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Sample records for sparrows passer domesticus

  1. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  2. The case of the Disappearing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus indicus

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    Anjan Dandapat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fluffy brown sparrows are 15cm in length and distributed all over India up to 4000m in the Himalayas. The disappearance of sparrows has been widely reported in India. The sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh alone had dropped by 80 per cent, and in other states like Kerala, Gujarat and Rajasthan, it had dipped by 20 per cent, while the decline in coastal areas was as sharp as 70 to 80 per cent. But reliable information on sparrow populations is not available. No one is actually counting and keeping a record of the sparrows. The spread of diseases due to decline in sparrow population is an alarming danger. Introduction of unleaded petrol, use of chemically treated seeds, flow of electromagnetic waves from cellphone towers, reducing areas of free growing weeds or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, competition for food by other species etc. are possible reasons for this disappearance. The BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, a UK-based organisation and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS have taken plan for the protection of sparrow population. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 97-100

  3. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): Effects of POPs and male quality signalling.

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    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Polder, Anuschka; Rønning, Bernt; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-03-15

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species. In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4 androgens and 3 estrogens) in male and female adult house sparrows from a population on the island Leka, Norway. Plasma samples were analysed for steroid hormones by GC-MS and liver samples were analysed for environmental contaminants by GC-ECD and GC-MS. In males, we also quantified ornament traits. It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive relationships between dihydrotestosterone levels and PCBs were observed. In males, positive relationships were also found between steroids and beak length, and between steroids and ornamental traits such as total badge size. This was confirmed by a significant OPLS model between beak length and steroids. Although sparrows are in the mid-range trophic levels, the present study indicates that POPs may affect steroid homeostasis in house sparrows, in particular for females. For

  4. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

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    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Variation in MHC genotypes in two populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) with different population histories.

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    Borg, Asa Alexandra; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Jensen, Henrik; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    Small populations are likely to have a low genetic ability for disease resistance due to loss of genetic variation through inbreeding and genetic drift. In vertebrates, the highest genetic diversity of the immune system is located at genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Interestingly, parasite-mediated selection is thought to potentially maintain variation at MHC loci even in populations that are monomorphic at other loci. Therefore, general loss of genetic variation in the genome may not necessarily be associated with low variation at MHC loci. We evaluated inter- and intrapopulation variation in MHC genotypes between an inbred (Aldra) and a relatively outbred population (Hestmannøy) of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a metapopulation at Helgeland, Norway. Genomic (gDNA) and transcribed (cDNA) alleles of functional MHC class I and IIB loci, along with neutral noncoding microsatellite markers, were analyzed to obtain relevant estimates of genetic variation. We found lower allelic richness in microsatellites in the inbred population, but high genetic variation in MHC class I and IIB loci in both populations. This suggests that also the inbred population could be under balancing selection to maintain genetic variation for pathogen resistance.

  6. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

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    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  7. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  8. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

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    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  9. High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

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    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Killpack, Tess L.; Goto, Dylan S.; Rainwater, Ellecia L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

  10. Chronic stress alters concentrations of corticosterone receptors in a tissue-specific manner in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

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    Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2014-07-15

    The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT). Whereas short-term activation of this response helps animals cope with environmental stressors, chronic activation can result in negative effects including metabolic dysregulation and reproductive failure. However, there is no consensus hormonal profile of a chronically stressed animal, suggesting that researchers may need to look beyond hormone titers to interpret the impacts of chronic stress. In this study, we brought wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) into captivity. We then compared glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor concentrations in sparrows exposed either to a standardized chronic stress protocol (n=26) or to standard husbandry conditions (controls; n=20). We used radioligand binding assays to quantify receptors in whole brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, gonads, gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscle, omental and subcutaneous fat, and bib and back skin. In most tissues, CORT receptors did not differ between controls and stressed animals, although we found marginal increases in receptor density in kidney and testes in stressed birds at some time points. Only in pectoralis muscle was there a robust effect of chronic stress, with both receptor types higher in stressed animals. Increased pectoralis sensitivity to CORT with chronic stress may be part of the underlying mechanism for muscle wasting in animals administered exogenous CORT. Furthermore, the change in pectoralis was not paralleled by gastrocnemius receptors. This difference may help explain previous reports of a greater effect of CORT on pectoralis than on other muscle types, and indicate that birds use this muscle as a protein reserve. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Developmental adjustments of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings to diet composition.

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    Brzek, Paweł; Kohl, Kevin; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2009-05-01

    House sparrow nestlings are fed primarily on insects during the first 3 days of their life, and seeds become gradually more important afterwards. We tested whether developmental changes in size and functional capacity of the digestive tract in young house sparrows are genetically hard-wired and independent of diet, or can be modified by food type. Under laboratory conditions, we hand-fed young house sparrows with either a starch-free insect-like diet, based mainly on protein and fat, or a starch-containing diet with a mix of substrates similar to that offered to older nestlings in natural nests when they are gradually weaned from an insect to a seed diet. Patterns of overall development in body size and thermoregulatory ability, and in alimentary organ size increase, were relatively similar in house sparrow nestlings developing on both diets. However, total intestinal maltase activity, important in carbohydrate breakdown, was at least twice as high in house sparrow nestlings fed the starch-containing diet (PFuture studies must test whether the diet-dependent increase in maltase activity during development is irreversible or reversible, reflecting, respectively, a developmental plasticity or a phenotypic flexibility.

  12. Distribution of 14C- labelled methyl parathion in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, P.; Garg, A.K.; Kochhar, V.

    1994-01-01

    The activity of an insecticide when evaluated on dynamic basis is largely explained by differences in the rate of penetration, distribution and excretion. These mechanisms determine the fate of insecticides in the living system. The distribution of an organophosphorus insecticide i.e. 14 C-methyl parathion, based studies conducted on various aspects of it in relation to house sparrow, is presented. 9 refs., 1 fig

  13. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

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    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  14. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2015

  15. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats.

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    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  16. Dynamics of West Nile virus persistence in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus.

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    Sarah S Wheeler

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is now endemic throughout North America, with annual recurrence dependent upon successful overwintering when cold temperatures drive mosquito vectors into inactivity and halt transmission. To investigate whether avian hosts may serve as an overwintering mechanism, groups of eight to ten House Sparrows were experimentally infected with a WN02 genotype of WNV and then held until necropsy at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, or 18 weeks post-infection (pi when they were assessed for the presence of persistent infection. Blood was collected from all remaining birds every two weeks pi, and sera tested for WNV RNA and WNV neutralizing antibodies. West Nile virus RNA was present in the sera of some birds up to 7 weeks pi and all birds retained neutralizing antibodies throughout the experiment. The detection of persistently infected birds decreased with time, from 100% (n = 13 positive at 3 weeks post-infection (pi to 12.5% (n = 8 at 18 weeks pi. Infectious virus was isolated from the spleens of birds necropsied at 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks pi. The current study confirmed previous reports of infectious WNV persistence in avian hosts, and further characterized the temporal nature of these infections. Although these persistent infections supported the hypothesis that infected birds may serve as an overwintering mechanism, mosquito-infectious recrudescent viremias have yet to be demonstrated thereby providing proof of principle.

  17. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

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    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  18. House sparrows' (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner.

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    Tuliozi, Beniamino; Fracasso, Gerardo; Hoi, Herbert; Griggio, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory behaviour is one of the best-investigated behavioural traits. However, little is known about how differences in familiarity, i.e. in the knowledge and previous experience with a companion can influence the exploration of a novel environment. However, to our knowledge, such a critical feature of the social environment has never been the target of a study relating it to exploratory behaviour in birds. Here we examined if familiarity with a conspecific could affect behavioural responses of individuals confronted with a novel environment. We recorded the latency to land on the ground, latency to feed, time spent feeding and number of sectors visited of 48 female and 48 male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) in an indoor aviary in three contexts: alone (individual context), with an unfamiliar and with a familiar same-sex companion. House sparrows landed sooner on the ground when in the familiar context than when in the individual context. Birds in unfamiliar pairs followed each other less than familiar birds, but this difference diminished with time spent exploring. Moreover, males and females differed in their behavioural responses in the unfamiliar context. Females with a familiar companion landed sooner than when they were paired with an unfamiliar conspecific, whereas only the presence of a companion but not familiarity reduced males latency to land on the ground. Finally, when considering the unfamiliar context males had shorter latencies to forage and thus spent more time eating than females. The presence or absence of a companion and its familiarity with the focal individual influenced differently the behavioural responses of male and female house sparrows in a novel environment. As house sparrows are strongly sociable, the influence of the social environment is likely to be of paramount importance to understand the selective pressures acting on them, particularly in recently colonized areas with ephemeral food sources. Our results shed light on

  19. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

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    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  20. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

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    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  1. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

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    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  2. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

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    Lattin, Christine R; Ngai, Heather M; Romero, L Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  3. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

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    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  4. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  6. Characteristics of MHC class I genes in house sparrows Passer domesticus as revealed by long cDNA transcripts and amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-08-01

    In birds the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) organization differs both among and within orders; chickens Gallus gallus of the order Galliformes have a simple arrangement, while many songbirds of the order Passeriformes have a more complex arrangement with larger numbers of MHC class I and II genes. Chicken MHC genes are found at two independent loci, classical MHC-B and non-classical MHC-Y, whereas non-classical MHC genes are yet to be verified in passerines. Here we characterize MHC class I transcripts (α1 to α3 domain) and perform amplicon sequencing using a next-generation sequencing technique on exon 3 from house sparrow Passer domesticus (a passerine) families. Then we use phylogenetic, selection, and segregation analyses to gain a better understanding of the MHC class I organization. Trees based on the α1 and α2 domain revealed a distinct cluster with short terminal branches for transcripts with a 6-bp deletion. Interestingly, this cluster was not seen in the tree based on the α3 domain. 21 exon 3 sequences were verified in a single individual and the average numbers within an individual were nine and five for sequences with and without a 6-bp deletion, respectively. All individuals had exon 3 sequences with and without a 6-bp deletion. The sequences with a 6-bp deletion have many characteristics in common with non-classical MHC, e.g., highly conserved amino acid positions were substituted compared with the other alleles, low nucleotide diversity and just a single site was subject to positive selection. However, these alleles also have characteristics that suggest they could be classical, e.g., complete linkage and absence of a distinct cluster in a tree based on the α3 domain. Thus, we cannot determine for certain whether or not the alleles with a 6-bp deletion are non-classical based on our present data. Further analyses on segregation patterns of these alleles in combination with dating the 6-bp deletion through MHC characterization across the

  7. Cutaneous water loss and the development of the stratum corneum of nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from desert and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation through the skin contributes to more than half of the total water loss in birds. Therefore, we expect the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL) to be crucial for birds, especially those that live in deserts, to maintain a normal state of hydration. Previous studies in adult birds showed that modifications of the lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, were associated with changes in rates of CWL. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of CWL and the lipids of the SC in nestling birds. In this study, we measured CWL and the lipid composition of the SC during development of nestlings from two populations of house sparrows, one from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other from mesic Ohio. We found that desert and mesic nestlings followed different developmental trajectories for CWL. Desert nestlings seemed to make a more frugal use of water than did mesic nestlings. To regulate CWL, nestlings appeared to modify the lipid composition of the SC during ontogeny. Our results also suggest a tighter regulation of CWL in desert nestlings, presumably as a result of the stronger selection pressures to which nestlings are exposed in deserts.

  8. Experimental toxoplasmosis in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Sedlák, K.; Juřicová, Zina; Pavlásek, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 28, c. 4 (1999), s. 363-368 ISSN 0307-9457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/98/0111 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.845, year: 1999 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/cavp/1999/00000028/00000004/art00007

  9. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  10. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  11. A taste for novelty in invading house sparrows, Passer domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn B. Martin; Lisa Fitzgerald

    2005-01-01

    One of the central questions in invasion biology involves why some introductions succeed and others fail. Although several correlates of invasion success have been identified, patterns alone cannot identify the mechanisms underlying the invasion process. Here, we test the hypothesis that one predictor of invasion success, behavioral flexibility, is different between invading and established populations of the same species of bird. We predicted that neophobia (fear of novelty), a surrogate of ...

  12. Antibodies to arboviruses in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Literák, I.; Pinowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2000), s. 213-215 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/96/1059 Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol69/pdf/69_213.pdf

  13. Mass-dependent predation risk as a mechanism for house sparrow declines?

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Ross; Barnett, Phil; Clark, Jacquie; Cresswell, Will

    2005-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) numbers have declined rapidly in both rural and urban habitats across Western Europe over the last 30 years, leading to their inclusion on the UK conservation red list. The decline in farmland has been linked to a reduction in winter survival caused by reduced food supply. This reduction in food supply is associated with agricultural intensification that has led to the loss of seed-rich winter stubble and access to spilt grain. However, urban house sparrows h...

  14. Analysing population numbers of the house sparrow in the Netherlands with a matrix model and suggestions for conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Holtkamp, R.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.; Visser, M.E.; Hemerik, L.

    2006-01-01

    The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), formerly a common bird species, has shown a rapid decline in Western Europe over recent decades. In The Netherlands, its decline is apparent from 1990 onwards. Many causes for this decline have been suggested that all decrease the vital rates, i.e. survival and

  15. Um caso de leucismo em pardal, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 em uma ilha do rio São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p187 O leucismo em aves é uma anomalia genética caracterizada pela ausência total de melanina em algumas ou em todas as penas, porém, ao contrário do albinismo, as outras partes do corpo, tais como olhos, bico e tarsos permanecem com a coloração típica da espécie. O pardal Passer domesticus é uma ave nativa da Europa, Ásia e norte da África e foi introduzido na América do Norte, América do Sul, África do Sul, Austrália e Nova Zelândia. Atualmente, é a espécie de ave com a maior distribuição geográfica. Relatamos, aqui, o registro de um indivíduo leucístico de Passer domesticus na ilha do Rodeadouro, rio São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil.

  16. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, Joachim; Dawson, D. A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierar...

  18. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K.; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds. - Highlights: • We describe radioactive contamination of bird nests after the Fukushima accident. • The amount of radioactive Cs inside the nestboxes increased with the nest weight. • Nest contamination has the potential to amplify effects of radiation on birds. - Radioactive Cs included in the nest materials of birds increased nest contamination levels.

  19. House sparrows benefit from the conservation of white storks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Sparks, Tim H.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    As with many farmland bird species, the house sparrow Passer domesticus is declining in Europe, mainly due to intensification of agriculture reducing nest sites and food supplies. During 2002-2005, we studied the population size and nest site characteristics of house sparrows breeding within white stork Ciconia ciconia nests in a large area of agricultural landscape within western Poland. To explain sparrow density within stork nests, we examined characteristics of white stork nests (position, age, productivity) and the farm type around the nest. House sparrow density was greatest in the longest established (and hence larger) white stork nests located on traditionally managed farms. Two recent changes appear to have adverse effects on house sparrows. The first is the intensification of farming and the second is active management of white stork nests on electric poles to reduce nest size and thus avoid both disruption to the electrical supply and electrocution of white storks. Because the white stork has such a high profile in Poland, there are numerous schemes to conserve and enhance this species. In conclusion, we clearly show that protecting one species can have valuable, although unplanned, benefits to another species of conservation interest, the house sparrow.

  20. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non

  1. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.

  2. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra N Trier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97% and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-09-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients.

  4. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion – ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belkacem, A. A.; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, H.; Canal, D.; LoValvo, M.; Giacalone, G.; Päckert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 15 (2016), s. 5190-5206 ISSN 2045-7758 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Agricultural landscape mosaic * Algeria * breeding phenology * NADH dehydrogenase * nest site choice Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  5. Effects of Fog Oil Smoke on Immune Responses in the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driver, Crystal; Jarrell, Anne; Ollero, Jennifer; Tiller, Brett; Fulton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In response to questions about the effects of military use of fog oil (FO) obscurant smoke, the sensitivity of cell-mediated constituents of the immune system to FO smoke was tested using an avianpox challenge in red-winged blackbirds...

  6. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  8. Prevalence of filarioid nematodes and trypanosomes in American robins and house sparrows, Chicago USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Gabriel L; Anderson, Tavis K; Berry, Garrett E; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P; Crafton, Jeffrey C; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Dolinski, Amanda C; Krebs, Bethany L; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Muzzall, Patrick M; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D

    2013-12-01

    Hosts are commonly infected with a suite of parasites, and interactions among these parasites can affect the size, structure, and behavior of host-parasite communities. As an important step to understanding the significance of co-circulating parasites, we describe prevalence of co-circulating hemoparasites in two important avian amplification hosts for West Nile virus (WNV), the American robin (Turdus migratorius) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus), during the 2010-2011 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Rates of nematode microfilariemia were 1.5% of the robins (n = 70) and 4.2% of the house sparrows (n = 72) collected during the day and 11.1% of the roosting robins (n = 63) and 0% of the house sparrows (n = 11) collected at night. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from these parasites resolved two clades of filarioid nematodes. Microscopy revealed that 18.0% of American robins (n = 133) and 16.9% of house sparrows (n = 83) hosted trypanosomes in the blood. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the 18s rRNA gene revealed that the trypanosomes fall within previously described avian trypanosome clades. These results document hemoparasites in the blood of WNV hosts in a center of endemic WNV transmission, suggesting a potential for direct or indirect interactions with the virus.

  9. Prevalence of filarioid nematodes and trypanosomes in American robins and house sparrows, Chicago USA☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Berry, Garrett E.; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P.; Crafton, Jeffrey C.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Dolinski, Amanda C.; Krebs, Bethany L.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Muzzall, Patrick M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Walker, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are commonly infected with a suite of parasites, and interactions among these parasites can affect the size, structure, and behavior of host–parasite communities. As an important step to understanding the significance of co-circulating parasites, we describe prevalence of co-circulating hemoparasites in two important avian amplification hosts for West Nile virus (WNV), the American robin (Turdus migratorius) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus), during the 2010–2011 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Rates of nematode microfilariemia were 1.5% of the robins (n = 70) and 4.2% of the house sparrows (n = 72) collected during the day and 11.1% of the roosting robins (n = 63) and 0% of the house sparrows (n = 11) collected at night. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from these parasites resolved two clades of filarioid nematodes. Microscopy revealed that 18.0% of American robins (n = 133) and 16.9% of house sparrows (n = 83) hosted trypanosomes in the blood. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the 18s rRNA gene revealed that the trypanosomes fall within previously described avian trypanosome clades. These results document hemoparasites in the blood of WNV hosts in a center of endemic WNV transmission, suggesting a potential for direct or indirect interactions with the virus. PMID:24533314

  10. Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

    2012-04-01

    Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types.

  11. A longitudinal genetic survey identifies temporal shifts in the population structure of Dutch house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousseau, L; Husemann, M; Foppen, R; Vangestel, C; Lens, L

    2016-01-01

    Dutch house sparrow (Passer domesticus) densities dropped by nearly 50% since the early 1980s, and similar collapses in population sizes have been reported across Europe. Whether, and to what extent, such relatively recent demographic changes are accompanied by concomitant shifts in the genetic population structure of this species needs further investigation. Therefore, we here explore temporal shifts in genetic diversity, genetic structure and effective sizes of seven Dutch house sparrow populations. To allow the most powerful statistical inference, historical populations were resampled at identical locations and each individual bird was genotyped using nine polymorphic microsatellites. Although the demographic history was not reflected by a reduction in genetic diversity, levels of genetic differentiation increased over time, and the original, panmictic population (inferred from the museum samples) diverged into two distinct genetic clusters. Reductions in census size were supported by a substantial reduction in effective population size, although to a smaller extent. As most studies of contemporary house sparrow populations have been unable to identify genetic signatures of recent population declines, results of this study underpin the importance of longitudinal genetic surveys to unravel cryptic genetic patterns. PMID:27273323

  12. Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

    2012-09-01

    Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and β-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting.

  13. Development of skin structure and cutaneous water loss in nestling desert house sparrows from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Brandon; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Williams, Joseph B

    2007-06-01

    The outer layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), contains lipids and corneocytes, which together form layers that limit cutaneous water loss (CWL). We examined the development of structure of the SC and CWL in nestling House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) from Saudi Arabia. We measured CWL of nestlings, and characterized development of their epidermis using electron microscopy. We tested two antagonistic hypotheses, that CWL decreases as nestlings age, a response to increased thickness of SC, and an opposite idea that CWL increases as nestlings age even though the number of layers of the SC remains constant. CWL of nestling House Sparrows varied with developmental stages, in a non-linear fashion, but not significantly so. CWL of nestlings averaged 7.31+/-1.5 g H(2)O/(m(2) h), whereas for adults it was 4.95 g/(m(2) h); adult CWL was 67.7% that of nestlings. We found that morphology of the SC did not change linearly with age, but seemed to vary with developmental stage. CWL decreased as the SC thickness increased and as the total thickness of the corneocytes increased. Further, we found that CWL decreased as the thickness of the extracellular space increased, number of corneocytes increased, and proportion of the SC that is extracellular space increased.

  14. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz-Martínez

    Full Text Available Avipoxvirus (APV is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013. Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3% was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2 previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Jorge; Ferraguti, Martina; Figuerola, Jordi; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Williams, Richard Alexander John; Herrera-Dueñas, Amparo; Aguirre, José Ignacio; Soriguer, Ramón; Escudero, Clara; Moens, Michaël André Jean; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Benítez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3%) was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2) previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

  16. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated.We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar.These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  17. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  18. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Range expansion in the Somali Sparrow Passer castanopterus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaliland Plateau back in 1855, is a common and widespread species throughout much of the Horn of Africa ... nominate form occurs in northern Somalia, where it is a common and well established resident in coastal ... assisted passage by ship, rail or truck, it would seem that these factors could have been responsible for ...

  20. Urbanization, Trace Metal Pollution, and Malaria Prevalence in the House Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Coraline; Scheifler, Renaud; Cœurdassier, Michaël; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele; Loiseau, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollution poses a threat for the environment and wildlife. Trace metals (TMs) are known to have negative effects on haematological status, oxidative balance, and reproductive success in birds. These pollutants particularly increase in concentration in industrialized, urbanized and intensive agricultural areas. Pollutants can also interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and, as such, alter the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. Nevertheless, the impact of pollution on infectious diseases has been largely neglected in natural populations of vertebrates. Here, we used a large spatial scale monitoring of 16 house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations to identify environmental variables likely to explain variation in TMs (lead, cadmium, zinc) concentrations in the feathers. In five of these populations, we also studied the potential link between TMs, prevalence of infection with one species of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, and body condition. Our results show that lead concentration is associated with heavily urbanized habitats and that areas with large woodland coverage have higher cadmium and zinc feather concentrations. Our results suggest that lead concentration in the feathers positively correlates with P. relictum prevalence, and that a complex relationship links TM concentrations, infection status, and body condition. This is one of the first studies showing that environmental pollutants are associated with prevalence of an infectious disease in wildlife. The mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown even though it is tempting to suggest that lead could interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system, as shown in other species. We suggest that more effort should be devoted to elucidate the link between pollution and the dynamics of infectious diseases. PMID:23342022

  1. Individual variation in cone photoreceptor density in house sparrows: implications for between-individual differences in visual resolution and chromatic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Amanda L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further tested whether the existing variation could lead to individual differences in two aspects of perception: visual resolution and chromatic contrast. We found consistent between-individual variation in the densities of all five types of avian cones, involved in chromatic and achromatic vision. Using perceptual modeling, we found that this degree of variation translated into significant between-individual differences in visual resolution and the chromatic contrast of a plumage signal that has been associated with mate choice and agonistic interactions. However, there was no evidence for a relationship between individual visual resolution and chromatic contrast. The implication is that some birds may have the sensory potential to perform "better" in certain visual tasks, but not necessarily in both resolution and contrast simultaneously. Overall, our findings (a) highlight the need to consider multiple individuals when characterizing sensory traits of a species, and (b) provide some mechanistic basis for between-individual variation in different behaviors (i.e., animal personalities) and for testing the predictions of several widely accepted hypotheses (e.g., honest signaling).

  2. sparrow-weavers, PJocepasser mahali

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-01-27

    Jan 27, 1987 ... Sparrow-weavers often perched in a tree near fellow group members. .... (1981) showed that Zambian sparrow-weavers avoid tall, densely-matted ... of 3 in intermediate habitat in New Mexico (Stacey. 1979). Population ...

  3. Rhodamine-Injected Eggs to Photographically Identify Small Nest-Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Photographs that clearly disclose avian-nest predators are difficult to obtain, particularly when predators are small and exhibit subtle depredatory behavior. We exposed House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) eggs injected with Rhodamine B dye in camera-monitored ground nests for 12-d periods at 76 sites within mixed-hardwood forest stands in central...

  4. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 201-275 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West-Nile virus * Tick-borne encephalitis * Louping-ill virus * Cache-Valley virus * African-swine-fever * California serogroup virus * Kyasanur-forest-disease * sparrows Passer domesticus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  5. Feeding experience and relative size modify the begging strategies of nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T

    2002-01-01

    The offspring of birds and mammals use a combination of movements and vocalizations, known as hugging, to solicit food from their parents. A widespread interpretation of begging is that it constitutes air honest signal of offspring need. But we know that in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) the

  6. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  7. Environmental Assessment for New Veterinary Clinic at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    English sparrow (Passer domesticus), mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), and red- winged black bird (Agelaius phoeniceus). 3.3.3 Threatened and...addition, airfield safety zones have been established under AICUZ to minimize the number of people who would be injured or killed if an aircraft

  8. Environmental Assessment for Construction of BRAC Infrastructure Upgrades and the Human Performance Wing Complex in the Area B Hilltop District, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    leucocephala), killdeer, English sparrow (Passer domesticus), mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), and red-winged blackbird also are often observed within...people who would be injured or killed if an aircraft crashed. Three safety zones are designated at the end of all active runways: Clear Zone, APZ I

  9. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  10. Biological Assessment of the Effects of the Proposed Revision of the 1996 Management Guidelines for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    on Army installations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation...ob- served. Driver et al. 2003 exposed house sparrow (Passer domesticus) eggs and nestlings to fog oil concentrations up to 450 mg/m3 for 30 minutes...during sensitive periods of embryonic and nestling development. That exposure did not adversely impact hatchability of house sparrow eggs or the

  11. Histochemical Structure of Stomach (Proventriculus and Gizzard in Some Bird Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel DEMİRBAĞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomach samples (proventriculus and gizzard of sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus, crow (Corvus corone and sparrow (Passer domesticus were investigated in this study. In histochemical investigations, strong sulfated mucins were not determined in compound glands of proventriculus, but a little reaction to AB (pH 0.5 in compound glands was observed in proventriculus of sparrow hawk and crow. While weak AB (pH 1.0 (+ character was found in sparrow gizzard, it was found as dense in superficial glands of sparrow hawk. However, it was not observed in crow gizzard. While AF (+ character (sulfated mucins was detected as dense in epithelium and as weak in glands of gizzard of sparrow hawk, this character was not observed in glands of gizzards of crow and sparrow. Any reactivity to Periodic Acid-Shiff (PAS staining was not observed in both epithelium and glands of sparrow proventriculus

  12. Range expansion by Passer montanus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.L.; Roberts, C.P.; Allen, Craig R.; Brown, M.B.; Moulton, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passer montanus became established in a small area of central North America following its introduction in 1870. P. montanus underwent minimal range expansion in the first 100 years following introduction. However, the North American population of P. montanus is now growing in size and expanding in geographic distribution, having expanded approximately 125 km to the north by 1970. We quantify the distance of spread by P. montanus from its introduction site in the greater St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois, USA area, using distributional (presence) data from the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count surveys for the period of 1951 to 2014. Linear regressions of the average annual range center of P. montanus confirmed significant shifts to the north at a rate of 3.3 km/year (P Linear regressions of the linear and angular distance of range center indicates significant northern movement (change in angle of mean range center; P < 0.001) since 1951. Our results quantify the extent of a northward range expansion, and suggesting a probable spread of this species northward.

  13. 78 FR 8588 - Rg Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Consulting, Crown Security, Eastern Automation, EDS(HP), Teksystems, URS Corporation, and B More Industrial... from B More Industrial Services LLC were employed on-site at the Sparrows Point, Maryland location of RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC. The Department has determined that these workers from B More Industrial...

  14. Life-history dependent relationships between body condition and immunity, between immunity indices in male Eurasian tree sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Mo; Sun, Yanfeng; Wu, Wei; Kou, Guanqun; Guo, Lingling; Xing, Danning; Wu, Yuefeng; Li, Dongming; Zhao, Baohua

    2017-08-01

    In free-living animals, recent evidence indicates that innate, and acquired, immunity varies with annual variation in the demand for, and availability of, food resources. However, little is known about how animals adjust the relationships between immunity and body condition, and between innate and acquired immunity to optimize survival over winter and reproductive success during the breeding stage. Here, we measured indices of body condition (size-corrected mass [SCM], and hematocrit [Hct]), constitutive innate immunity (plasma total complement hemolysis activity [CH 50 ]) and acquired immunity (plasma immunoglobulin A [IgA]), plus heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) during the wintering and the breeding stages. We found that birds during the wintering stage had higher IgA levels than those from the breeding stage. Two indices of body condition were both negatively correlated with plasma CH 50 activities, and positively with IgA levels in wintering birds, but this was not the case in the breeding birds. However, there was no correlation between CH 50 activities and IgA levels in both stages. These results suggest that the relationships between body condition and immunity can vary across life-history stage, and there are no correlations between innate and acquired immunity independent of life-history stage, in male Eurasian tree sparrows. Therefore, body condition indices predict immunological state, especially during the non-breeding stage, which can be useful indicators of individual immunocompetences for understanding the variations in innate and acquired immunity in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  16. Reflecting on the Relationship Between Human Beings and Sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Trehan Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Birdman of India, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, was one of the first Indians to conduct a systematic and patterned survey of birds in India. W.S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS had introduced Salim Ali to the beautiful world of the birds. Millard had identified an unusually coloured sparrow that was actually shot by a young Salim Ali with his air gun. This was a yellow-throated sparrow. Following this, Millard showed Salim Ali the Society’s collection of stuffed birds, and this became the beginning of a marvelous journey of exploring the bird kingdom and establishing great landmarks by Salim Ali. The sparrow had transformed Salim Ali’s world. Undoubtedly, his autobiography was later titled ‘The Fall of a Sparrow’. Salim Ali has very carefully noted in his autobiography as to how this yellow-throated sparrow became the turning point in his life that led him into the fascinating world of ornithology. This research contribution is not about the birdman but the bird, which is rapidly vanishing from our vicinity. The reasons for the decline of the sparrow are varied but the fact of the matter is that the natural world around us is rapidly receding. And the decline of the sparrow is an alarm, a warning against the degrading ecosystems, and an alarm against blind-folded urbanisation which is leading to human-induced disasters.

  17. 78 FR 40511 - RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Leased Workers From Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants Llc... Services LLC, Recycling & Treatment Technologies of Baltimore, Llc, and Lafarge North America, Sparrows... leased workers from Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC...

  18. 78 FR 19530 - RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Leased Workers From Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC... Services LLC, and Recycling & Treatment Technologies of Baltimore, LLC Sparrows Point, Maryland; Amended... Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC, Alliance Engineering, Inc...

  19. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  20. Factors associated with arrival densities of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and baird's sparrow (A. bairdii) in the upper great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, John

    2009-01-01

    Although critical to habitat and population management, the proximate cues that birds use to establish territories are largely unknown. Understanding these cues is important for birds, such as many grassland birds, that exhibit high annual variability in population density and make new habitat-selection decisions annually. Identifying the actual cues used is difficult in the field, but the factors associated with the arrival densities of birds can help uncover variables that are involved in or correlated with cues used for selection. During the summers of 2002–2004, we investigated how weather and local vegetation factors were related to arrival densities of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird's Sparrows (A. bairdii) at three locations across North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Spring densities of Grasshopper Sparrows were positively correlated with concurrent May precipitation, whereas densities of Baird's Sparrows were negatively correlated with the previous winter's snowfall. We used a model-selection approach to evaluate the vegetation characteristics associated with arrival densities of birds. Grasshopper Sparrow densities showed a strong negative relationship to woody cover, and Baird's Sparrow densities showed a negative relationship to vegetation height and vegetation density near the ground. Our results provide a first detailed look at habitat and weather associations immediately after arrival in spring and an important first step in uncovering factors that may be involved in habitat selection in two grassland species.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion and Renovation of Dog Kennels, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    leucocephala), killdeer (Charities vociferous), English sparrow (Passer domesticus), mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius...or killed . The project site should be examined daily for snakes, and if any eastern massasaugas are found, all work shall cease and the USFWS shall...airfield safety zones were established under AICUZ to minimize the number of people who would be injured or killed if an aircraft crashed. Three safety

  2. The Behavior and Ecology of Fall Peregrine Falcons at Lummi Bay and Vicinity, Whatcom County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Regulus calendula ) 104. American Robin (Turdus migratorius) 105. Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius) 106. Water Pipit (Anthus spinoletta) 107. Northern...Sparrow (Passer domesticus) 67 Cq n n Ln4 in 0n IV~ Oil xoi CDw q f) D"j4 ( O N r-IN" HI-4 r-1 N O% OD 0% 14 % 4 E4-40 "- Z r4 0D C 00 P-4 CD" NN C4 r4

  3. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Emergency Power Unit Overhaul Complex at Little Mountain Test Annex, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    association with World War II. However, it has been previously mitigated through a memorandum of agreement between the USAF and the Utah SHPO, signed in...goldfinch Carduelis tristis T U * House sparrow Passer domesticus R C *‡ Mountain bluebird Sialia currucoides S U * Northern flicker Colaptes...been mitigated . This information is provided to assist with Section 106 responsibilities as per §36CFR800. If you have questions, please contact me at

  4. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  5. Assessing the role of conspecific attraction in habitat restoration for Henslow's sparrows in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Otis, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of conspecific individuals may provide important cues about habitat quality for territorial songbirds. We tested the ability of a conspecific song playback system to attract Henslow’s sparrows to previously unoccupied restored habitat. We successfully attracted Heslow’s sparrows to 3 of 7 treatment plots using conspecific song playbacks and we found no Henslow’s sparrows in control plots. The addition of social cues using playback systems in restored grassland habitats may aid conservation efforts of Henslow’s sparrows to available habitat.

