WorldWideScience

Sample records for spanwise wall velocity

  1. The spanwise spectra in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Shi-Zhao; He, Guo-Wei

    2018-06-01

    The pre-multiplied spanwise energy spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations are investigated in this paper. Two distinct spectral peaks in the spanwise spectra are observed in low-Reynolds-number wall-bounded turbulence. The spectra are calculated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flows and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flows. These two peaks locate in the near-wall and outer regions and are referred to as the inner peak and the outer peak, respectively. This result implies that the streamwise velocity fluctuations can be separated into large and small scales in the spanwise direction even though the friction Reynolds number Re_τ can be as low as 1000. The properties of the inner and outer peaks in the spanwise spectra are analyzed. The locations of the inner peak are invariant over a range of Reynolds numbers. However, the locations of the outer peak are associated with the Reynolds number, which are much higher than those of the outer peak of the pre-multiplied streamwise energy spectra of the streamwise velocity.

  2. Spatial averaging of streamwise and spanwise velocity measurements in wall-bounded turbulence using ∨- and ×-probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Jimmy; Baidya, Rio; Hutchins, Nicholas; Monty, Jason P; Marusic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of finite dimensions of ∨- and ×-probes is investigated for the measurement of mean and variances of streamwise and spanwise velocities in wall-turbulence. The probes are numerically simulated using a Direct Numerical Simulation database of channel flow at a friction Reynolds number (Re τ ) of 934 by varying the probe parameters, namely, the wire-lengths (l), the angle between the wires (θ) and the spacing between the wires (Δs). A single inclined wire is first studied to isolate the effect of l and θ. Analytical expressions for the variances of the streamwise and spanwise velocities are derived by applying a linear-box-type filter to the unfiltered velocity field for both ∨- and ×-probes (at θ = 45°, and arbitrary l and Δs). A similar expression for the streamwise variance in the case of a single inclined wire (for arbitrary l and θ) is also derived. These analytical expressions, supplemented with a model for the correlation over the wire-length, compare favourably with the numerical simulation results, and more importantly explain various trends that are observed in the variances with varying parameters. Close to the wall (where the errors are generally higher) the errors in spanwise variances of the ×-probes are much lower than the ∨-probes, owing to an ‘error-cancelling’ mechanism present in ×-probes due to the effect of l and Δs, as well as due to the procedure of recovering the velocities from two wires. The errors in the streamwise variances are comparable for both ∨- and ×-probes. On the other hand, mean velocities are measured with almost no error by the ∨-probe, whereas the ×-probe induces finite errors in mean velocities due to the fact that the two wires experience different mean velocities in ×-probes unlike ∨-probes. These results are explained using the corresponding analytical results, which also show that under the effect of a linear filter, measured variances depend only on the fluctuating velocities

  3. Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team

    2012-11-01

    We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  4. Turbulence modifications in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall with spanwise-alternating roughness strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.

  5. Using digital holographic microscopy for simultaneous measurements of 3D near wall velocity and wall shear stress in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.

    2008-12-01

    A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.

  6. The structure of a three-dimensional boundary layer subjected to streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows

  7. Large eddy simulation of spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow with dynamic variants of eddy viscosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi

    2018-04-01

    A fully developed spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow has been numerically investigated utilizing large-eddy simulation. Our focus is to assess the performances of the dynamic variants of eddy viscosity models, including dynamic Vreman's model (DVM), dynamic wall adapting local eddy viscosity (DWALE) model, dynamic σ (Dσ ) model, and the dynamic volumetric strain-stretching (DVSS) model, in this canonical flow. The results with dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used as references. Our results show that the DVM has a wrong asymptotic behavior in the near wall region, while the other three models can correctly predict it. In the high rotation case, the DWALE can get reliable mean velocity profile, but the turbulence intensities in the wall-normal and spanwise directions show clear deviations from DNS data. DVSS exhibits poor predictions on both the mean velocity profile and turbulence intensities. In all three cases, Dσ performs the best.

  8. Spanwise vorticity and wall normal velocity structure in the inertial region of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.

  9. Vortex forcing model for turbulent flow over spanwise-heterogeneous topogrpahies: scaling arguments and similarity solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Yang, Jianzhi

    2017-11-01

    Spanwise surface heterogeneity beneath high-Reynolds number, fully-rough wall turbulence is known to induce mean secondary flows in the form of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. The secondary flows are a manifestation of Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind - driven and sustained by spatial heterogeneity of components of the turbulent (Reynolds averaged) stress tensor. The spacing between adjacent surface heterogeneities serves as a control on the spatial extent of the counter-rotating cells, while their intensity is controlled by the spanwise gradient in imposed drag (where larger gradients associated with more dramatic transitions in roughness induce stronger cells). In this work, we have performed an order of magnitude analysis of the mean (Reynolds averaged) streamwise vorticity transport equation, revealing the scaling dependence of circulation upon spanwise spacing. The scaling arguments are supported by simulation data. Then, we demonstrate that mean streamwise velocity can be predicted a priori via a similarity solution to the mean streamwise vorticity transport equation. A vortex forcing term was used to represent the affects of spanwise topographic heterogeneity within the flow. Efficacy of the vortex forcing term was established with large-eddy simulation cases, wherein vortex forcing model parameters were altered to capture different values of spanwise spacing.

  10. Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  11. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with spanwise alternatively distributed strips control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weidan; Lu, Lipeng; Fang, Jian; Moulinec, Charles; Yao, Yufeng

    2018-05-01

    The effect of spanwise alternatively distributed strips (SADS) control on turbulent flow in a plane channel has been studied by direct numerical simulations to investigate the characteristics of large-scale streamwise vortices (LSSVs) induced by small-scale active wall actuation, and their potential in suppressing flow separation. SADS control is realized by alternatively arranging out-of-phase control (OPC) and in-phase control (IPC) wall actuations on the lower channel wall surface, in the spanwise direction. It is found that the coherent structures are suppressed or enhanced alternatively by OPC or IPC, respectively, leading to the formation of a vertical shear layer, which is responsible for the LSSVs’ presence. Large-scale low-speed region can also be observed above the OPC strips, which resemble large-scale low-speed streaks. LSSVs are found to be in a statistically-converged steady state and their cores are located between two neighboring OPC and IPC strips. Their motions contribute significantly to the momentum transport in the wall-normal and spanwise directions, demonstrating their potential ability to suppress flow separation.

  12. Assessment of spanwise domain size effect on the transitional flow past an airfoil

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-19

    In most large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of flow past an isolated airfoil, the flow is assumed periodic in the spanwise direction. The size of the spanwise domain is an important geometrical parameter determining whether the turbulent flow is fully developed, and whether the separation and transition patterns are accurately modeled. In the present study, we investigate the incompressible flow past an isolated NACA0012 airfoil at the angle of attack of 5 degrees and Reynolds number 5 × 104. The spanwise domain size Lz, represented by the aspect ratio AR=Lz/C where C is the airfoil chord length, is varied in the range 0.1−0.80.1−0.8. The effect of varying the normalized spanwise domain size AR is examined via direct numerical simulation (DNS) on several aspects of the turbulent flow quantities including the time-averaged and time-dependent behavior as well as the spanwise variation of the selected statistical quantities. DNS results reveal that different aspect ratios result in close predictions of the time-averaged aerodynamic quantities, and the velocity field except for a slight difference in the separation bubble. Smaller aspect ratios tend to underpredict the turbulent fluctuations near the separation point but overpredict them inside the separation bubble. Large differences are observed for multiple statistical quantities near the reattachment point, especially the turbulent kinetic energy budget terms. The leading edge separation is notably three-dimensional for simulation at AR=0.8, while remaining quasi-2D for smaller aspect ratios. The spanwise two-point correlation coefficient shows significant dependence on the position of the probe and the velocity component analyzed: small aspect ratios do not produce uncorrelated results for all the velocity components. The simulation results demonstrate that examining only a few statistical quantities may result in a misleading conclusion regarding the sufficiency of the spanwise domain size. Reliable

