent-commitment relationships across the occupational groups of nurses and physicians. Information about individual factors affecting organizational commitment was derived from self-administered staff questionnaires, while additional information about organizational structures was taken from hospital quality reports and a self-administered survey completed by hospital department heads. Overall, 1486 nurses and 540 physicians from 66 Neonatal Intensive Care Units participated in the study. We used multilevel modeling to account for different levels of analysis. Although organizational characteristics can explain differences in an employee's commitment, the differences can be largely explained by his or her individual characteristics and work experiences. Regarding occupational differences, individual support by leaders and colleagues was shown to influence organizational commitment more strongly in the physicians' group. In contrast, the degree of autonomy in the units and perceived quality of care had a larger impact on the nurses' organizational commitment. With the growing number of hospitals facing an acute shortage of highly-skilled labor, effective strategies on the

  17. Differential trafficking of oxidized LDL and oxidized LDL immune complexes in macrophages: impact on oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Al Gadban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells. It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger receptors, oxLDL-IC are predominantly internalized through the FCgamma receptor I (FCgamma RI. This study examined differences in intracellular trafficking of lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL and oxLDL-IC and the impact on oxidative stress.Fluorescently labeled lipid and protein moieties of oxLDL co-localized within endosomal and lysosomal compartments in U937 human monocytic cells. In contrast, the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC was detected in the endosomal compartment, whereas its apolipoprotein moiety advanced to the lysosomal compartment. Cells treated with oxLDL-IC prior to oxLDL demonstrated co-localization of internalized lipid moieties from both oxLDL and oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This sequential treatment likely inhibited oxLDL lipid moieties from trafficking to the lysosomal compartment. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, oxLDL-IC but not oxLDL induced GFP-tagged heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSP70B', which co-localized with the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This suggests that HSP70 family members might prevent the degradation of the internalized lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC by delaying its advancement to the lysosome. The data also showed that mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was increased in U937 cell treated with oxLDL compared to oxLDL-IC.Findings suggest that lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL-IC traffic to separate cellular compartments, and that HSP70/70B' might sequester the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This mechanism could

  18. Beyond Conceptual Knowledge: The Impact of Children’s Theory-of-Mind on Dyadic Spatial Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Karine M. P.; Zambrana, Imac M.; Karevold, Evalill B.; Pons, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that Theory of Mind (ToM) has implications for children’s social competences and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, although it is well documented that children overall take advantage when they have to resolve cognitive problems together with a partner, whether individual difference in ToM is one of the mechanisms that could explain cognitive performances produced in social interaction has received little attention. This study examines to what extent ToM explains children’s spatial performances in a dyadic situation. The sample includes 66 boys and girls between the ages of 5–9 years, who were tested for their ToM and for their competence to resolve a Spatial task involving mental rotation and spatial perspective taking, first individually and then in a dyadic condition. Results showed, in accordance with previous research, that children performed better on the Spatial task when they resolved it with a partner. Specifically, children’s ToM was a better predictor of their spatial performances in the dyadic condition than their age, gender, and spatial performances in the individual setting. The findings are discussed in terms of the relation between having a conceptual understanding of the mind and the practical implications of this knowledge for cognitive performances in social interaction regarding mental rotation and spatial perspective taking. PMID:27812344