  6. Section 3. The SPARROW Surface Water-Quality Model: Theory, Application and User Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, G.E.; Hoos, A.B.; Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) is a watershed modeling technique for relating water-quality measurements made at a network of monitoring stations to attributes of the watersheds containing the stations. The core of the model consists of a nonlinear regression equation describing the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and diffuse sources on land to rivers and through the stream and river network. The model predicts contaminant flux, concentration, and yield in streams and has been used to evaluate alternative hypotheses about the important contaminant sources and watershed properties that control transport over large spatial scales. This report provides documentation for the SPARROW modeling technique and computer software to guide users in constructing and applying basic SPARROW models. The documentation gives details of the SPARROW software, including the input data and installation requirements, and guidance in the specification, calibration, and application of basic SPARROW models, as well as descriptions of the model output and its interpretation. The documentation is intended for both researchers and water-resource managers with interest in using the results of existing models and developing and applying new SPARROW models. The documentation of the model is presented in two parts. Part 1 provides a theoretical and practical introduction to SPARROW modeling techniques, which includes a discussion of the objectives, conceptual attributes, and model infrastructure of SPARROW. Part 1 also includes background on the commonly used model specifications and the methods for estimating and evaluating parameters, evaluating model fit, and generating water-quality predictions and measures of uncertainty. Part 2 provides a user's guide to SPARROW, which includes a discussion of the software architecture and details of the model input requirements and output files, graphs, and maps. The text documentation and computer

  7. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    for a number of species, while male differential allocation based on female secondary sexual traits has received less attention. Yet females of many species, among birds in particular, are ornamented. We performed a test of male differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... allocation and are in agreement with previous tests of male differential allocation in rock sparrows....

  8. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antig...

  9. Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R; Pourbabai, Ahmad A; Petri, William A

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities.

  10. Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, P; Dinan, L

    1988-01-01

    The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. ...

  11. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  12. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  13. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  14. Song variation and environmental auditory masking in the grasshopper sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J.; Gill, Douglas E.

    2004-05-01

    Some grassland bird species, in particular grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), sing songs with especially high mean frequencies (7.0-8.0 kHz). Acoustic interference is one potential explanation for the evolution of high frequency vocalizations, particularly in open habitats. We tested predictions from a model of effective auditory communication distances to understand the potential effects of vocal production and environmental auditory masking on vocal behavior and territoriality. Variation in the spectral structure of songs and the size and shape of territories was measured for grasshopper sparrows in typical grassland habitats. Median territory areas were 1629 m2 at a site in the center of the species range in Nebraska, and 1466 m2 at our study site in Maryland, with average territory diameters measuring 20.2 m. Species densities and sound pressure levels also were determined for stridulating insects and other noise sources in the habitat. Based on current models of effective communication distances, known noise levels, and information on hearing abilities, our results suggest that auditory sensitivity and environmental noise could be factors influencing the mean frequency and spatial dynamics of territorial behavior in grassland birds. [Work supported by NIH and the CRFRC.

  15. Model of chromosome associations in Mus domesticus spermatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Berríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial organization of the chromosomes in meiotic nuclei is crucial to our knowledge of the genome's functional regulation, stability and evolution. This study examined the nuclear architecture of Mus domesticus 2n=40 pachytene spermatocytes, analyzing the associations among autosomal bivalents via their Centromere Telomere Complexes (CTC. The study developed a nuclear model in which each CTC was represented as a 3D computer object. The probability of a given combination of associations among CTC was estimated by simulating a random distribution of 19 indistinguishable CTC over n indistinguishable "cells" on the nuclear envelope. The estimated association frequencies resulting from this numerical approach were similar to those obtained by quantifying actual associations in pachytene spermatocyte spreads. The nuclear localization and associations of CTC through the meiotic prophase in well-preserved nuclei were also analyzed. We concluded that throughout the meiotic prophase: 1 the CTC of autosomal bivalents are not randomly distributed in the nuclear space; 2 the CTC associate amongst themselves, probably at random, over a small surface of the nuclear envelope, at the beginning of the meiotic prophase; 3 the initial aggregation of centromere regions occurring in lepto-zygotene likely resolves into several smaller aggregates according to patterns of preferential partitioning; 4 these smaller aggregates spread over the inner face of the nuclear envelope, remaining stable until advanced stages of the meiotic prophase or even until the first meiotic division.

  16. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own...

  17. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  18. Using Cape Sable seaside sparrow distribution data for water management decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis; hereafter sparrow) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, the most diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Marl prairie habitat is shaped by intermediate levels of disturbances such as flooding, drying, and fire, which maintain periphyton production (Gaiser et al. 2011), vegetation composition (Sah et al. 2011), and habitat structure for wildlife (Lockwood et al. 2003). Historically, patches of marl prairie shifted in response to changing climatic conditions,; however, habitat loss and hydrologic alteration have restricted the sparrow’s range and increased their sensitivity to changing hydropatterns. As a result, sparrow numbers have declined as much as 60% range-wide since 1992 (Curnutt et al. 1998, Nott et al. 1998). Currently, the sparrow is restricted to the freshwater prairies of the Everglades National Park (ENP) and Big Cypress Preserve (Lockwood et al. 1997). Because this non-migratory bird is restricted in its range it was among the first species to be listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on March 11, 1967 (Pimm et al. 2000). Now protected by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the sparrow is listed as an endangered species, and the marl prairies that it resides in are listed as critical habitat. Since its designation as an endangered species, federal agencies have a statutory obligation to not jeopardize the survival of the species or modify its critical habitat. However, there are still uncertainties in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding the six existing sparrow subpopulations (Fig. 1) which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity because of their small population size and restricted range. Since Because maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of sparrow subpopulations (Sustainable Ecosystems Institute 2007), emphasis should be on

  19. Crop Depredation by Birds in Deccan Plateau, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Ashokrao Kale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extent of crop depredation in agricultural fields of groundnut, pearl millet, peas, sorghum and sunflower was assessed in Pune, Akola and Amravati, the three productive districts of Maharashtra, India. The study included interviews with the farmers, identification of the bird species responsible for the crop depredation and actual field assessment of damage. The problem of crop depredation is severe for the crops mostly during harvesting season. Most farmers were not satisfied with the conventional bird repelling techniques. A maximum depredation was observed by Sorghum crops by house sparrows Passer domesticus, baya weavers Ploceus philippinus, and rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri, accounting to 52% of the total damage. Blue rock pigeons Columba livia damaged 42% of the peas crop (chick peas and pigeon peas, while house sparrows and baya weaver damaged the groundnut crop by 26% in the sampling plots. House sparrow Passer domesticus and baya weaver Ploceus philippinus damaged the groundnut crop in the sampling plots just after the sowing period. The sustainable solution for reducing crop depredation is a need for the farmers and also such techniques will help avoid direct or indirect effects of use of lethal bird control techniques on bird species.

  20. Evaluation of Felis domesticus allergen I as a possible autoallergen in cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Marinus A.; van Ree, Ronald; Willemse, Ton

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Felis domesticus allergen I (Feld I) in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats. ANIMALS: 7 healthy cats and 6 cats with EGC. PROCEDURE: Epidermis was removed from 4 areas. Rubber stoppers filled with Feld I, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution,

  1. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  2. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  3. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses....

  4. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010. Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1 Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2 Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3 Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663 were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9 and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23. Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315. However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population

  5. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L

    2012-01-01

    Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively) depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg) bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010). Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1) Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2) Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3) Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663) were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9) and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23). Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315). However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population assessments and management for these species.

  6. Chromosomal heterozygosity and fertility in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from Northern Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, H C; Searle, J B

    1998-01-01

    Following the discovery of over 40 Robertsonian (Rb) races of Mus musculus domesticus in Europe and North Africa, the house mouse has been studied extensively as an ideal model to determine the chromosomal changes that may cause or accompany speciation. Current models of chromosomal speciation are based on the assumption that heterozygous individuals have a particularly low fertility, although recent studies indicate otherwise. Despite their importance, fertility estimates for the house mouse...

  7. Female rock sparrows (Petronia petronia), not males, respond differently to simulations of different courtship interaction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    individuals of both sexes have access to a range of mating strategies. We tested whether rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) behave differently after hearing playbacks of vocal interactions simulating a successful courtship as opposed to playback of an unsuccessful courtship. We found no support for our...

  8. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  9. Reading, Laterality, and the Brain: Early Contributions on Reading Disabilities by Sara S. Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Morris, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Although best known for work with children and adults with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, training in speech pathology and a doctorate in clinical psychology and neuropsychology was the foundation for Sara Sparrow's long-term interest in reading disabilities. Her first papers were on dyslexia and laterality, and the…

  10. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation. The Baltimore County Revenue Authority (Dundalk Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek... applicable or necessary. Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and...

  11. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

  12. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  13. Equipment for neutron measurements at VR-1 Sparrow training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolros, Antonin; Huml, Ondrej; Kos, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The VR-1 Sparrow training reactor is the experimental nuclear facility especially employed for education and teaching of students from different technical universities in the Czech Republic and other countries. Since 2005 the uniform all-purpose devices EMK310 have been used for measurement at reactor laboratory with different type of gas filled neutron detectors. The neutron detection system are employed for reactivity measurement, control rod calibration, critical experiment, study of delayed neutrons, study of nuclear reactor dynamics and study of detection systems dead time. The small dimension isotropic detectors are especially used for measurement of thermal neutron flux distribution inside the reactor core. The EMK-310 is a high performance, portable, three-channel fast amplitude analyzer designed for counting applications. It was developed for nuclear applications and made in close co-operation with firm TEMA Ltd. The precise rack eliminates electromagnetic disturbance and contains the control unit and four modules. The modules of high voltage supply and amplifier for gas filled detectors or scintillation probes are used in basic configuration. Software is tailored specifically to the reactor measurement and allows full online control. For applications involving the study of signals that may vary with the time, example study of delayed neutrons or nuclear reactor dynamics, the EMK-310 provides a Multichannel Scaling (MCS) acquisition mode. MCS dwell time can be set from 2 ms. Now, the new generation of digital multichannel analyzers DA310 is introduced. They have similarly attributes as EMK310 but the output information of unipolar signals from detector is more complete. The pipeline A/D converter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) is the hearth of the DA310 device. The resolution is 12 bits (4096 channels); the sample frequency is 80 MHz. The application for the neutron noise analysis is supposed. The correction method for non linearity

  14. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  15. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  16. Experiência de manejo de aves em áreas antrópicas, com a utilização de caixas de madeira como locais para nidificação Experimental birds managment in anthropic areas, using nest-boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nest-boxes for management of cavity nesting birds in anthropic areas can give good results. In November 1987, data collection begun in UNICAMP, Campinas (São Paulo, with the objective of favouring establishment and increase in urban bird communities. The House Wren (Troglodytes aedon Viellot. 1807 and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 used the nest boxes for reproduction. Nests were collected and analysed (weight, used materials, incubation chamber materials, nest form. House Sparrow used thin materials, like straw, paper and plastic, while house wren used heavy materials, like sticks, wire and tabs of soff drink cans. The nest-boxes offered favorable conditions to bird reproduction and protection in disturbed areas, and showed signs of leading to increase in diversity of species, that might use this nest-boxes for reproduction in the future.

  17. Developing a Dynamic SPARROW Water Quality Decision Support System Using NASA Remotely-Sensed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Smith, R. A.; Hoos, A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Alexander, R. B.; Crosson, W. L.; Srikishen, J.; Estes, M., Jr.; Cruise, J.; Al-Hamdan, A.; Ellenburg, W. L., II; Flores, A.; Sanford, W. E.; Zell, W.; Reitz, M.; Miller, M. P.; Journey, C. A.; Befus, K. M.; Swann, R.; Herder, T.; Sherwood, E.; Leverone, J.; Shelton, M.; Smith, E. T.; Anastasiou, C. J.; Seachrist, J.; Hughes, A.; Graves, D.

    2017-12-01

    The USGS Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface water quality modeling system has been widely used for long term, steady state water quality analysis. However, users have increasingly requested a dynamic version of SPARROW that can provide seasonal estimates of nutrients and suspended sediment to receiving waters. The goal of this NASA-funded project is to develop a dynamic decision support system to enhance the southeast SPARROW water quality model and finer-scale dynamic models for selected coastal watersheds through the use of remotely-sensed data and other NASA Land Information System (LIS) products. The spatial and temporal scale of satellite remote sensing products and LIS modeling data make these sources ideal for the purposes of development and operation of the dynamic SPARROW model. Remote sensing products including MODIS vegetation indices, SMAP surface soil moisture, and OMI atmospheric chemistry along with LIS-derived evapotranspiration (ET) and soil temperature and moisture products will be included in model development and operation. MODIS data will also be used to map annual land cover/land use in the study areas and in conjunction with Landsat and Sentinel to identify disturbed areas that might be sources of sediment and increased phosphorus loading through exposure of the bare soil. These data and others constitute the independent variables in a regression analysis whose dependent variables are the water quality constituents total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. Remotely-sensed variables such as vegetation indices and ET can be proxies for nutrient uptake by vegetation; MODIS Leaf Area Index can indicate sources of phosphorus from vegetation; soil moisture and temperature are known to control rates of denitrification; and bare soil areas serve as sources of enhanced nutrient and sediment production. The enhanced SPARROW dynamic models will provide improved tools for end users to manage water

  18. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  19. Parasite prevalence in Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni: Mexican endemic and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Canales-del-Castillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Worthen’s sparrow is an endemic bird of the Mexican Plateau that due to its limited distribution and population size is considered to be endangered, both nationally and globally. In general, species at risk have been, at least historically, under population size and genetic diversity reductions, which are factors that can act together to increase infections risk and susceptibility. Therefore, with the purpose to determine such propensity in this species, we analyzed the intestinal parasitic infection through fecal samples from 11 individuals, and hemoparasites, hematocrit and differential leukocyte quantification from one sample. Results indicated that 91% of the samples had one parasite taxon, with genus Cryptosporidium showing the highest prevalence (64%, followed by Eimeria (55%, and Ascaridia (9%. However, mean values of oocysts/eggs per gram indicated a low parasitic infection. We found no blood parasites, and the white blood cell counts were among reference values for other sparrow species.

  20. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  1. Nest predation, clutch size, and physiological costs of egg production in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Marc Simon

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of nest predation on both clutch size and the physiological cost of egg production using a clutch removal experiment in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), inducing “high nest predation” (HNP) females to produce many replacement clutches compared to “low nest predation” (LNP) females. In a preliminary analysis we investigated the utility of multiple measures to assess “physiological condition”, including inter-correlations between physiological traits, sex d...

  2. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. King

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy. With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern thecontroversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation demonstrates that for the Mi’kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the managementfocusedapproach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems“uncontroversial” in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.

  3. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  4. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  5. White-throated sparrows alter songs differentially in response to chorusing anurans and other background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T

    2014-06-01

    Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-08-18

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  7. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  8. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  9. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  10. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  11. Effects of winter marsh burning on abundance and nesting activity of Louisiana seaside sparrows in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus maritimus fisheri) breed and winter exclusively in brackish and saline marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Many Gulf Coast marshes, particularly in the Chenier Plain of southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, are burned intentionally in fall or winter as part of waterfowl management programs. Fire reportedly has negatively affected two Seaside Sparrow subspecies (A. m. nigrescens and A. m. mirabilis) in Florida, but there is no published information regarding effects of fire on A. m. fisheri. We compared abundance of territorial male Louisiana Seaside Sparrows, number of nesting activity indicators, and vegetation structure in paired burned and unburned plots in Chenier Plain marshes in southwestern Louisiana during the 1996 breeding season (April-July) before experimental winter burns (January 1997) and again during two breeding seasons post-burn (1997-1998). We found that abundance of male sparrows decreased in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but was higher than that of unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. Indicators of nesting activity showed a similar but non-significant pattern in response to burning. Sparrow abundance and nesting activity seemingly are linked to dead vegetation cover, which was lower in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but did not differ from that in unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. We recommend that marsh management plans in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain integrate waterfowl and Seaside Sparrow management by maintaining a mosaic of burned and unburned marshes and allowing vegetation to recover for at least two growing seasons before reburning a marsh.

  12. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  13. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ion transporters for fluid reabsorption in the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J M; Dalponte, M; Janssen, S; Bunick, D; Nakai, M

    2006-10-01

    Testicular fluid is highly condensed during its passage through the epididymal region in the avian species. In the present study, major ion transporters that are responsible for condensation mainly by water resorption in the reproductive tract as identified in the mammalian epididymis were localized within the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymis by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the efferent ductule epithelium expressed sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and that the connecting ductule and epididymal duct epithelia expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and CAII. These data suggest that a model proposed for reabsorption in mammalian efferent ductules can be applied to avian efferent ductules.

  15. Sexual selection and the rodent baculum: an intraspecific study in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Steven A; Khoo, Lin; Stockley, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The rapid divergence of genitalia is a pervasive trend in animal evolution, thought to be due to the action of sexual selection. To test predictions from the sexual selection hypothesis, we here report data on the allometry, variation, plasticity and condition dependence of baculum morphology in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). We find that that baculum size: (a) exhibits no consistent pattern of allometric scaling (baculum size being in most cases unrelated to body size), (b) exhibits low to moderate levels of phenotypic variation, (c) does not exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to differences in perceived levels of sexual competition and (d) exhibits limited evidence of condition dependence. These patterns provide only limited evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis, and no consistent support for any particular sexual selection mechanism; however, more direct measures of how genital morphology influences male fertilization success are required.

  16. Effect of fenitrothion and disulfoton on lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, P.K.; Chopra, Arvind; Ahuja, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic toxicity due to Disulfoton (diethyl S-(2-ehtyl thio) ethyl phosphorothionate) and Fenitrothion (dimethyl P-3-methyl-4 nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) on the lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus) was studied by using 32 P-phosphate, 2- 14 C-acetate and U- 14 C-glucose as precursors. During acute toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids and aerobic oxidation of glucose appear to be inhibited in nervous tissues. However, during chronic toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids is not inhibited. The biosynthesis of phospholipids is depressed in certain tissues due to decreased availability of diglyceride precursors during acute toxicity. During chronic toxicity, the formation of diglyceride from phosphatidic acid appears to be inhibited. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Meillère

    Full Text Available Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability. In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  18. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  19. Perfil hematológico, bioquímico sérico e sorológico de Felis domesticus com lagochilascariose experimental Hematological, serum biochemical and serological profile of Felis domesticus with experimental lagochilascariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Félix de Souza Prudente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o hemograma, diversas proteínas e enzimas séricas ou plasmáticas e a produção de anticorpos específicos em Felis domesticus, experimentalmente infectados por Lagochilascaris minor. Verificou-se nos animais infectados aumento de leucócitos totais, principalmente eosinófilos; queda do número de plaquetas; aumento de aspartato-aminotransferase e alanina-aminotransferase; e principalmente a presença de anticorpos IgG específicos para antígenos do parasita. A reação com extrato bruto de parasitas adultos mostrou-se mais específica, permitindo a discriminação de soros de animais: não infectados, com infecção por outros parasitas, e com lagochilascariose. Esta é a primeira descrição da padronização de uma reação sorológica para diagnóstico da lagochilascariose em Felis domesticus.The present study evaluated the hemogram, different proteins, plasma enzymes, serum enzymes and specific antibody production of Felis domesticus experimentally infected by Lagochilascaris minor. The infected animals were seen to present increased total leukocytes (particularly eosinophils, decreased platelet counts, increased aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase and, especially, the presence of specific IgG antibodies against antigens of the parasite. The reaction with crude extract of adult parasites was shown to be more specific, thereby enabling serum discrimination between the animals: non-infected, infected with other parasites and infected with lagochilascariosis. This is the first description of the standardization of a serological reaction for diagnosing lagochilascariosis in Felis domesticus.

  20. DERMAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN GERIATRIC ROOSTER (Gallus gallus domesticus CARCINOMA DÉRMICO DE CÉLULAS ESCAMOSAS EM GALO (Gallus gallus domesticus GERIÁTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Cisneiros da Costa Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The squamous cell carcinoma is more common the malignant epithelial neoplasm of the domestic mammals, even so occurs descriptions in some species of birds. Between the gallinaceous, this tumor is uncommon and the affected animals are in the majority adult and aged. The cutaneous form corresponds most frequent in birds. The squamous cell carcinoma is highly invasive and of changeable malignancy, depending on its localization. The aim of the present study corresponded to the description of a case of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in geriatric rooster. A gallinaceous (Gallus gallus domesticus, male, 10 years of age, was presented with a cutaneous tumor, of gradual growth. The patient was submitted to the physical examination and front to the joined alterations was opted to the surgical debulking of the neoformation. The collected sample was submitted to the histopathological examination. Clinically was evidenced cutaneous tumor, with crusts, inexact limits and tack to adjacent tissues. The same it was located in the distal part of the left hindlimb. The histopathological examination disclosed a compatible morphologic picture with dermal squamous cell carcinoma, moderately differentiated and infiltrate. Three months of after the surgery, signal of return of the neoplasm was observed.

    KEY WORDS: Cutaneous neoplasm, gallinaceous, squamous cell carcinoma.

    O carcinoma de células escamosas é a neoplasia epitelial maligna mais comum dos mamíferos domésticos, embora ocorram descrições em várias espécies de aves. Entre os galináceos, esse tumor é incomum e os animais afetados são na maioria adultos e idosos. A forma cutânea corresponde à mais frequente em aves. O carcinoma de células escamosas é altamente invasivo e de malignidade variável, dependendo da sua localização. Em virtude do reduzido número de relatos de

  1. Application of SPARROW modeling to understanding contaminant fate and transport from uplands to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott; Garcia, Ana Maria.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variability in contaminant fate and transport is critical to efficient regional water-quality restoration. An approach to capitalize on previously calibrated spatially referenced regression (SPARROW) models to improve the understanding of contaminant fate and transport was developed and applied to the case of nitrogen in the 166,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. A continuous function of four hydrogeologic, soil, and other landscape properties significant (α = 0.10) to nitrogen transport from uplands to streams was evaluated and compared among each of the more than 80,000 individual catchments (mean area, 2.1 km2) in the watershed. Budgets (including inputs, losses or net change in storage in uplands and stream corridors, and delivery to tidal waters) were also estimated for nitrogen applied to these catchments from selected upland sources. Most (81%) of such inputs are removed, retained, or otherwise processed in uplands rather than transported to surface waters. Combining SPARROW results with previous budget estimates suggests 55% of this processing is attributable to denitrification, 23% to crop or timber harvest, and 6% to volatilization. Remaining upland inputs represent a net annual increase in landscape storage in soils or biomass exceeding 10 kg per hectare in some areas. Such insights are important for planning watershed restoration and for improving future watershed models.

  2. Postfledging survival of Grasshopper Sparrows in grasslands managed with fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J.; Miller, James R.; Koford, Rolf R.; Engle, David M.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate estimates of survival after nestlings fledge are needed for population models to be parameterized and population dynamics to be understood during this vulnerable life stage. The period after fledging is the time when chicks learn to fly, forage, and hide from predators. We monitored postfledging survival, causespecific mortality, and movements of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) in grassland managed with fire and grazing. In 2009, we attached radio transmitters to 50 nestlings from 50 different broods and modeled their survival in response to climatic, biological, and ecological variables. There was no effect of treatment on survival. The factor most influencing postfledging survival was age; no other variable was significant. The majority of chicks (74%) died within 3 days of radio-transmitter attachment. We attributed most mortality to mesopredators (48%) and exposure (28%). Fledglings' movements increased rapidly for the first 4 days after they left the nest and were relatively stable for the remaining 10 days we tracked them. On average, fledglings took flight for the first time 4 days after fledging and flew ≥10 m 9 days after fledging. Our data show that the Grasshopper Sparrow's survival rates may be less than most models relying on nest-success estimates predict, and we emphasize the importance of incorporating estimates of survival during the postfledging period in demographic models.

  3. Song sparrows Melospiza melodia have a home-field advantage in defending against sympatric malarial parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Hosts and parasites interact on both evolutionary and ecological timescales. The outcome of these interactions, specifically whether hosts are more resistant to their local parasites (sympatric) than to parasites from another location (allopatric), is likely to affect the spread of infectious disease and the fitness consequences of host dispersal. We conducted a cross-infection experiment to determine whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) have an advantage in dealing with sympatric parasites. We captured birds from two breeding sites 437 km apart, and inoculated them with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) cultured either from their capture site or from the other site. Infection risk was lower for birds exposed to sympatric than to allopatric Plasmodium lineages, suggesting that song sparrows may have a home-field advantage in defending against local parasite strains. This pattern was more pronounced at one capture site than at the other, consistent with mosaic models of host–parasite interactions. Home-field advantage may arise from evolutionary processes, whereby host populations become adapted to their local parasites, and/or from ecological interactions, whereby host individuals develop resistance to the local parasites through previous immune exposure. Our findings suggest that greater susceptibility to novel parasites may represent a fitness consequence of natal dispersal. PMID:27853596

  4. 78 FR 17996 - MCM Rail Services LLC-Petition for Retroactive Exemption-In Sparrows Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35707] MCM Rail Services... regarding a petition for an operation exemption submitted by MCM Rail Services LLC (MCM) regarding 12 miles of rail line in Sparrows Point, Md. (the Line). DATES: MCM's supplemental information is due by April...

  5. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity... revised draft Final General Conformity Determination (GCD) for Pennsylvania to assess the potential air... the above-referenced dockets. In accordance with the General Conformity Regulations under the Code of...

  6. Sparrow nest survival in relation to prescribed fire and woody plant invasion in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert K.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.; Derrig, James L.; Rubin, Cory S.; Kerns, Courtney K.

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is used to reverse invasion by woody vegetation on grasslands, but managers often are uncertain whether influences of shrub and tree reduction outweigh potential effects of fire on nest survival of grassland birds. During the 2001–2003 breeding seasons, we examined relationships of prescribed fire and woody vegetation to nest survival of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) and Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) in mixed-grass prairie at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern North Dakota, USA. We assessed relationships of nest survival to 1) recent fire history, in terms of number of breeding seasons (2, 3, or 4–5) since the last prescribed fire, and 2) prevalence of trees and tall (>1.5 m) shrubs in the landscape and of low (≤1.5 m) shrubs within 5 m of nests. Nest survival of both species exhibited distinct patterns related to age of the nest and day of year, but bore no relationship to fire history. Survival of clay-colored sparrow nests declined as the amount of trees and tall shrubs within 100 m increased, but we found no relationship to suggest nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) as an underlying mechanism. We found little evidence linking nest survival of Savannah sparrow to woody vegetation. Our results suggest that fire can be used to restore northern mixed-grass prairies without adversely affecting nest survival of ≥2 widespread passerine species. Survival of nests of clay-colored sparrow may increase when tall woody cover is reduced by fire. Our data lend support to the use of fire for reducing scattered patches of tall woody cover to enhance survival of nests of ≥1 grassland bird species in northern mixed-grass prairies, but further study is needed that incorporates experimental approaches and assessments of shorter term effects of fire on survival of nests of grassland passerines.

  7. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  8. Cultural variation in savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis, songs: an analysis using the meme concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell

    1998-10-01

    I used the meme concept to investigate patterns of cultural variation among the songs of eight, geographically distinct populations of savannah sparrows. Memes composed of only one syllable were geographically widespread and randomly distributed among populations, but memes of two-, three- and four-syllables became progressively more restricted in their geographical distribution. Thus, the populations were memetically more similar with respect to one-syllable memes and more divergent with respect to larger memes. These results suggest that differences in memetic mutation rates and susceptibility to loss by memetic drift could be sufficient to create the observed pattern of greater divergence among populations for large memes. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. Distribution, habitat and behavior of grasshopper sparrows, Ammodramus savannarum(Passeriformes: Emberizidae in northeastern Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Arguedas-Negrini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During March and April of 1996, I made field observations of the sedentary subspecies of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum cracens, in 600 points of the pine savannas of northeastern Nicaragua. Isolated individuals were found in the humid depressions, but breeding populations were located exclusively in areas that had suffered a recent fire. Territorial behavior varied in intensity apparently as a function of territory size: the most aggressive males were those trying to defend smaller territories in populations close to Miskito villages, where most of the fires occur. In contrast to what is happening in other parts of Central America, the Nicaraguan grasshopper sparrow may be indirectly protected from extinction by the Miskito’s traditional fire practices.En marzo y abril de 1996, llevé a cabo observaciones del semillero colicorto (Ammodramus savannarum cracens en las sabanas de pino del noreste de Nicaragua. Encontré individuos aislados en las depresiones más húmedas, pero las poblaciones en estado reproductivo ocupaban solamente áreas que hubieran sido quemadas recientemente. El comportamiento territorial de las aves parecía estar relacionado al tamaño del territorio: las aves más agresivas defendían territorios relativamente pequeños, cercanos a los poblados miskitos, que es adonde los fuegos se producen con mayor frequencia. Fue notable la ausencia de posibles depredadores en las áreas más abiertas de la savanna. Contrario a lo que sucede en otras partes de Centroamérica, la persistencia de esta ave en las savannas de pino de Nicaragua podría estar asegurada por las tradiciones miskitas en el uso del fuego.

  10. Genes located in a chromosomal inversion are correlated with territorial song in white-throated sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L

    2015-11-01

    The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  12. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J; Grom, A; Csuka, J; Kindlova, L [Poultry Research Institute, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs/sup -1/. After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F/sub 1/ was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000, and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had a linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10/sup -4/.

  13. Nesting behavior of house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for increased wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Davis, S J; Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    Nest building was measured in "active" (housed with access to running wheels) and "sedentary" (without wheel access) mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines selected for 10 generations for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, and from four randombred control lines. Based on previous studies of mice bidirectionally selected for thermoregulatory nest building, it was hypothesized that nest building would show a negative correlated response to selection on wheel-running. Such a response could constrain the evolution of high voluntary activity because nesting has also been shown to be positively genetically correlated with successful production of weaned pups. With wheel access, selected mice of both sexes built significantly smaller nests than did control mice. Without wheel access, selected females also built significantly smaller nests than did control females, but only when body mass was excluded from the statistical model, suggesting that body mass mediated this correlated response to selection. Total distance run and mean running speed on wheels was significantly higher in selected mice than in controls, but no differences in amount of time spent running were measured, indicating a complex cause of the response of nesting to selection for voluntary wheel running.

  14. No evidence for punishment in communally nursing female house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; König, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Punishment is claimed as an important mechanism to stabilise costly cooperation in humans, but its importance in social animals has been questioned recently due to both conceptual considerations and a lack of empirical evidence (only few published studies). We empirically tested whether there is evidence for punishment in communally nursing house mice (Mus musculus domesticus, direct descendants of "wild" animals). Communally breeding females pool their litters and raise all offspring together, indiscriminately caring for own and other offspring. Such a situation resembles a public good and provides scope for exploitation if females vary in their relative contributions to the joint nest (offspring number). We allowed two females to communally breed and conducted removal experiments both in the presence and absence of pups. We aimed to test whether reduced investment by one of the females (induced through separation from the partner and their combined offspring for 4 or 12 hours) leads to increased aggression by the other female after the reunion. We found no evidence for punishment, on the contrary, females increased socio-positive behaviours. The costs of losing a partner in a communally breeding species might be too high and hinder the evolution of punishment. Our findings add to a growing list of examples questioning the role of punishment in cooperating non-human animals and emphasise the importance of empirical testing of its assumptions and predictions.