  13. Assessment of spanwise domain size effect on the transitional flow past an airfoil

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In most large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of flow past an isolated airfoil, the flow is assumed periodic in the spanwise direction. The size of the spanwise domain is an important geometrical parameter determining whether the turbulent flow is fully developed, and whether the separation and transition patterns are accurately modeled. In the present study, we investigate the incompressible flow past an isolated NACA0012 airfoil at the angle of attack of 5 degrees and Reynolds number 5 × 104. The spanwise domain size Lz, represented by the aspect ratio AR=Lz/C where C is the airfoil chord length, is varied in the range 0.1−0.80.1−0.8. The effect of varying the normalized spanwise domain size AR is examined via direct numerical simulation (DNS) on several aspects of the turbulent flow quantities including the time-averaged and time-dependent behavior as well as the spanwise variation of the selected statistical quantities. DNS results reveal that different aspect ratios result in close predictions of the time-averaged aerodynamic quantities, and the velocity field except for a slight difference in the separation bubble. Smaller aspect ratios tend to underpredict the turbulent fluctuations near the separation point but overpredict them inside the separation bubble. Large differences are observed for multiple statistical quantities near the reattachment point, especially the turbulent kinetic energy budget terms. The leading edge separation is notably three-dimensional for simulation at AR=0.8, while remaining quasi-2D for smaller aspect ratios. The spanwise two-point correlation coefficient shows significant dependence on the position of the probe and the velocity component analyzed: small aspect ratios do not produce uncorrelated results for all the velocity components. The simulation results demonstrate that examining only a few statistical quantities may result in a misleading conclusion regarding the sufficiency of the spanwise domain size. Reliable

  14. Manipulation of near-wall turbulence by surface slip and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Segura, G.; Fairhall, C. T.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; García-Mayoral, R.

    2018-04-01

    We study the effect on near-wall turbulence of tangential slip and wall-normal transpiration, typically produced by textured surfaces and other surface manipulations. For this, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with different virtual origins for the different velocity components. The different origins result in a relative wall-normal displacement of the near-wall, quasi-streamwise vortices with respect to the mean flow, which in turn produces a change in drag. The objective of this work is to extend the existing understanding on how these virtual origins affect the flow. In the literature, the virtual origins for the tangential velocities are typically characterised by slip boundary conditions, while the wall-normal velocity is assumed to be zero at the boundary plane. Here we explore different techniques to define and implement the three virtual origins, with special emphasis on the wall-normal one. We investigate impedance conditions relating the wall-normal velocity to the pressure, and linear relations between the velocity components and their wall-normal gradients, as is typically done to impose slip conditions. These models are first tested to represent a smooth wall below the boundary plane, with all virtual origins equal, and later for different tangential and wall-normal origins. Our results confirm that the change in drag is determined by the offset between the origins perceived by mean flow and the quasi-streamwise vortices or, more generally, the near-wall turbulent cycle. The origin for the latter, however, is not set by the spanwise virtual origin alone, as previously proposed, but by a combination of the spanwise and wall-normal origins, and mainly determined by the shallowest of the two. These observations allow us to extend the existing expression to predict the change in drag, accounting for the wall-normal effect when the transpiration is not negligible.

  15. Influence of Spanwise Boundary Conditions on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations with the OVERFLOW code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. In the present study, two different spanwise grids are being used to investigate the effect of the spanwise extent and periodicity on the near-field unsteady structures and radiated noise. The baseline grid with periodic boundary conditions has a short span equal to 1/9th of the stowed chord, whereas the other, longer span grid adds stretched grids on both sides of the core, baseline grid to allow inviscid surface boundary conditions at both ends. The results indicate that the near-field mean statistics obtained using the two grids are similar to each other, as are the directivity and spectral shapes of the radiated noise. However, periodicity forces all acoustic waves with less than one wavelength across the span to be two-dimensional, without any variation in the span. The spanwise coherence of the acoustic waves is what is needed to make estimates of the noise that would be radiated from realistic span lengths. Simulations with periodic conditions need spans of at least six slat chords to allow spanwise variation in the low-frequencies associated with the peak of broadband slat noise. Even then, the full influence of the periodicity is unclear, so employing grids with a fine, central region and highly stretched meshes that go to slip walls may be a more efficient means of capturing the spanwise decorrelation of low-frequency acoustic phenomena.

  16. Turbulent boundary layer over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Hamed, Ali M.; Castillo, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of the developing and developed flow over two- and three-dimensional large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching flume. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05. The 3D wall is defined with an additional wave superimposed on the 2D wall in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The flow was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the flume half height. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics show the presence of a well-structured shear layer that enhances the turbulence for the 2D wavy wall, whereas the 3D wall exhibits different flow dynamics and significantly lower turbulence levels, particularly for which shows about 30% reduction. The likelihood of recirculation bubbles, levels and spatial distribution of turbulence, and the rate of the turbulent kinetic energy production are shown to be severely affected when a single spanwise mode is superimposed on the 2D wall. POD analysis was also performed to further understand distinctive features of the flow structures due to surface topography.

  17. Wall-based identification of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiguel Vila, C.; Flores, O.

    2018-04-01

    During the last decades, a number of reduced order models based on coherent structures have been proposed to describe wall-bounded turbulence. Many of these models emphasize the importance of coherent wall-normal velocity eddies (ν-eddies), which drive the generation of the very long streamwise velocity structures observed in the logarithmic and outer region. In order to use these models to improve our ability to control wall-bounded turbulence in realistic applications, these ν-eddies need to be identified from the wall in a non-intrusive way. In this paper, the possibility of using the pressure signal at the wall to identify these ν-eddies is explored, analyzing the cross-correlation between the wall-normal velocity component and the pressure fluctuations at the wall in a DNS of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 939. The results show that the cross-correlation has a region of negative correlation upstream, and a region of positive correlation backwards. In the spanwise direction the correlation decays monotonously, except very close to the wall where a change of sign of the correlation coefficient is observed. Moreover, filtering the pressure fluctuations at the wall in space results in an increase of the region where the cross-correlation is strong, both for the positively and the negatively correlated regions. The use of a time filter for the pressure fluctuations at the wall yields different results, displacing the regions of strong correlation without changing much their sizes. The results suggest that space-filtering the pressure at the wall is a feasible way to identify ν-eddies of different sizes, which could be used to trigger turbulent control strategies.

  18. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  19. One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    1993-01-01

    The limiting bubble-wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. I demonstrate that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas (''thin-wall'') limit

  20. One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    1993-01-01

    The limiting bubble wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is demonstrated that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas limit

  1. Flow characteristics and scaling past highly porous wall-mounted fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Eduardo; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Buxton, Oliver R. H.

    2017-07-01

    An extensive characterization of the flow past wall-mounted highly porous fences based on single- and multi-scale geometries has been performed using hot-wire anemometry in a low-speed wind tunnel. Whilst drag properties (estimated from the time-averaged momentum equation) seem to be mostly dependent on the grids' blockage ratio; wakes of different size and orientation bars seem to generate distinct behaviours regarding turbulence properties. Far from the near-grid region, the flow is dominated by the presence of two well-differentiated layers: one close to the wall dominated by the near-wall behaviour and another one corresponding to the grid's wake and shear layer, originating from between this and the freestream. It is proposed that the effective thickness of the wall layer can be inferred from the wall-normal profile of root-mean-square streamwise velocity or, alternatively, from the wall-normal profile of streamwise velocity correlation. Using these definitions of wall-layer thickness enables us to collapse different trends of the turbulence behaviour inside this layer. In particular, the root-mean-square level of the wall shear stress fluctuations, longitudinal integral length scale, and spanwise turbulent structure is shown to display a satisfactory scaling with this thickness rather than with the whole thickness of the grid's wake. Moreover, it is shown that certain grids destroy the spanwise arrangement of large turbulence structures in the logarithmic region, which are then re-formed after a particular streamwise extent. It is finally shown that for fences subject to a boundary layer of thickness comparable to their height, the effective thickness of the wall layer scales with the incoming boundary layer thickness. Analogously, it is hypothesized that the growth rate of the internal layer is also partly dependent on the incoming boundary layer thickness.