  19. The differential impact of microsatellite instability as a marker of prognosis and tumour response between colon cancer and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Pil; Min, Byung So; Kim, Tae Il; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2012-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular phenotype of colorectal cancer related to prognosis and tumour response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. We investigated the differential impact of MSI between colon and rectal cancers as a marker of prognosis and chemotherapeutic response. PCR-based MSI assay was performed on 1125 patients. Six hundred and sixty patients (58.7%) had colon cancer and 465 patients (41.3%) had rectal cancer. Among 1125 patients, 106 (9.4%) had high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) tumours. MSI-H colon cancers (13%) had distinct phenotypes including young age at diagnosis, family history of colorectal cancer, early Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage, proximal location, poor differentiation, and high level of baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), while MSI-H rectal cancers (4.3%) showed similar clinicopathological characteristics to MSS/MSI-L tumours except for family history of colorectal cancer. MSI-H tumours were strongly correlated with longer disease free survival (DFS) (P=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.009) than MSS/MSI-L tumours in colon cancer, while these positive correlations were not observed in rectal cancers. The patients with MSS/MSI-L tumours receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy showed good prognosis (P=0.013), but this positive association was not observed in MSI-H (P=0.104). These results support the use of MSI status as a marker of prognosis and response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with colon cancers. Further study is mandatory to evaluate the precise role of MSI in patients with rectal cancers and the effect of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in MSI-H tumours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  1. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  2. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m.2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3 m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected.3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture.4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  3. The influence of model spatial resolution on simulated ozone and fine particulate matter for Europe: implications for health impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Sara; Doherty, Ruth M.; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Macintyre, Helen L.; O'Connor, Fiona M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the impact of model horizontal resolution on simulated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and the associated health impacts over Europe, using the HadGEM3-UKCA chemistry-climate model to simulate pollutant concentrations at a coarse (˜ 140 km) and a finer (˜ 50 km) resolution. The attributable fraction (AF) of total mortality due to long-term exposure to warm season daily maximum 8 h running mean (MDA8) O3 and annual-average PM2.5 concentrations is then calculated for each European country using pollutant concentrations simulated at each resolution. Our results highlight a seasonal variation in simulated O3 and PM2.5 differences between the two model resolutions in Europe. Compared to the finer resolution results, simulated European O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are higher on average in winter and spring (˜ 10 and ˜ 6 %, respectively). In contrast, simulated O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are lower in summer and autumn (˜ -1 and ˜ -4 %, respectively). These differences may be partly explained by differences in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations simulated at the two resolutions. Compared to O3, we find the opposite seasonality in simulated PM2.5 differences between the two resolutions. In winter and spring, simulated PM2.5 concentrations are lower at the coarse compared to the finer resolution (˜ -8 and ˜ -6 %, respectively) but higher in summer and autumn (˜ 29 and ˜ 8 %, respectively). Simulated PM2.5 values are also mostly related to differences in convective rainfall between the two resolutions for all seasons. These differences between the two resolutions exhibit clear spatial patterns for both pollutants that vary by season, and exert a strong influence on country to country variations in estimated AF for the two resolutions. Warm season MDA8 O3 levels are higher in most of southern Europe, but lower in areas of northern and eastern Europe when

  4. Age-related change in renal corticomedullary differentiation: evaluation with noncontrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRI with spatially selective inversion pulse using variable inversion time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yasufumi; Kanki, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Akira; Higashi, Hiroki; Tanimoto, Daigo; Sato, Tomohiro; Higaki, Atsushi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate age-related change in renal corticomedullary differentiation and renal cortical thickness by means of noncontrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with spatially selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse. The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study and patient informed consent was waived. This study included 48 patients without renal diseases who underwent noncontrast-enhanced SSFP MRI with spatially selective IR pulse using variable inversion times (TIs) (700-1500 msec). The signal intensity of renal cortex and medulla were measured to calculate renal corticomedullary contrast ratio. Additionally, renal cortical thickness was measured. The renal corticomedullary junction was clearly depicted in all patients. The mean cortical thickness was 3.9 ± 0.83 mm. The mean corticomedullary contrast ratio was 4.7 ± 1.4. There was a negative correlation between optimal TI for the best visualization of renal corticomedullary differentiation and age (r = -0.378; P = 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between renal corticomedullary contrast ratio and age (r = 0.187; P = 0.20). Similarly, no significant correlation was observed between renal cortical thickness and age (r = 0.054; P = 0.712). In the normal kidney, noncontrast-enhanced SSFP MRI with spatially selective IR pulse can be used to assess renal corticomedullary differentiation and cortical thickness without the influence of aging, although optimal TI values for the best visualization of renal corticomedullary junction were shortened with aging. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of Non-Idealities System on Spatial Correlation in a Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Carreño, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    MIMO OTA testing methodologies are being intensively investigated by CTIA and 3GPP, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate for future standardized testing. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to reproduce the channel spatial information....... This paper investigates the extent to which we can emulate the channel spatial characteristics inside the test zone where the device under test is located. The focus is on performance deterioration int