  15. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, M; Lakritz, J; Halaney, A; Branson, K; Gupta, G D; Kreeger, J; Marsh, A E

    2002-07-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is the parasite most commonly associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Recently, cats (Felis domesticus) have been demonstrated to be an experimental intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona. This study was performed to determine if cats experimentally inoculated with culture-derived S. neurona merozoites develop tissue sarcocysts infectious to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the definitive host of S. neurona. Four cats were inoculated with S. neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites and all developed antibodies reacting to S. neurona merozoite antigens, but tissue sarcocysts were detected in only two cats. Muscle tissues from the experimentally inoculated cats with and without detectable sarcocysts were fed to laboratory-reared opossums. Sporocysts were detected in gastrointestinal (GI) scrapings of one opossum fed experimentally infected feline tissues. The study results suggest that cats can develop tissue cysts following inoculation with culture-derived Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in which the particular isolate was originally derived from a naturally infected cat with tissue sarcocysts. This is in contrast to cats which did not develop tissue cysts when inoculated with S. neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2.

  16. Chromosomal heterozygosity and fertility in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, H C; Searle, J B

    1998-11-01

    Following the discovery of over 40 Robertsonian (Rb) races of Mus musculus domesticus in Europe and North Africa, the house mouse has been studied extensively as an ideal model to determine the chromosomal changes that may cause or accompany speciation. Current models of chromosomal speciation are based on the assumption that heterozygous individuals have a particularly low fertility, although recent studies indicate otherwise. Despite their importance, fertility estimates for the house mouse are incomplete because traditional measurements, such as anaphase I nondisjunction and germ cell death, are rarely estimated in conjunction with litter size. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we have taken advantage of the house mouse hybrid zone in Upper Valtellina (Lombardy, Italy) in which five Rb races interbreed. We present data on the fertility of naturally occurring ("wild-caught") hybrids and of offspring from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice ("laboratory-reared"), using various measurements. Wild-caught mice heterozygous for one fusion were more infertile than predicted from past studies, possibly due to genic hybridity; laboratory-reared heterozygotes carrying seven or eight trivalents at meiosis I and heterozygotes carrying one pentavalent also had low fertilities. These low fertilities are especially significant given the probable occurrence of a reinforcement event in Upper Valtellina.

  17. Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Jarosław; Somel, Mehmet; Lorenc, Anna; Teschke, Meike

    2013-03-01

    Divergence of gene expression is known to contribute to the differentiation and separation of populations and species, although the dynamics of this process in early stages of population divergence remains unclear. We analyzed gene expression differences in three organs (brain, liver, and testis) between two natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus that have been separated for at most 3000 years. We used two different microarray platforms to corroborate the results at a large scale and identified hundreds of genes with significant expression differences between the populations. We find that although the three tissues have similar number of differentially expressed genes, brain and liver have more tissue-specific genes than testis. Most genes show changes in a single tissue only, even when expressed in all tissues, supporting the notion that tissue-specific enhancers act as separable targets of evolution. In terms of functional categories, in brain and to a smaller extent in liver, we find transcription factors and their targets to be particularly variable between populations, similar to previous findings in primates. Testis, however, has a different set of differently expressed genes, both with respect to functional categories and overall correlation with the other tissues, the latter indicating that gene expression divergence of potential importance might be present in other datasets where no differences in fraction of differentially expressed genes were reported. Our results show that a significant amount of gene expression divergence quickly accumulates between allopatric populations.

  18. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  20. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  1. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.; Grom, A.; Csuka, J.; Kindlova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs -1 . After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F 1 was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000 and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10 -4 . (author)

  2. Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002 Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002 parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel’s diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel’s diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.

  3. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  4. Species-Dependent Effects of the Urban Environment on Fatty Acid Composition and Oxidative Stress in Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Isaksson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological impacts of urbanization include the loss of biodiversity and changes in species composition and population densities. However, how the urban environment affects fundamental physiological parameters is largely unknown. Here, we investigated physiological components related to health and nutrition, namely, plasma fatty acids (FA and lipid peroxidation at inter-habitat and interspecific levels. Specifically, we compared four passerine bird species—the great tit (Parus major, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus, and the tree sparrow (P. montanus—from urban and rural environments. Significant interactions between species and habitat were revealed for the majority of the FAs. Interestingly, the observed inter-habitat variation in FAs was frequently in opposite directions when comparing species from the two families (tits, Paridae; sparrows, Passeridae. These patterns suggest that sparrows and tits feed on different food sources, or modulate their FA metabolism differently, across the urban-rural gradient. By using canonical discriminant analyses (CDA, we further demonstrated species-specific signals in FA composition, with misclassification of species being <1% within habitats and <7% between habitats. Finally, the urban-rural FA differences between species and families were manifested in two indices of health. Firstly, urban blue tits had a higher total ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated FA ratio than rural conspecifics, which is believed to increase inflammatory responses. Secondly, urban sparrows of both species showed higher lipid peroxidation indices (indicating a higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation if exposed to pro-oxidants, and consequently, a higher level of lipid peroxidation compared to their rural conspecifics. Collectively, the species- and habitat-specific differences in plasma FA composition, which are linked to nutrition and metabolism, suggest that the urban environment affect tits and

  5. The Influence of Urban Environments on Oxidative Stress Balance: A Case Study on the House Sparrow in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Herrera-Dueñas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The House Sparrow is a globally distributed species and is closely associated with anthropised environments. They are well-adapted to urban life; therefore the decline of their populations in Europe represents an unexpected event that demands an investigation into its causes. Causes that have promoted this decline are not well-known, but one of the highlighted hypotheses is an increase of oxidative stress linked to the toxicity of pollution in urban areas. From an ecophysiological perspective, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, and oxidative balance are considered reliable indicators of environmental stressors such as pollutants. To carry out this study, blood samples were collected from House Sparrows in three different habitats that varied in terms of urbanization degree: urban, suburban, and rural; during the winter and breeding season. According to our results, urban sparrows showed higher levels of oxidative damage and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, but lower antioxidant capacity in comparison with the rural birds; and these differences especially increase during the breeding season. The maintenance of oxidative balance increases in an urban environment in comparison to a rural one; we suggest that the high level of pollution and the poor quality diet linked to urban environments. The breeding season is expected to be particularly challenging for the oxidative balance of urban birds, when the reallocation of resources between self-maintenance and reproduction may be critical due to the scarcity of antioxidants found in urban areas. This study may contribute to determining the causes of the population decrease of House Sparrows in cities.

  6. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  7. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  8. Spatial variability in nutrient transport by HUC8, state, and subbasin based on Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin SPARROW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. With geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and monitored loads throughout the MARB, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) watershed models were constructed specifically for the MARB, which reduced simulation errors from previous models. Based on these models, N loads/yields were highest from the central part (centered over Iowa and Indiana) of the MARB (Corn Belt), and the highest P yields were scattered throughout the MARB. Spatial differences in yields from previous studies resulted from different descriptions of the dominant sources (N yields are highest with crop-oriented agriculture and P yields are highest with crop and animal agriculture and major WWTPs) and different descriptions of downstream transport. Delivered loads/yields from the MARB SPARROW models are used to rank subbasins, states, and eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC8s) by N and P contributions and then rankings are compared with those from other studies. Changes in delivered yields result in an average absolute change of 1.3 (N) and 1.9 (P) places in state ranking and 41 (N) and 69 (P) places in HUC8 ranking from those made with previous national-scale SPARROW models. This information may help managers decide where efforts could have the largest effects (highest ranked areas) and thus reduce hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  10. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: a critique of Sparrow's inclusive definition of the term 'in vitro eugenics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika

    2014-11-01

    Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Lilin (Musa paradisiaca Sebagai Pakan Alternatif Ayam Pedaging (Gallus galus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    utilization (Gallus gallus domesticus has been done. The research aims to find the utilization of candle banana skin as an alternative feed for broilers growth. This research was being used 1-day old broiler. And using competely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 2 repititions this research was being used candles banana skin extract with 0% control 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concentration.the analized was being used variant analysis (ANOVA, it could continu with Least Significent Difference (LSD if there is a difference between the treatments with 95% confidence level. The result of this research show that the best gain of broiler, weight, is using 0% candles banana skin extract 289.04 grams. However, this result of mixing feed between candles banana skin and comercial put highhest in (25% candles banana skin consentration 259.20 grams, (50% 250.92 grams, (75% 251.65 grams whie the lowest result that cousing the death of broiler is in (100% candle banana extract consentration treatment because of high C/N contained. espescially on the high   N-Total cause the decrease of C/N ratio so that there is on mineralization procers on in creasing the feed contained. The conclution is the concentration of the feed given to broilers, it aaffects the low growth average of broilers the feed in 25%- 75% concentrations can consumed by the broilers to increase the weight. Keywords: Broilers, Candles banana skin, Growth and The rate of consumption Cara sitasi: Hidayat, R., Setiawan, A., Nofyan, E. (2016. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Lilin (Musa paradisiaca Sebagai Pakan Alternatif Ayam Pedaging (Gallus galus domesticus. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan,14(1,11-17, doi:10.14710/jil.14.1.11-17

  12. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S Mallory

    Full Text Available Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II. PMID:27469959

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II.

  15. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  16. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Verpeut, Jessica; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Bartell, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  17. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  18. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  19. Regulation of vernal migration in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows: Role of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jonathan H; Furlow, J David; Wingfield, John C; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate timing of migratory behavior is critical for migrant species. For many temperate zone birds in the spring, lengthening photoperiod is the initial cue leading to morphological, physiological and behavior changes that are necessary for vernal migration and breeding. Strong evidence has emerged in recent years linking thyroid hormone signaling to the photoinduction of breeding in birds while more limited information suggest a potential role in the regulation of vernal migration in photoperiodic songbirds. Here we investigate the development and expression of the vernal migratory life history stage in captive Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in a hypothyroidic state, induced by chemical inhibition of thyroid hormone production. To explore possible variations in the effects of the two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, we subsequently performed a thyroid inhibition coupled with replacement therapy. We found that chemical inhibition of thyroid hormones resulted in complete abolishment of mass gain, fattening, and muscle hypertrophy associated with migratory preparation as well as resulting in failure to display nocturnal restlessness behavior. Replacement of thyroxine rescued all of these elements to near control levels while triiodothyronine replacement displayed partial or delayed rescue. Our findings support thyroid hormones as being necessary for the expression of changes in morphology and physiology associated with migration as well as migratory behavior itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Within-species digestive tract flexibility in rufous-collared sparrows and the climatic variability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Karin; Bozinovic, Francisco; Rojas, José M; Sabat, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) states that species are geographically more widespread at higher latitudes because individuals have a broader range of physiological tolerance or phenotypic flexibility as latitude and climatic variability increase. However, it remains unclear to what extent climatic variability or latitude, acting on the phenotype, account for any observed geographical gradient in mean range size. In this study, we analyzed the physiological flexibility within the CVH framework by using an intraspecific population experimental approach. We tested for a positive relationship between digestive-tract flexibility (i.e., morphology and enzyme activities) and latitude and climatic and natural diet variability in populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) captured in desert (27°S), Mediterranean (33°S), and cold-temperate (41°S) sites in Chile. In accordance with the CVH, we observed a positive relationship between the magnitude of digestive-tract flexibility and environmental variability but not latitude. The greatest digestive flexibility was observed in birds at middle latitudes, which experience the most environmental variability (a Mediterranean climate), whereas individuals from the most stable climates (desert and cold-temperate) exhibited little or no digestive-tract flexibility in response to experimental diets. Our findings support the idea that latitudinal gradients in geographical ranges may be strongly affected by the action of regional features, which makes it difficult to find general patterns in the distribution of species.

  1. The determination of neutron energy spectrum in reactor core C1 of reactor VR-1 Sparrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, M. [Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vinsmiro@seznam.cz

    2008-07-15

    This contribution overviews neutron spectrum measurement, which was done on training reactor VR-1 Sparrow with a new nuclear fuel. Former nuclear fuel IRT-3M was changed for current nuclear fuel IRT-4M with lower enrichment of 235U (enrichment was reduced from former 36% to 20%) in terms of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program. Neutron spectrum measurement was obtained by irradiation of activation foils at the end of pipe of rabit system and consecutive deconvolution of obtained saturated activities. Deconvolution was performed by computer iterative code SAND-II with 620 groups' structure. All gamma measurements were performed on Canberra HPGe. Activation foils were chosen according physical and nuclear parameters from the set of certificated foils. The Resulting differential flux at the end of pipe of rabit system agreed well with typical spectrum of light water reactor. Measurement of neutron spectrum has brought better knowledge about new reactor core C1 and improved methodology of activation measurement. (author)

  2. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Begona; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Merino, Ruben; Gomez, Gema; Rivera, Laura; Jose Gonzalez, Maria; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given

  3. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Begona [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bjimenez@iqog.csic.es; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Merino, Ruben [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Gema [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, Laura [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Jose Gonzalez, Maria [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Abad, Esteban [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rivera, Josep [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given.

  4. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  5. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  6. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O timo é um órgão linfático primário que desenvolve sua atividade em organismos jovens. Apesar de sua função ser responsável por mecanismos fundamentais na aquisição das defesas e conseqüentes respostas orgânicas, ela ainda não está totalmente esclarecida, nem tampouco as bases morfológicas que respondem por tais funções, como o processo de desenvolvimento e involução do órgão. Objetivou-se analisar e caracterizar os aspectos morfológicos do timo, tais como seu tamanho e volume, e aspectos histológicos do timo em gatos, correlacionando o sexo e o desenvolvimento etário. Doze timos provenientes de fetos de gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus sem raça definida (SRD, machos e fêmeas, separados em três grupos etários. O timo apresentou-se com uma coloração rosa-pálida e com duas porções, a torácica e a cervical, sendo que cada uma delas possuía um lobo direito e um lobo esquerdo em sua maioria. A porção torácica localizava-se em região de mediastino cranial, entre os pulmões e à base do coração. E a porção cervical estendia-se além das costelas em sentido cranial, estando localizada ventralmente à traqueia. A estrutura celular do timo demonstrou-se organizada com a presença de agregados concêntricos, os chamados corpúsculos tímicos, formados por células epiteliais, sustentada por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo de onde partiam septos que ao penetrar no órgão dividia-o em lóbulos. Ocorreram variações significativas quanto à lobação e as dimensões do timo entre indivíduos da mesma faixa etária, e entre sexos diferentes. Os valores relativos ao comprimento, espessura e largura, de maneira geral, apresentaram aumento, em conformidade ao desenvolvimento dos animais, mas com diferenças entre os sexos.

  7. Immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Fassbinder-Orth

    Full Text Available Invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. These differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. Here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an arbovirus (Buggy Creek virus; Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its ectoparasitic arthropod vector (the swallow bug; Oeciacus vicarius. Swallow bugs parasitize the native, colonially nesting cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that occupies nests in cliff swallow colonies. We measured levels of BCRV-specific and swallow bug-specific IgY levels before nesting (prior to swallow bug exposure and after nesting (after swallow bug exposure in house sparrows and cliff swallows in western Nebraska. Levels of BCRV-specific IgY increased significantly following nesting in the house sparrow but not in the cliff swallow. Additionally, house sparrows displayed consistently higher levels of swallow bug-specific antibodies both before and after nesting compared to cliff swallows. The higher levels of BCRV and swallow bug specific antibodies detected in house sparrows may be reflective of significant differences in both antiviral and anti-ectoparasite immune responses that exist between these two avian species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the macro- and microparasite-specific immune responses of an invasive and a native avian host exposed to the same parasites.

  8. Diversity, loss, and gain of malaria parasites in a globally invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Alfonso; Ricklefs, Robert E; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Albayrak, Tamer; Arriero, Elena; Bonneaud, Camille; Czirják, Gábor A; Ewen, John; Hellgren, Olof; Hořáková, Dita; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Jensen, Henrik; Križanauskienė, Asta; Lima, Marcos R; de Lope, Florentino; Magnussen, Eyðfinn; Martin, Lynn B; Møller, Anders P; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Pap, Péter L; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Sehgal, Ravinder N M; Soler, Manuel; Szöllosi, Eszter; Westerdahl, Helena; Zetindjiev, Pavel; Bensch, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species can displace natives, and thus identifying the traits that make aliens successful is crucial for predicting and preventing biodiversity loss. Pathogens may play an important role in the invasive process, facilitating colonization of their hosts in new continents and islands. According to the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, colonizers may out-compete local native species by bringing with them novel pathogens to which native species are not adapted. In contrast, the Enemy Release Hypothesis suggests that flourishing colonizers are successful because they have left their pathogens behind. To assess the role of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in the global spread of a common invasive bird, we examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites (order Haemosporida, genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) infecting house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We sampled house sparrows (N = 1820) from 58 locations on 6 continents. All the samples were tested using PCR-based methods; blood films from the PCR-positive birds were examined microscopically to identify parasite species. The results show that haemosporidian parasites in the house sparrows' native range are replaced by species from local host-generalist parasite fauna in the alien environments of North and South America. Furthermore, sparrows in colonized regions displayed a lower diversity and prevalence of parasite infections. Because the house sparrow lost its native parasites when colonizing the American continents, the release from these natural enemies may have facilitated its invasion in the last two centuries. Our findings therefore reject the Novel Weapon Hypothesis and are concordant with the Enemy Release Hypothesis.

  9. Diversity, loss, and gain of malaria parasites in a globally invasive bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Marzal

    Full Text Available Invasive species can displace natives, and thus identifying the traits that make aliens successful is crucial for predicting and preventing biodiversity loss. Pathogens may play an important role in the invasive process, facilitating colonization of their hosts in new continents and islands. According to the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, colonizers may out-compete local native species by bringing with them novel pathogens to which native species are not adapted. In contrast, the Enemy Release Hypothesis suggests that flourishing colonizers are successful because they have left their pathogens behind. To assess the role of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites in the global spread of a common invasive bird, we examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites (order Haemosporida, genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infecting house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We sampled house sparrows (N = 1820 from 58 locations on 6 continents. All the samples were tested using PCR-based methods; blood films from the PCR-positive birds were examined microscopically to identify parasite species. The results show that haemosporidian parasites in the house sparrows' native range are replaced by species from local host-generalist parasite fauna in the alien environments of North and South America. Furthermore, sparrows in colonized regions displayed a lower diversity and prevalence of parasite infections. Because the house sparrow lost its native parasites when colonizing the American continents, the release from these natural enemies may have facilitated its invasion in the last two centuries. Our findings therefore reject the Novel Weapon Hypothesis and are concordant with the Enemy Release Hypothesis.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza H1N2 Virus Isolated from a Domestic Sparrow in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Guo, Jie; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel H1N2 avian influenza virus strain, A/Sparrow /Guangxi/GXs-1/2012 (H1N2), isolated from a sparrow in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2012. All of the 8 gene segments (hemagglutinin [HA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], neuraminidase [NA], polymerase acidic [PA], polymerase basic 1 [PB1], and nonstructural [NS] genes) of this natural recombinant virus are attributed to the Eurasian lineage, and phylogenet...

  11. Comparisons of patch-use models for wintering American tree sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory has stimulated numerous theoretical and empirical studies of foraging behavior for >20 years. These models provide a valuable tool for studying the foraging behavior of an organism. As with any other tool, the models are most effective when properly used. For example, to obtain a robust test of a foraging model, Stephens and Krebs (1986) recommend experimental designs in which four questions are answered in the affirmative. First, do the foragers play the same "game" as the model? Sec- ond, are the assumptions of the model met? Third, does the test rule out alternative possibilities? Finally, are the appropriate variables measured? Negative an- swers to any of these questions could invalidate the model and lead to confusion over the usefulness of foraging theory in conducting ecological studies. Gaines (1989) attempted to determine whether American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) foraged by a time (Krebs 1973) or number expectation rule (Gibb 1962), or in a manner consistent with the predictions of Charnov's (1976) marginal value theorem (MVT). Gaines (1989: 118) noted appropriately that field tests of foraging models frequently involve uncontrollable circumstances; thus, it is often difficult to meet the assumptions of the models. Gaines also states (1989: 118) that "violations of the assumptions are also in- formative but do not constitute robust tests of predicted hypotheses," and that "the problem can be avoided by experimental analyses which concurrently test mutually exclusive hypotheses so that alter- native predictions will be eliminated if falsified." There is a problem with this approach because, when major assumptions of models are not satisfied, it is not justifiable to compare a predator's foraging behavior with the model's predictions. I submit that failing to follow the advice offered by Stephens and Krebs (1986) can invalidate tests of foraging models.

  12. Genetic population structure in an equatorial sparrow: roles for culture and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, J E; Fleischer, R C; Danner, R M; Moore, I T

    2017-06-01

    Female preference for local cultural traits has been proposed as a barrier to breeding among animal populations. As such, several studies have found correlations between male bird song dialects and population genetics over relatively large distances. To investigate whether female choice for local dialects could act as a barrier to breeding between nearby and contiguous populations, we tested whether variation in male song dialects explains genetic structure among eight populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Ecuador. Our study sites lay along a transect, and adjacent study sites were separated by approximately 25 km, an order of magnitude less than previously examined for this and most other species. This transect crossed an Andean ridge and through the Quijos River Valley, both of which may be barriers to gene flow. Using a variance partitioning approach, we show that song dialect is important in explaining population genetics, independent of the geographic variables: distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that song acts as a barrier to breeding among populations in close proximity. In addition, songs of contiguous populations differed by the same degree or more than between two populations previously shown to exhibit female preference for local dialect, suggesting that birds from these populations would also breed preferentially with locals. As expected, all geographic variables (distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge) also predicted population genetic structure. Our results have important implications for the understanding whether, and at what spatial scale, culture can affect population divergence. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  15. Physiological alteration, quality of anesthesia and economy of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Deori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus. Materials and Methods: In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% isoflurane with oxygen by endotracheal intubation in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Physiological parameters, viz., cloacal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. The quality of anesthesia was assessed on the basis of induction time, induction behavior, quality of sedation, production of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, palpebral reflex, recovery time, and recovery behavior. The economy of anesthesia was calculated in terms of quantity of isoflurane utilized during 60 min of study. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: There was significant decrease (p<0.01 in physiological parameters such as in cloacal temperature, heart rate and respiration rate in the birds of all the groups from 0 to 60 min. The induction time was 5.83±0.33, 2.37±0.18, and 0.87±0.15 min, respectively, in Groups I, II, and III. Induction behavior was smooth in Group III, whereas mildly stormy in Group II and I. Quality of sedation was excellent in Group III, better in Group II as compared to Group I. Analgesia was moderate in Group III whereas poor in Group II and I. Degree of muscle relaxation was excellent in Group III, whereas good in Group I and II. Palpebral reflexes were absent in all the groups. Recovery time was 15.33±0.84, 18.83±0.94, and 26.50±0.85 in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Recovery behavior was smooth in birds of all the groups

  16. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  17. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  19. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  20. Adaptation to ephemeral habitat may overcome natural barriers and severe habitat fragmentation in a fire-dependent species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A; Brumfield, Robb T; Tucker, James W; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat.

  1. Susceptibility and antibody response of Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) to West Nile virus: A potential amplification host in sagebrush-grassland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.

  2. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  3. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  4. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Soma

    Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  5. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

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    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  6. Proximity to a high traffic road: glucocorticoid and life history consequences for nestling white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, O L; Van Oorschot, B Klaassen; Johnson, E E; Malisch, J L; Breuner, C W

    2011-09-01

    Roads have been associated with decreased reproductive success and biodiversity in avian communities and increased physiological stress in adult birds. Alternatively, roads may also increase food availability and reduce predator pressure. Previous studies have focused on adult birds, but nestlings may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of roads. We examined the effects of proximity to a road on nestling glucocorticoid activity and growth in the mountain white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha). Additionally, we examined several possible indirect factors that may influence nestling corticosterone (CORT) activity secretion in relation to roads. These indirect effects include parental CORT activity, nest-site characteristics, and parental provisioning. And finally, we assessed possible fitness consequences of roads through measures of fledging success. Nestlings near roads had increased CORT activity, elevated at both baseline and stress-induced levels. Surprisingly, these nestlings were also bigger. Generally, greater corticosterone activity is associated with reduced growth. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis matures through the nestling period (as nestlings get larger, HPA-activation is greater). Although much of the variance in CORT responses was explained by body size, nestling CORT responses were higher close to roads after controlling for developmental differences. Indirect effects of roads may be mediated through paternal care. Nestling CORT responses were correlated with paternal CORT responses and paternal provisioning increased near roads. Hence, nestlings near roads may be larger due to increased paternal attentiveness. And finally, nest predation was higher for nests close to the road. Roads have apparent costs for white-crowned sparrow nestlings--increased predation, and apparent benefits--increased size. The elevation in CORT activity seems to reflect both increased size (benefit) and elevation due to road

  7. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

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    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  8. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation and temperature on the biological assimilation and retention of /sup 137/Cs by Acheta domesticus (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, Jr, R I; Herbert, E T

    1971-12-01

    Cesium-137 retention was determined for brown crickets, Acheta domesticus, which had been irradiated with 0, 1000, 2500 and 5000 rad gamma radiation and maintained at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. Parameters examined for temperature and dose effects were (1) per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated into body tissues (p2), (2) rate of isotope passage through the gut (k1) and (3) rate of elimination of assimilated /sup 137/Cs (ks). Increases in temperature and gamma dose resulted in a general decrease in per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated pe day (p2). The first-component elimination coefficient (k1) was not significantly affected (P less than or equal to 0.05) by either temperature or dose changes. Biological elimination coefficients for assimilated /sup 137/Cs (k2) increased with increasing temperature between doses of 0 and 2500 rad. Above 2500 rads however, increases in temperature had no noticeable effects on the rate of assimilated /sup 137/Cs excretion. At higher dose levels, radiation was the dominant factor influencing the parameter k2.

  10. Differences in semen freezability and intracellular ATP content between the rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, M; Berlinguer, F; Pasciu, V; Succu, S; Satta, V; Leoni, G G; Zinellu, A; Muzzeddu, M; Carru, C; Naitana, S

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to compare viability, ATP content, and DNA integrity of rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) fresh and frozen spermatozoa in order to identify factors possibly related to differences in semen freezability. Ejaculates were obtained from March to May by the abdominal massage method from 3 adult roosters and 12 adult Barbary partridges. Semen was frozen with different cryoprotectants using Lake's diluents as a base medium: 1) glycerol 11%; 2) glycerol 11% and trehalose 70 mmol/L; 3) dimethylacetamide (DMA) 6%; 4) DMA 6% and trehalose 70 mmol/L. Both fresh and frozen semen showed a lower viability and higher intracellular ATP concentrations in the Barbary partridge compared with the rooster (P rooster a higher viability was recorded when semen was frozen in glycerol containing media compared to DMA (P rooster DNA fragmentation was higher in DMA ctr medium compared with the other media and with values found in Barbary partridge semen frozen in the same medium (P rooster and the Barbary partridge and the wide variation observed in ATP levels may account for differences in semen freezability between the two species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus ) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris ) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  12. Dynamic changes in parameters of redox balance after mild heat stress in aged laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; De Vos, D; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the metabolic responses of laying hens induced by high temperature at later laying stage, nine 60-wk-old laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were employed in the present study. The hens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 21 d and blood samples were obtained before and at 1, 7, 14 and 21 d of heat exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in blood during heat exposure were estimated by the ex vivo spin-trapping method. Body temperature and plasma concentrations of glucose, urate, creatine kinase (CK), triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), corticosterone (CORT), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), ferric/reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Plasma levels of glucose, CK and CORT were not significantly influenced by heat exposure at any time point. The circulating concentrations of T(3) were decreased while plasma T(4) levels changed in the opposite way. The formation of ROS was significantly augmented by heat exposure in laying hens though the body temperature was not significantly altered. The enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems acted in concert to alleviate the heat stress evoked oxidative damage.

  13. Ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after long-term exposure to nanodiamonds supplied with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    The biosafety of nanoparticles and the potential toxicity of nanopollutants and/or nanowastes are all currently burning issues. The increased use of nanoparticles, including nanodiamonds (ND), entails the real risk of their penetration into food chains, which may result in the contamination of animal and, as a result, human food. Knowledge about changes in the ultrastructure of tissues in organisms that have been exposed to ND is still very limited. The aim of the study was to describe the ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after exposure to different concentrations of ND (0, 20 or 200 μg g(-1) - control, ND20 and ND200 groups, respectively) administered with food over a five-week period. The ultrastructure of the foregut, midgut and hindgut was assessed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A number of changes in the structure of the gut in crickets that had consumed nanodiamond-contaminated food were observed. The epithelium of the midgut and hindgut were clearly damaged by ND, although the foregut was not affected. A positive relationship between the ND concentration in food and the degree of damage to the structure of epithelial cells was observed. Autophagy, especially mitophagy and reticulophagy, was activated in relation to the appearance of ND particles. A putative ND toxicity mechanizm is proposed. Extreme caution should be maintained when using nanodiamonds on a large scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  15. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of illumina MiSeq and 454 amplicon sequencing for genotyping the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in a non-model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Haslina; O'Connor, Emily; Drews, Anna; Burke, Terry; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-28

    High-throughput sequencing enables high-resolution genotyping of extremely duplicated genes. 454 amplicon sequencing (454) has become the standard technique for genotyping the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in non-model organisms. However, illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing (MiSeq), which offers a much higher read depth, is now superseding 454. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the performance of MiSeq in relation to 454 for genotyping MHC class I alleles using a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) dataset with pedigree information. House sparrows provide a good study system for this comparison as their MHC class I genes have been studied previously and, consequently, we had prior expectations concerning the number of alleles per individual. We found that 454 and MiSeq performed equally well in genotyping amplicons with low diversity, i.e. amplicons from individuals that had fewer than 6 alleles. Although there was a higher rate of failure in the 454 dataset in resolving amplicons with higher diversity (6-9 alleles), the same genotypes were identified by both 454 and MiSeq in 98% of cases. We conclude that low diversity amplicons are equally well genotyped using either 454 or MiSeq, but the higher coverage afforded by MiSeq can lead to this approach outperforming 454 in amplicons with higher diversity.

  16. Mourning dove ( Zenaida macroura) wing-whistles may contain threat-related information for con- and hetero-specifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth W.

    2008-10-01

    Distinct acoustic whistles are associated with the wing-beats of many doves, and are especially noticeable when doves ascend from the ground when startled. I thus hypothesized that these sounds may be used by flock-mates as cues of potential danger. To test this hypothesis, I compared the responses of mourning doves ( Zenaida macroura), northern cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis), and house sparrows ( Passer domesticus) to audio playbacks of dove ‘startle wing-whistles’, cardinal alarm calls, dove ‘nonstartle wing-whistles’, and sparrow ‘social chatter’. Following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls, conspecifics and heterospecifics startled and increased vigilance more than after playbacks of other sounds. Also, the latency to return to feeding was greater following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls than following playbacks of other sounds. These results suggest that both conspecifics and heterospecifics may attend to dove wing-whistles in decisions related to antipredator behaviors. Whether the sounds of dove wing-whistles are intentionally produced signals warrants further testing.

  17. Mosquitoes used to draw blood for arbovirus viremia determinations in small vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C Kading

    Full Text Available Serial samples from the same individuals may be required for certain virological studies, however, some small animals cannot easily be blood-sampled. Therefore, we evaluated the use of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes as "biological syringes" to draw blood for virus titer determinations in small vertebrates. Groups of chicks (Gallus gallus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, and house sparrows (Passer domesticus were experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV or Highlands J virus (HJV. In general, good correlation was seen between mosquito- and syringe-derived blood samples at titers ≥5.0 log10 pfu/mL serum as compared with titers 105 pfu/mL serum had mosquito- and syringe-derived titers within one log of each other. Sparrow viremia profiles generated from single mosquito blood meals and syringe were not significantly different (p>0.05. This technique is valuable for assessing the roles of small vertebrates in the ecologies of arboviruses, and could be used in applications beyond virology and infectious diseases, when <10 µL of whole blood is required.

  18. Transgenerational effects enhance specific immune response in a wild passerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mothers transfer diverse compounds to developing embryos that can affect their development and final phenotype (i.e., maternal effects. However, the way such effects modulate offspring phenotype, in particular their immunity, remains unclear. To test the impact of maternal effects on offspring development, we treated wild breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Sevilla, SE Spain with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. Female parents were vaccinated when caring for first broods, eliciting a specific immune response to NDV. The immune response to the same vaccine, and to the PHA inflammatory test were measured in 11-day-old chicks from their following brood. Vaccinated chicks from vaccinated mothers developed a stronger specific response that was related to maternal NDV antibody concentration while rearing their chicks. The chicks’ carotenoid concentration and total antioxidant capacity in blood were negatively related to NDV antibody concentration, whereas no relation with PHA response was found. Specific NDV antibodies could not be detected in 11-day-old control chicks from vaccinated mothers, implying that maternally transmitted antibodies are not directly involved but may promote offspring specific immunity through a priming effect, while other immunity components remain unaffected. Maternally transmitted antibodies in the house sparrow are short-lived, depend on maternal circulation levels and enhance pre-fledging chick specific immunity when exposed to the same pathogens as the mothers.

  19. Science & education: Genetic analysis of winter social structure and social traits in a migratory sparrow & teaching argumentation in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N.