  2. Interaction of flexible surface hairs with near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücker, Ch

    2011-05-11

    The interaction of near-wall turbulence with hairy surfaces is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer flow along a flat plate in an oil channel at Re = 1.2 × 10⁶. The plate is covered locally with a dense carpet of elastomeric micro-hairs (length L = 1 mm, length in viscous units L( + ) = 30) which are arranged in a regular grid (60 × 30 hairs with a streamwise spacing Δx( + )≈15 and a spanwise spacing Δy( + )≈30). Instead of the micro-structures used in previous studies for sensory applications, the surface hairs are considerably larger and much more densely distributed with a spacing of S/D wall-normal directions. Near-wall high-frequency disturbances excited by the passage of turbulent sweeps are dampened over their course along the carpet. The cooperative action of the hairs leads to an energy transfer from small-scale motion to larger scales, thus increasing the coherence of the motion pattern in streamwise and spanwise directions. As a consequence of the specific arrangement of the micro-hairs in streamwise columns a reduced spanwise meandering and stabilization of the streamwise velocity streaks is achieved by promoting varicose waves and inhibiting sinusoidal waves. Streak stabilization is known to be a major contributor to turbulent drag reduction. Thus it is concluded that hairy surfaces may be of benefit for turbulent drag reduction as hypothesized by Bartenwerfer and Bechert (1991 Z. Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch. 15 19-26).

  3. Interaction of flexible surface hairs with near-wall turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecker, Ch

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of near-wall turbulence with hairy surfaces is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer flow along a flat plate in an oil channel at Re = 1.2 x 10 6 . The plate is covered locally with a dense carpet of elastomeric micro-hairs (length L = 1 mm, length in viscous units L + = 30) which are arranged in a regular grid (60 x 30 hairs with a streamwise spacing Δx + ∼15 and a spanwise spacing Δy + ∼30). Instead of the micro-structures used in previous studies for sensory applications, the surface hairs are considerably larger and much more densely distributed with a spacing of S/D < 5 such that they interact with each other by flow coupling. The non-fluctuating mean part of the flow forces a substantial pre-bending in the streamwise direction (reconfiguration). As a consequence, the hairs align with the streamwise direction, thus imposing anisotropic damping characteristics with regard to flow fluctuations in streamwise and spanwise or wall-normal directions. Near-wall high-frequency disturbances excited by the passage of turbulent sweeps are dampened over their course along the carpet. The cooperative action of the hairs leads to an energy transfer from small-scale motion to larger scales, thus increasing the coherence of the motion pattern in streamwise and spanwise directions. As a consequence of the specific arrangement of the micro-hairs in streamwise columns a reduced spanwise meandering and stabilization of the streamwise velocity streaks is achieved by promoting varicose waves and inhibiting sinusoidal waves. Streak stabilization is known to be a major contributor to turbulent drag reduction. Thus it is concluded that hairy surfaces may be of benefit for turbulent drag reduction as hypothesized by Bartenwerfer and Bechert (1991 Z. Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch. 15 19-26).

  4. From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Rues, Ingo; Nardini, Germano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    2014-07-01

    By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.

  5. Frequency Response of Near-Wall Coherent Structures to Localized Periodic Blowing and Suction in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Hua, Liu; Nan, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the frequency response of near-wall coherent structures to localized periodic blowing and suction through a spanwise slot in a turbulent boundary layer by changing the frequency of periodic disturbance at similar velocities of free stream. The effects of blowing and suction disturbance on energy redistribution, turbulent intensity u' rms + , over y + and waveforms of phase-averaged velocity during sweeping process are respectively discussed under three frequencies of periodic blowing and suction in near-wall region of turbulent boundary layer, compared with those in a standard turbulent boundary layer. The most effective disturbance frequency is figured out in this system. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  6. Mathematical model for logarithmic scaling of velocity fluctuations in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    For wall turbulence, moments of velocity fluctuations are known to be logarithmic functions of the height from the wall. This logarithmic scaling is due to the existence of a characteristic velocity and to the nonexistence of any characteristic height in the range of the scaling. By using the mathematics of random variables, we obtain its necessary and sufficient conditions. They are compared with characteristics of a phenomenological model of eddies attached to the wall and also with those of the logarithmic scaling of the mean velocity.

  7. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  8. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  9. Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.

  10. Walker-type velocity oscillations of magnetic domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella-Coleiro, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    We report stroboscopic observations of the radial motion of a magnetic bubble domain wall in an epitaxial LuGdAl iron garnet film. At high drive fields, initial velocities up to 9500 cm/sec were measured, and the domain wall was observed to move backwards during the field pulse, in agreement with calculations based on the Walker model

  11. Large exchange-dominated domain wall velocities in antiferromagnetically coupled nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteifan, Majd; Lubarda, M. V.; Fu, S.; Chang, R.; Escobar, M. A.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Lomakin, V.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic nanowires supporting field- and current-driven domain wall motion are envisioned for methods of information storage and processing. A major obstacle for their practical use is the domain-wall velocity, which is traditionally limited for low fields and currents due to the Walker breakdown occurring when the driving component reaches a critical threshold value. We show through numerical and analytical modeling that the Walker breakdown limit can be extended or completely eliminated in antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic nanowires. These coupled nanowires allow for large domain-wall velocities driven by field and/or current as compared to conventional nanowires.

  12. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D., E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: sanchez@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-03-01

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  13. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis

  14. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-03-27

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  15. Natural convection in a cubical cavity with a coaxial heated cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aithal, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional simulations were conducted to investigate the velocity and temperature fields in a cold cubical cavity due to natural convection induced by a centrally placed hot cylinder. Unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved by using a spectral- element method for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 109. The effect of spanwise thermal boundary conditions, aspect ratio (radius of the cylinder to the side of the cavity), and spanwise temperature distribution of the inner cylinder on the velocity and thermal fields were investigated for each Rayleigh number. Results from two-dimensional calculations were compared with three-dimensional simulations. The 3D results indicate a complex flow structure in the vicinity of the spanwise walls. The results also show that the imposed thermal wall boundary condition impacts the flow and temperature fields strongly near the spanwise walls. The variation of the local Nusselt number on the cylinder surface and enclosure walls at various spanwise locations was also investigated. The local Nusselt number on the cylinder surface and enclosure walls at the cavity mid-plane (Z = 0) is close to 2D simulations for 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 108. Simulations also show a variation in the local Nusselt number, on both the cylinder surface and the enclosure walls, in the spanwise direction, for all Rayleigh numbers studied in this work. The results also indicate that if the enclosure walls are insulated in the spanwise direction (as opposed to a constant temperature), the peak Nusselt number on the enclosure surface occurs near the spanwise walls and is about 20% higher than the peak Nusselt number at the cavity mid-plane. The temporal characteristics of 3D flows are also different from 2D results for Ra > 108. These results suggest that 3D simulations would be more appropriate for flows with Ra > 108.

  16. Screech Tones from Rectangular Jets with Spanwise Oblique Shock-Cell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ganesh

    1996-01-01

    Understanding screech is especially important for the design of advanced aircraft because screech can cause sonic fatigue failure of aircraft structures. Although the connection between shock-cell spacing and screech frequency is well understood, the relation between non-uniformities in the shock-cell structures and the resulting amplitude, mode, and steadiness of screech have remained unexplored. This paper addresses the above issues by intentionally producing spanwise (larger nozzle dimension) variations in the shock-cell structures and studying the resulting spanwise screech mode. The spanwise oblique shock-cell structures were produced using imperfectly expanded convergent-divergent rectangular nozzles (aspect ratio = 5) with nonuniform exit geometries. Three geometries were studied: (a) a nozzle with a spanwise uniform edge, (b) a nozzle with a spanwise oblique (single bevelled) edge, and (c) a nozzle that had two spanwise oblique (double bevelled) cuts to form an arrowhead-shaped nozzle. For all nozzles considered, the screech mode was antisymmetric in the transverse (smaller nozzle dimension) direction allowing focus on changes in the spanwise direction. Three types of spanwise modes were observed: symmetric (1), antisymmetric (2), and oblique (3). The following significant results emerged: (1) for all cases the screech mode corresponds with the spanwise shock-cell structure, (2) when multiple screech modes are present, the technique presented here makes it possible to distinguish between coexisting and mutually exclusive modes, (3) the strength of shocks 3 and 4 influences the screech source amplitude and determines whether screech is unsteady. The results presented here offer hope for a better understanding of screech and for tailoring shock-containing jets to minimize fatigue failure of aircraft components.

  17. Modification of Turbulence Structures in a Channel Flow by Uniform Magnetic Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Choi, H.; Kim, J.

    1997-11-01

    Effects of electromagnetic forcing on the near-wall turbulence are investigated by applying a uniform magnetic flux in a turbulent channel flow in the streamwise and spanwise directions, respectively. The base flow is a fully developed turbulent channel flow and the direct numerical simulation technique is used. The electromagnetic force induced from the magnetic fluxes reduces the intensity of the wall-layer structures and thus drag is significantly reduced. The wall-normal and spanwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stress decrease with the increased magnetic flux in both directions. The streamwise velocity fluctuations increase with the streamwise magnetic flux, whereas they decrease with the spanwise magnetic flux. It is also shown that the spanwise magnetic flux is much more effective than the streamwise magnetic flux in reducing the skin-friction drag. Instantaneous Lorentz force vectors show that the flow motions by the near-wall vortices are directly inhibited by the spanwise magnetic flux, while they are less effectively inhibited by the streamwise magnetic flux. Other turbulence statistics that reveal the effects of the applied magnetic forcing will be presented. ^* Supported by KOSEF Contract No. 965-1008-003-2 and ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-0352.

  18. On the wall-normal velocity of the compressible boundary-layer equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, C. David

    1991-01-01

    Numerical methods for the compressible boundary-layer equations are facilitated by transformation from the physical (x,y) plane to a computational (xi,eta) plane in which the evolution of the flow is 'slow' in the time-like xi direction. The commonly used Levy-Lees transformation results in a computationally well-behaved problem for a wide class of non-similar boundary-layer flows, but it complicates interpretation of the solution in physical space. Specifically, the transformation is inherently nonlinear, and the physical wall-normal velocity is transformed out of the problem and is not readily recovered. In light of recent research which shows mean-flow non-parallelism to significantly influence the stability of high-speed compressible flows, the contribution of the wall-normal velocity in the analysis of stability should not be routinely neglected. Conventional methods extract the wall-normal velocity in physical space from the continuity equation, using finite-difference techniques and interpolation procedures. The present spectrally-accurate method extracts the wall-normal velocity directly from the transformation itself, without interpolation, leaving the continuity equation free as a check on the quality of the solution. The present method for recovering wall-normal velocity, when used in conjunction with a highly-accurate spectral collocation method for solving the compressible boundary-layer equations, results in a discrete solution which is extraordinarily smooth and accurate, and which satisfies the continuity equation nearly to machine precision. These qualities make the method well suited to the computation of the non-parallel mean flows needed by spatial direct numerical simulations (DNS) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) approaches to the analysis of stability.

  19. Statistics on Near Wall Structures and Shear Stress Distribution from 3D Holographic Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.

    2007-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy performs 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. Resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50) is sufficient for resolving buffer layer and lower log layer structures, and for measuring instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the viscous sublayer. Results, based on 700 instantaneous realizations, provide detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall stress components along with characteristic flow structures. Conditional sampling based on maxima and minima of wall shear stresses, as well as examination of instantaneous flow structures, lead to development of a conceptual model for a characteristic flow phenomenon that seems to generating extreme stress events. This structure develops as an initially spanwise vortex element rises away from the surface, due to local disturbance, causing a local stress minimum. Due to increasing velocity with elevation, this element bends downstream, forming a pair of inclined streamwise vortices, aligned at 45^0 to freestream, with ejection-like flow between them. Entrainment of high streamwise momentum on the outer sides of this vortex pair generates streamwise shear stress maxima, 70 δν downstream, which are displaced laterally by 35 δν from the local minimum.

  20. Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.

  1. Pulse wave velocity as a diagnostic index: The effect of wall thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Simona

    2018-06-01

    Vascular compliance is a major determinant of wave propagation within the vascular system, and hence the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) is commonly used clinically as a method of detecting vascular stiffening. The accuracy of that assessment is important because vascular stiffening is a major risk factor for hypertension. PWV is usually measured by timing a pressure wave as it travels from the carotid artery to the femoral or radial artery and estimating the distance that it traveled in each case to obtain the required velocity. A major assumption on which this technique is based is that the vessel wall thickness h is negligibly small compared with the vessel radius a . The extent to which this assumption is satisfied in the cardiovascular system is not known because the ratio h /a varies widely across different regions of the vascular tree and under different pathological conditions. Using the PWV as a diagnostic test without knowing the effect of wall thickness on the measurement could lead to error when interpreting the PWV value as an index of vessel wall compliance. The aim of the present study was to extend the validity of the current practice of assessing wall stiffness by developing a method of analysis that goes beyond the assumption of a thin wall. We analyzed PWVs calculated with different wall models, depending on the ratio of wall thickness to vessel radius and the results showed that PWV is not reliable when it is estimated with the classic thin wall theory if the vessel wall is not around 25% of vessel radius. If the arterial wall is thicker than 25% of vessel radius, then the wave velocity calculated with the thin wall theory could be overestimated and in the clinical setting, this could lead to a false positive. For thicker walls, a thick wall model presented here should be considered to account for the stresses within the wall thickness that become dominant compared with the wall inertia.

  2. Measurement of the near-wall velocity profile for a nanofluid flow inside a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics and anomalous heat transfer enhancements have been reported in the past for colloidal suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a fluid (nanofluids). However, such augmentations may manifest itself by study of fluid flow characteristics near in the wall region. Present experimental study reports near-wall velocity profile for nanofluids (silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water) measured inside a microchannel. An objective-based nano-Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) technique is used to measure fluid velocity within three visible depths, O(100nm), from the wall. The near-wall fluid velocity profile is estimated after implementing the required corrections for optical properties and effects caused by hindered Brownian motion, wall-particle interactions, and non-uniform exponential illumination on the measurement technique. The fluid velocities of nanofluids at each of the three visible depths are observed to be higher than that of the base fluid resulting in a higher shear rate in this region. The relative increase in shear rates for nanofluids is believed to be the result of the near-wall shear-induced particle migration along with the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles. This research is funded by NPRP grant # 08-574-2-239 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation).