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in wintering populations of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla)---individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. In chapter one I test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. I examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. I found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship---relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower) and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex) and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. Although the complex social structure detected in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not predicted by kinship, genetic variation may play a role in variation of winter social traits. In chapter two, I investigate the genetic causes of variation in fitness-related traits in a winter population of golden-crowned sparrows. Individuals show great variation in morphological and behavioral traits that may play

  20. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

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    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  1. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

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    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  2. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

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    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  3. New Metacentric Populations and Phylogenetic Hypotheses Involving Whole-Arm Reciprocal Translocation in Mus musculus domesticus from Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Capanna, Ernesto; Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Bizzoco, Domenico; Zambigli, Emanuela; Solano, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is characterized by more than 100 metacentric populations, due to the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, together with the standard all-telocentric karyotype (2n = 40). We examined G-banded karyotypes of 18 mice from 10 localities in Sicily and describe 3 new metacentric populations: 'Ragusa Ibla' (IRAG), 2n = 33-36, Rb(2.4), Rb(5.6), Rb(9.16), Rb(13.17); 'Piana degli Albanesi' (IPIA), 2n = 23, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.5), Rb(4.12), Rb(6.11), Rb(7.8), Rb(9.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17); 'Trapani' (ITRA), 2n = 22, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.7), Rb(4.12), Rb(5.9), Rb(6.11), Rb(8.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17). Three mice belonged to the previously reported 'Castelbuono' race (ICAS), 2n = 24, which is very similar to the nearby 'Palermo' (IPAL) race, 2n = 26. Three Rb fusions not yet observed in wild mouse populations were identified: Rb(3.5), Rb(3.7) and Rb(5.9). Rb fusions shared among 4 races (IPIA, IRAG, ICAS, and IPAL) allowed us to describe their potential phylogenetic relationships. We obtained 2 alternative phylogenetic trees. The differences between them are mainly due to various modes of formation of IPIA and ITRA. In the first hypothesis, the specific Rb fusions occurred independently. In the second, those of IRAG originated from those of IPIA via whole-arm reciprocal translocations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

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    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  5. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeremy D; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Bridge, Eli S; Engel, Michael H; Reinking, Dan L; Boyle, W Alice

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44%) of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed "pallid bands") across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum) captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation). We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ (15)N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ (15)N and δ (13)C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25-0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region) would show significantly higher δ (15)N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ (15)N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant within our sample relative to expectations from past cohorts (z

  6. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows

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    Jeremy D. Ross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44% of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed “pallid bands” across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado <8 km to the south of the site. We hypothesized that this stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation. We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ15N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ15N and δ13C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25–0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region would show significantly higher δ15N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ15N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant

  7. Genetic structure and invasion history of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) in Senegal, West Africa: a legacy of colonial and contemporary times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, C; Estoup, A; Hima, M K; Loiseau, A; Tatard, C; Dalecky, A; Bâ, K; Kane, M; Diallo, M; Sow, A; Niang, Y; Piry, S; Berthier, K; Leblois, R; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the genetic make-up and demographic history of invasive populations is critical to understand invasion mechanisms. Commensal rodents are ideal models to study whether complex invasion histories are typical of introductions involving human activities. The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is a major invasive synanthropic rodent originating from South-West Asia. It has been largely studied in Europe and on several remote islands, but the genetic structure and invasion history of this taxon have been little investigated in several continental areas, including West Africa. In this study, we focussed on invasive populations of M. m. domesticus in Senegal. In this focal area for European settlers, the distribution area and invasion spread of the house mouse is documented by decades of data on commensal rodent communities. Genetic variation at one mitochondrial locus and 16 nuclear microsatellite markers was analysed from individuals sampled in 36 sites distributed across the country. A combination of phylogeographic and population genetics methods showed that there was a single introduction event on the northern coast of Senegal, from an exogenous (probably West European) source, followed by a secondary introduction from northern Senegal into a coastal site further south. The geographic locations of these introduction sites were consistent with the colonial history of Senegal. Overall, the marked microsatellite genetic structure observed in Senegal, even between sites located close together, revealed a complex interplay of different demographic processes occurring during house mouse spatial expansion, including sequential founder effects and stratified dispersal due to human transport along major roads.

  8. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5–2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2–16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: 1) ChE resistance threshold, 2) ChE compensation threshold, and 3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  9. White-throated Sparrow Response to Forest Harvesting in North-Central Alberta: Results Not So Clear-Cut?

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    Kevin C. Hannah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of density to measure a species' responses to habitat change remains prevalent despite warnings that relying on such parameters can be misleading. We evaluated whether density was a useful surrogate of habitat quality for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, an apparent habitat generalist, in a recently logged landscape near Calling Lake, Alberta, Canada. We detected significant differences in the territory density of birds among three distinct habitat types: interior forest, forest edges, and recent (4- to 6-yr-old clear-cuts. However, the observed patterns in territory density were not consistent with several indices of habitat quality. We found a consistent and marked gradient for indices such as nesting success (based on a reproductive index, pairing success, and the proportion of territories that successfully fledged young between interior forest sites and clear-cuts. Edge habitats, in which high relative density offset lower reproductive success, represented moderate-quality habitat for this species. Our results suggest that the continued use of density alone, without some measure of habitat quality, is insufficient if not misleading when evaluating response to habitat change. Our results have important implications for understanding the population dynamics of this species, which is often overlooked in population-level studies yet continues to experience long-term population declines over large portions of its breeding range.

  10. Sources and transport of phosphorus to rivers in California and adjacent states, U.S., as determined by SPARROW modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Saleh, Dina

    2015-01-01

    The SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes) model was used to simulate annual phosphorus loads and concentrations in unmonitored stream reaches in California, U.S., and portions of Nevada and Oregon. The model was calibrated using de-trended streamflow and phosphorus concentration data at 80 locations. The model explained 91% of the variability in loads and 51% of the variability in yields for a base year of 2002. Point sources, geological background, and cultivated land were significant sources. Variables used to explain delivery of phosphorus from land to water were precipitation and soil clay content. Aquatic loss of phosphorus was significant in streams of all sizes, with the greatest decay predicted in small- and intermediate-sized streams. Geological sources, including volcanic rocks and shales, were the principal control on concentrations and loads in many regions. Some localized formations such as the Monterey shale of southern California are important sources of phosphorus and may contribute to elevated stream concentrations. Many of the larger point source facilities were located in downstream areas, near the ocean, and do not affect inland streams except for a few locations. Large areas of cultivated land result in phosphorus load increases, but do not necessarily increase the loads above those of geological background in some cases because of local hydrology, which limits the potential of phosphorus transport from land to streams.

  11. Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Reid, Jane M

    2011-11-07

    It is widely hypothesized that the evolution of female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous species reflects indirect genetic benefits to females. However, a critical prediction of this hypothesis, that extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than within-pair young (WPY), has rarely been rigorously tested. We used 18 years of data from free-living song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, to test whether survival through major life-history stages differed between EPY and WPY maternal half-siblings. On average, survival of hatched chicks to independence from parental care and recruitment, and their total lifespan, did not differ significantly between EPY and WPY. However, EPY consistently tended to be less likely to survive, and recruited EPY survived for significantly fewer years than recruited WPY. Furthermore, the survival difference between EPY and WPY was sex-specific; female EPY were less likely to survive to independence and recruitment and lived fewer years than female WPY, whereas male EPY were similarly or slightly more likely to survive and to live more years than male WPY. These data indicate that extra-pair paternity may impose an indirect cost on females via their female offspring and that sex-specific genetic, environmental or maternal effects may shape extra-pair reproduction.

  12. Aspects of the life history of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda: Muspiceidae, parasite of the house mouse (Mus domesticus in Australia

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    Spratt D.M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by

  13. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

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    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  14. Effect of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Addition on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsion Under Various Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, YongJae; Jones, Owen G; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight. The protein solubility of house cricket flour (67 g protein/100 g) was significantly altered depending upon pH (P house cricket flour were found between 0 and 2.10 M NaCl concentration (P > 0.05). The replacement of lean meat/fat portion with house cricket flour within 10% level could fortify protein and some micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) in meat emulsion, without negative impacts on cooking yield and textural properties. Our results suggest that house cricket flour can be used as an effective nonmeat functional ingredient to manufacture emulsified meat products. To better utilize house cricket flour as a food ingredient in wide application, understanding its technological properties in various pH, and ionic strength conditions is a pivotal step. Protein solubility of house cricket flour would be considerably affected by the varying pH and NaCl concentrations of applied conventional foods. In the case of meat emulsion, within 10% lean meat and/or fat portions could be successfully substituted with house cricket flour without detectable adverse impacts on technological properties associated with cooking yield and instrumental analysis of texture. Thus, our findings suggest that house cricket flour possess the necessary physical properties to be used as an alternative nonmeat

  15. Estimates of long-term mean-annual nutrient loads considered for use in SPARROW models of the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States, 2002 base year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, David A.; Benoy, Glenn A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and nutrient concentration data needed to compute nitrogen and phosphorus loads were compiled from Federal, State, Provincial, and local agency databases and also from selected university databases. The nitrogen and phosphorus loads are necessary inputs to Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) models. SPARROW models are a way to estimate the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States. After screening the data, approximately 1,500 sites sampled by 34 agencies were identified as having suitable data for calculating the long-term mean-annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These final sites represent a wide range in watershed sizes, types of nutrient sources, and land-use and watershed characteristics in the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States.

  16. A candidate subspecies discrimination system involving a vomeronasal receptor gene with different alleles fixed in M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus.

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    Robert C Karn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Assortative mating, a potentially efficient prezygotic reproductive barrier, may prevent loss of genetic potential by avoiding the production of unfit hybrids (i.e., because of hybrid infertility or hybrid breakdown that occur at regions of secondary contact between incipient species. In the case of the mouse hybrid zone, where two subspecies of Mus musculus (M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus meet and exchange genes to a limited extent, assortative mating requires a means of subspecies recognition. We based the work reported here on the hypothesis that, if there is a pheromone sufficiently diverged between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus to mediate subspecies recognition, then that process must also require a specific receptor(s, also sufficiently diverged between the subspecies, to receive the signal and elicit an assortative mating response. We studied the mouse V1R genes, which encode a large family of receptors in the vomeronasal organ (VNO, by screening Perlegen SNP data and identified one, Vmn1r67, with 24 fixed SNP differences most of which (15/24 are nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. We observed substantial linkage disequilibrium (LD between Vmn1r67 and Abpa27, a mouse salivary androgen-binding protein gene that encodes a proteinaceous pheromone (ABP capable of mediating assortative mating, perhaps in conjunction with its bound small lipophilic ligand. The LD we observed is likely a case of association rather than residual physical linkage from a very recent selective sweep, because an intervening gene, Vmn1r71, shows significant intra(subspecific polymorphism but no inter(subspecific divergence in its nucleotide sequence. We discuss alternative explanations of these observations, for example that Abpa27 and Vmn1r67 are coevolving as signal and receptor to reinforce subspecies hybridization barriers or that the unusually divergent Vmn1r67 allele was not a product of fast positive

  17. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

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    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  18. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment delivery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not articulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurements, but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from the streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000).This paper reports on recent progress made to address empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model presented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) methodology, first used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in streams and rivers of the United States, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakebill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughout the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources Inventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from the National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996) are

  19. Características do desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, em temperaturas e períodos diferentes de incubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Dias

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, foram incubados ovos nas temperaturas de 34,0ºC, 37,5ºC e 40,0ºC, nos períodos de 48, 72 e 96 horas. Avaliaram-se em 81 embriões o comprimento cefalocaudal, o peso total e 6 características morfológicas, utilizando-se um protocolo referindo o desenvolvimento como padrão, acelerado ou defasado. Os dados relativos ao nível de diferenciação das estruturas embrionárias demonstram que os fatores temperatura e tempo de incubação interagem nos processos de morfogênese.

  20. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's sparrow (Ammodrammus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S; Hofmeister, Erik K; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W

    2014-10-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n=346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2-6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4-10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4-9% and 9-20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n=165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  1. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n = 346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2–6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4–10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4–9% and 9–20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n = 165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  2. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  3. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    ). Conversely, relatively little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment deliv ery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not artic ulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurement s , but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from th e streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000). This paper reports on recent progress made to a ddress empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model pres ented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attr ibutes (SPARROW) methodology, fi rst used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in str eams and rivers of the United Stat es, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakeb ill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughou t the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources I nventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from th e National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army

  4. Oxidative stress in birds along a NOx and urbanisation gradient: An interspecific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmón, Pablo; Stroh, Emilie; Herrera-Dueñas, Amparo; von Post, Maria; Isaksson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules. To date, epidemiological modelling of the predicted association between oxidative stress and NO x exposure has not been performed in wild animals. Here, we address this short-coming, by investigating multiple oxidative stress markers in four common passerine bird species, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tit (Parus major), house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and tree sparrow (Passer montanus), living along a gradient of NO x and urbanisation levels in southern Sweden. First of all, the results revealed that long- and medium-term (one month and one week, respectively) NO x levels were highly correlated with the level of urbanisation. This confirms that the commonly used urbanisation index is a reliable proxy for urban air pollution. Furthermore, in accordance to our prediction, individuals exposed to higher long- and medium-term NO x levels/urbanisation had higher plasma antioxidant capacity. However, only tree sparrows showed higher oxidative damage (protein carbonyls) in relation to NO x levels and this association was absent with urbanisation. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels did not co-vary with NO x /urbanisation. Given that most oxidative stress biomarkers showed strong species-specificity, independent of variation in NO x /urbanisation, the present study highlights the need to study variation in oxidative stress across

  5. Kress indirect dry cooling system, Bethlehem Steel's Coke Plant demonstration at Sparrows Point, Maryland. Volume 2. Appendices G-N. Final report, February 1990-February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossman, A.G.

    1993-05-01

    The report provides an evaluation of the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process. The KIDC process is an innovative system for the handling and cooling of coke produced from a slot type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sparrows Point facility in 1991. The report covers both environmental and operational impacts of the KIDC process. The report, Volume 2, contains appendices G-N. Volume 1, PB93-191302, contains the technical report as well as appendices A-F. Volume 2 contains appendixes on coke quality data, blast furnace balwax model report, KIDC operating cost and maintenance requirements, Kress box thickness readings, KIDC coke discharge temperature, QA/QC program, door leak data, and coal data

  6. Object-Based Classification as an Alternative Approach to the Traditional Pixel-Based Classification to Identify Potential Habitat of the Grasshopper Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Benoît; Labrecque, Sandra; Grenier, Marcelle; Falardeau, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    The traditional method of identifying wildlife habitat distribution over large regions consists of pixel-based classification of satellite images into a suite of habitat classes used to select suitable habitat patches. Object-based classification is a new method that can achieve the same objective based on the segmentation of spectral bands of the image creating homogeneous polygons with regard to spatial or spectral characteristics. The segmentation algorithm does not solely rely on the single pixel value, but also on shape, texture, and pixel spatial continuity. The object-based classification is a knowledge base process where an interpretation key is developed using ground control points and objects are assigned to specific classes according to threshold values of determined spectral and/or spatial attributes. We developed a model using the eCognition software to identify suitable habitats for the Grasshopper Sparrow, a rare and declining species found in southwestern Québec. The model was developed in a region with known breeding sites and applied on other images covering adjacent regions where potential breeding habitats may be present. We were successful in locating potential habitats in areas where dairy farming prevailed but failed in an adjacent region covered by a distinct Landsat scene and dominated by annual crops. We discuss the added value of this method, such as the possibility to use the contextual information associated to objects and the ability to eliminate unsuitable areas in the segmentation and land cover classification processes, as well as technical and logistical constraints. A series of recommendations on the use of this method and on conservation issues of Grasshopper Sparrow habitat is also provided.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Yoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats.

  9. Male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" Robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B M; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    1992-01-01

    Wild male house mice Mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the John o'Groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern Scotland. Meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single Robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. At prophase/metaphase I in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. At pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the position of the centromeres, as a result of nonhomologous pairing of the acrocentrics. This side arm persisted into diplotene. Generally only a single chiasma was formed between each acrocentric and the metacentric. Anaphase I nondisjunction frequencies were estimated as 1.5% for the homozygotes and 2.7% for the heterozygotes. The extent of germ cell death between the pachytene and round spermatid stages was 18% greater in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Our results concur with previous studies which indicate that single Robertsonian heterozygotes in wild house mice have near-normal fertility.

  10. Host subspecific viral strains in European house mice: Murine cytomegalovirus in the Eastern (Mus musculus musculus) and Western house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížková, Dagmar; Baird, Stuart J E; Těšíková, Jana; Voigt, Sebastian; Ľudovít, Ďureje; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2018-06-09

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has been reported from house mice (Mus musculus) worldwide, but only recently from Eastern house mice (M. m. musculus), of particular interest because they form a semi-permeable species barrier in Europe with Western house mice, M. m. domesticus. Here we report genome sequences of EastMCMV (from Eastern mice), and set these in the context of MCMV genomes from genus Mus hosts. We show EastMCMV and WestMCMV are genetically distinct. Phylogeny splitting analyses show a genome wide (94%) pattern consistent with no West-East introgression, the major exception (3.8%) being a genome-terminal region of duplicated genes involved in host immune system evasion. As expected from its function, this is a region of maintenance of ancestral polymorphism: The lack of clear splitting signal cannot be interpreted as evidence of introgression. The EastMCMV genome sequences reported here can therefore serve as a well-described resource for exploration of murid MCMV diversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of vinegar and oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng infusion for “Acriollados” bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiriboga Chuchuca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Farm Santa Inés, belonging to the Technical University of Machala, using 160 bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus , stayed the same as trying to meet the highest standards of management and health, however to cause challenges no vaccines or antibiotic treatment within the farm. The aim was to determine the efficacy of vinegar and infusion of oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus in acriollados bred broilers. The research lasted 42 days, 16 were randomized groups of 10 chickens each, considering 4 treatments (T1 = vinegar, T2 = vinegar + oreganón infusion, T3 = oreganón infusion, T4 = control with 4 replicates each. Balanced administered free of antibiotics, food consumption data and daily treated water were performed, the weights of the birds weekly; stool samples were collected at the start, middle and end of the assay. In conclusion, the field variables did not obtain statistically significant differences in treatment, but in the Microbiology, the T1, T2 and T3 showed efficiencies decrease when compared to T4, but T3 at the end of the research differed from the T1, T2, and T4. Assuming oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus infusion induces a reduction in the number of CFU in both Total Flora and coliforms.

  12. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  13. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  14. Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.

  15. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Females were not more or less closely related to the males they paired with when considering neutral genetic variation. However, males failed to form breeding pairs when they had too few Mhc alleles and when they were too dissimilar from females at Mhc loci (i.e. had no common alleles). Furthermore, pairs did not form at random as Mhc diversity positively correlated in mating pairs. These results suggest that mate choice evolves in response to (i) benefits in terms of parasite resistance acquired from allelic diversity, and (ii) costs associated with the disruption of co-adapted genes. PMID:16600889

  16. Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D L; Reddy, V; Plaga, K

    1999-03-01

    We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.

  17. NMR-Based Identification of Metabolites in Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Avian Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Fariba; Brun, Antonio; Rott, Katherine H; Falco Cobra, Paulo; Tonelli, Marco; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H; Markley, John L

    2017-11-16

    Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1.7 mm cryogenic probe. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this protocol for metabolomics studies, we analyzed the metabolic profile of livers from house sparrow ( Passer domesticus ) nestlings raised on two different diets: livers from 10 nestlings raised on a high protein diet (HP) for 4 d and livers from 12 nestlings raised on the HP diet for 3 d and then switched to a high carbohydrate diet (HC) for 1 d. The protocol enabled the detection of 52 polar and nine non-polar metabolites in ¹H NMR spectra of the extracts. We analyzed the lipophilic metabolites by one-way ANOVA to assess statistically significant concentration differences between the two groups. The results of our studies demonstrate that the protocol described here can be exploited for high-throughput screening of small quantities of liver tissue (approx. 100 mg wet mass) obtainable from small animals.

  18. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  19. The diet of wintering Barn Owls (Tyto alba in the region of Histria, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

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    SÁNDOR D. Attila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Barn Owl (Tyto alba is a common nocturnal predator of agro-ecosystems and it is widely distributed, especially in European countryside. The species uses human artifacts, ruins, barns, attics, towers for breeding and roosting, these sites can provide researchers with hundreds of pellets, thus its diet is well known. A first assessment of the diet and food selection was made for the southern part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in the wintering period, in a unique wetland-grassland complex, with large areas of steppes. Mammals dominated the diet spectrum, with the shrews (Soricidae being the most frequent (48.3%, followed by the mice (Muridae, and the voles (Arvicolinae. The mammalian component of the diet is important also in terms of biomass (97.8 %. The most valuable species is the Sibling Vole (Microtus epiroticus equalling 25.5 % of all biomass consumed, followed by the Common White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens and the Mound-building Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Birds and amphibians made up a small portion of the diet, both in terms of occurrence and of biomass. Three species of birds were captured, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus being the most important. The results suggest that the Barn Owl is a specialized feeder relying on small mammals and completing its diet with other prey only occasionally.

  20. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  1. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  2. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  3. Urban Bird Feeders Dominated by a Few Species and Individuals

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    Josie A. Galbraith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The practice of garden bird feeding is a global phenomenon, involving millions of people and vast quantities of food annually. Many people engage in the practice of feeding assuming that birds gain some benefit from the food they provide, yet recent studies have revealed the potential for detrimental impacts as well. However, there is still a paucity of information on the impacts of feeding, including the ubiquity of these impacts among and within feeder-visiting species. Consistency in feeder use among birds is likely an important determinant of this. Individual birds and species that make frequent use of feeders are more likely to experience both the benefits and detrimental impacts of supplementary food. We investigated patterns of feeder use by garden birds visiting experimental feeding stations in Auckland, New Zealand, with the specific aim of determining whether use of supplementary food was consistent or variable among individuals and species. We used camera traps as well as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology to examine intra- and interspecific feeder visitation patterns and to discern species associations. Eleven bird species were detected using feeding stations, however, two introduced species (house sparrow Passer domesticus and spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis dominated visitation events. These species were present at feeders most frequently, with the largest conspecific group sizes. Significant associations were detected among a number of species, suggesting interspecific interactions are important in determining feeder use. We also found within-species differences in feeder use for all focal species, with individual variation greatest in house sparrows. Furthermore, season had an important influence on most visitation parameters. The observed individual and species-specific differences in supplementary food resource use imply that the impacts of garden bird feeding are not universal. Crucially, particularly given

  4. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  5. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

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    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  6. Potential of pest regulation by insectivorous birds in Mediterranean woody crops.

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    José M Rey Benayas

    Full Text Available Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016. At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated. Nesting of insectivorous birds, chiefly Great tit (Parus major, and sparrows (Passer domesticus and P. montanus increased over time, averaging 60% per field site in the vineyard and fruit orchards by the fourth year. Use of nest boxes by sparrows and by Garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus was high at the fruit orchards (70% and the vineyard (30%, respectively. Micro-habitat characteristics (nest box level and meso-habitat characteristics (patch level strongly affected use of nest boxes and bird breeding (i.e. number of laid eggs and produced chicks in different years. Distance to natural or semi-natural vegetation did not consistently affect bird breeding, nor did we see consistent evidence of competition between adjacent breeding birds. Predation rates of sentinel caterpillars were approximately one-third higher near boxes with nesting birds (31.51 ± 43.13% than at paired distant areas without nest boxes (22.45% ± 38.58%. Food consumption by insectivorous birds per ha and breeding season were conservatively estimated to range from 0.02 kg in one fruit orchard to 0.15 kg in the vineyard. We conclude that installation of nest boxes in Mediterranean woody crops enhances populations of insectivorous birds that regulate pests, but that the effects are moderate and

  7. Presence and persistence of a highly ordered lipid phase state in the avian stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Pigg, Victoria A; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2018-06-07

    To survive high temperatures in a terrestrial environment, animals must effectively balance evaporative heat loss and water conservation. In passerine birds, cutaneous water loss (CWL) is the primary avenue of water loss at thermoneutral temperatures and increases slightly as ambient temperature increases, indicating a change in the permeability of the skin. In the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, lipids arranged in layers called lamellae serve as the primary barrier to CWL in birds. The permeability of these lamellae depends in large part on the ability of lipid molecules to pack closely together in an ordered orthorhombic phase state. However, as temperature increases, lipids of the SC become more disordered, and may pack in more permeable hexagonal or liquid crystalline phase states. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the phase state of lipids in the SC of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) at skin temperatures ranging from 25 to 50°C. As temperature increased, lipids became slightly more disordered, but remained predominantly in the orthorhombic phase, consistent with the small increase in CWL observed in house sparrows as ambient temperature increases. These results differ considerably from studies on mammalian SC, which find a predominantly hexagonal arrangement of lipids at temperatures above 37°C, and the increased order in avian SC may be explained by longer lipid chain length, scarcity of cholesterol and the presence of cerebrosides. Our results lend further insight into the arrangement and packing of individual lipid molecules in avian SC. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

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    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  9. Characterization and discrimination of Taihe black-boned silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) muscles using LC/MS-based lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Si; Shang, Ke; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Fan, Yu-Qing; Wang, Hang

    2018-07-01

    Taihe black-boned silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) has a history of over 2200 years of being consumed as a curative food in China. In this work, an LC/MS-based lipidomics approach was employed to investigate the characteristic lipid composition of Taihe black-boned silky fowls from different ages and genders as well as from different carcass parts. Data were processed using an orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and one-way analysis of variance. A total of 1127 lipids were detected in Taihe black-boned silky fowl muscles. Among them, 88, 11 and 1 lipid species were found to have both a variable influence on a projection value >1 and a p-value smaller than 0.05 between different age, gender and part groups. These results illustrate that the influence of the 3 investigated factors on the lipid profiles of Taihe black-boned silky fowl decreased in the order of age > gender > part. Lipid profile differences will facilitate a better understanding of the curative properties of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. Taihe and crossbred black-boned silky fowls were compared in terms of their lipid compositions based on the same strategy. The results showed that the two groups were able to discriminate from each other effectively. 47 lipid compounds were determined to be potential markers for the authentication of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. This work demonstrates the successful application of lipidomics for lipid profiling in food raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-02-20

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent's nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of hexavalent

  11. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n 26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Robertsonian (RB) chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes. In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome. The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of

  12. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

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    Soledad Berríos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation

  13. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

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    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  14. Passer de la connaissance à l'action pour résoudre des problèmes complexes : aperçu de l'examen de neuf cas internationaux

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    B. L. Riley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: La résolution de problèmes complexes du type de la prévention des maladies chroniques présente des défis particuliers pour la création et le transfert de connaissances, soit le passage de la connaissance à l'action (PCA. Les approches axées sur le PCA respectant les principes de la pensée systémique sont jugées prometteuses,mais les stratégies pour les mettre en place ne sont pas bien comprises. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d'une analyse de plusieurs approches systémiques axées sur le PCA dans le but de déterminer comment optimiser leur mise en œuvre et leur efficacité. Méthodologie: Un groupe consultatif de cinq personnes a choisi neuf initiatives représentant une diversité d'enjeux et de formes organisationnelles. Pour chaque cas, l'information a été recueillie à partir de documents et par l'entremise d'entrevues téléphoniques avec des personnes-ressources de chaque organisation. Aprés la vérification des descriptions de cas, une analyse inductive a été effectuée à la fois pour chaque cas et entre les cas. Résultats: Ces cas ont révélé cinq lignes directrices permettant de passer de la conception de systémes de PCA à leur mise en œuvre : établir et entretenir des relations, coproduire et organiser les connaissances, créer des boucles de rétroaction, les encadrer comme des interventions systémiques plutôt que comme des projets et envisager des variations dans le temps et selon les lieux. Conclusion: Les résultats de cette analyse contextuelle constituent un départ modeste pour transformer en résultats concrets les concepts systémiques de PCA. L'utilisation des stratégies mises au jour pourrait améliorer le PCA pour la résolution de problèmes complexes en matière de santé publique. Les stratégies elles-mêmes pourront bénéficier de l'évolution d'une science visant à comprendre l'adaptation et l'apprentissage constant des politiques et des interventions

  15. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  16. Integrating evolutionary and functional tests of adaptive hypotheses: a case study of altitudinal differentiation in hemoglobin function in an Andean Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviron, Zachary A; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Eddy, Douglas K; Jones, Jennifer; Carling, Matthew D; Witt, Christopher C; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F

    2014-11-01

    In air-breathing vertebrates, the physiologically optimal blood-O2 affinity is jointly determined by the prevailing partial pressure of atmospheric O2, the efficacy of pulmonary O2 transfer, and internal metabolic demands. Consequently, genetic variation in the oxygenation properties of hemoglobin (Hb) may be subject to spatially varying selection in species with broad elevational distributions. Here we report the results of a combined functional and evolutionary analysis of Hb polymorphism in the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis), a species that is continuously distributed across a steep elevational gradient on the Pacific slope of the Peruvian Andes. We integrated a population genomic analysis that included all postnatally expressed Hb genes with functional studies of naturally occurring Hb variants, as well as recombinant Hb (rHb) mutants that were engineered through site-directed mutagenesis. We identified three clinally varying amino acid polymorphisms: Two in the α(A)-globin gene, which encodes the α-chain subunits of the major HbA isoform, and one in the α(D)-globin gene, which encodes the α-chain subunits of the minor HbD isoform. We then constructed and experimentally tested single- and double-mutant rHbs representing each of the alternative α(A)-globin genotypes that predominate at different elevations. Although the locus-specific patterns of altitudinal differentiation suggested a history of spatially varying selection acting on Hb polymorphism, the experimental tests demonstrated that the observed amino acid mutations have no discernible effect on respiratory properties of the HbA or HbD isoforms. These results highlight the importance of experimentally validating the hypothesized effects of genetic changes in protein function to avoid the pitfalls of adaptive storytelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  17. Contrasting seasonal and aseasonal environments across stages of the annual cycle in the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis: differences in endocrine function, proteome, and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Echeverria, Valentina; Estades, Cristian F; Perez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Sabat, Pablo; Li, Jonathon; Kültz, Dietmar; Wingfield, John C

    2018-05-09

    1.The timing and duration of life history stages (LHS) within the annual cycle can be affected by local environmental cues which are integrated through endocrine signaling mechanisms and changes in protein function. Most animals express a single LHS within a given period of the year because synchronous expression of LHSs is thought to be too costly energetically. However, in very rare and extremely stable conditions, breeding and molt have been observed to overlap extensively in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) living in valleys of the Atacama Desert - one of the most stable and aseasonal environments on Earth. 2.To examine how LHS traits at different levels of organization are affected by environmental variability we compared the temporal organization and duration of LHSs in populations in the Atacama Desert with those in the semiarid Fray Jorge National Park in the north of Chile - an extremely seasonal climate but with unpredictable droughts and heavy rainy seasons. 3.We studied the effects of environmental variability on morphological variables related to body condition, endocrine traits, and proteome. Birds living in the seasonal environment had a strict temporal division LHSs while birds living in the aseasonal environment failed to maintain a temporal division of LHSs resulting in direct overlap of breeding and molt. Further, higher circulating glucocorticoids and androgen concentrations were found in birds from seasonal compared to aseasonal populations. Despite these differences, body condition variables and protein expression were not related to the degree of seasonality but rather showed a strong relationship with hormone levels. 4.These results suggest that animals adjust to their environment through changes in behavioral and endocrine traits and may be limited by less labile traits such as morphological variables or expression of specific proteins under certain circumstances. These data on free-living birds shed light on how different

  18. Effects of short-term fasting on stress physiology, body condition, and locomotor activity in wintering male white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C

    2017-08-01

    For wild free-living animals the availability of food resources can be greatly affected by environmental perturbations such as weather events. In response to environmental perturbations, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to adjust physiology and behavior. The literature asserts that during weather events food intake declines leading to changes in HPA axis activity, as measured by both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid concentrations. Here we investigated how body condition, locomotor activity, and stress physiology were affected by varying lengths of a fast (1, 2, 6, and 24h; similar to that experienced by free-living birds) compared to when food was provided ad libitum in captive wintering male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, exposed to a short day photoperiod. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were increased for all fasting durations but were highest in 6 and 24h fasted birds. Stress-induced corticosterone was elevated in 1h fasted birds with a trend for the 2h of fast; no other differences were found. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were negatively related to both total fat scores and body mass. All birds lost body mass regardless of fast length but birds fasted for 24h lost the most. Fat scores declined in the 6 and 24h groups, and no measureable changes were detected in pectoralis muscle profile. Locomotor activity was increased over the entire period in which food was removed regardless of fasting duration. Together this suggests that reduced food availability is responsible, at least in part, for the rapid elevation both baseline corticosterone under any duration of fast and stress-induced concentrations during short-term fasts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. White-crowned sparrow males show immediate flexibility in song amplitude but not in song minimum frequency in response to changes in noise levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A

    2017-07-01

    The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.