  3. Electric-field control of magnetic domain-wall velocity in ultrathin cobalt with perpendicular magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, D; Kawaguchi, M; Fukami, S; Ishiwata, N; Shimamura, K; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T

    2012-06-06

    Controlling the displacement of a magnetic domain wall is potentially useful for information processing in magnetic non-volatile memories and logic devices. A magnetic domain wall can be moved by applying an external magnetic field and/or electric current, and its velocity depends on their magnitudes. Here we show that the applying an electric field can change the velocity of a magnetic domain wall significantly. A field-effect device, consisting of a top-gate electrode, a dielectric insulator layer, and a wire-shaped ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin layer with perpendicular anisotropy, was used to observe it in a finite magnetic field. We found that the application of the electric fields in the range of ± 2-3 MV cm(-1) can change the magnetic domain wall velocity in its creep regime (10(6)-10(3) m s(-1)) by more than an order of magnitude. This significant change is due to electrical modulation of the energy barrier for the magnetic domain wall motion.

  4. Experimental testing of spanwise morphing trailing edge concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit increased chordwise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexure box mechanism, created using multi-material 3D printing, to achieve the Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge (SMTE) concept. The morphing actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a representative section of a UAV wing with a 305 mm chord. A novel honeycomb skin is created from an elastomeric material using a 3D printer. The actuation capabilities of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept from 2D to 3D, are characterized. Initial aerodynamic results from the 1'×1' wind-tunnel also show the effects of aerodynamic loading on the actuation range of the SMTE concept for uniform morphing.

  5. Spatial perturbation of a wing-tip vortex using pulsed span-wise jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A. L.; Smith, D. A. R.

    The separation distance required between transport aircraft to avoid wake vortices remains a limiting factor on airport capacity. The dissipation of the wake can be accelerated by perturbing co-operative instabilities between multiple pairs of vortices. This paper presents the results of a preliminary experimental investigation into the use of pulsed span-wise air jets in the wing tip to perturb a single tip vortex in the very near field. Velocity measurements were made using PIV and hot-wire anemometry. The results demonstrate that the vortex position can be modulated at frequencies up to 50 Hz and, as such, the method shows promise for forcing instability in multiple vortex wakes.

  6. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent flow field around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...

  7. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  8. Prediction of wall shear stresses in transitional boundary layers using near-wall mean velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo Pyung; Shin, Sung Ho; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2000-01-01

    The local wall shear stress in transitional boundary layer was estimated from the near-wall mean velocity data using the principle of Computational Preston tube Method(CPM). The previous DNS and experimental databases of transitional boundary layers were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the method and to provide the applicable range of wall unit y + . The skin friction coefficients predicted by the CPM agreed well with those from previous studies. To reexamine the applicability of the CPM, near-wall hot-wire measurements were conducted in developing transitional boundary layers on a flat plate with different freestream turbulence intensities. The intermittency profiles across the transitional boundary layers were reasonably obtained from the conditional sampling technique. An empirical correlation between the representative intermittency near the wall and the free parameter K 1 of the extended wall function of CPM has been newly proposed using the present and other experimental data. The CPM has been verified as a useful tool to measure the wall shear stress in transitional boundary layer with reasonable accuracy

  9. Hydraulic performance of a low specific speed centrifugal pump with Spanwise-Slotted Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, D X; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2013-01-01

    The hydraulic efficiency of a low specific speed centrifugal pump is low because of the long and narrow meridian flow passage, and the severe disk friction. Spanwise slotted blade flow control technology has been applied to the low specific speed centrifugal pump. This paper concluded that spanwise slotted blades can improve the pump performance in both experiments and simulations. In order to study the influence to the impeller and volute by spanwise slotted blade, impeller efficiency and volute efficiency were defined. The minimum volute efficiency and the maximum pump efficiency appear at the same time in the design flow condition in the unsteady simulation. The mechanism of spanwise slotted blade flow control technology should be researched furthermore

  10. Nonlinear analysis of composite thin-walled helicopter blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfon, J. P.; Rand, O.

    Nonlinear theoretical modeling of laminated thin-walled composite helicopter rotor blades is presented. The derivation is based on nonlinear geometry with a detailed treatment of the body loads in the axial direction which are induced by the rotation. While the in-plane warping is neglected, a three-dimensional generic out-of-plane warping distribution is included. The formulation may also handle varying thicknesses and mass distribution along the cross-sectional walls. The problem is solved by successive iterations in which a system of equations is constructed and solved for each cross-section. In this method, the differential equations in the spanwise directions are formulated and solved using a finite-differences scheme which allows simple adaptation of the spanwise discretization mesh during iterations.

  11. Molecular dynamic simulation of Ar-Kr mixture across a rough walled nanochannel: Velocity and temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooja,; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Pathania, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a molecular dynamics simulation of mixture of argon and krypton in the Poiseuille flow across a rough walled nanochannel. The roughness effect on liquid nanoflows has recently drawn attention The computational software used for carrying out the molecular dynamics simulations is LAMMPS. The fluid flow takes place between two parallel plates and is bounded by horizontal rough walls in one direction and periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the other two directions. Each fluid atom interacts with other fluid atoms and wall atoms through Leenard-Jones (LJ) potential with a cut off distance of 5.0. To derive the flow a constant force is applied whose value is varied from 0.1 to 0.3 and velocity profiles and temperature profiles are noted for these values of forces. The velocity profile and temperature profiles are also looked at different channel widths of nanochannel and at different densities of mixture. The velocity profile and temperature profile of rough walled nanochannel are compared with that of smooth walled nanochannel and it is concluded that mean velocity increases with increase in channel width, force applied and decrease in density also with introduction of roughness in the walls of nanochannel mean velocity again increases and results also agree with the analytical solution of a Poiseuille flow

  12. Influence of strong perturbations on wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, O. R. H.; Ewenz Rocher, M.; Rodríguez-López, E.

    2018-01-01

    Single-point hot-wire measurements are made downstream of a series of spanwise repeating obstacles that are used to generate an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer. The measurements are made in the near field, in which the turbulent boundary layer is beginning to develop from the wall-bounded wakes of the obstacles. The recent paper of Rodríguez-López et al. [E. Rodríguez-López et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 074401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074401] broadly categorized the mechanisms by which canonical turbulent boundary layers eventually develop from wall-bounded wakes into two distinct mechanisms, the wall-driven and wake-driven mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to identify the geometric parameters of tripping arrays that trigger these two mechanisms by examining the spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the intermittent outer region of the flow. Using a definition reliant upon the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations, an intermittency function is devised that can discriminate between turbulent and nonturbulent flow. These results are presented along with the spectra in order to try to ascertain which aspects of a trip's geometry are more likely to favor the wall-driven or wake-driven mechanism. The geometrical aspects of the trips tested are the aspect ratio, the total blockage, and the blockage at the wall. The results indicate that the presence, or not, of perforations is the most significant factor in affecting the flow downstream. The bleed of fluid through the perforations reenergizes the mean recirculation and leads to a narrower intermittent region with a more regular turbulent-nonturbulent interface. The near-wall turbulent motions are found to recover quickly downstream of all of the trips with a wall blockage of 50%, but a clear influence of the outer fluctuations, generated by the tip vortices of the trips, is observed in the near-wall region for the high total blockage trips. The trip with 100% wall blockage is

  13. Detailed investigation on the effect of wall spring stiffness on velocity profile in molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar, S; Karimian, S M H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, motion of 576 monatomic argon molecules is studied in a channel with two 2-layered wall molecules. The effect of wall spring stiffness (K) on maximum value of velocity profile is investigated in the channel. It was observed that for K −2 , there is a decrease in the maximum value of velocity profile with an increase in K. This observation has been already reported by Sofos et al. To investigate a wider range of spring stiffness, in this paper the value of K was increased to more than 500εσ −2 . In this range of wall spring stiffness the behavior of maximum value of velocity profile changed; it increased with an increase in K. In a separate simulation the external force applied to the molecules was also increased and the same non-monotonic behavior of maximum value of velocity was observed. To clarify the reason of this behavior, the concepts of original and effective wall are introduced and through several test it is inferred that the mentioned concepts are not successful to demonstrate the reason of such behavior. It is suggested to obtain non-dimensional parameters governing the simulation in order to investigate the effect of every involved parameter on such a behavior. It is finally concluded that while wall spring stiffness affects the maximum velocity magnitude within the flow, the interaction of the two has not been clearly shown yet. The behavior of the maximum velocity is non-monotonic with the change of K. This is why no specific criterion has been reported for suitable value of wall spring stiffness in molecular dynamics simulation.