  20. Apparent dissociation of photoperiodic time measurement between vernal migration and breeding under dim green light conditions in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

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    Gang WANG, Marilyn RAMENOFSKY, John C. WINGFIELD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In seasonally breeding birds, the annual cycle of photoperiod is a principal environmental cue for temporal arrangement of different life-history stages, such as migration and breeding. In the past, most research has focused on the mechanisms of photoperiodic control of breeding with less attention paid to migration. In Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (GWCS, photoreceptors for induction of breeding are known to reside in the basal hypothalamus. However, it is unknown whether the sites of photoperiodic reception for vernal migration are the same as those for breeding. Therefore, we hypothesized that they may be controlled separately. In this study, we exposed photosensitive GWCSs to low-penetration green light (wavelength at 510 nm under a regime of 1 lux during the day and <0.1 lux at night, and switched the photoperiodic conditions from short day (10 h daytime to long day (18 h daytime. The results showed that the experimental birds developed traits associated with vernal migration including mass increase, fat deposition and migratory restlessness behavior when transferred from short day to long day green light cycles, while control birds maintained continuously on short day green light conditions did not express any migration related characteristics. Neither experimental nor control groups showed gonadal recrudescence under either green light cycles. In support of our hypothesis, we were able to apparently dissociate the photoperiodic responses regulating vernal migration and breeding, which suggests separate mechanisms of photoperiodic time measurement. Such distinct photoperiodic mechanisms may drive the fine-tuned temporal arrangement of the two life history stages [Current Zoology 59 (3: 349–359, 2013].

  1. Tramadol ou butorfanol: modelo analgésico pós osteossíntese experimental de úmero em galos ( Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Felipe Comassetto

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O tramadol é um fármaco opioide amplamente utilizado em medicina veterinária, porém seu uso e eficácia analgésica pós-cirúrgica não foi investigado em aves. Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do tramadol ou butorfanol em galos submetidos à ostessíntese de úmero. Foram utilizados 12 galos (Gallus gallus domesticus, os quais foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo tramadol (GT que recebeu como medicação pré anestésica (MPA 5mg.Kg-1 de tramadol e o grupo butorfanol (GB que recebeu como MPA 1mg.kg-1 de butorfanol, ambos pela via intramuscular. Em seguida a indução ocorreu com a administração do agente anestésico inalatório, isoflurano 3V% e a manutenção anestésica com o mesmo agente 1,3 V%. Avaliaram-se a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f e temperatura corporal (TC. As avaliações foram realizadas: antes da MPA (M0; 15 minutos após MPA (M1; após indução anestésica (M2 e em diferentes momentos cirúrgicos (M3, M4, M5 e M6. A analgesia pós-operatória foi avaliada através da escala adaptada de dor em aves por dois avaliadores cegos aos tratamentos nos momentos: basal, e 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas pós-operatórias; sendo o resgate analgésico realizado quando uma pontuação maior ou igual a seis pontos de um total de 24 fosse observada. Observou-se redução da FC, f e da TC entre os momentos M2 e M6 em relação ao momento basal em ambos os grupos, sendo que no GB períodos de apneia foram observados entre M2 e M6, e entre grupos valores maiores na f no GT foram observados no momento M5 em relação ao GB. Houve diminuição da PAS apenas no momento M3 em relação ao momento basal no grupo GT. No pós-operatório apenas um animal do GT necessitou resgate analgésico observando-se pontuação maior no GT entre M1 e M8 e no GB entre M1 e M12 em relação ao momento basal, e entre grupos apenas T12 foi maior em GB quando comparado ao GT

  2. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P Derryberry

    Full Text Available Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively, so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency

  3. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Lipshutz, Sara E; Gentry, Katherine; Luther, David A

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively), so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency limit of hearing

  4. Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, C K; Granstrom, D E; Gajadhar, A A; Williams, N M; McCrillis, S A; Stamper, S; Langemeier, J L; Dubey, J P

    1997-02-01

    Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts developing in the leg muscles. Sparrows were euthanized 13 and 17 wpi and their carcasses were fed to four laboratory raised opossums. Sporocysts were detected in the feces of two opossums on 15 days post inoculation (dpi) and in a third opossum on 40 dpi. Fecal samples from the fourth opossum remained negative; however, sporocysts were found in intestinal digests from all four opossums. Sporocysts were not found in feces or intestinal digest of an additional opossum that was fed three uninoculated sparrows. Five foals were fed sporocysts (Foals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) and two foals were maintained as uninoculated controls (Foals 1 and 6). Sporocysts from two additional feral opossums also were fed to foals. Foal 5 was given 0.05 mg kg-1 dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily beginning 2 days before inoculation for a total of 2 weeks. Horse sera were tested three times per week, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested biweekly for anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies by Western blot analysis. No foals had any S. neurona-specific antibodies by Western blot analysis prior to sporocysts ingestion. Seroconversion occurred in Foals 3, 5, and 7 by 24 dpi, followed by positive CSF tests on 28 dpi. Foals 2 and 4 seroconverted by 40 dpi. Cerebrospinal fluid from Foal 2 tested positive by 42 dpi, but Foal 4 remained seronegative throughout the study. Sera and CSF from control Foals 1 and 6 remained seronegative. All foals with positive CSF developed neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic disease

  5. Animal Research International - Vol 13, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird species of Mouau with special emphasis on foraging behavior of the northern grey-headed sparrow (Passer griseus) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Oghale O'woma OKORE, Chidinma AMADI, 2338-2344 ...

  6. The influence of vegetation structure on bird communities in a Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest species nesting in gardens during this study was the Cape Sparrow (Passer melanurus), followed by the Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Greater Striped Swallow (Hirundo cucullata). Bar-throated Apalis (Apalis thoracica), Namaqua Warbler (Phragmacia substriata), Fiscal Flycatcher ...

  7. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  8. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Martin; Vidal, Eric; Potter, Murray Alan; Sanchez, Thierry; Brescia, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer), a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3) to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna), Passer domesticus (House sparrow) and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove) were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  9. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lukasch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. Methods To do this we used captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Results Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral were associated with several different alleles. Discussion We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  10. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasch, Barbara; Westerdahl, Helena; Strandh, Maria; Winkler, Hans; Moodley, Yoshan; Knauer, Felix; Hoi, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. To do this we used captive house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral) were associated with several different alleles. We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  11. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thibault

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer, a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3 to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna, Passer domesticus (House sparrow and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  12. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  13. Antioxidant allocation modulates sperm quality across changing social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Gning, Ophélie; Glauser, Gaëtan; Vallat, Armelle; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    In promiscuous species, male reproductive success depends on their ability to mate with fertile females and on the fertilizing ability of their sperm. In such species, theory predicts that, owing to a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory reproductive traits, males with lesser access to females should increase resource investment into those sperm traits that enhance fertilization success-usually referred to as ejaculate quality. This prediction has been validated in several taxa, yet studies on the physiological mechanisms modulating ejaculate quality are lacking. Sperm cells are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which impairs male fertility. Therefore, males that better protect their sperm from oxidative stress are expected to achieve higher ejaculate quality. Based on theoretical expectations, and since social dominance is a major determinant of mating opportunity, we predicted that subordinate males should invest more into the antioxidant protection of their sperm in order to achieve higher ejaculate quality. We maintained 60 male and 60 female wild-caught house sparrows Passer domesticus in outdoor aviaries, where we experimentally manipulated male social status to test our predictions. We measured cellular oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant activity in blood and sperm both before and after manipulating social ranks. Before manipulating the social status, we found that ejaculate viability correlated with oxidative stress level in sperm, with dominant males producing more oxidized and less viable ejaculates. Further, males at the lower end of the hierarchy produced ejaculates of similar quality to those of dominant males, suggesting that restricted access to resources might limit male reproductive strategies. After experimentally manipulating the social status, males matched their ejaculate quality to their new rank, while increases in antioxidant investment into ejaculates paralleled increases in ejaculate viability. Oxidative stress has been

  14. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  15. Haste makes waste but condition matters: molt rate-feather quality trade-off in a sedentary songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available The trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The 'molt constraint' hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored.The seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate. This treatment simulates the case of naturally late-breeding birds. House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e. shorter, smaller, with a higher barbule density and fewer plumulaceous barbs. However, the wing, tail and primary feather lengths were shorter in fast-molting birds if they had an inferior body condition, which has been largely overlooked in previous studies. The rachis width of flight feathers was not affected by the treatment, but it was still condition-dependent.This study shows that sedentary birds might face evolutionary costs because of the molt rate-feather quality conflict. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that (1 molt rate affects several aspects of body feathers as well as flight feathers and (2 the costly effects of rapid molt are condition-specific. We conclude that molt rate and its association with feather quality might be a major mediator of life history trade-offs. Our findings also suggest a novel advantage of early breeding, i.e. the facilitation of slower molt and the condition-dependent regulation of feather growth.

  16. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (M sum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in M sum , we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  17. Haste Makes Waste but Condition Matters: Molt Rate–Feather Quality Trade-Off in a Sedentary Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Vincze, Orsolya; Benkő, Zoltán; Marton, Attila; Barta, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Background The trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The ‘molt constraint’ hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate. This treatment simulates the case of naturally late-breeding birds. House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e. shorter, smaller, with a higher barbule density and fewer plumulaceous barbs). However, the wing, tail and primary feather lengths were shorter in fast-molting birds if they had an inferior body condition, which has been largely overlooked in previous studies. The rachis width of flight feathers was not affected by the treatment, but it was still condition-dependent. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that sedentary birds might face evolutionary costs because of the molt rate–feather quality conflict. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that (1) molt rate affects several aspects of body feathers as well as flight feathers and (2) the costly effects of rapid molt are condition-specific. We conclude that molt rate and its association with feather quality might be a major mediator of life history trade-offs. Our findings also suggest a novel advantage of early breeding, i.e. the facilitation of slower molt and the condition-dependent regulation of feather growth. PMID:22808221

  18. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  19. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  20. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Su, Tianyun; Williams, Greg; Cheng, Min-Lee; Dhillon, Major; Gerry, Alec C

    2017-11-07

    Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns exhibited by arthropod vectors is essential for understanding the complex dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission. Some species of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex have been implicated as having major roles in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus. Although the host-feeding patterns for many of these Culex species are well studied, the host-feeding patterns of Culex stigmatosoma Dyar are relatively poorly studied, even though this species is suspected to be an important maintenance vector for West Nile virus and other arboviruses. In the current study, bloodmeals from 976 blood-engorged Cx. stigmatosoma, collected from 30 sites in southern California from 2009-2012, were processed for vertebrate host identification by nucleotide sequencing following polymerase chain reaction to amplify portions of the cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b genes of vertebrate animals. Vertebrate DNA was amplified, sequenced, and identified from a total of 647 Cx. stigmatosoma bloodmeals, revealing that 98.6% of bloodmeals were from birds, 1.2% from three mammal species, and a single bloodmeal was from a reptile species. In total, 40 different host species were identified. The greatest number of bloodmeals identified was from domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) (38% of bloodmeals), house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) (23%), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus Müller) (17%), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos L.) (4%), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura L.) (3%). However, chicken bloodmeals were identified almost entirely from a single site where mosquito collection devices were placed in the near vicinity of confined domestic chickens. The strongly ornithophilic feeding behavior shown in this study for Cx. stigmatosoma supports the hypothesis that this mosquito species may be an important maintenance (or endemic) vector for

  1. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland bird species continue to decline steeply across North America. Road-based surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS are often used to estimate trends and population sizes and to build species distribution models for grassland birds, although roadside survey counts may introduce bias in estimates because of differences in habitats along roadsides and in off-road surveys. We tested for differences in land cover composition and in the avian community on 21 roadside-based survey routes and in an equal number of adjacent off-road walking routes in the grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. Off-road routes (n = 225 point counts had more native grassland and short shrubs and less fallow land and road area than the roadside routes (n = 225 point counts. Consequently, 17 of the 39 bird species differed between the two route types in frequency of occurrence and relative abundance, measured using an indicator species analysis. Six species, including five obligate grassland species, were more prevalent at off-road sites; they included four species listed under the Canadian federal Species At Risk Act or listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii, Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii, the Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus, and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii. The six species were as much as four times more abundant on off-road sites. Species more prevalent along roadside routes included common species and those typical of farmland and other human-modified habitats, e.g., the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, the Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia, and the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus. Differences in avian community composition between roadside and off-road surveys suggest that the use of BBS data when generating population estimates or distribution models may overestimate certain common species and underestimate others of conservation

  2. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a

  3. Spring weights of some Palaearctic passer- ines in Ethiopia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970, Wood 1982), and require extensive pre-migratory fattening. Some high spring weights have been noted in Ethiopia (Ash 1993, 1994, Yohannes et al. ..... northeast and east tropical Africa: A review. Proceedings of the 6th Pan-African. Ornithological Congress: 243–262. Pennycuick, C.J. 1975. Mechanics of flight.

  4. passer le modèle standard

    CERN Multimedia

    Illiopoulos, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental theory about particles and their interactions exists since 35 years. Physicists are baited to take at fault this "standard model" and to remplace it by a more complet theory. (7 pages + photos)

  5. Spatial analysis of instream nitrogen loads and factors controlling nitrogen delivery to streams in the southeastern United States using spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) and regional classification frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; McMahon, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how nitrogen transport across the landscape varies with landscape characteristics is important for developing sound nitrogen management policies. We used a spatially referenced regression analysis (SPARROW) to examine landscape characteristics influencing delivery of nitrogen from sources in a watershed to stream channels. Modelled landscape delivery ratio varies widely (by a factor of 4) among watersheds in the southeastern United States—higher in the western part (Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi) than in the eastern part, and the average value for the region is lower compared to other parts of the nation. When we model landscape delivery ratio as a continuous function of local-scale landscape characteristics, we estimate a spatial pattern that varies as a function of soil and climate characteristics but exhibits spatial structure in residuals (observed load minus predicted load). The spatial pattern of modelled landscape delivery ratio and the spatial pattern of residuals coincide spatially with Level III ecoregions and also with hydrologic landscape regions. Subsequent incorporation into the model of these frameworks as regional scale variables improves estimation of landscape delivery ratio, evidenced by reduced spatial bias in residuals, and suggests that cross-scale processes affect nitrogen attenuation on the landscape. The model-fitted coefficient values are logically consistent with the hypothesis that broad-scale classifications of hydrologic response help to explain differential rates of nitrogen attenuation, controlling for local-scale landscape characteristics. Negative model coefficients for hydrologic landscape regions where the primary flow path is shallow ground water suggest that a lower fraction of nitrogen mass will be delivered to streams; this relation is reversed for regions where the primary flow path is overland flow.

  6. Variation in the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 and the song control system in the tropical breeding rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) is dependent on sex and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Small, Thomas W; Ball, Gregory F; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal breeding in temperate zone vertebrates is characterised by pronounced variation in both central and peripheral reproductive physiology as well as behaviour. In contrast, many tropical species have a comparatively longer and less of a seasonal pattern of breeding than their temperate zone counterparts. These extended, more "flexible" reproductive periods may be associate with a lesser degree of annual variation in reproductive physiology. Here we investigated variation in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in relation to the changes in the neural song control system in a tropical breeding songbird the rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Using in situ hybridization, we show that the optical density of GnRH1 mRNA expression is relatively constant across pre-breeding and breeding states. However, males were found to have significantly greater expression compared to females regardless of breeding state. Both males and females showed marked variation in measures of peripheral reproductive physiology with greater gonadal volumes and concentrations of sex steroids in the blood (i.e. testosterone in males; estrogen in females) during the breeding season as compared to the pre-breeding season. These findings suggest that the environmental cues regulating breeding in a tropical breeding bird ultimately exert their effects on physiology at the level of the median eminence and regulate the release of GnRH1. In addition, histological analysis of the song control system HVC, RA and Area X revealed that breeding males had significantly larger volumes of these brain nuclei as compared to non-breeding males, breeding females, and non-breeding females. Females did not exhibit a significant difference in the size of song control regions across breeding states. Together, these data show a marked sex difference in the extent to which there is breeding-associated variation in reproductive physiology and brain plasticity that is dependent on the reproductive

  7. Фауна и население птиц речных пойм тайги Архангельской области

    OpenAIRE

    Амосов, Павел; Асоскова, Нина

    2005-01-01

    During the nesting season of 2002-2004 the meadows of the Vaga, Pinega, Yuros, Mezen rivers were explored by means of itinerary registration. Overall, 115 species of birds from 12 orders were taken into account. Of them about 100 species nest, the rest are attributed to migrants, though some of them probably nest in meadow biotopes of the peritundra zone (Mezen). Predominant species in the population are: Actitis hipoleucos, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Passer domesticus, Philloscopus trochilu...

  8. Declawing ostrich ( Struthio camelus domesticus ) chicks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ...

  9. Sleep in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, E L; van der Grinten, C P; Blokhuis, H J; Coenen, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made of five closely observed hens, all permanently implanted with both EEG and EMG electrodes. Five behavioural postures were distinguished and percentages of wakefulness, sleep and presumably paradoxical sleep (PS) were determined during the third and sixth hour of the dark period. Substantial agreement was generally found between behaviour and sleep with the exception of sitting or standing motionless with at least one eye open. During two thirds of this behavioural posture, the EEG showed large amplitude slow waves undistinguishable from slow wave sleep. Characteristics of PS were determined: periods were short, whereas its percentage increased during the night. Furthermore, EMG atonia was never found. An all night recording was made, and delta activity (2-5 Hz) was filtered and plotted against time for three of the hens. A significant decrease in delta activity across the night was found. Differences and similarities between sleep in hens and in mammals are discussed. Although large similarities exist it is concluded that some properties of birds' sleep make it unique and are a challenge for further study.

  10. Jack Sparrow on tagasi! / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Gore Verbinski lavastatud piraadi-triloogia teine film "Kariibi mere piraadid : Surnud mehe aardekirst" ("Pirates of the Caribbean : Dead Man's Chest"), peaosas Johnny Depp : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  11. Recent and subrecent diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We completed data on the diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba predominately from pellets for the period of the last 50 years from Slovakia. We analyzed material from 251 locations and 16 territorial units. The aggregate represents 119,231 pieces of prey from 47 species of mammals (Mammalia, 95.7% and 58 species of birds (Aves, 3.9%, with a small representation of amphibians, reptiles (Amphibia and Reptilia, 0.2% and invertebrates (Invertebrata, 0.2%. The obtaining of food among the owls is limited to synanthropic environments and the surrounding agricultural landscape, and the centre of its distribution in the recent period (i.e. the past 50 years: 1965-201 5 has been concentrated mainly on the southern parts of Slovakia. In this environment the common vole (Microtus arvalis, 59.6% is the primary prey. Additional prey are rodents of the family Muridae: Mus musculus (5.6%, Micromys minutus (2.2%, Apodemus microps (2.2%, A. flavicollis (2.0%, A. sylvaticus (1 .6% and A. agrarius (1 .5%; insectivores of the family Soricidae: Sorex araneus (6.2%, S. minutus (2.4%, Crocidura leucodon (4.8% and C. suaveolens (2.8%; and the house sparrow Passer domesticus (2.9%. In the higher situated Turcianska kotlina Basin the species M. arvalis (74.3% has higher domination, and instead of the white-toothed shrews the water shrews Neomys anomalus (2.8% and N. fodiens (1 .3% are more abundantly represented. In 3 localities owls focused on hunting bats; for example, in the church in Ratková the order Chiroptera made up 35.2% of prey. From the subrecent period (i.e. from before more than 50 years ago we evaluate 4 samples from the territory of Slovakia with 15,601 pieces of prey ofT. alba. Before more than 50 years ago owls were also more abundantly represented at higher elevations in Slovakia, evidence of which is Weisz’s collection of pellets from 1 6 localities in the Ondavská vrchovina Upland in the years 1945 to 1963, but also a registry of data from the 19th and

  12. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  13. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Zaheer, Saleem Akhtar; Ahmad, Muhammad Salih.

    1976-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  14. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Diego L. Carpintero; Rosana M. Aramburú

    2007-01-01

    Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang), chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin) (Furnaridae) («hornero») y de Passer domesticus (L.) (Ploceidae) («gorrión»), fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin) («golondrina doméstica»), Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra») e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert ...

  15. Presence of exotic birds in San Luis Potosi city, Mexican Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Albores, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recorded 12 exotic bird species in San Luis Potosi, Mexico and adjacent areas. Obtained data were collected during the period August 2012 to August 2013. From the total of recorded species, eight are confirmations (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Cairina moschata, Bubulcus ibis, Columba livia, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus rufopalliatus, Quiscalus mexicanus and Passer domesticus and four are new records (Aratinga canicularis, Amazona oratrix, A. autumnalis and Cyanocorax yncas. Although not all exotic species represent a risk because of the lack of the necessary resources for the establishment of abundant viable populations, it is important to publicize their status in the region. Therefore, knowing the presence of exotic species in a new distribution area is important for monitoring its establishment and colonization, and defining management, control and eradication programs of these species, along with environmental education programs that would lead to a better understanding of impacts that these species can cause.

  16. Characterization of the superior olivary complex of Canis lupus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fech, Tatiana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J

    2017-08-01

    The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin. We found the principal nuclei to be extremely well developed: the lateral superior olive (LSO) contained over 20,000 neurons and the medial superior olive (MSO) contained over 15,000 neurons. In nearly all non-chiropterian terrestrial mammals, the MSO exists as a thin, vertical column of neurons. The canine MSO was folded into a U-shaped contour and had associated with the ventromedial tip a small, round collection of neurons we termed the tail nucleus of the MSO. Further, we found evidence within the LSO, MSO and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) for significant morphological variations along the mediolateral or rostrocaudal axes. Finally, the majority of MNTB neurons were calbindin-immunopositive and associated with calretinin-immunopositive calyceal terminals. Together, these observations suggest the canine SOC complies with the basic plan of the mammalian SOC but possesses a number of unique anatomical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  18. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  19. Carrot supplementation does not affect house cricket performance (Acheta domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenenbos, M.E.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    The demand for house crickets as a source of food or feed is increasing. Meeting this demand will require efficient production systems. House crickets are often fed a combination of dry feed and fresh plant material. Supplying fresh plant material could improve growth and development, but also

  20. Peut-on se passer de représentations en sciences cognitives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bault, N.; Chambon, V.; Maïonchi-Pino, N.; Pénicaud, F.X.; Putois, B.; Roy, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    La naissance des sciences cognitives est étroitement liée à la réhabilitation du concept de représentation contre le behaviorisme, à la fin des années 1950. L’engagement initial des sciences cognitives en faveur du concept de représentation s’est néanmoins retrouvé puissamment remis en cause ces

  1. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Grasshopper Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Jill A.; Sondreal, Marriah L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1998-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  2. Geographic variation in social behaviour of white-browed sparrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these local differences in environment, the social system of the species is surprisingly uniform: group size varies by a factor of less than two, and the presence of helpers within groups has been recorded at all the study sites. This contrasts with the published data for a number of other social vertebrates. The selective ...

  3. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    Full Text Available Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i motivation and its underlying function and, ii which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  4. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláček, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bartíková, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus) population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  5. 'Grenelle de l'environnement ' : peut-on se passer d'une nouvelle fiscalité écologique ?

    OpenAIRE

    Eloi Laurent; Jacques Le Cacheux

    2007-01-01

    Contrairement à ce qu'a affirmé Al Gore quand il a appris la nouvelle de son Prix Nobel de la paix, la lutte contre le changement climatique n'est pas avant tout une affaire morale, mais bien un enjeu politique, et plus précisément d'économie politique. C'est le problème des moyens, des instruments et des incitations que doit désormais poser et résoudre l'action publique, les travaux des lauréats du " Prix Nobel d'économie " pouvant d'ailleurs se révéler fort utiles dans cette optique pratiqu...

  6. Wild life passer species recognition from a technical passage through data fusion of a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, A.; Katsiri, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) system which was created as a project about protecting wildlife using sensor networks following the assistance of the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the Democritus University of Thrace. An automated process was implemented, regarding the recognition of a passenger (ie human, wolf, bear, etc.) traversing a box-shaped underground passage, such as the ones located along main highways fusing Width, Height and Weight values. These were measured using low-cost distance (beam) and weight (S-type load) micro-sensors and stored in a central repository. Moreover, the information provided by the WSN was analyzed, via a variety of methods including a neural pattern recognition network as well as clustering algorithms, which were able to recognize the kind of passenger, with certainty scores over 90%. The main concern, regarding the future, is the evaluation of these passages in respect to their effectiveness, i.e. whether they are frequently utilized by animals. This information was further analysed by appropriate information systems, in order to provide insights about the effectiveness of such mitigation structures.

  7. Waar blijven de nieuwe Pythagorassen en Archimedessen? : met potlood, papier, liniaal, passer èn gummetje rechtgeleidingen construeren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Rekenmachines hebben het werktuigbouwkundig onderwijs zeer nadelig beinvloed. De digitale (algebraische) werking ervan heeft de meetkunde vèr onderuit gehaald. Werktuigbouwkundige studenten weten bijna niets meer af van de eigenschappen van een cirkel, cirkelbundels met een machtlijn, of van Iijnen

  8. Les opportunités marketing de Twitter : dépasser le discours « SoLoMo »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Domenget

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La démarche sociotechnique suivie dans cet article permet d’évaluer les réelles opportunités marketing de Twitter. Elle part d’une analyse du discours “SoLoMo” (pour Social, Local and Mobile, intégrant les logiques sociales en jeu, analysant les incitations du dispositif ainsi que les limites rencontrées. Une cartographie est ensuite présentée distinguant les espaces propices à des actions marketing sur le Web social. Elle amène à souligner les avantages de Twitter, en tant que dispositif de visibilité “phare”, centré sur le partage de contenu autour de centres d’intérêts. Néanmoins, malgré les opportunités touchant notamment, à la fidélisation des clients, à la prescription ordinaire ou encore au suivi de l’e-réputation de l’entreprise ; plusieurs limites sont abordées. L’ensemble conduit à s’interroger sur la tendance de fond actuelle à l’industrialisation de la présence en ligne des entreprises et des marques.

  9. Gabriele Veneziano : "La physique moderne doit dépasser Einstein et explorer l'avant-Big Bang"

    CERN Multimedia

    Deschamps, Pascale-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Interview with Gabriele Veneziana: in search of the infinitesimally small and infinitesimally large, the Standard Model of elementary particles and Einstein's general relativity are not enough to explain the universe. The "visible" matter predicted by the Standard Model represents only 5% of the energy of the Universe, the dark "invisible" matter constitutes 25 to 30%. Therefore 65 to 70 % of something else is missing. String theory calls into question all that one knows of the primordial universe formulated by the Standard Model (4 pages)

  10. Análise da freqüência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados em camundongos (Mus domesticus domesticus), tratados com enzicoba (COBAMAMIDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Érica Valentini Pepeliascov; Kroll, Benedito Lúcio; Souza, Edislane Barreiros de

    2008-01-01

    O anabolizante Enzicoba possui como princípio ativo a Cobamamida ou Coenzima da Vitamina B12 que é umcofator presente, em condições fi siológicas, nos tecidos de várias espécies animais (inclusive no homem), que pode interferirnos processos metabólicos da síntese protéica, essencial para o crescimento corpóreo e para o eutrofi smo do parênquimahepático. Tal composto estimula o anabolismo celular em todos...

  11. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  12. Documentation and quantitative analysis of local ethnozoological knowledge among traditional healers of Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappandian, M; Pandikumar, P; Mutheeswaran, S; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Prabakaran, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2014-05-28

    This study investigated the use of animals among the traditional healers in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. The data regarding the medicinal animals/animal products were documented and their usages were analyzed quantitatively. Based on free list interviews with the traditional healers, we documented the medicinal usage of animals/animal products and calculated the indices such as informant consensus factor (Fic) to determine the consensus over the species for an illness category, as well as the Index Agreement on Remedies (IAR) to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. In this study, 69 medicinal animals/animal products were documented with the help of standardized questionnaires among the local healers. The results were tabulated and Fic value for each illness category was calculated. Three illness categories viz., jaundice (milk of Capra aegagrus hircus), orthopedics (egg white and meat of Gallus gallus domesticus) and pediatrics (milk of Equus africanus asinus) had got high Fic values. Fifteen illness categories had moderate Fic values. Highly cited animals in these illness categories were: Rusa unicolor (antiemetic), Reticulitermes spp. (diabetes), flesh of Varanus benghalensis (oral ailments), milk (eye ailments, fever) and urine (antidote) of Homo sepians, meat of Trachypithecus johnii (respiratory ailments), various parts of C. aegagrus hircus (blood ailments, coolants, diarrhea, pulmonary and urinary ailments), flesh of Chamaeleon zeyalnica (neural ailments), meat of Passer domesticus (aphrodisiac), curd and dung of Bos primigenius taurus (dermatological ailments), meat of G. domesticus (musculo-skeletal disorders, analgesic), meat of Lissemys punctata (hemorrhoids), and Pherthima posthuma (psychological ailments). Six illness categories had low Fic values. This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Theni district, to treat various illnesses. Cross-disciplinary approaches to explore the

  13. Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad; Javid, Arshad; Umair, Muhammad; Iqbal, Khalid Javed; Rasheed, Zahid; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-07-12

    Although, use of animal species in disease treatment and culture practices is as ancient as that of plant species; however ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values of animal species have rarely been reported. Present study is the first report on the medicinal uses of mammals and bird species in Pakistan. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect qualitative and quantitative data from local informants (N = 109). Relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), similarity index (SI) and rank order priority (ROP) indices were used to analyzed the data. One hundred and eight species of animals, which include: 83% birds and 17% mammals were documented. In total 30 mammalian and 28 birds' species were used to treat various diseases such as rheumatic disorders, skin infections and sexual weakness among several others. Fats, flesh, blood, milk and eggs were the most commonly utilized body parts. Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Capra aegagrus hircus, Felis domesticus, Lepus nigricollis dayanus and Ovis aries (mammals) and Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Columba livia, Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus and Passer domesticus (birds) were the highly utilized species. Medicinal and cultural uses of 30% mammals and 46% birds were reported for the first time, whereas 33% mammals and 79% birds depicted zero similarity with previous reports. Present study exhibits significant ethnozoological knowledge of local inhabitants and their strong association with animal species, which could be helpful in sustainable use of biodiversity of the region. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of biological activities in the mammalian and birds' species with maximum fidelity level and frequency of mention could be important to discover animal based novel drugs. Some commonly used mammals and birds species of the study area.

  14. The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alden H.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available La ecología de comportamiento y la biología de la reproducción de los Gorriones Andinos "copetones" (Zonotrichia capensis fueron estudiadas a lo largo de un año en una población ubicada a 2.000 metros de altura en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Se capturaron cerca de 170 individuos, y para hacer posible su identificación en el campo se marcaron convenientemente. En varias ocasiones se Iogró la recaptura de muchos de éstos con el objeto de estudiar los cambios de plumaje y ciclos reproductivos a lo largo del año. La condición reproductiva de muchos individuos fue evaluada gracias a repetidas laparotomías. Se describen nueve tipos diferentes de vocalizaciones y se discute sus funciones.  Se establece la existencia de comunicación entre estas aves por medio de variación del plumaje, posturas y movimientos.  Sólo las hembras construyen nidos, los cuales se colocan ya sea en el suelo o sobre arbustos, pero en ningún caso a más de un metro de altura sobre el suelo. La puesta usual es de dos huevos en dos días consecutivos y en las primeras horas de la mañana. La hembra efectúa la incubación que dura de once a doce días. Los polluelos están listos a abandonar el nido en 10 0 12 días más. Los machos y hembras jóvenes alcanzan madurez reproductiva entre los 12 y 11 meses de edad. Muchas hembras vuelven a anidar si han perdido el nido con huevos o los polluelos tiernos.  Algunas hembras anidan por segunda vez inmediatamente después de haber criado polluelos.  Los machos se establecen en territorios claramente definidos y los mantienen a través de nidadas sucesivas. Los lazos de union entre los miembros de una pareja duran de una nidada a la siguiente, aun a través de períodos sin reproducción. Los territorios observados tenían típicamente cerca de 30 x 20 metros. La mayor parte de la alimentación parecía provenir del área definida, aunque ocasionalmente pueden abandonarla.  Alguna vez una pareja fue vista a 150 metros de su territorio.  Del total de "copetones" adultos establecidos en territorios delimitados a comienzos del estudio, solo un 71% Iogró sobrevivir todo el año.  Un 13% de los jóvenes sin territorio pudo ser contado al fin del año. Los vacíos que aparecieron en el grupo local de adultos se llenaron con jóvenes, y cerca de la mitad de éstos provenía de áreas cercanas. Rara vez consiguen los padres criar más de un polluelo por nido. Dos y probablemente hasta tres jóvenes pueden ser alimentados fácilmente en el nido mientras permanecen en él, pero depredaciones o alguna otra limitación en el cuidado paternal (y no deficiencia en la alimentación proporcionada en la etapa post-nidal parecen ser los principales factores negativos respecto a una mayor producción de individuos. El régimen climático y la falta de estaciones favorecen la nidificación en cualquier época del año; por lo tanto, la ventaja selectiva para la especie consiste en la capacidad de efectuar muchas nidadas y no en la puesta de más huevos por nido. La ecología de comportamiento y la biología de la reproducción de los Gorriones Andinos "copetones" (Zonotrichia capensis fueron estudiadas a lo largo de un año en una población ubicada a 2.000 metros de altura en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Se capturaron cerca de 170 individuos, y para hacer posible su identificación en el campo se marcaron convenientemente. En varias ocasiones se Iogró la recaptura de muchos de éstos con el objeto de estudiar los cambios de plumaje y ciclos reproductivos a lo largo del año. La condición reproductiva de muchos individuos fue evaluada gracias a repetidas laparotomías. Se describen nueve tipos diferentes de vocalizaciones y se discute sus funciones.  Se establece la existencia de comunicación entre estas aves por medio de variación del plumaje, posturas y movimientos.  Sólo las hembras construyen nidos, los cuales se colocan ya sea en el suelo o sobre arbustos, pero en ningún caso a más de un metro de altura sobre el suelo. La puesta usual es de dos huevos en dos días consecutivos y en las primeras horas de la mañana. La hembra efectúa la incubación que dura de once a doce días. Los polluelos están listos a abandonar el nido en 10 0 12 días más. Los machos y hembras jóvenes alcanzan madurez reproductiva entre los 12 y 11 meses de edad. Muchas hembras vuelven a anidar si han perdido el nido con huevos o los polluelos tiernos.  Algunas hembras anidan por segunda vez inmediatamente después de haber criado polluelos.  Los machos se establecen en territorios claramente definidos y los mantienen a través de nidadas sucesivas. Los lazos de union entre los miembros de una pareja duran de una nidada a la siguiente, aun a través de períodos sin reproducción. Los territorios observados tenían típicamente cerca de 30 x 20 metros. La mayor parte de la alimentación parecía provenir del área definida, aunque ocasionalmente pueden abandonarla.  Alguna vez una pareja fue vista a 150 metros de su territorio.  Del total de "copetones" adultos establecidos en territorios delimitados a comienzos del estudio, solo un 71% Iogró sobrevivir todo el año.  Un 13% de los jóvenes sin territorio pudo ser contado al fin del año. Los vacíos que aparecieron en el grupo local de adultos se llenaron con jóvenes, y cerca de la mitad de éstos provenía de áreas cercanas. Rara vez consiguen los padres criar más de un polluelo por nido. Dos y probablemente hasta tres jóvenes pueden ser alimentados fácilmente en el nido mientras permanecen en él, pero depredaciones o alguna otra limitación en el cuidado paternal (y no deficiencia en la alimentación proporcionada en la etapa post-nidal parecen ser los principales factores negativos respecto a una mayor producción de individuos. El régimen climático y la falta de estaciones favorecen la nidificación en cualquier época del año; por lo tanto, la ventaja selectiva para la especie consiste en la capacidad de efectuar muchas nidadas y no en la puesta de más huevos por nido.

  15. Testosterone: from initiating change to modulating social organisation in domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.

    2009-07-01

    Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.

  16. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Abreu Manso

    Full Text Available Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  17. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  18. Spatiotemporal mapping of the muscular activity of the gizzard of the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Reynolds, G; de Loubens, C; Hulls, C; Janssen, P W M; Ravindran, V

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of spatiotemporal mapping of the spontaneous actions of component muscles of the gizzard and associated structures in ex vivo preparations with combined superfusion and vascular perfusion. Ongoing spontaneous contraction of cranial and caudal thin muscles occurred at a frequency of 2.2 ± 0.1 cycles per minute. Contractions of M. tenuis craniodorsalis with mean duration of 2.8 ± 0.2 s commenced ventrally adjacent to the distal limit of the proventriculus and progressed dorsally at 2.02 ± 0.03 mm•s(-1) in a concerted front. Near simultaneous contraction of M. tenuis caudoventralis of mean duration of contraction of 4.7 ± 0.7 s commenced dorsally and progressed ventrally at a similar rate (2.1 ± 0.1 mm•s(-1)) and in a similar manner. Contraction of the caudoventralis preceded that of craniodorsalis (mean 1.1 ± 0.15 s). Contraction of the 2 tenuis muscles was synchronous with the first component peak of the cyclic increase in lumen pressure and with distension of the crassus musculature. Contraction of the M. crassus caudodorsalis muscle coincided with the second component peak and was followed by distension of the tenuis musculature. The latter commenced before the relaxation of the tenuis muscles. Contractions of the crassus muscle propagated rapidly at right angles to the orientation of the muscle fibers at a faster velocity than that of the tenuis musculature. The durations of the component peaks in lumen pressure indicated that the duration of crassus contraction was similar to that of the tenuis musculature.

  19. Ultradian activity rhythms in large groups of newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L; Erhard, H W; Friggens, N C; McLeod, J E

    2008-07-01

    A clutch of young chicks housed with a mother hen exhibit ultradian (within day) rhythms of activity corresponding to the brooding cycle of the hen. In the present study clear evidence was found of ultradian activity rhythms in newly hatched domestic chicks housed in groups larger than natural clutch size without a mother hen or any other obvious external time-keeper. No consistent synchrony was found between groups housed in different pens within the same room. The ultradian rhythms disappeared with time and little evidence of group rhythmicity remained by the third night. This disappearance over time suggests that the presence of a mother hen may be pivotal for the long-term maintenance of these rhythms. The ultradian rhythm of the chicks may also play an important role in the initiation of brooding cycles during the behavioural transition of the mother hen from incubation to brooding. Computer simulations of individual activity rhythms were found to reproduce the observations made on a group basis. This was achievable even when individual chick rhythms were modelled as independent of each other, thus no assumptions of social facilitation are necessary to obtain ultradian activity rhythms on a group level.

  20. Utilization of ultrasonic waves (Acheta domesticus) as a biocontrol of mosquito in Malang Agricultural Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Sama'Iradat

    2017-11-01

    Malang Agricultural Institute is a college located in the residential area Griyasanta Malang. The environment around the Institute of Agriculture Malang has moist soil conditions so that mosquito species insects easily reproduce. It is feared that this problem can potentially cause many diseases caused by mosquitoes such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, elephant legs and much more. Nowadays there has been considerable research on ultrasound waves against mosquitoes. Many studies have been done to determine the effect of ultrasonic waves on mosquitoes. Crickets have frequencies between 0.2 kHz-50 kHz so it has the potential to control mosquito pests. Existing studies indicate that mosquito pests can be expelled with the frequency of 18-48 kHz. But this still cannot eliminate mosquito larvae that require a wave of 85 kHz. The effects of ultrasound waves on mosquitoes are (1) erection of the antenna which shows the stress on the nervous system to physical injury and fatigue so as to increase the percentage of fall and the death of mosquitoes. (2) ultrasonic waves can make the antenna function in the mosquito as the receiver of excitatory disturbed. The ultrasonic wave can be defined as a threat so that the mosquito will be expelled. Based on this, a simple study was conducted at the campus of the Institute of Agriculture of Malang by taking 10 different locations with randomly assigned respondents with a maximum of 5 people per location. The results show that the effectiveness of the use of crickets in the morning reached 60% and in the afternoon reached 80% starting on the first day since the installation of crickets. So the use of these crickets in the campus environment of the Institute of Agriculture Malang is quite effective.

  1. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction

  2. Re-evaluation of the life cycle of Eimeria maxima Tyzzer, 1929 in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C

    2017-12-14

    A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages. At 12 h p.i., sporozoites were observed inside a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in the epithelial villi and the lamina propria. By 24 h, sporozoites enclosed by a PV were observed in enterocytes of the glands of Lieberkühn. At 48 h p.i., sporozoites, elongated immature and mature schizonts, were all seen in the glands with merozoites budding off from a residual body. By 60 h, second-generation, sausage-shaped schizonts containing up to 12 merozoites were observed around a residual body in the villar tip of invaded enterocytes. At 72 and 96 h, profuse schizogony associated with third- and fourth-generation schizonts was observed throughout the villus. At 120 h, another generation (fifth) of schizonts were seen in villar tips as well as in subepithelium where gamonts and oocysts were also present; a few gamonts were in epithelium. Our finding of maximum parasitization of E. maxima in jejunum is important because this region is critical for nutrient absorption and weight gain.

  3. The articulations of the neurocranium in the postnatal skeleton of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1978-09-01

    In the neurocranium of the domestic fowl the centres of ossification present at hatching and appearing susbequently have been investigated and illustrated. The controversy over centres around the orbit is reviewed and it is concluded that paired laterally placed pleurosphenoids are present by the time of hatching, while paired orbitosphenoids situated near the midline and dorsal to the optic foramen do not appear until between 70 and 91 days after hatching. No additional "presphenoid" centres were detected. The neurocranial articulations were studied: 27, many of them paired, were identified. The sequence and timing of synostosis were determined.

  4. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Teenu; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V.P.; Ghosh, R.C.; Roy, S.; Tiwari, Sandhya; Sahu, Upasana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Objective: To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Materials and Methods: Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg) and high dose (20 mg/kg) of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the ...

  5. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Teenu; Koley, K M; Vadlamudi, V P; Ghosh, R C; Roy, S; Tiwari, Sandhya; Sahu, Upasana

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg) and high dose (20 mg/kg) of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (Pbirds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  6. Biological fate of 32P malathion in gallus domesticus (Desi poultry birds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Paul, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    During this study, a minor surgical technique was developed for the separation of urine and faeces in birds and fate of 32 P malathion was studied, following a single oral dose of 394 mg/kg. The birds showed characteristic signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning and the results suggested that the compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, significant quantities being detected in plasma after 0.5 h of ingestion. Highest concentration of 32 P in various organs decreased and at 48 h, it was not detected except in liver, kidney, lung and spleen when only traces were observed. The cumulative urinary and faecal excretion study revealed that within 24 h 90% is rapidly excreted mainly via the urine and only small amounts in the faeces. Metabolism studies showed that the compound is quickly metabolised. Because of the rapid turnover of the compound, this study indicated that the accumulation of this compound is unlikely in the body system

  7. DNA AND THE FINE STRUCTURE OF SYNAPTIC CHROMOSOMES IN THE DOMESTIC ROOSTER (GALLUS DOMESTICUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James R.; Moses, Montrose J.

    1964-01-01

    The indium trichloride method of Watson and Aldridge (38) for staining nucleic acids for electron microscopy was employed to study the relationship of DNA to the structure of the synaptinemal complex in meiotic prophase chromosomes of the domestic rooster. The selectivity of the method was demonstrated in untreated and DNase-digested testis material by comparing the distribution of indium staining in the electron microscope to Feulgen staining and ultraviolet absorption in thicker sections seen with the light microscope. Following staining by indium, DNA was found mainly in the microfibril component of the synaptinemal complex. When DNA was known to have been removed from aldehyde-fixed material by digestion with DNase, indium stainability was also lost. However, staining of the digested material with non-selective heavy metal techniques demonstrated the presence of material other than DNA in the microfibrils and showed that little alteration in appearance of the chromosome resulted from DNA removal. The two dense lateral axial elements of the synaptinemal complex, but not the central one to any extent, also contained DNA, together with non-DNA material. PMID:14228519

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on haematology of chick (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Rana, K.

    1988-01-01

    White leghorn chicks at 1 and 7 days post-hatching were subjected to acute (2.25 Gy and 6.75 Gy) and fractionated (2.25 Gy x 3) whole-body gamma radiation exposures at the dose rate of 0.75 Gy/sec, to study the nature of hematological changes induced in the animals which were maintained for a maximum period of 28 days postirradiation. The investigated parameters included red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. The results showed that the hemopoietic damage proved irreversible and lethal with whole-body 6.75 Gy exposure while the system was able to recover from the effects of radiation insult after 2.25 Gy whole-body acute and fractionated doses. The 7 day old birds exhibited better capability for recovery than the younger group. (author)

  9. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1983-05-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching.

  10. Female nursing partner choice in a population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicola; Lindholm, Anna K; Dobay, Akos; Halloran, Olivia; Manser, Andri; König, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice. Here using data from a long-term study of free-living, wild house mice we investigated individual nursing decisions and determined what factors influenced a female's decision to nurse communally. Females chose to nurse solitarily more often than expected by chance, but the likelihood of nursing solitarily decreased when females had more partners available. While finding no influence of pairwise relatedness on partner choice, we observed that females shared their social environment with genetically similar individuals, suggesting a female's home area consisted of related females, possibly facilitating the evolution of cooperation. Within such a home area females were more likely to nest communally when the general relatedness of her available options was relatively high. Females formed communal nests with females that were familiar through previous associations and had young pups of usually less than 5 days old. Our findings suggest that communal nursing was not a by-product of sharing the same nesting sites, but females choose communal nursing partners from a group of genetically similar females, and ultimately the decision may then depend on the pool of options available. Social partner choice proved to be an integrated part of cooperation among females, and might allow females to reduce the conflict over number of offspring in a communal nest and milk investment towards own and other offspring. We suggest that social partner choice may be a general mechanism to stabilize costly cooperation.

  11. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique of steroid hormones in the laying hens, Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli bin Abdullah

    1990-01-01

    The principle of radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been applied to many organic compounds of biological interest. In this work, commercially available antisera developed for various steroid hormones were used in the analysis of steroid hormones in the laying hens. The RIA procedure for plasma steroid hormones was divided into three phases: sample preparation, incubation of the antibody-3H-steroid complex with prepared samples and a standard curve and separation of antibody bound 3H-steroid from free 3H-steroid. Results showed that it is possible to use commercially available antiserum source for the determination of steroid hormones in this species. This approach has the advantage of savings in both time and money, by eliminating time losses in screening potential animals producing steroid antiserum and the costs of maintaining these animals

  12. Mouse consomic strains: Exploiting genetic divergence between Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, Soňa; Divina, Petr; Storchová, Radka; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Fotopulosová, Vladana; Svenson, K.L.; Donahue, K.L.; Paigen, B.; Forejt, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2008), s. 509-515 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1264 Grant - others:HHMI(US) HHMI55000306; NIH(US) 1R01HG00318; EC(XE) AnEUploidy 037627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : complex trait loci (QTLs) * chromosome substitution strains * PWD/Ph Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.176, year: 2008

  13. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone

  14. Kinetic study of chlordecone orally given to laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondreville, Catherine; Fournier, Agnès; Mahieu, Maurice; Feidt, Cyril; Archimède, Harry; Rychen, Guido

    2014-11-01

    The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils. In this area, CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through soil ingestion. In order to assess this risk, a kinetic study involving the contamination of laying hens (22 weeks of age) with a diet containing 500 μg CLD kg(-1) during 42 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d was carried out. Forty-four hens were sequentially slaughtered all over the experimental period and their liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum were collected. Two additional edible tissues, pectoral and leg muscles, were collected in hens slaughtered at the end of the contamination period. The depuration half-life of CLD in liver, egg, abdominal fat and serum was estimated at 5.0 ± 0.38 (mean ± SE), 5.5 ± 0.29, 5.3 ± 0.37 and 5.1 ± 0.66 d, respectively. CLD concentration at the end of the contamination period reached 1640 ± 274, 460 ± 41, 331 ± 23, and 213 ± 8.5 μg kg(-1) fresh matter (FM), respectively. The corresponding concentrations in pectoral and leg muscles were 119 ± 8.4, 127 ± 11 μg kg(-1) FM, respectively. The steady state carry over rate of CLD in eggs reached 43 ± 7.6%. This experiment demonstrates the preferential accumulation of CLD in liver, its significant transfer to eggs and its quite short half-life. It is concluded that raising hens on even mildly contaminated areas would lead to products exceeding the regulatory maximum residue limit of 20 μg CLD kg(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  16. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  17. Occurrence and seasonality of Somotricus unifasciatus (Dejean, 1831 associated with raising Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moscarelli Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence and population fluctuation of Somotricus unifasciatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae, an exotic predatory species. The insects were collected once per week for 12 months, using traps, at the aviary of the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça (CAVG, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. During the study, 1158 specimens of S. unifasciatus were captured. The highest occurrence period was in February (472, when the monthly average temperature was 24.7ºC, while the lowest occurrence periods were in July (01, April (0 and June (0. The population density of the coleopteron varied throughout the year, with the largest capture averages obtained during months with higher average temperatures (December, January, February and March.

  18. Effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Moniello, G; De Riu, N; Di Meo, C; Pinna, W; Nizza, A

    2007-05-01

    In order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group A) or alfalfa hay (group B). In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. The following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (Ektachem 250 analyser, Kodak): glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC), total protein (TP), uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil), creatinine (CREA), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl-), iron (Fe), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), alpha-amylase (Amyl), lipase (LIP) and gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT). Diet significantly affected some parameters of the metabolic profile. Indeed, owing to the presence of alfalfa hay in the diet, group B showed, in comparison to group A, significantly higher values of uric acid (222.5 vs 387.5 mmol/L, p < 0.01), GGT (8.50 vs 11.3 U/L, p < 0.05), Tbil (8.50 vs 10.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05), Ca (2.41 vs 2.83 micromol/L, p < 0.01), Mg (1.01 vs 1.18 micromol/L, p < 0.05) and K (2.71 vs 3.16 micromol/L, p < 0.01). The levels of creatinine (27.3 vs 32.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and AST (344.9 vs 461.4 U/l, p < 0.01) were also higher for group B.

  19. Intraclutch eggshell colour variation in birds: are females able to identify their eggs individually?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One possibility suggested regarding female post-mating strategies is differential allocation into offspring investment. Female birds produce not only the largest, but also most colourful eggs of all oviparous taxa. Larger eggs provide space for bigger embryos, or more nutrition for their development, but the question why eggs are more colourful and why there is variation in eggshell colouration remains. In this context, the focus of interest has been to explain inter-clutch variation but in many bird species, eggshell colouration also varies within a clutch. Surprisingly, less attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Therefore, we propose the “female egg recognition” hypothesis, suggesting that mothers use colour characteristics to interpret egg attributes and allocate further investment into each egg accordingly. To evaluate the feasibility of the hypothesis, we tested several underlying predictions and examined their suitability using a dataset from our tree sparrow (Passer montanus study. We predict (i substantial within-clutch variation in eggshell colouration which, (ii should be related to laying sequence, (iii reflect egg quality and, (iv should stimulate a female response. Methods Eggshell coloration data were obtained via digital photography under standardized conditions, taken after clutch completion. Lightness (L*, representing the achromatic properties of an egg has been chosen as the most important predictor in dark cavities and was related to egg quality and position in the nest. Results In our tree sparrows, first and mainly last eggs were less pigmented, providing information about laying order. Egg volume, which predicts chick quality, positively correlates with eggshell coloration. Finally, we could show that female tree sparrows placed darker, but not bigger, eggs into more central incubation positions. Discussion All basic prerequisites for the “female egg recognition” hypothesis are fulfilled. In this

  20. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... not leave but stayed and significantly increased their courtship rate and mate guarding. Unexpectedly, they also increased their food provisioning to the nestlings, even though loaded females did not reduce their nestling-feeding rate. The increase in male feeding rate may be explained as a way for the male...... to reduce the female's propensity to switch mate and desert or to increase her propensity to copulate with the male to obtain paternity in her next brood. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the perception of the risk of being deserted by the female does not necessarily induce males to desert first...

  1. Reading, Laterality, and the Brain: Early Contributions on Reading Disabilities by Sara S. Sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Morris, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Although best known for work with children and adults with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, training in speech pathology and a doctorate in clinical psychology and neuropsychology was the foundation for Sara Sparrow’s long-term interest in reading disabilities. Her first papers were on dyslexia and laterality, and the maturational lag theory of developmental dyslexia proposed with Paul Satz, her mentor. The research program that emerged from this work had a wide impact...

  2. H09565: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-01-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. H09563: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-11-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H09643: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-11-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H09582: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1975-11-23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H09562: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-11-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H09564: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-01-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H09581: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-09-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H09566: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Hawkins Point to Sparrows Point, Maryland, 1976-01-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. Molecular phylogenetics of finches and sparrows: consequences of character state removal in cytochrome b sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, J G

    1998-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial cytochrome b genes of 53 genera of oscine passerine birds representing the major groups of finches and some allies were compared. Phylogenetic trees resulting from three levels of character partition removal (no data removed, transitions at third positions of codons removed, and all transitions removed [transversion parsimony]) were generally concordant, and all supported several basic statements regarding relationships of finches and finch-like birds, including: (1) larks (Alaudidae) show no close relationship to any finch group; (2) Peucedramus (olive warbler) is phylogenetically far removed from true wood warblers; (3) a clade consisting of fringillids, passerids, motacillids, and emberizids is supported, and this clade is characterized by evolution of a vestigial 10th wing primary; and (4) Hawaiian honeycreepers are derived from within the cardueline finches. Excluding transition substitutions at third positions of codons resulted in phylogenetic trees similar to, but with greater bootstrap nodal support than, trees derived using either all data (equally weighted) or transversion parsimony. Relative to the shortest trees obtained using all data, the topologies obtained after elimination of third-position transitions showed only slight increases in realized treelength and homoplasy. These increases were negligable compared to increases in overall nodal support; therefore, this partition removal scheme may enhance recovery of deep phylogenetic signal in protein-coding DNA datasets. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra-categorical auditory discrimination for untrained items follows the temporal hierarchy and transpires in a late stage of semantic processing. On the other hand, correct categorization of individually trained stimuli occurs earlier, during a period contemporaneous with human vs. animal vocalization discrimination, and involves a parallel semantic pathway requiring expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resprouting of herbs in disturbed habitats: is it adequately described by Bellingham-Sparrow s model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 103, - (2003), s. 225-229 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1039; GA ČR GA206/01/1037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : severe disturbance * sprouting * temperate herbs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2003

  13. Avoiding the nest : responses of field sparrows to the threat of nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure in birds (Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992). Birds confronted with an enemy near the nest may use behaviors to deter the prospect of nest predation. The benefits of nest defense have been shown for many agressive species (Martin 1992), but smaller birds that cannot deter predators may need to resort to other behaviors...

  14. You're the New Principal? Considering First Steps toward Improvement at Sparrow Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig; Clarida, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the contemporary context, demands for rapid school turnaround meet the reality of increased principal turnover. Therefore, it is crucial to help aspiring school leaders hone their problem-solving skills. This case provides readers with an opportunity to diagnose issues of concern at a struggling school, and then prescribe several initial…

  15. La Palestine comme écran, ou comment passer « de l’autre côté du miroir »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Fourest

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’indétermination qui entoure le terme de « Palestine », provoquée notamment par la disparition de son référent géographique depuis la création de l’État d’Israël, a généré une multitude de représentations concurrentes qui ont fait de ce terme un écran. Ce dernier révèle la complexité des enjeux géopolitiques qui s’y cristallisent, mais rend extrêmement difficile la formulation d’un récit et d’une représentation palestiniens propres. Travailler sur la production cinématographique palestinienne revient à s’interroger sur la manière dont les cinéastes composent avec les multiples représentations de leur terre et de son peuple telles qu’elles sont produites par l’Autre, qu’il soit Israélien ou occidental. Cet article s’appuie sur l’un des dispositifs les plus convaincants de cette production : dans Port of Memory [2009], Kamal Aljafari s’empare de séquences de films israélien et hollywoodien réalisés à Jaffa dans les années 1970 et 1980 qui en ont relégué sa présence palestinienne hors-cadre. Interrogeant cette représentation mutilée du lieu, il propose de rectifier ces images par les moyens du cinéma, faisant de la mémoire visuelle de l’Autre le lieu de son expression artistique et politique.

  16. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  17. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  18. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, O.; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Permin, A.

    2005-01-01

    gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. 4. A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables...

  19. A role for ultrasonic vocalisation in social communication and divergence of natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie von Merten

    Full Text Available It has long been known that rodents emit signals in the ultrasonic range, but their role in social communication and mating is still under active exploration. While inbred strains of house mice have emerged as a favourite model to study ultrasonic vocalisation (USV patterns, studies in wild animals and natural situations are still rare. We focus here on two wild derived mouse populations. We recorded them in dyadic encounters for extended periods of time to assess possible roles of USVs and their divergence between allopatric populations. We have analysed song frequency and duration, as well as spectral features of songs and syllables. We show that the populations have indeed diverged in several of these aspects and that USV patterns emitted in a mating context differ from those emitted in same sex encounters. We find that females vocalize not less, in encounters with another female even more than males. This implies that the current focus of USVs being emitted mainly by males within the mating context needs to be reconsidered. Using a statistical syntax analysis we find complex temporal sequencing patterns that could suggest that the syntax conveys meaningful information to the receivers. We conclude that wild mice use USV for complex social interactions and that USV patterns can diverge fast between populations.

  20. Bioavailability and biochemical effects of diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Angela N; Yaw, Taylor J; Haynes, Joseph S; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Tofflemire, Kyle L; Allbaugh, Rachel A

    2017-03-01

    To determine if topical ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution alters renal parameters in the domestic chicken, and to determine if the drug is detectable in plasma after topical ophthalmic administration. Thirty healthy domestic chickens. Over 7 days, six birds were treated unilaterally with one drop of artificial tear solution (group 1), 12 birds were treated unilaterally (group 2) and 12 bilaterally (group 3) with diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution. Treatments were provided every 12 h in all groups. Pre- and post-treatment plasma samples from all birds were evaluated for changes in albumin, total protein, and uric acid. Post-treatment samples of all birds, collected 15 min post-administration, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for diclofenac sodium detection. A randomly selected renal sample from each group was submitted for histopathologic review. Changes in pre- and post-treatment plasma albumin were significant (P Ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% administered topically every 12 h in one or both eyes for 7 days is detectable in systemic circulation in the domestic chicken, but does not cause overt significant changes in plasma uric acid or total protein. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the...retroperitoneal implantation of the telemetry device permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance...nerve agent and cyanide poisoning in minipigs after intraosseous administration. Ann Emerg Med 60:424–430. 26. Ngawhirunpat T, Opanasopit P

  2. Ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais em Canis familiaris e Felis catus domesticus, da cidade de Lages, SC, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Stalliviere, Fernanda Magalhães

    2007-01-01

    Com os objetivos de determinar e comparar a prevalência de ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais em cães e gatos domiciliados, das regiões central e periférica, da cidade de Lages, SC; de correlacionar aspectos sócio-econômicos e culturais das famílias proprietárias dos animais com a prevalência de ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais; e de verificar a proporção entre a população humana com a canina e com a felina; no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram aplicados 600 questi...

  3. Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which

  4. CRITICAL QUALITY PARAMETERS VEGETABLE FEED FOR OSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS ON AN ARTIFICIAL PASTURE IN TcChR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying nutrition African ostriches for different ages in zoos, nurseries and small farms evaluated the nutritional value and balance of each of the components of plant feed, providing the needs for normal growth of poultry, development and productivity, to increase body weight, to increase egg production, quality hatching eggs, meat quality, output and quality of the young. Currently, in most cases, bird feed by copying the natural food, but it is the species, age and seasonal specifics, ensure that in the conditions of the zoo, nursery and farm problematic. Therefore, to solve this problem, we proposed the formulation of plant feed for feeding African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms that promote bird health, increase the rate of feeding, increase egg production, increase their survival, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw mat erials at cheaper developed using the optimization program "Food Optima Expert". To sustain ostriches exchange energy feed should be not less than 260 kcal / 100 g, protein content not less than 16 %. The complex research to develop formulations of plant feed for African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms and the quality of their analysis may be of interest in the full feeding African ostriches. The proposed formulation can extend its range of multi-component feed with a sufficiently high biological, energy value, the balanced composition of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals adapted for ostriches, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw materials at lower cost.

  5. Concentrations of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in serum of laying and broody white rock hens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrak, E; Harvey, S; Chadwick, A

    1981-05-01

    Diurnal variations in circulating concentrations of LH, GH, prolactin, corticosterone, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were followed in laying and broody White Rock domestic fowl. Throughout the 24 h study prolactin concentrations in serum were consistently (two- to fourfold) higher in broody than in laying birds, in which the prolactin level varied with the light:darkness or ovulatory cycles. Concentrations of GH in serum tended to be lower in broody birds but in both groups were very variable and showed no obvious relationship with either the lighting or ovulatory cycles. Broodiness was also characterized by low LH and gonadal steroid levels and by the absence of preovulatory peaks in the serum concentrations of these hormones. A diurnal rhythm in corticosterone was observed in both the laying and broody birds, with high levels during the period of darkness. Corticosterone concentrations were markedly higher in the broody birds than in laying birds during most of the 24 h study. No diurnal rhythm in the blood haematocrit level was observed in either group, although the level was generally lower in broody birds. This difference, however, was insufficient to account for the lower LH and gonadal steroid levels in the broody birds. The results suggest that prolactin is involved in the initiation or maintenance of broodiness in the fowl and the possibility of an antigonadal role for the hormone is discussed.

  6. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Auclair

    Full Text Available According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+. As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  7. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  8. Sound attenuation in the ear of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a result of beak opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Raf; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Because the quadrate and the eardrum are connected, the hypothesis was tested that birds attenuate the transmission of sound through their ears by opening the bill, which potentially serves as an additional protective mechanism for self-generated vocalizations. In domestic chickens, it was examined if a difference exists between hens and roosters, given the difference in vocalization capacity between the sexes. To test the hypothesis, vibrations of the columellar footplate were measured ex vivo with laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) for closed and maximally opened beak conditions, with sounds introduced at the ear canal. The average attenuation was 3.5 dB in roosters and only 0.5 dB in hens. To demonstrate the importance of a putative protective mechanism, audio recordings were performed of a crowing rooster. Sound pressures levels of 133.5 dB were recorded near the ears. The frequency content of the vocalizations was in accordance with the range of highest hearing sensitivity in chickens. The results indicate a small but significant difference in sound attenuation between hens and roosters. However, the amount of attenuation as measured in the experiments on both hens and roosters is small and will provide little effective protection in addition to other mechanisms such as stapedius muscle activity. PMID:29291112

  9. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coutinho do Amaral

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésico, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos. Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto.

  10. The Stimulatory Effect of Cerebral Intraventricular Injection of cNPY on Precocial Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Chicks (Gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqian Chen

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in many animals. Most of the supporting evidence for the effects of NPY has been gathered in mammalian species using porcine NPY. To investigate the effects of NPY on precocial feeding initiation in chicks, we firstly used chicken NPY (cNPY to study its role in food intake and spontaneous activities in 3-day-old male chicks. Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of cNPY (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 μg/10 μL and anti-cNPY antibody (anti-cNPY (1:9000, 1:3000 or 1:1000 in dilution. cNPY given at different doses significantly increased food intake at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min after injection. Chicks treated with 5.0 μg/10 μL of cNPY showed a maximal 4.48 fold increase in food intake comparing to the control at 30 min. There is still more than 2 fold increase in food intake at 120 min after injection of cNPY. Food intake was significantly inhibited by a single ICV injection of anti-cNPY diluted to 1:9000 (60% inhibition, 1:3000 (92% inhibition, and 1:1000 (95% inhibition at 30 min with 1:1000 being the maximally effective concentration. The inhibitory effects of anti-cNPY (diluted to1:9000, 1:3000, 1:1000 at 120 min post ICV injection were 22%, 42% and 46%, respectively. But ICV of anti-cNPY (1:3000 in dilution did not block the orexigenic effect of 2.5 μg/10 μL of cNPY. ICV injection of different concentrations of cNPY increases locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner while ICV anti-cNPY greatly decreased the distance moved by each chick compared to control groups. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cNPY has a promoting effect on chick food intake and locomotor activity, and that endogenous cNPY might play a positive role in regulating precocial feeding behavior in newly hatched chicks.

  11. A new chromosomal race of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in the Vulcano Island-Aeolian Archipelago, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a new Robertsonian (Rb) race of the house mouse from Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago) through the identification of the metacentric chromosomes. We analysed fifteen mice. All the specimens were found to have the same karyotype 2n=26. This karyotype is characterized by Rb(1.2), Rb(3.9), Rb(4.13), Rb(5.14), Rb(8.12), Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17). The differences between the race of Vulcano and the races in a neighbour island (Lipari) consist in the presence of Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17) in the former and Rb(6.16) and Rb(10.15) in the latter. We discuss the possible hypotheses regarding the origin between these two races including the possible occurrence of a whole arm reciprocal translocation (WART) on the Vulcano island.

  12. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify manageme...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA in the hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus: a comparison of two transects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božíková, Eva; Munclinger, P.; Teeter, K. C.; Tucker, P. K.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2005), s. 363-378 ISSN 0024-4066. [The genus Mus as a model for evolutionary studies - a symposium in honour of Louis Thaler. Brno, 28.07.2003-30.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0205; GA ČR GA206/01/0989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : allozyme * gene flow * house mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2005

  14. Utilization of pyrosequencing to monitor the microbiome dynamics of probiotic treated poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) during downstream poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic growth promoters that have been historically employed to control pathogens and increase the rate of animal development for human consumption are currently banned in many countries. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to control pathogenic bacteria. Traditional culture method...