  14. Isogeometric variational multiscale large-eddy simulation of fully-developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Kyungsik; Hughes, Thomas Jr R; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Isogeometric variational multiscale large-eddy simulation of fully-developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Kyungsik

    2012-09-01

    We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).

  17. Wake behind circular cylinder excited by spanwise periodic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yudai; Uchida, Iwami; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of flow control of the wake behind a circular cylinder excited by temporal periodic disturbances with spanwise phase variations using plasma actuators, motivated by reducing drag forces by suppressing development of large scale vortices. Plasma actuators were segmented in the spanwise direction, phase differences were given to adjacent electrodes. This experiment was conducted at Re =8000 and the wake was visualized by PIV. Compared to without forcing, when the phase difference is 180° and non-dimensional forcing frequency is higher than approximately 1.0, small vortices induced by periodic disturbance emerged in the free shear layer and the drag forces decreased.

  18. Characteristics of turbulent velocity and temperature in a wall channel of a heated rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T.; Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Turbulent air flow in a wall sub-channel of a heated 37-rod bundle (P/D = 1.12, W/D = 1.06) was investigated. measurements were performed with hot-wire probe with X-wires and a temperature wire. The mean velocity, the mean fluid temperature, the wall shear stress and wall temperature, the turbulent quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy, the Reynolds-stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes were measured and are discussed with respect to data from isothermal flow in a wall channel and heated flow in a central channel of the same rod bundle. Also, data on the power spectral densities of the velocity and temperature fluctuations are presented. These data show the existence of large scale periodic fluctuations are responsible for the high intersubchannel heat and momentum exchange.

  19. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow through a straight square duct using a near wall linear k – ε model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rechia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to predict numerically the turbulent flow through a straight square duct using Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations (RANS by the widely used k – ε and a near wall turbulence k – ε − fμ models. To handle wall proximity and no-equilibrium effects, the first model is modified by incorporating damping functions fμ via the eddy viscosity relation. The predicted results for the streamwise, spanwise velocities and the Reynolds stress components are compared to those given by the k – ε model and by the direct numerical simulation (DNS data of Gavrilakis (J. Fluid Mech., 1992. In light of these results, the proposed k – ε − fμ model is found to be generally satisfactory for predicting the considered flow.

  20. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.

  1. Inner-outer predictive wall model for wall-bounded turbulence in hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. Pino; Helm, Clara M.

    2017-11-01

    The inner-outer predictive wall model of Mathis et al. is modified for hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The model is based on a modulation of the energized motions in the inner layer by large scale momentum fluctuations in the logarithmic layer. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent boundary layers with free stream Mach number 3 to 10, it is shown that the variation of the fluid properties in the compressible flows leads to large Reynolds number (Re) effects in the outer layer and facilitate the modulation observed in high Re incompressible flows. The modulation effect by the large scale increases with increasing free-stream Mach number. The model is extended to include spanwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations and is generalized through Morkovin scaling. Temperature fluctuations are modeled using an appropriate Reynolds Analogy. Density fluctuations are calculated using an equation of state and a scaling with Mach number. DNS data are used to obtain the universal signal and parameters. The model is tested by using the universal signal to reproduce the flow conditions of Mach 3 and Mach 7 turbulent boundary layer DNS data and comparing turbulence statistics between the modeled flow and the DNS data. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant FA9550-17-1-0104.

  2. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Bouremel, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  3. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Bouremel, Yann; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, Alexander C.; Winoto, Sonny H.

    2016-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  4. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharf Abdusalam M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  5. Speculation about near-wall turbulence scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchenko, N F

    2008-01-01

    A strategy to control near-wall turbulence modifying scales of fluid motion is developed. The boundary-layer flow is shown to respond selectively to the scale of streamwise vortices initiated, e.g. with the spanwise regular temperature distribution over a model surface. It is used to generate sustainable streamwise vortices and thus to optimize integral flow characteristics.

  6. Effect of grid resolution on large eddy simulation of wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeiravesh, S.; Liefvendahl, M.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of grid resolution on a large eddy simulation (LES) of a wall-bounded turbulent flow is investigated. A channel flow simulation campaign involving a systematic variation of the streamwise (Δx) and spanwise (Δz) grid resolution is used for this purpose. The main friction-velocity-based Reynolds number investigated is 300. Near the walls, the grid cell size is determined by the frictional scaling, Δx+ and Δz+, and strongly anisotropic cells, with first Δy+ ˜ 1, thus aiming for the wall-resolving LES. Results are compared to direct numerical simulations, and several quality measures are investigated, including the error in the predicted mean friction velocity and the error in cross-channel profiles of flow statistics. To reduce the total number of channel flow simulations, techniques from the framework of uncertainty quantification are employed. In particular, a generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) is used to create metamodels for the errors over the allowed parameter ranges. The differing behavior of the different quality measures is demonstrated and analyzed. It is shown that friction velocity and profiles of the velocity and Reynolds stress tensor are most sensitive to Δz+, while the error in the turbulent kinetic energy is mostly influenced by Δx+. Recommendations for grid resolution requirements are given, together with the quantification of the resulting predictive accuracy. The sensitivity of the results to the subgrid-scale (SGS) model and varying Reynolds number is also investigated. All simulations are carried out with second-order accurate finite-volume-based solver OpenFOAM. It is shown that the choice of numerical scheme for the convective term significantly influences the error portraits. It is emphasized that the proposed methodology, involving the gPCE, can be applied to other modeling approaches, i.e., other numerical methods and the choice of SGS model.

  7. Synthetic Jet Interactions with Flows of Varying Separation Severity and Spanwise Flow Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastero, Marianne; Lindstrom, Annika; Amitay, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Flow physics associated with the interactions of synthetic jet actuators with a highly three-dimensional separated flow over a flapped airfoil were investigated experimentally and analyzed using stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) and surface pressure data. Increased understanding of active flow control devices in flows which are representative of airplane wings or tails can lead to actuator placement (i.e., chordwise location, spanwise spacing) with the greatest beneficial effect on performance. An array of discrete synthetic jets was located just upstream of the control surface hingeline and operated at a blowing ratio of 1 and non-dimensional frequency of 48. Detailed flowfield measurements over the control surface were conducted, where the airfoil's sweep angle and the control surface deflection angle were fixed at 20°. Focus was placed on the local and global flowfields as spanwise actuator spacing was varied. Moreover, surface pressure measurement for several sweep angles, control surface deflection angles, and angles of attack were also performed. Actuation resulted in an overall separation reduction and a dependence of local flowfield details (i.e. separation severity, spanwise flow magnitude, flow structures, and jet trajectory) on spanwise jet spacing. The Boeing Company.

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of a Double-Walled Confined Width on the Velocity Field of a Submerged Waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research on confined submerged waterjets mainly focuses on the flow field of the impinging jet and wall jet. The double-sided wall vertically confined waterjet, which is widely used in many fields such as mining, cleaning and surface strengthening, has rarely been studied so far. In order to explore the influence of a double-sided wall confined width on the velocity field of submerged waterjet, an experiment was conducted with the application of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technology. The distribution of mean velocity and turbulent velocity in both horizontal and vertical planes was used to characterize the flow field under various confined widths. The results show that the vertical confinement has an obvious effect on the decay rate of the mean centerline velocity. When the confined width changes from 15 to 5, the velocity is reduced by 20%. In addition, with the decrease of the confined width, the jet has a tendency to spread horizontally. The vertically confined region induces a space hysteresis effect which changes the location of the transition region moving downstream. There are local negative pressure zones separating the fluid and the wall. This study of a double-walled confined jet provides some valuable information with respect to its mechanism and industrial application.

  9. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  10. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  11. The effect of small streamwise velocity distortion on the boundary layer flow over a thin flat plate with application to boundary layer stability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.

  12. Numerical study of turbulent channel flow perturbed by spanwise topographic heterogeneity: Amplitude and frequency modulation within low- and high-momentum pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Ankit; Anderson, William

    2018-04-01

    We have studied the effects of topographically driven secondary flows on inner-outer interaction in turbulent channel flow. Recent studies have revealed that large-scale motions in the logarithmic region impose an amplitude and frequency modulation on the dynamics of small-scale structures near the wall. This led to development of a predictive model for near-wall dynamics, which has practical relevance for large-eddy simulations. Existing work on amplitude modulation has focused on smooth-wall flows; however, Anderson [J. Fluid Mech. 789, 567 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2015.744] addressed the problem of rough-wall turbulent channel flow in which the correlation profiles for amplitude modulation showed trends similar to those reported by Mathis et al. [Phys. Fluids 21, 111703 (2009), 10.1063/1.3267726]. For the present study, we considered flow over surfaces with a prominent spanwise heterogeneity, such that domain-scale turbulent secondary flows in the form of counter-rotating vortices are sustained within the flow. (We also show results for flow over a homogeneous roughness, which serves as a benchmark against the spanwise-perturbed cases.) The vortices are anchored to the topography such that prominent upwelling and downwelling occur above the low and high roughness, respectively. We have quantified the extent to which such secondary flows disrupt the distribution of spectral density across constituent wavelengths throughout the depth of the flow, which has direct implications for the existence of amplitude and frequency modulation. We find that the distinct outer peak associated with large-scale motions—the "modulators"—is preserved within the upwelling zone but vanishes in the downwelling zone. Within the downwelling zones, structures are steeper and shorter. Single- and two-point correlations for inner-outer amplitude and frequency modulation demonstrate insensitivity to resolution across cases. We also show a pronounced crossover between the single- and two

  13. Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Geophysical-like Topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, L. P.; Hamed, A. M.; Castillo, L.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental investigation of the flow and the turbulence structure over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching (RIM) channel. Extensive measurements were performed to characterize the developing and developed flows. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave superimposed in the spanwise direction with a/λy = 0.1. The flow over these walls was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have an amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a/δ99 ≈ 0.1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers beds and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics for both walls show the presence of a well-structured shear layer past the roughness crests. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate suggests that the shear layer is responsible for the majority of turbulence production across both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits preferential spanwise flows that are thought to result in the multiple distinctive flow features for the 3D wall including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight on the effect of roughness three-dimensionality and Reynolds number is drawn in both the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and quadrant analysis.

  14. Design of two-dimensional channels with prescribed velocity distributions along the channel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitz, John D

    1953-01-01

    A general method of design is developed for two-dimensional unbranched channels with prescribed velocities as a function of arc length along the channel walls. The method is developed for both compressible and incompressible, irrotational, nonviscous flow and applies to the design of elbows, diffusers, nozzles, and so forth. In part I solutions are obtained by relaxation methods; in part II solutions are obtained by a Green's function. Five numerical examples are given in part I including three elbow designs with the same prescribed velocity as a function of arc length along the channel walls but with incompressible, linearized compressible, and compressible flow. One numerical example is presented in part II for an accelerating elbow with linearized compressible flow, and the time required for the solution by a Green's function in part II was considerably less than the time required for the same solution by relaxation methods in part I.

  15. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  16. Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.

    2017-09-12

    A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.

  17. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr; Masbernat, O. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Laboratoire de Génie Chimique and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France); Climent, E. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France)

    2015-12-15

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.

  18. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M.; Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.

    2015-01-01

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section

  19. Sensitivity of the downward to sweeping velocity ratio to the bypass flow percentage along a guide wall for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Partial-depth impermeable guidance structures (or guide walls) are used as a method to assist in the downstream passage of fish at a hydroelectric facility. However, guide walls can result in a strong downward velocity causing the approaching fish to pass below the wall and into the direction of the turbine intakes. The objective of this study was to describe how the ratio of the vertical velocity to the sweeping velocity magnitude changes along the full length and depth of a guide wall under a wide range of bypass flow percentages within a power canal. This paper focused on two guide wall configurations, each set at an angle of 45 ° to the approaching flow field and at a depth of 10 and 20 ft (3.05 and 6.10 m). The hydraulic conditions upstream of each guide wall configuration were shown to be impacted by a change in the bypass flow percentage, not only near the bypass but also at upstream sections of the guide wall. Furthermore, the effect of changing the bypass flow percentage was similar for both guide wall depths. In both cases, the effect of increasing the bypass flow percentage was magnified closer to the bypass and deeper in the water column along the guide wall.

  20. Accurate calibration of the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, A.M.M.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Shellard, E.P.S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the asymptotic scaling properties of standard domain wall networks in several cosmological epochs. We carry out the largest field theory simulations achieved to date, with simulation boxes of size 2048 3 , and confirm that a scale-invariant evolution of the network is indeed the attractor solution. The simulations are also used to obtain an accurate calibration for the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls: we numerically determine the two free model parameters to have the values c w =0.34±0.16 and k w =0.98±0.07, which are of higher precision than (but in agreement with) earlier estimates.

  1. Accurate calibration of the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, A.M.M., E-mail: up080322016@alunos.fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shellard, E.P.S., E-mail: E.P.S.Shellard@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-08

    We study the asymptotic scaling properties of standard domain wall networks in several cosmological epochs. We carry out the largest field theory simulations achieved to date, with simulation boxes of size 2048{sup 3}, and confirm that a scale-invariant evolution of the network is indeed the attractor solution. The simulations are also used to obtain an accurate calibration for the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls: we numerically determine the two free model parameters to have the values c{sub w}=0.34{+-}0.16 and k{sub w}=0.98{+-}0.07, which are of higher precision than (but in agreement with) earlier estimates.

  2. Local and non-local effects of spanwise finite perturbations in erodible river bathymetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the effect of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine models on an erodible river bed under live-bed conditions. Results indicate that the presence of an operating turbine rotor creates a blockage in the mean flow which produces a remarkable geomorphic signature in the migrating bedforms. These impacts affect a local area downstream of the turbines when placed symmetrically with respect to the cross section of the channel. On the other hand, more interesting results are observed with an asymmetric installation of the turbines. This configuration demonstrates a stronger effect on the mean flow, resulting in a larger plan-wise distortion of the mean topography and differential migration patterns of bedforms. Different turbine installation arrangements and hub heights above the mean bed were investigated, focusing mainly on the perturbation of sediment transport characteristics influenced by the turbine wake. Additional results with spanwise modulated submerged walls explore the possibility to control river topography harvesting this type of geomorphic destabilization.

  3. Analysis of the coherent and turbulent stresses of a numerically simulated rough wall pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; Hutchins, N.; Ooi, A.

    2017-04-01

    A turbulent rough wall flow in a pipe is simulated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the roughness elements consist of explicitly gridded three-dimensional sinusoids. Two groups of simulations were conducted where the roughness semi-amplitude h+ and the roughness wavelength λ+ are systematically varied. The triple decomposition is applied to the velocity to separate the coherent and turbulent components. The coherent or dispersive component arises due to the roughness and depends on the topological features of the surface. The turbulent stress on the other hand, scales with the friction Reynolds number. For the case with the largest roughness wavelength, large secondary flows are observed which are similar to that of duct flows. The occurrence of these large secondary flows is due to the spanwise heterogeneity of the roughness which has a spacing approximately equal to the boundary layer thickness δ.