  15. Measurement of the filtration coefficient (Kfc) in the lung of Gallus domesticus and the effects of increased microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, W Jeffrey; Waddell, David S; Furlow, J David

    2006-08-01

    The filtration coefficient (Kfc) is a sensitive measure of microvascular hydraulic conductivity and has been reported for the alveolar lungs of many mammalian species, but not for the parabronchial avian lung. This study reports the Kfc in the isolated lungs of normal chickens and in the lungs of chickens given the edemogenic agents oleic acid (OA) or dimethyl amiloride (DMA). The control Kfc =0.04+/-0.01 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1). This parameter increased significantly following the administration of both OA (0.12+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kPa(-1) g(-1)) and DMA (0.07+/-0.01 ml min kPa(-1) g(-1)). As endothelial cadherins are thought to play a role in the dynamic response to acute lung injury, we utilized Western blot analysis to assess lung cadherin content and Northern blot analysis to assess pulmonary vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin expression following drug administration. Lung cadherin content decreases markedly following DMA, but not OA administration. VE cadherin expression increases as a result of DMA treatment, but is unchanged following OA. Our results suggest that the permeability characteristics of the avian lung are more closely consistent with those of the mammalian rather than the reptilian lung, and, that cadherins may play a significant role in the response to acute increases in avian pulmonary microvascular permeability.

  16. Peripheral temperature drop in response to anticipation and consumption of a signaled palatable reward in laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Randi Oppermann; Stubsjøen, Solveig Marie; Bohlin, Jon; Flø, Andreas; Bakken, Morten

    2012-06-25

    The present study describes effects of anticipation and consumption of a palatable reward on comb surface temperature. The purpose was to investigate temperature responses as a potential physiological indicator of positive emotional states in laying hens. A rise in body temperature in response to stimuli predictive of or during exposure to unpleasant events has been interpreted as evidence of emotions in mammals and avians. However, this phenomenon has so far only been studied during anticipation of or exposure to negative events; i.e., emotions of a negative valence. Infrared thermography was used to record potential alterations in comb surface temperature to a conditioned cue signaling a reward (mealworms) and during reward delivery. On average, comb temperature dropped 1.5 °C (95% CI: +/-1.2 °C) after exposure to CS and consumption of reward (p~0.0014) when initial comb temperature was above 30 °C. Such temperature drop indicates a peripheral vasoconstriction and has clear resemblances to emotional fever as seen during negative emotional states. Thus, we propose that a drop in peripheral temperature reflects emotional arousal more than emotional valence. Substantial temperature responses due to diet-induced thermogenesis were found, further emphasizing a cautious interpretation of altered comb temperature in studies of animal welfare. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Birds in an urban area of Ipatinga city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of urban areas results in changes of natural landscapes, including the creation of several artificial environments. Thus, many animals find new opportunities for survival in these areas. This study aimed to obtain information about the richness, composition, and frequency of occurrence of the trophic guilds of an urban avian community in Ipatinga city, Minas Gerais State, followed by a general description. Between August 2005 and July 2006, 81 days were spent in sampling. From the method of direct observation, 57 species were recorded. The richness estimate for the area was 74.86 species (Chao2. The number of species between rainy and dry periods did not differ (p>0.05. Trophic guilds remained with a ratio of relatively similar species throughout the year, with a predominance of the omnivores and insectivores. Species such as Pitangus sulphuratus, Furnarius rufus and Sicalis flaveola were favored in the open areas. Two exotic species, Columba livia and Passer domesticus, were abundant. These results emphasize the necessity of the existence of natural areas within the urban context, considering not only the protection of the wildlife, but also the improvement of the quality of life in the cities.

  18. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. CARPINTERO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.

  19. Redescriptions and comments on the validity of Acuaria subula and A. skrjabini (Nematoda, Spirurida, Acuariidae), parasites of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Kontrimavichus, Vytautas L; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2013-09-01

    Acuaria subula (Dujardin, 1845) is redescribed by light microcopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of specimens from its type host, Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae), from Curonian Spit (Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia) and Bulgaria. Acuaria skrjabini (Ozerskaya, 1926) is redescribed by LM and SEM on the basis of specimens from Passer domesticus (type host) and P. hispaniolensis (Passeriformes, Passeridae) from Bulgaria. Contrary to previous opinions recognizing A. skrjabini as a junior synonym of A. subula, the present study confirms that they are distinct species. They can be distinguished on the basis of the ratio between the length of cordons and the body length, the ratio between the length of muscular oesophagus and glandular oesophagus, and the ratio between the total length of oesophagus and the body length. In addition, the plates forming the cordons in these two species exhibit different morphological characters. Another difference between these two species is associated with the particular irregular mosaic ornamentation of the cuticle on the ventral and lateral sides of body around the region of vulva of A. subula and its absence in A. skrjabini. Data on their host and geographical ranges are surveyed. The type series of Acuaria buttnerae Chabaud et Petter, 1961, described as a parasite of Calandrella brachydactyla (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in France, is re-examined; the latter species is recognized as a junior synonym of A. skrjabini (new synonymy).

  20. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  1. Feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruno; Sousa, Carla A; Vicente, José L; Pinho, Leonor; Calderón, Isabel; Arez, Eliane; Almeida, António Pg; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2013-04-11

    Two biological forms of the mosquito Culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. In this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in Comporta (Portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded. Indoor and outdoor mosquito collections were performed in the summer of 2010. Collected Cx. pipiens s.l. females were molecularly identified to species and form by PCR and genotyped for six microsatellites. The source of the blood meal in post-fed females was determined by ELISA and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The distribution of the forms differed according to the collection method. The molestus form was present only in indoor collections, whereas pipiens and admixed individuals were sampled both indoors and outdoors. In both forms, over 90% of blood meals were made on avian hosts. These included blood meals taken from Passeriformes (Passer domesticus and Turdus merula) by females caught resting inside domestic shelters. Genetic structure and blood meal analyses suggest the presence of a bird biting molestus population in the study area. Both forms were found to rest indoors, mainly in avian shelters, but at least a proportion of females of the pipiens form may bite outdoors in sylvan habitats and then search for anthropogenic resting sites to complete their gonotrophic cycle. This behaviour may potentiate the accidental transmission of arboviruses to humans in the region.

  2. Barn Owl (Tyto alba Diet Composition on Intensively Used Agricultural Land in the Danube Lowland

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    Tomáš Veselovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on pellets analysis from five localities in south western Slovakia (Malá Mužla, Malé Ripňany, Obid, Opatovský Sokolec and Tešedíkovo, we studied the diet composition of Barn Owl (Tyto alba in intensively cultivated agricultural lands. A total of 6218 specimens of prey, 17 mammalian and 7 bird species were identified. The main prey species found in all food samples was the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis, varying between 56 % and 67 %. The proportion of synanthropic species (Rattus norvegicus, Passer domesticus and species inhabiting agricultural landscapes (Crocidura leucodon, Crocidura suaveolens, Mus sp. increases in localities with a lower ratio of the Common Vole. The results suggest land use affects the diet of Barn Owls, confirming conclusions which have been drawn in previous studies. From faunistic point of view, discovering the Pannonian Root Vole (Microtus oeconomus mehelyi in the diet from Malá Mužla was important.

  3. Granivorous birds and sorghum crop in the province of Villa Clara,Cuba

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    Orlando Miguel Saucedo Castillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the damages granivorous birds cause to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, research based on the determination of the major endemic, migratory birds and their relationship with the distribution were made space of historical meteorological variables in the province in the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions. Population to sorghum producers grouped in different forms surveys were conducted, which yielded a large database, such as the determination of the main grain-eating birds percentage damage incurred, varieties, grain color, growth stage and other indicators. Nine main species affecting sorghum grain-eating birds in our province were recorded; Passer domesticus, Lonchura malacca, Lonchura punctulata, Dives atroviolaceus, Passerina cyanea, Zonotrichia leucophrys, Columbina passerine, Zenaida macroura y Zenaida asiatica. The spatial distribution of meteorological variables and their relation to the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions of the province was determined, based on record four preferential habitat areas. The results allowed us to provide companies and different forms of production in Villa Clara, the possibility of a varietal structure planting of sorghum on the basis of different preferential areas granivorous birds, together with the morphological and physiological characteristics of different genotypes introduced in agricultural production of the province and nationally.

  4. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  5. Coping with Salt Water Habitats: Metabolic and Oxidative Responses to Salt Intake in the Rufous-Collared Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sabat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis could generate differences in basal (BMR and maximum metabolic rates (Msum, as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status. We measured rates of energy expenditure of birds after 30-d acclimation to drink salt (SW or tap (fresh water (TW and assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney. Finally, we evaluated the oxidative status of bird tissues by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid oxidative damage (Malondialdehyde, MDA. The results revealed a significant increase in BMR but not Msum, which resulted in a reduction in factorial aerobic scope in SW- vs. TW-acclimated birds. These changes were paralleled with increased kidney and intestine masses and catabolic activities in tissues, especially in pectoralis muscle. We also found that TAC and MDA concentrations were ~120 and ~400% higher, respectively in the liver of animals acclimated to the SW- vs. TW-treatment. Our study is the first to document changes in the oxidative status in birds that persistently drink saltwater, and shows that they undergo several physiological adjustments that range that range in scale from biochemical capacities (e.g., TAC and MDA to whole organism traits (e.g., metabolic rates. We propose that the physiological changes observed in Z. capensis acclimated to saltwater could be common phenomena in birds and likely explain selection of prey containing little salt and habitats associated with low salinity.

  6. What has happened to the “aquatic phycomycetes” (sensu Sparrow)? Part I: A brief historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleason, Frank H.; Marano, Agostina V.; Lilje, Osu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The “aquatic phycomycetes” constitute an ecologically and economically important assemblage of eukaryotic microorganisms, because they share many morphological traits and important ecological functions and they interact with each other in aquatic ecosystems. The last two decades of resea...

  7. "Better a Live Sparrow than a Stuffed Eagle": Towards a Translation of Guillaume de Machaut's "Dit de l'Alerion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Brenda

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some special problems in translating medieval poetry into a modern language while conveying the original meaning, emotional tone and word play. The discussion centers on the poetry of Machaut, a medieval poet of interest to English scholars because of his influence on Chaucer. (AMH)

  8. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Narat, Mojca; Biček, Ajda; Vadnjal, Robert; Benčina, Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY) shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of...

  9. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  10. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

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    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  11. Poročilo o obročkanju ptic v Sloveniji v letu 2016 in pojavljanje mušje listnice Phylloscopus inornatus v 25 letih v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, data on 176 bird species were gathered during bird ringing activities in Slovenia. A total of 65,711 birds of 165 different species were ringed. Furthermore, 148 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 245 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1840 local recoveries were made. The most frequently ringed species was the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Among the ringed nestlings, Great Tits Parus major, Tree Sparrows Passer montanus and White Storks Ciconia ciconia predominated. Considering recoveries of birds ringed or found abroad, the most frequent were finds based on colour rings, especially of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Mute Swans Cygnus olor and Common Terns Sterna hirundo. As far as local recoveries are concerned, most data were collected for Great Tit and Siskin Spinus spinus. Among rare species, two Yellow-browed Warblers Phylloscopus inornatus were ringed, one Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola, one Little Emberiza pusilla and one Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala, the latter as a singing male, which probably also bred in 2016. The catch frequency of the Yellow-browed Warblers has indeed been increasing in Slovenia in the last 25 years, but this is still a rare and irregular vagrant on autumn migration.

  12. A avifauna de uma área urbana do município de Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Gomes Fuscaldi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n3p125 O desenvolvimento das áreas urbanas resulta na transformação das paisagens naturais, incluindo a criação de vários ambientes artificiais.  Desta forma, muitos animais encontram novas oportunidades de sobre-vivência nestas áreas. Este trabalho visou obter informações sobre a riqueza, composição, freqüência de ocorrência e uma descrição das guildas alimentares de uma comunidade de aves urbana do município de Ipatinga, MG. Entre agosto de 2005 e julho de 2006, 81 dias foram gastos nas amostragens. A partir do método de observação direta, 57 espécies de aves foram registradas. A estimativa de riqueza para a área foi de 74,86 espécies (Chao2. O número de espécies entre  os períodos chuvoso e seco não diferiu entre si (p>0,05. As guildas tróficas permaneceram com proporções de espécies relativamente similares ao longo do ano, com o predomínio dos onívoros e insetívoros. Espécies como Pitangus sulphuratus, Furnarius rufus e Sicalis flaveola parecem ter sido favorecidas pelas áreas abertas. Duas espécies exóticas, Columba livia e Passer domesticus, foram muito freqüentes no local. Estes resultados enfatizam a necessidade de existência de áreas naturais sob o contexto urbano, considerando não apenas a proteção da vida silvestre, mas também a melhoria da qualidade de vida nas cidades.

  13. Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, A M; Ayieko, M A; Konyole, S O

    2017-01-01

    of the study was to develop a recipe for cricket biscuits suitable for school feeding programmes and test acceptability of the biscuits in Kenyan schoolchildren, in comparison with a similar biscuit with milk. The study was randomised and parallel. Fifty-four children aged 5-10 years were served 100 g (range...... 98-102 g) biscuits containing either 10% cricket powder or 10% milk powder during school days for four weeks. At baseline anthropometry (weight, height, mid upper arm circumference) was measured and information on insect consumption and allergies collected. Daily, weight of biscuits eaten...

  14. Testosterone stimulates progesterone production and STAR, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and LH receptor mRNAs expression in hen (Gallus domesticus) granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, P L; Rodríguez, A; Rojas, S; Sharp, P J; Gutierrez, C G

    2009-12-01

    The chicken ovary is organized into a hierarchy of yellow yolky follicles that ovulate on successive days. Active or passive immunization of laying hens against testosterone blocks ovulation without affecting follicle development. Testosterone may play a role in pre-ovulatory follicle maturation by stimulating granulosa progesterone production. We assessed whether this stimulus is dose-related and depends on the maturity of the donor follicle, and if it does so by stimulating granulosa cell STAR, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNAs expression. Progesterone production by granulosa cells from F1, F3, and F4 follicles, cultured for 3 h without testosterone was greater in cells collected 11-14 h than 1-4 h after ovulation. These differences in progesterone production were less pronounced after granulosa cells had been cultured for 24 h. Culture of granulosa cells for 3 or 24 h with testosterone (1-100 ng/ml) stimulated progesterone production in cells collected from F4, F3, or F1 follicles 1-4, or 11-14 h after ovulation. Testosterone (0-4000 ng/ml) alone or in combination with LH (0-100 ng/ml) increased progesterone production by F1 granulosa cells, collected 1-4 and 11-14 h after ovulation and cultured for 3 h. Finally, testosterone (10 or 100 ng/ml) increased STAR, P450scc, and LHCGR mRNAs, when added to 3 h cultures of F1 granulosa cells. In conclusion, testosterone stimulates granulosa cell progesterone production in hen pre-ovulatory hierarchical follicles irrespective of maturational state, acting alone or additively with LH. We propose that testosterone promotes granulosa cell maturation to facilitate the pre-ovulatory release of LH.

  15. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  16. Murine cytomegalovirus is not restricted to the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus: prevalence and genetic diversity in the European house mouse hybrid zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Albrechtová, Jana; Sobeková, Karolina; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2015), s. 406-414 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35009S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : maximum likelihood * viral antibodies * wild mice * strains * recombination * mitochondrial * Australia * evolution * virus * model Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.606, year: 2015

  17. Immune cells in the normal ovary and spontaneous ovarian tumors in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus) model of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradaric, Michael J; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Bahr, Janice M; Luborsky, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials.

  18. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  19. Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats ( Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Moura, L; Majumdar, D; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Kelly, P; Krecek, R C; Su, C

    2009-05-01

    Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test, and found in 71 of 96 (73.9%) of cats with titres of 1:10 in six, 1: 20 in six,1:40 in seven,1: 80 in three, 1: 160 in 10, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in nine, and 1:1,280 or higher in 17. Tissues of 10 cats were bio-assayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 7 cats; from hearts of 6, from tongue of 5, and brains of 3 cats. All 7 isolates were avirulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in the feces of 51 cats. Genotyping of these 7 T. gondii isolates by 10 multi-locus PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker, Apico, revealed 4 genotypes, including clonal Type II, Type III and 2 unique genotypes. Five of the 7 cats had infection with 2 genotypes, indicating high frequency of mixed infection in the cat population on the St Kitts island.

  20. The effect of multiple simple Robertsonian heterozygosity on chromosome pairing and fertility of wild-stock house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B M N; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Robertsonian (Rb) heterozygosity on fertility has been the subject of much study in the house mouse. However, these studies have been largely directed at single simple heterozygotes (heterozygous for a single Rb metacentric) or complex heterozygotes (heterozygous for several to many metacentrics which share common chromosome arms). In this paper we describe studies on male multiple simple heterozygotes, specifically the F(1) products of crosses between wild-stock mice homozygous for four or seven metacentrics and wild-stock mice with a standard all-acrocentric karyotype; these F(1) products were characterized by four and seven trivalents at meiosis I, respectively. Mice with the same karyotype, but two different genetic backgrounds were examined. Although a range of meiotic and fertility studies were conducted, particular emphasis was paid to analysis of chromosome pairing, previously not well-described in multiple simple heterozygous mice. The progression of spermatocytes through prophase I was followed by electron microscopy of surface spread material. As previously shown for single simple Rb heterozygotes, the trivalents that characterize multiple simple heterozygotes initially showed delayed pairing of the centromeric region and later showed side arm formation, resulting from non-homologous pairing by the centromeric ends of the acrocentric chromosomes. In the four trivalent groups of mice, 15 and 32% of trivalents showed unpairing in the centromeric region at mid pachytene; equivalent values were 29 and 39% for the seven trivalent groups. Pairing abnormalities (largely attachments and interlocks between trivalents and between a trivalent and the XY configuration) were observed in 18 and 23% of mid pachytene cells in the four trivalent groups and 36 and 49% of cells in the seven trivalent groups. The greater level of pachytene irregularity (unpairing and pairing abnormalities) in seven versus four trivalent heterozygotes was mirrored in terms of higher anaphase I nondisjunction frequency and lower germ cell counts. However, while pachytene irregularities appear to contribute to germ cell death, examples of male sterility in our material undoubtedly also involve genic incompatibilities. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The role of salivary androgen-binding protein in reproductive isolation between two subspecies of house mouse: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bímová, Barbora; Karn, R. C.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2005), s. 349-361 ISSN 0024-4066. [The genus Mus as a model for evolutionary studies - a symposium in honour of Louis Thaler. Brno, 28.07.2003-30.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093201; GA AV ČR IAA6045902 Grant - others:National Research Council(US) COBASE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : assortative mating * hybrid zone * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2005

  2. The 18-kDa form of cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) is associated with gelatin- and fibronectin-degrading activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, P C; Wan, H; Schou, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fel d 1, an important allergen from domestic cats, is a significant cause of asthma. In addition to directly promoting IgE synthesis, other biological activities of allergens may contribute to either allergic sensitization or the magnitude of allergic effector responses. For example...

  3. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  4. Epitope mapping of salmonella flagellar hook-associated protein, FlgK, with mass spectrometry-based immuno-capture proteomics using chicken (gallus gallus domesticus] sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, a Gram-negative rod, is the leading foodborne pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The Salmonella flagellum is responsible for bacterial movement, colonization and invasion in the host gastrointestinal tract. The flagellum has a complex structure, c...

  5. Reflective properties of domestic fowl (Gallus g. domesticus), the fabric of their housing and the characteristics of the light environment in environmentally controlled poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, N B; Wathes, C M

    1999-05-01

    1. The light intensity and spectral power distribution in 3 broiler and 6 layer houses were sampled and converted to a measure which takes account of the domestic fowl's spectral sensitivity (termed lux corrected). Light intensity was highly variable around the layer houses (mean 33.2, s.d. 37.7 lux (corrected)) and to a lesser extent in the broiler houses (mean 5.2, s.d. 2.2 lux (corrected)). The mean intensities were also very much lower than on a sunny, June day at midday at Silsoe (42,937 lux (corrected)) and of different power distributions. 2. The reflectivity of the plumage of 15 traditional breeds of domestic fowl was surveyed. Most feathers showed a characteristic pattern of reflectivity, increasing either side of a wavelength of lambda = 400 nm. In 13 breeds the tail and wing feathers were darker than the breast and back feathers. Reflectivity at lambda = 700 nm was a good predictor of reflectivity at lambda = 320 nm. Food, bedding, wood and skin all had similar reflectivities to feathers. Metal, plastic and rubber all had more constant reflectivities across the spectrum. 3. The reflectivities of the fresh, feathered carcases of 3 male broilers (Cobb) and 3 layer hens (ISA Brown) were measured. There were small changes in hue and saturation within and between individual carcases, even for the apparently white broiler chickens. 4. Photographs were taken, with and without a UV(A)-only pass filter, of a broiler cock (Cobb), layer hen (ISA Brown) and cock jungle fowl. No additional patternation was evident in the UV(A)-only photographs and the jungle fowl lost most of its ornamentation. The texture of bare skin was enhanced in the UV(A)-only photographs. 5. The implications of these results for poultry behaviour are discussed.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO COMPARATIVA DA METODOLOGIA DE DETERMINAÇÃO DA ÁREA DE OLHO DE LOMBO EM SUÍNOS (Sus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURÍCIO DE PAULA FERREIRA TEIXEIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In studies involving the carcass characteristics conducted at the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Piauí, the linear measurements of rib eye area (REA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA have been carried out by the plastic grid method, in which readings are made by counting in cm². In order to test this widelyused approach, this study aimed at conducting a comparison among three other more or less precise procedures in order to verify the traditional method accuracy. To estimate the effect of both genetic patterns and the four determination methods (Feedback, AutoCAD, Planimeter, and Weighing on REA and SFA, analysis of variance (ANOVA was used in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. There was no difference among the four methodologies and the feedback method shows easier implementation, more practicality and reliability to be used in researches.

  7. Microbial counts of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from different rearing companies and different production batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-02-02

    The rising interest in insects for human consumption and the changing regulations in Europe require a profound insight into the food safety of insects reared and sold in Western society. The microbial quality of edible insects has only been studied occasionally. This study aimed at generating an overview of intrinsic parameters (pH, water activity and moisture content) and microbial quality of fresh mealworm larvae and crickets for several rearing companies and for several batches per rearer. In total, 21 batches obtained from 7 rearing companies were subjected to analysis of intrinsic parameters, a range of plate counts and presence-absence tests for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The microbial counts of the fresh insects were generally high. Different rearing batches from a single rearing company showed differences in microbial counts which could not be explained by variations in intrinsic properties. The largest variations were found in numbers of bacterial endospores, psychrotrophs and fungi. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples. Altogether, our study shows that large variations were found between batches from individual rearers. As a consequence, no overall differences between rearers could be observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and RFLP Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, Revealed Widespread and Dominance of Clonal Type III Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra N; Tiwari, Keshaw P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7 chickens, 50 in 6 chickens, 100 in 2 chickens, and 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T. gondii DNA extracted from cell-cultured tachyzoites using the 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed 4 genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP no. 2 (Type III), no. 7, no. 13, and no. 259 (new). These results indicated that T. gondii population genetics in free-range chickens seems to be moderately diverse with ToxoDB no. 2 (Type III) as the most frequent (15/20 = 75%) compared to other genotypes in Grenada.

  9. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in free-range chicken(Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, revealed widespread and dominance of clonal type III parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to estimate the prevalence and to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with ...

  10. The first study of molecular prevalence and species characterization of Cryptosporidium in free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Maria Paula de Carvalho; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Vieira, Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Sasse, João Pedro; Barros, Luiz Daniel de; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2017-01-01

    Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.

  11. Exposure to increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness and increases use of three-dimensional space in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors, would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160 were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80 in an aviary and the other half (n = 80 in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by ANOVA on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis (PCA. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds had lower levels of fearfulness, compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency towards a more active behavioral response in the aviary- than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform and upper perch compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens.

  12. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Algumas características morfológicas segmentares da parede da aorta de galo doméstico (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medeiros de Mello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura segmentar da parede aórtica foi estudada em galo doméstico, em níveis torácico e abdominal, nas dimensões de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Secções histológicas selecionadas foram submetidas a estudos histomorfométricos usando métodos de análises de imagens. As variáveis analisadas foram as espessuras das túnicas da parede aórtica em três segmentos investigados, compreendendo as porções ascendente torácica; descendente torácica e abdominal, bem como os diâmetros tubulares, em cada porção, e o número médio de lamelas elásticas na túnica média de cada segmento analisado. A parede aórtica do galo doméstico apresenta estrutura predominantemente elástica nas porções torácicas, cujo número relativo de lamelas elásticas decresce gradualmente para a parte abdominal da aorta, onde células musculares lisas predominam. Os diâmetros aórticos decrescem também gradualmente, e progressivamente, da porção torácica ascendente para a porção torácica descendente, e desta para a porção abdominal da aorta.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  15. Genome-wide architecture of reproductive isolation in a naturally occurring hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, V.; Wang, L.; Luzynski, K.; Dufková, Petra; Mrkvicová Vyskočilová, Martina; Nachman, M. W.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2012), s. 3032-3047 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : genomics * proteomics * hybridization * mammals * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.275, year: 2012

  16. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5 gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5 full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE. Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12. Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1 and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5.

  17. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Interferon-Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) Gene in Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunyu; Su, Yanhui; Liu, Ran; Huang, Zhengyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Qingming; Chang, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN) dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5) full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE). Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12). Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C) infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5. PMID:25816333

  18. The influence of gamma radiation on catheptic activity and on ultrastructure of lysosomes and postmortem skeletal muscle of poultry Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mumtaz.

    1975-01-01

    A three-part study is presented dealing with radiation-induced release of cathepsins from isolated lysosomes, irradiation inactivation of cathepsins, and ultrastructural changes in irradiated lysosomes and skeletal muscle. After chicken liver lysosomes were irradiated with 0.1 to 1.0 Mrad of gamma radiation a decrease in absorbance at 540 nm of lysosomal suspensions and an increase of free enzyme activity due to a release of cathepsins were noted. Examination of irradiated isolated lysosomes by electron microscopy showed leakage of material from weak points in the lysosomal membrane. Examination of irradiated chicken pectoralis muscle revealed an increase in interfibrillar spaces and some breaks in the myofibres. (LL)

  19. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  20. Examining a pathway for hormone mediated maternal effects - Yolk testosterone affects androgen receptor expression and endogenous testosterone production in young chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfannkuche, K. A.; Gahr, M.; Weites, I. M.; Riedstra, B.; Wolf, C.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2011-01-01

    In vertebrates maternal androgens can substantially influence developing offspring, inducing both short and long term changes in physiology and behavior, including androgen sensitive traits. However, how the effects of maternal hormones are mediated remains unknown. Two possible pathways are that

  1. Evaluation of the immune response in Shitou geese (Anser anser domesticus) following immunization with GPV-VP1 DNA-based and live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shu-xuan; Cai, Ming-sheng; Cui, Wei; Huang, Jin-lu; Li, Mei-li

    2014-01-01

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) is a highly contagious and deadly disease for goslings and Muscovy ducklings. To compare the differences in immune response of geese immunized with GPV-VP1 DNA-based and live attenuated vaccines. Shitou geese were immunized once with either 20 μg pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA gene vaccine by gene gun bombardment via intramuscular injection, or 300 μg by i.m. injection, or 300 μL live attenuated vaccine by i.m. injection, whereas 300 μg pcDNA3.1 (+) i.m. or 300 μL saline i.m. were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Each group comprised 28 animals. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 2-210 days after immunization and the proliferation of T lymphocytes, the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the level of IgG assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance with group multiple comparisons via Tukey's test. The pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA and attenuated vaccine induced cellular and humoral responses, and there were no differences between the 20 and 300 μg group in the responses of proliferation of T lymphocyte and the CD8(+) T-cell. However, as to CD4(+) T-cell response and humoral immunity, the 20 μg group performed better than the 300 μg group, which induced better cellular and humoral immunity than live attenuated vaccine. This study showed that it is possible to induce both cellular and humoral response using DNA-based vaccines and that the pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA gene vaccine induced better cellular and humoral immunity than live attenuated vaccine.

  2. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. Published 2015. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Effect of an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field emitted during embryogenesis on the blood picture of one-day-old domestic hen chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pawlak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields emitted mainly by mobile telephony has been steadily increasing with the development of modern technology. Haematological indices are among the most common indicators of the body’s physiological status. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field emission on the blood picture of one-day-old domestic hen chicks. During the experiment, chick embryos were exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields throughout incubation for 13 ´ 2 min/day, 4 ´ 10 min/day and 1 ´ 40 min/day. After hatching, blood was collected from 10 one-day-old chicks from each group to determine: red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, and leukocyte differential count. In addition, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was calculated. The present study is probably the first to show an increase in the red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, white blood cell count, segmented heterophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage of embryos exposed to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field. The observed changes may be indicative of the stress-inducing effect of EMF on living organisms.

  4. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  6. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Najihah M. Nor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines. The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such

  7. Facultative nest patch shifts in response to nest predation risk in the Brewer's sparrow: a "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna D. Chalfoun; Thomas E. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Facultative shifts in nesting habitat selection in response to perceived predation risk may allow animals to increase the survival probability of sessile offspring. Previous studies on this behavioral strategy have primarily focused on single attributes, such as the distance moved or changes in nesting substrate. However, nest site choice often encompasses multiple...

  8. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em galinhas (Gallus gallus domesticus de criações domésticas, oriundas de propriedades rurais do Norte do Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in back yard chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus from rural properties in North region of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário que pode infectar todos os animais homeotérmicos. No presente trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em galinhas de criações domésticas (fundo de quintal, oriundas de propriedades rurais localizadas no município de Jaguapitã, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Estudos prévios demostraram que o parasita está amplamente disseminado nas diferentes espécies de animais domésticos, de companhia e no homem nessas mesmas propriedades. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo a positividade considerada para àqueles títulos maiores ou iguais a 16. Foram estudados 155 soros , sendo que 16 (10,3% foram reagentes à toxoplasmose, e 139 (89,7% não reagentes. Os títulos mais freqüentes foram de 64 (5/31,2%, 16 e 1024 (ambos com 4/25% e o maior t��tulo encontrado foi de 1024 (4/25%. A soroprevalência do T. gondii não foi influenciada pelo sexo da ave (Exato de Fisher p = 0,12, pela finalidade da criação (corte ou postura, Exato de Fisher p = 0,39, pela percentagem de felinos sororeagentes na propriedade (r = -0,19 p = 0,27, nem pelo número de felinos sororeagentes (r = -0,09 p = 0,60. Através do presente trabalho, demostrou-se uma ocorrência elevada da resposta sorológica ao T. gondii em aves domésticas oriundas de propriedades rurais neste município, conseqüentemente esses animais podem representar risco de infecção para o homem e para outros animais quando consumidos crus ou mal cozidos.Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that can infect all homeothermic animals. The occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in back yard chicken, from rural properties of Jaguapitã county, Paraná State, Brazil was studied, serun samples were analysed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA. Titers higher or equal to 16 were considered positives. A total of 155 sera were studied, 16 (10.3% of which were positive to T. gondii, whereas 139 (89.7% were non-reactive. The most frequent titers were 64 (5/31.2%; 16 (4/25% and 1024 (4/25%; whereas the highest titer was 1024 (4/25%. The seropreavlence of T. gondii was not influenced by avian sex (Fisher exact p = 0.12, by the avian purpose (fisher exact p = 0.39, by the percentage of positive cats in the same property (r = -0.19 p = 0.27, nor by the number of positive cats (r = -0.09 p = 0.60. The present work showed a high occurrence of antibody against T. gondii in domestic chicken from rural properties in Jaguapitã county. These animals may be source of infection to human beings and to other animals when consumed raw or semiraw.

  9. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  10. Comprehensive Status and Trends of Nitrogen Loads to Estuaries in the Conterminous United States: Pacific Coast Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models to estimate status and trends of potential nitrogen loads to estuaries of the conterminous United States. The original Regional SPARROW models predict average detrended loads by source ...

  11. Birds of a Great Basin Sagebrush Habitat in East-Central Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Breeding bird populations ranged from 3.35 to 3.48 individuals/ha over a 3-year study conducted from 1981 to 1983. Brewer's sparrows, sage sparrows, sage thrashers, and black-throated sparrows were numerically dominant. Horned larks and western meadowlarks were less common. Results are compared with bird populations in Great Basin sagebrush habitats elsewhere in the United States.

  12. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  13. Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium muris originated from wild West-European house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and East-European house mice (Mus musculus musculus) are non-infectious for pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Květoňová, Dana; Kotková, M.; Ortega, Y.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2012), s. 107-110 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0640 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pigs * Cryptosporidium tyzzeri * Cryptosporidium muris * Experimental infection * PCR * Histology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014489412001105

  14. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  16. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): An in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csillag, A.; Bourne, R.C.; Stewart, M.G. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (England))

    1990-12-15

    Three highly specific opioid ligands--(D-Ala2,Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAGO) for mu (mu) receptor sites, (D-Pen2,D-Pen5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta (delta) sites, and U-69593 for kappa (kappa) sites--were used to determine the regional distribution of the three major subtypes of opioid receptor binding sites in the brains of 1-day-old domestic chicks by the technique of quantitative receptor autoradiography. While there was a degree of heterogeneity in the binding levels of each of the ligands, some notable similarities existed in the binding of the mu and kappa ligands in several forebrain regions, and in the optic tectum of the midbrain where mu and delta binding was very high. In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale. Levels of binding of the mu and kappa ligands were also high in nucleus basalis, and (for mu only) in the neostriatum. The distribution of binding of the delta specific ligand in the forebrain showed marked differences to that of mu and kappa, being particularly low in the hyperstriatum and neostriatum. Very high levels of labelling of delta binding sites were, however, found in the nucleus rotundus. Binding of the three ligands was generally low or absent in the cerebellum and medulla, apart from a distinct labelling of the granule cell layer by the mu-ligand. A kinetic analysis was made of the binding of the three ligands to whole forebrain sections using scintillation counting methods.

  17. Análise cromossômica e molecular do javali europeu Sus scrofa scrofa e do suíno doméstico Sus scrofa domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Lucano Gimenez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação teve como objetivos: analisar animais presentes em diferentes criações de javalis no estado de São Paulo, com o intuito de auxiliar a identificação de javalis "puros" assim como javalis híbridos provenientes do cruzamento com o suíno doméstico, para tanto foram utilizadas avaliação do fenótipo dos animais, análises citogenéticas e da técnica molecular de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.O estudo do número de cromossomos nas células diplóides em 104 animais destinados a análise citogenética e fenotípica, revelou polimorfismo de 2n=36, 37 e 38 cromossomos. Por meio da técnica de bandamento GTG foi possível identificação da translocação Robertsoniana entre os cromossomos 15 e 17 como responsável por esse polimorfismo. Todavia, somente com a análise citogenética isolada, não foi possível determinar se a origem desse polimorfismo é decorrente das hibridações com o suíno doméstico ou se são características inerentes ao javali. Contudo, quando associado a análise citogenética com as características fenotípicas, foi possível identificar a existência de hibridações. A análise citogenética nos animais submetidos a técnica de RAPD, revelou 2n=36 cromossomos nos 16 javalis assim como 2n=38 cromossomos nos 11 suínos e, por meio dessa técnica, foram possíveis agrupamentos, separando o suíno doméstico, javali e um possível híbrido revelando-se uma técnica com potencial no auxílio da identificação de híbridos.

  18. Caracterización morfométrica de la gallina de cuello desnudo (Gallus domesticus nudecollis en la región ch'ortí de Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jáuregui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfométrica, faneróptica y morfológicamente a gallinas y gallos de cuello desnudo (324 hembras y 60 machos en los cuatro municipios de la región ch’ortí de Chiquimula. Las variables evaluadas fueron 18 cuantitativas para la hembra y 16 para el macho, nueve cualitativas y ocho índices zoométricos. El análisis delas variables zoométricas se realizó a través del procedimiento análisis univariado, con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión, y para analizar la proporcionalidad y armonía entre las diversas regiones corporales mediante la correlación de Pearson. Los resultados principales son: peso de 1.84 kg/hembra y 2.29 kg/macho; alzada 27.84 cm/hembra y 32.51 cm/macho; metatarso 10.25 cm/hembra y 11.76 cm/macho; ambos tienen más alzada que longitud, inclinados hacia adelante; en cuanto a sus perímetros, el abdominal es el mayor y curvado característica de las gallinas ponedoras y una grupa alargada con dorso plano. Sus índices corporales son aves alargadas, con capacidad reproductiva (índice pélvico 71.82% y poca formación de músculo para la producción de carne (índice compacidad 6.80%/hembra y 7.03%/macho, cabeza alargada, tórax elíptico y miembros fuertes y altos. Las características morfológicas y fanerópticas describen un ave de piel blanca, metatarso amarillo, plumas en garganta, cresta simple con barbilla y orejuelas, los colores de pluma son la combinación de marrón, negro, gris y blanco, el color de la cáscara varia del blanco al marrón claro y con una armonización corporal hasta del 61% lo que le da una homogeneidad medianamente aceptable a la morfoestructura de la gallina.

  19. História da colonização do ratinho-caseiro, Mus musculus domesticus, em ilhas AtLânticas (Madeira, Açores e Cabo Verde): uma abordagem multilocus

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Sofia Carromeu dos

    2017-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2017 As ilhas oceânicas são consideradas laboratórios naturais para o estudo da evolução. Os humanos são também agentes de colonização de várias espécies, nomeadamente, mamíferos terrestres, ao transportarem, ativa ou passivamente, estes animais para as ilhas. Uma das introduções mediadas pelo Homem mais icónicas envolve a disseminação mundial do ratinho-caseiro, principalmente da sub-...

  20. Origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático em fetos de suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758) da linhagem Pen Ar Lan

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lázaro Antônio; Silva, Frederico Ozanam Carneiro; Rosa, Luciana Aparecida; Menezes, Lorena Tannús; Canabrava, Álvaro Carneiro Matoso Nunes; Lizardo, Frederico Balbino; Silva, Daniela Cristina Oliveira; Sousa, Gilmar Cunha

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p147 Estudou-se a origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático em 31 fetos de suínos da linhagem Pen Ar Lan, sendo 22 machos e nove fêmeas, após ser fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Nesses, animais, as vértebras lombares variaram de cinco a sete, com predominância de seis, o que contribuiu para variações na origem do referido nervo. O nervo isquiático originou-se em 80,64% dos antímeros, do ramo ventral do quinto nervo espinhal lomb...

  1. Origem e distribuição dos nervos femorais em fetos suínos (SUS Scrofa Domesticus – Linneaus, 1758) do cruzamento das linhagens Dan Bred e AGPIC337

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Gustavo Cavinato

    2016-01-01

    Estudou-se em 30 fetos suínos oriundos do cruzamento das linhagens Dan Bred e AGPIC337, natimortos, a origem e distribuição do nervo femoral, os quais foram fixados em solução de formaldeído a 10%. Em 96,67% dos animais o número de vértebras lombares foram seis e em 3,33% sete. O nervo femoral originou-se de L4 e L5 (66,67%), L5 e L6 (26,67%) e L3 e L4 (6,66%). Em relação a sua distribuição emitiu ramos para os músculos psoas maior, psoas menor, ilíaco, pectíneo, quadríceps femoral em 100% do...

  2. Origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático em fetos de suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758 da linhagem Pen Ar Lan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Antônio Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p147 Estudou-se a origem e distribuição do nervo isquiático em 31 fetos de suínos da linhagem Pen Ar Lan, sendo 22 machos e nove fêmeas, após ser fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Nesses, animais, as vértebras lombares variaram de cinco a sete, com predominância de seis, o que contribuiu para variações na origem do referido nervo. O nervo isquiático originou-se em 80,64% dos antímeros, do ramo ventral do quinto nervo espinhal lombar (L5; em 96,77% de L6; em 6,45% de L7; em 100% de S1; e em 64,51% de S2. A composição do referido nervo ocorreu em 45,16% dos animais pela união de L5, L6, S1 e S2; em 32,25% de L5, L6 e S1; em 12,90% de L6, S1 e S2; em 6,45% de L6, L7 e S1; e em 3,22% de L5, S1 e S2. Houve simetria na origem do nervo isquiático em todos os espécimes estudados. Esse nervo emitiu ramos para os músculos glúteo superficial, semitendinoso, semimembranoso e bíceps femoral em todos os espécimes, e em menor frequência, para os músculos gêmeos, quadrado femoral, adutores, e glúteos médio, acessório e profundo. Em 74,19% da amostra, foi observado um ramo comunicante com nervo pudendo.

  3. Ocorrência de endoparasitas com potencial zoonótico de transmissão em fezes de gatos (Felis catus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 domiciliados na área urbana e região metropolitana de Castro – Paraná - Brasil / The occurrence of endoparasites with zoonotic potential of transmission in feces of cats (Felis catus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 domiciled in the urban and metropolitan areas of Castro - Paraná-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs doenças parasitárias de natureza gastrintestinal destacam-se entre as mais frequentes e importantes afecções envolvendo gatos neonatos, jovens e adultos. Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência de endoparasitos, trinta e oito amostras de fezes colhidas de gatos domiciliados na área urbana e região metropolitana da cidade de Castro (PR foram analisadas, mediante a técnica de Willis. Dezenove amostras (50,0% apresentaram resultado positivo para a presença de ovos e cistos de endoparasitas; houve predomínio de cistos de Cystoisospora spp. em dez (52,63%. Registrou-se a presença de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. em duas amostras (10,53%, Toxocara spp. em duas (10,53% e cápsulas ovígeras e proglotes de Dipylidium caninum em uma (5,26%. Foi observada associação entre dois gêneros de parasitas em três amostras: a primeira contaminada com ovos de Toxocara spp. e Ancylostoma spp. (10,53%, a segunda com cistos de Giardia sp. e Cystoisospora spp. (5,26%, enquanto ovos de Toxocara spp. e proglotes e cápsulas ovigeras de Dipylidium caninum tiveram seu achado reportado na terceira amostra (5,26%. A identificação de diferentes gêneros de endoparasitas comprova o risco potencial de contaminação para outros animais e pessoas e ressalta a importância de um maior controle parasitológico em gatos.AbstractParasitic diseases of gastrointestinal kind stand out as the most frequent and important diseases involving newborn, young and adult cats. In order to verify the occurrence of endoparasites, thirty eight feces samples, which were collected from cats residing in the urban and metropolitan areas of the city of Castro-Paraná, were analyzed through the Willis technique. Nineteen samples (50.0% tested positive for the presence of eggs and cysts of endoparasites; Cystoisospora spp. Cysts predominated in ten of them (52.63%. There were eggs of Ancylostoma spp. in two samples (10.53%, Toxocara sp. in two (10.53%, and egg capsules and proglottids of Dipylidium caninum in one of the samples (5.26%. It was also observed the association between two kinds of parasites in two samples. One of them was contaminated with eggs of Toxocara spp./Ancylostoma spp.(10.53%, and the other one with cysts of Giardia sp./Cystoisospora spp. (5.26%. Eggs, proglottids and egg capsules of Toxocara spp./Dipilidium caninum were found in one sample (5.26%. The identification of different kinds of endoparasites is a proof of the potential risk of contamination to other animals and people, emphasizing the importance of greater parasitological control in cats.

  4. Gözeli yöresindeki (Elazığ meşe (Quercus sp . ormanlarına asılan yapay yuvalardaki böcekçil kuşların kuluçka faaliyetleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Elazığ Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü sınırları içerisinde yer alan Elazığ ili Sivrice ilçesi Gözeli mevkiinde bulunan meşe ormanlarında, 2009-2013 yılları arasında gerçekleştirilen bu çalışma ile farklı bakılara asılan farklı renkteki küçük ve büyük yuva sandıklarında yuva yapan kuş türleri ve bu türlerin kuluçka faaliyetlerinin saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Kuluçkalarını başarı ile tamamlayan kuş türlerinin Otus scops haricindeki türlerin hepsi, hem küçük hem de büyük yuvaları kullanmıştır. Öncelikli yuva tercihleri şu şekilde olmuştur: Parus major küçük yuvaların %66,4’ünde, Cyanistes caeruleus büyük yuvaların %16,3’ünde, Sitta europaea büyük yuvaların %23,2’sinde, Petronia petronia küçük yuvaların %15,2’sinde, Passer domesticus büyük yuvaların %27,9’unda, Otus scops ise sadece büyük yuvaların %7’sinde yuvalanmıştır. Asılan yuvalarda başarılı kuluçka durumunun farklı kuş türlerine göre bakı tercihleri arasında farklılıklar bulunmaktadır. Büyük yuvalarda güney (%39,5, doğu (%34,9, kuzey (%16,3 ve batı (%9,3’dır. Küçük yuvalarda ise güney (%33,2, doğu (%27,2, batı (%20,8 ve kuzey (%18,8’dir.Farklı renklerde asılan kuş yuvalarında başarılı kuluçka yapan kuş türlerinin renk tercihleri değişmektedir. Büyük yuvalarda, Parus major yeşil yuvaları, Cyanistes caeruleus sarı yuvaları, Sitta europaea turuncu yuvaları, Petronia petronia sarı ve mavi yuvaları, Passer domesticus sarı, mavi ve boyanmamış yuvaları daha fazla tercih etmişlerdir. Kuşların yuva tercihinde yuva boyutu, renk ve bakının türler arası farklılık gösterdiği ortaya çıkmıştır. Bir türün daha yoğun bulunduğu alanda, o türe uygun yuva tercihinin gerçekleştirilerek asılması biyolojik mücadele kapsamında daha verimli sonuçlar elde edilmesini sağlayacaktır.

  5. Regression with Sparse Approximations of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noorzad, Pardis; Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose sparse approximation weighted regression (SPARROW), a method for local estimation of the regression function that uses sparse approximation with a dictionary of measurements. SPARROW estimates the regression function at a point with a linear combination of a few regressands selected...... by a sparse approximation of the point in terms of the regressors. We show SPARROW can be considered a variant of \\(k\\)-nearest neighbors regression (\\(k\\)-NNR), and more generally, local polynomial kernel regression. Unlike \\(k\\)-NNR, however, SPARROW can adapt the number of regressors to use based...

  6. 76 FR 65527 - Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County, CA: Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... virens), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), and... personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so...

  7. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  8. Kaunistatud elamu / Krista Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Krista, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Eestis 16.-18. sajandil. Etikud ja trepid. Burchardi piltetikud (1630.-1640. aastad, Arent Passer?). Fassaadiportaalid (A. Passer, Dionysius Passer, Berent Geistman). Narva ja Pärnu portaalid (Matthias Daus, Otto Koste, Jan van der Capelle).Uued uksed (Elert Thiele töökoda, Abraham Friedrich Pahlmann). "Pildid" fassaadil (A. Passeri töökoda). Passeri voorused ja protestantlik eetika (A. Passeri töökoda, Jakob Damm)). Viilukivid (Hans Damm, Jakob Damm, Winant Nacke, Johann Georg Heroldt). Siseportaalid (Clemens Pale, A. Passer, Christian Ackermann). Thomas von zur Mühleni maja siseportaal (1687). Kaunistatud aken (A. Passeri ja W. Nacke töökojad). Kamin. Paraadne trepp. Bibliograafia lk. 446-448

  9. Specialestuderendes læringsudfordringer i vejledningen - nudging som handlemulighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Nexø; Juul Jensen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    teoretiske afsæt er generiske læringsudfordringer i vejledningsprocesser, hvor læring opstår, når de studerende passerer en læringsudfordring. Vejledere kan bruge forståelsen af læringsudfordringer til at ”nudge”- plante en idé – som en måde at få studerende til at passere læringsudfordringerne....

  10. Demographic consequences of invasion by a native, controphic competitor to an insular bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K M; Germain, R R; Tarwater, C E; Reid, J M; Arcese, P

    2018-05-01

    Species invasions and range shifts can lead to novel competitive interactions between historically resident and colonizing species, but the demographic consequences of such interactions remain controversial. We present results from field experiments and 45 years of demographic monitoring to test the hypothesis that the colonization of Mandarte Is., BC, Canada, by fox sparrows (Passerella iliaca) caused the long-term decline of the resident population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Several lines of evidence indicate that competition with fox sparrows for winter food reduced over-winter survival in juvenile song sparrows by 48% from 1960 to 2015, enforcing population decline despite an increase in annual reproductive rate in song sparrows over the same period. Preference for locally abundant seeds presented at experimental arenas suggested complete overlap in diet in song and fox sparrows, and observations at arenas baited with commercial seed showed that fox sparrows displaced song sparrows in 91-100% of interactions in two periods during winter. In contrast, we found no evidence of interspecific competition for resources during the breeding season. Our results indicate that in the absence of marked shifts in niche dimension, range expansions by dominant competitors have the potential to cause the extirpation of historically resident species when competitive interactions between them are strong and resources not equitably partitioned.

  11. Cost of Parasitism Incurred by Two Songbird Species and Their Quality As Cowbird Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    We measured the costs of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism incurred by Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea). We predicted that the frequent occurrence of nest desertion as a response to cowbird parasitism in Field Sparrows would be reflected by a higher cost of...

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: Western Range Command Transmit Site Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    between the U.S. and Canada, Japan, Mexico and the former Soviet Union for the protection of migratory birds. Under the Act, taking, killing or...Song sparrow I Northern mockingbird I Brown-headed cowbird I Fox sparrow !Lazuli bunting !California towhee !Spotted towhee IBushtit !Black

  13. Nesting ecology of grassland birds following a wildfire in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the response of nesting grassland birds occupying short-grass and mixed-grass prairie sites 2 and 3 y following two, large-scale wildfires that burned ≥360,000 ha in the Texas Panhandle in March 2006. Nest success was greater on burned plots compared to unburned plots, though this varied by species and year. Woody vegetation cover was greater around nests on unburned plots compared to burned plots for Cassin's sparrow (Peucaea cassinii) and lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus). Cassin's sparrows and lark sparrows nested in more-woody vegetation than did grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), and woody vegetation was reduced following the wildfires. The wildfires appear to have had few if any negative influences on the avian community 3 years postfire. This may be due to grassland breeding birds being adapted to landscapes in which, historically, periodic disturbance (e.g., wildfire, intensive grazing by bison [Bison bison]) resulted in vegetation heterogeneity.

  14. Passer d’un modèle de fonctionnement associatif à un modèle institutionnel : une analyse des transformations de l’organisation du travail From an associative to an institutional way of functioning: an analysis of the changes in work organization Pasar de un modelo de funcionamiento asociativo a un modelo institucional : un análisis de las transformaciones de la organización del trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Danuser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le milieu de l’humanitaire a connu des évolutions importantes durant les dernières décennies, impliquant des transformations dans les modes de fonctionnement des organisations d’aide. Nous avons réalisé une recherche au siège d’une ONG s’inscrivant dans ce contexte. Par le biais d’analyses de l’activité, d’entretiens et d’un questionnaire, nous avons mis en évidence les éléments introduits dans le contexte de la professionnalisation de la structure de cette organisation et leur perception par les acteurs. Nous avons observé la persistance de nombreux éléments relevant de la logique associative au sein de ce qui tend à devenir une institution. Les décalages résultant de la cohabitation de ces deux logiques de fonctionnement, associative et institutionnelle, créent un mode d’organisation du travail particulier et génèrent des messages paradoxaux pour les employés, lesquels peuvent avoir des effets sur leur santé.In recent decades, the context of humanitarian aid has undergone many developments involving changes in the means of operation of aid organizations. We conducted a study at the headquarters of an NGO, in which we collected data via a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and activity analyses. We identified the elements implemented in the process of the professionalization of the management structure and how they were perceived by the employees. Numerous aspects of the associative ideal remain strong in the organization. Resistance against formal management exists, which leads to the cohabitation of these two ways of functioning which we called associative and institutional. Shifts resulting from this cohabitation create a particular mode of organization and generate paradoxical messages for the employees, which may have impacts on their health.En las últimas décadas, el contexto de la ayuda humanitaria ha conocido evoluciones importantes, lo que provocó transformaciones en el funcionamiento de las organizaciones de ayuda. Realizamos una investigación en la sede de una ONG que se inscribe en este contexto. Los elementos introducidos en el proceso de profesionalización de su estructura y la percepción que los protagonistas tienen de ella, se pusieron en evidencia por medio del análisis de la actividad, de entrevistas y de un cuestionario. Observamos la persistencia de numerosos elementos relacionados con la lógica asociativa en el seno de este organismo que tiende a devenir una institución. Los desfases que resultan de la cohabitación de las dos lógicas de funcionamiento : asociativa e institucional, crean un modo de organización de trabajo particular y generan mensajes paradójicos para los empleados, los cuales pueden tener efectos en su salud.

  15. Mangrove bird community of Paranaguá Bay - Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the mangrove bird community of Paranaguá Bay in Paraná - South Brazil. Seasonal surveys were conducted during September 1997 to September 1998 at three sites in Paranaguá Bay. Frequencies and abundances of birds were registered in 200m transects and one hour point counts. A total of 81 bird species were observed in the three sampling sites. Most of the bird species in Paranaguá mangroves are fruits, seeds and arthropods consumers, and predators of flying insects. The most frequent and abundant species were Egretta caerulea, Ceryle torquata, Chloroceryle amazona, Pitangus sulphuratus, Turdus amaurochalinus and Parula pitiayumi. The bird community of these three sites is composed mainly by forest bird species. The mangroves of Paranaguá Bay shelter one of the richest avifauna of Brazilian mangroves. Differences between sampling sites could be related to the proximity of the Paranaguá city and human impacts in the areas. Only in the most disturbed site were observed Passer domesticus and large flocks of Coragyps atratus. This study contributed to the knowledge of mangrove communities, and could be an important basis to fluvial-marine conservation plans in Paraná- Brazil.Este estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar a comunidade de aves de manguezais na baía de Paranaguá e comparar descritivamente a comunidade das três áreas amostradas, diferentes em relação à proximidade de centros urbanos. Foram amostradas sazonalmente, entre setembro de 1997 a setembro 1998, três áreas de manguezais a diferentes distâncias da cidade e do porto de Paranaguá. A avifauna foi registrada em transectos de 200m no interior dos manguezais e em observações de 1 hora em pontos fixos. Foram determinadas freqüência, abundancia relativa e densidade de espécies em cada área. Foram observadas 81 espécies de aves nas três áreas de manguezais. As guildas mais significativas foram das espécies consumidoras de frutos, sementes e artr

  16. Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the Bakosi/Baweri and other pig breeds ( Sus scrofa Domesticus ) in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agro-ecological zone of Cameroon.

  17. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  18. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  19. (Urginea Altissima), Against the Field Rat, Arvicanthis Abyssinicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the field rat, Arvicanthis abyssincus with the aim of developing locally based ... inhabited by humans and is commonly found in open ... rat, A. abyssinicus in a choice and non-choice tests. ..... sowing control of house mice (Mus domesticus):.

  20. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, Jeremy B.; Jones, Catherine S.; Gündüz, İslam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Rambau, R. Victor; Noble, Leslie R.; Berry, R.J.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríða

    2008-01-01

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA...

  1. Environmental Impact Research Program and Defense Natural Resources Program: Section 7.5.7, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    throated sparrow (Z. albicollis) X X Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) X X Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) X X Mammals Opossum (Didelphis virginiana ) X...cm) and should not be less than 0.38 in. (0.4 cm). When Ellagood is pruned severely, an abundance of new shoots are produced (SCS, undated). Planting...Holes for the plants should be deep enough to take the full root without bending. Unusually long roots and tops may be pruned to 6 in. (15.2 cm) if

  2. Comparação na avaliação microbiológica de dois desinfetantes de uso doméstico no Brasil pelos métodos recomendados pela AOAC e ECN | Comparing the microbiological evaluation of two domestic-use disinfectants in Brazil by AOAC and ECN recommended methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rollin Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos desinfetantes para superfícies são considerados uma ferramenta da população para prevenção de infecções de natureza domiciliar. Modificações na legislação brasileira em 2007 permitiram a utilização de diferentes metodologias para a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica desses produtos, resultando na necessidade de um maior conhecimento em relação ao comportamento e aplicação de outras metodologias, como as preconizadas pelo Comitê Europeu de Normalização (CEN. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um estudo piloto da aplicação das metodologias do CEN em desinfetantes de uso geral. Foram utilizadas, em paralelo, a metodologia da Diluição de Uso (DU preconizada pela Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC e a norma EUROPEAN STANDARD 1276 do CEN, utilizando dois produtos à base de quaternário de amônio (produtos A e B e o álcool etílico 70% como controle, frente aos micro-organismos de referência e duas amostras de E. cloacae isoladas de ambiente domiciliar. Pela DU, todos os produtos foram eficazes, com exceção do produto B frente a Staphylococcus aureus cujos resultados não foram reprodutíveis. Pelo método do CEN, todos os produtos foram eficazes, com exceção do produto A frente a S. aureus, cuja neutralização não foi adequada. A divergência de resultados obtidos para os dois produtos à base de quaternários de amônio evidencia a necessidade de continuidade na avaliação das duas técnicas, com um maior número de produtos comerciais, considerando a potencialidade do uso do CEN no país. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Surface disinfectants are considered a major tool for preventing the spread of infections in human populations. Changes in the Brazilian law in 2007 allowed the use of various methodologies to evaluate the microbiological quality of surface disinfectants, warranting studies of the efficacy and application of other methodologies, such as those recommended by European Committee of Normalization (ECN. The present study aimed to establish the application of ECN methodologies for assessment of general use disinfectants. The use–dilution (UD method recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC and the European Standard 1276 from ECN were performed in parallel, and the anti-microbial actions of two quaternary ammonium compounds (products A and B and 70% ethanol solution were compared using reference microorganisms and two strains isolated from household environments. According to the UD method, all products were effective, except that product B was ineffective against Staphylococcus aureus and gave non-reproducible results. The ECN method indicated that all products were effective, except that product A produced inadequate neutralization of S. aureus. Although the ECN method showed efficacy and applicability to the Brazilian routine, assays with greater number of products are required.

  3. Posible efecto de dos presiones parciales de oxígeno en la vascularización del saco vitelino y la alantoides de embriones de pollo (Gallus domesticus) y en la expresión de VEGF y su receptor FLK-1 (KDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Virgüez, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de establecer el posible efecto de dos diferentes alturas en el peso embrionario y en la vascularización de las membranas extraembrionarias, se incubaron embriones de pollo a 355 y 1378msnm, y el día 3 y 4 de incubación, lo mismo que en el día 6 y 7 de incubación: se midió el peso del embrión y de las membranas extraembrionarias (día 3 y 4: saco vitelino - día 6 y 7 corioalantoides); se estimó el área vascular media, el porcentaje capilar y el área capilar media del saco vitel...

  4. Kariibi piraadid : admiralid, ilueedid ja kröösused / Riho Laurisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurisaar, Riho

    2006-01-01

    Gore Verbinski lavastatud filmis "Kariibi mere piraadid : Surnud mehe aardekirst" Jack Sparrow tegelaskuju võimalikud ajaloolised prototüübid Edward Teach (Blackbeard), Henry Morgan, Francis Drake ja John Rackham

  5. A study of fungi on droppings of certain birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Droppings of fowl, owl, parrot, pigeon and sparrow were asepticaly collected in sterilized bottles from different places at Gorakhpur, 54 fungi were isolated. The number of fungi was more in the pigeon showing considerable decrease in the fowl and the sparrow. In the parrot and the owl, however. the fungi were egual in number. The number of Phycomycetes was almost the same on droppings of all birds, from parrot only one species could be isolated. A larger number of Ascomyteces was recorded from fowl, less from pigeon and owl and the least (two each on sparrow and parrot droppings. The Basidiomycetes, represented by two species only, were recorded on owl and pigeon droppings. Pigeon droppings yielded the largest number of Deuteromycetes. They were egual in numbers on owl and parrot while on fowl and sparrow their number was comparatively less. Mycelia sterilia, though poor in their numbers, were recorded on all the bird droppings excepting owl.

  6. Predicting human epidermal melanin concentrations for different skin tones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available epidermal melanin concentrations for different skin tones JE Smit 1 , AE Karsten 2 , RW Sparrow 1 1 CSIR Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa 2 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa Author e-mail address: KSmit...

  7. First records of several bird species for Zacatecas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-Arteaga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the first records of five species of birds for the state of Zacatecas, Mexico: Ortalis poliocephala (West Mexican Chachalaca, Progne sinaloae (Sinaloa Martin, Peucaea carpalis (Rufous-winged Sparrow, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow and Cyanocompsa parellina (Blue Bunting. Ortalis poliocephala is also a new record for the Western Sierra Madre biogeographic region. These records are ecologically relevant as they extend the known distribution ranges and suggest that the southern Zacatecas region might be more diverse than previously thought.

  8. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 7. Appendix S. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus C,U,F Brown towhee Pipilo fuscus C,U,F Rufous-crowned sparrow Aimophila ruficeps C,R Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina C,R...pipistrelle Pipistrellus hesperus Widespread in ma habitat Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Widespread in ma habitat Townsends big-caved bat Plecotus...occidentalis * Carp Qjprjnus ca rv i *Goldfish Carassius auratus Sacramento blackfish Orthodon microlepidotus Hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus

  9. Tragulidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) from the Middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Muhammad Akbar; AKHTAR, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Spanish Sparrows were recorded in numerous locations and specimens were collected from Samsun, Çorum, and Denizli provinces in Turkey. The breeding subpopulations preferred various nesting sites, including wooded areas and White Stork nests. These sparrows were primarily observed in flocks of variable size and were rarely solitary. The largest flock recorded was found in juniper and pine woods in Denizli. We collected data on 23 allozyme loci to compare the genetic variation am...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building Demolition at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    take, capture, or kill ; attempt to take, capture, or kill ; possess, offer to or sell, barter, purchase, deliver, or cause to be shipped, exported...captured, killed , taken, shipped, transported, or carried contrary to the laws from where it was obtained; and import from Canada any bird, part, nest, or... mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), curved-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre), lark sparrow (Chordestes grammacus), black-throated sparrow

  11. Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    2009-01-01

    En teknologi som Facebook bliver af de fleste forstået som en 'teknologi for alle'. At dette ikke stemmer overens med virkeligheden viser artiklen gennem en case om en studerende, som på grund af sin mangetydlige identitet, ikke passer ind i Facebook offentligheden.......En teknologi som Facebook bliver af de fleste forstået som en 'teknologi for alle'. At dette ikke stemmer overens med virkeligheden viser artiklen gennem en case om en studerende, som på grund af sin mangetydlige identitet, ikke passer ind i Facebook offentligheden....

  12. Diagnoses of Patients with Severe Subjective Health Complaints in Scandinavia: A Cross Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeland, Silje; Werner, Erik L.; Rosendal, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Patienter med symptomer, der ikke umiddelbart passer med en kendt medicinsk diagnose, er hyppige i almen praksis. Praktiserende læger blev i denne undersøgelse bedt om at sætte en diagnosekode på disse patienter, og der viste sig at være en meget stor variation i valget med op til 31 forskellige ...

  13. Ambitiøse mål kræver ambitiøs ledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. Det er glædeligt at CBS undgår afskedigelser. Men det bør mane til eftertænksomhed, at 67 ansatte har valgt en frivillig aftrædelsesordning. For kan det også være tegn på, at CBS ikke passer godt nok på sine medarbejdere?...

  14. Indledning til Maple for Lineær Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Denne rapport er en undersoegelse af hvordan og hvor vidt Maplesindbyggede kommandoer passer til Jens Eisings bog "Lineaer Algebra" (1997).Maalet er at beskrive, hvordan man bedst kan brugeMaple V Release 5.1i kurset,i viden om mulige problemer, saa man kan undgaa faelder,og svare paa studerendes...

  15. Karikakramäng eesriide taga : Tšehhi uue laine eriprogramm PÖFFil / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    14. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali üks märksõnu on "uus laine". Näha saab Tšehhoslovakkias 1960ndatel valminud mängufilme (rež.-d Milos Forman, Stefan Uher, Jan Nemec, Vojtech Jasny, Eduard Grecner, Dusan Hanak, Juraj Jakubisko, Elo Havetta, Vera Chytilova ja Ivan Passer)

  16. Ross og erkendelsesteorien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob von Holderstein

    2006-01-01

    Et argument for at den logiske positivismes notoriske problemer ikke - som almindeligt antaget - har gjort Alf Ross' retsfilosofi forældet. Mere konkret påvises det at Ross i virkeligheden passer bedre sammen med den empiriske erkendelsesteori der har rejst sig på den logiske positivismes ruiner....

  17. Kundernes adfærd og indtag på en fastfood restaurant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Thomsen Volhøj, Klaus; Gross, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    De fleste danskere opfatter fastfood som usund mad. Den opfattelse passer godt med det generelle billede fra burgerrestauranter, pizzeriaer og maden på tankstationer. Det er som regel muligt at tage et sundere valg, men de sundere valg er ikke altid gjort synlige og attraktive for kunderne. I en ...

  18. The Donkey Institute of Contemporary Art (DICA): A Photo-Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Yam Lau

    2014-01-01

    This photo-essay documents the conception and realization of a ‘mobile display unit,’ a kind of cabinet of curiosities attached to a donkey, and made to travel through the streets of Beijing so that the texts, works and videos displayed there were accessible to passers-by.

  19. The Donkey Institute of Contemporary Art (DICA: A Photo-Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Lau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This photo-essay documents the conception and realization of a ‘mobile display unit,’ a kind of cabinet of curiosities attached to a donkey, and made to travel through the streets of Beijing so that the texts, works and videos displayed there were accessible to passers-by.

  20. Location i det geopolitiske rum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    Hovedformålet med artiklen er at undersøge forholdet mellem genrehåndtering og location i The Night Manager. Genren er thrilleren i den spionudgave, der er kendt fra tidligere John Le Carré-filmatiseringer. Location passer perfekt til genren med valget af glamourøse steder, der har kunnet bruges i...