  4. Scalar and joint velocity-scalar PDF modelling of near-wall turbulent heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozorski, Jacek; Waclawczyk, Marta; Minier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The temperature field in a heated turbulent flow is considered as a dynamically passive scalar. The probability density function (PDF) method with down to the wall integration is explored and new modelling proposals are put forward, including the explicit account for the molecular transport terms. Two variants of the approach are considered: first, the scalar PDF method with the use of externally-provided turbulence statistics; and second, the joint (stand-alone) velocity-scalar PDF method where a near-wall model for dynamical variables is coupled with a model for temperature. The closure proposals are formulated in the Lagrangian setting and resulting stochastic evolution equations are solved with a Monte Carlo method. The near-wall region of a heated channel flow is taken as a validation case; the second-order thermal statistics are of a particular interest. The PDF computation results agree reasonably with available DNS data. The sensitivity of results to the molecular Prandtl number and to the thermal wall boundary condition is accounted for

  5. High spatial resolution measurements of large-scale three-dimensional structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Callum; Buchmann, Nicolas; Kuehn, Matthias; Soria, Julio

    2011-11-01

    Large-scale three-dimensional (3D) structures in a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ = 2000 are examined via the streamwise extrapolation of time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements in a wall-normal spanwise plane using Taylor's hypothesis. Two overlapping SPIV systems are used to provide a field of view similar to that of direct numerical simulations (DNS) on the order of 50 δ × 1 . 5 δ × 3 . 0 δ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively, with an interrogation window size of 40+ ×20+ ×60+ wall units. Velocity power spectra are compared with DNS to examine the effective resolution of these measurements and two-point correlations are performed to investigate the integral length scales associated with coherent velocity and vorticity fluctuations. Individual coherent structures are detected to provide statistics on the 3D size, spacing, and angular orientation of large-scale structures, as well as their contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress. The support of the ARC through Discovery (and LIEF) grants is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Non-volatile polarization switch of magnetic domain wall velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Stolichnov, I.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Bernand-Mantel, A.; Schott, Marine; Pizzini, S.; Ranno, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Gaudin, G. [SPINTEC, UMR-8191, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-21

    Controlled propagation speed of individual magnetic domains in metal channels at the room temperature is obtained via the non-volatile field effect associated with the switchable polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) (polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymer. Polarization domains directly written using conducting atomic force microscope probe locally accelerate/decelerate the magnetic domains in the 0.6 nm thick Co film. The change of the magnetic domain wall velocity is consistent with the magnetic anisotropy energy modulation through the polarization upward/downward orientation. Excellent retention is observed. The demonstrated local non-destructive and reversible change of magnetic properties via rewritable patterning of ferroelectric domains could be attractive for exploring the ultimate limit of miniaturization in devices based on ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayers.

  7. Velocity gradient induced line splitting in x-ray emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Renner, Oldřich; Liska, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 125, Aug (2013), s. 38-44 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasmas * x-ray spectroscopy * plasma-wall interaction * spectral line profiles * Doppler shift * ion velocity gradients Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2013

  8. Causal analysis of self-sustaining processes in the log-layer of wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Bae, Hyunji Jane

    2017-11-01

    Despite the large amount of information provided by direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, the underlying dynamics remain elusive even in the most simple and canonical configurations. Most standard methods used to investigate turbulence do not provide a clear causal inference between events, which is necessary to determine this dynamics, particularly in self-sustaning processes. In the present work, we examine the causal interactions between streaks and rolls in the logarithmic layer of minimal turbulent channel flow. Causality between structures is assessed in a non-intrusive manner by transfer entropy, i.e., how much the uncertainty of one structure is reduced by knowing the past states of the others. Streaks are represented by the first Fourier modes of the streamwise velocity, while rolls are defined by the wall-normal and spanwise velocities. The results show that the process is mainly unidirectional rather than cyclic, and that the log-layer motions are sustained by extracting energy from the mean shear, which controls the dynamics and time-scales. The well-known lift-up effect is shown to be not a key ingredient in the causal network between shear, streaks and rolls. Funded by ERC Coturb Madrid Summer Program.

  9. Causal analysis of self-sustaining processes in the logarithmic layer of wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, H. J.; Encinar, M. P.; Lozano-Durán, A.

    2018-04-01

    Despite the large amount of information provided by direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, their underlying dynamics remain elusive even in the most simple and canonical configurations. Most common approaches to investigate the turbulence phenomena do not provide a clear causal inference between events, which is essential to determine the dynamics of self-sustaining processes. In the present work, we examine the causal interactions between streaks, rolls and mean shear in the logarithmic layer of a minimal turbulent channel flow. Causality between structures is assessed in a non-intrusive manner by transfer entropy, i.e., how much the uncertainty of one structure is reduced by knowing the past states of the others. We choose to represent streaks by the first Fourier modes of the streamwise velocity, while rolls are defined by the wall-normal and spanwise velocity modes. The results show that the process is mainly unidirectional rather than cyclic, and that the log-layer motions are sustained by extracting energy from the mean shear which controls the dynamics and time-scales. The well-known lift-up effect is also identified, but shown to be of secondary importance in the causal network between shear, streaks and rolls.

  10. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  11. Velocity Distribution in the Flow from a Wall-Mounted Diffuser in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The paper describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The airflow from an air terminal device will influence the thermal comfort of the occupants and it is therefore important to develop an expression for this flow. The velocity at the floor is influenced by the flow rate...

  12. Velocity Distribution in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation and Wall-Mounted Air Terminal Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The article describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The airflow from an air terminal device influences the occupants' thermal comfort and, therefore, it is important to develop an expression for this flow in the occupied zone. The velocity at the floor is influenced...... by the flow rate to the room, the temperature difference and the type of diffuser. The flow is stratified at Archimedes numbers larger than four. The article gives expressions for the velocity distribution close to the floor. It is shown that openings between obstacles placed directly on the floor generate...... a flow similar to the air movement in front of a diffuser, and expressions for the velocity distribution in that situation are also given in the article....

  13. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)

  14. On the estimation of wall pressure coherence using time-resolved tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Stefan; Scarano, Fulvio; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional time-resolved velocity field measurements are obtained using a high-speed tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on a fully developed flat plate turbulent boundary layer for the estimation of wall pressure fluctuations. The work focuses on the applicability of tomographic PIV to compute the coherence of pressure fluctuations, with attention to the estimation of the stream and spanwise coherence length. The latter is required for estimations of aeroacoustic noise radiation by boundary layers and trailing edge flows, but is also of interest for vibro-structural problems. The pressure field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation for incompressible flows, where the source terms are provided by time-resolved velocity field measurements. Measured 3D velocity data is compared to results obtained from planar PIV, and a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) at similar Reynolds number. An improved method for the estimation of the material based on a least squares estimator of the velocity derivative along a particle trajectory is proposed and applied. Computed surface pressure fluctuations are further verified by means of simultaneous measurements by a pinhole microphone and compared to the DNS results and a semi-empirical model available from literature. The correlation coefficient for the reconstructed pressure time series with respect to pinhole microphone measurements attains approximately 0.5 for the band-pass filtered signal over the range of frequencies resolved by the velocity field measurements. Scaled power spectra of the pressure at a single point compare favorably to the DNS results and those available from literature. Finally, the coherence of surface pressure fluctuations and the resulting span- and streamwise coherence lengths are estimated and compared to semi-empirical models and DNS results.

  15. Shear localization and effective wall friction in a wall bounded granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    In this work, granular flow rheology is investigated by means of discrete numerical simulations of a torsional, cylindrical shear cell. Firstly, we focus on azimuthal velocity profiles and study the effect of (i) the confining pressure, (ii) the particle-wall friction coefficient, (iii) the rotating velocity of the bottom wall and (iv) the cell diameter. For small cell diameters, azimuthal velocity profiles are nearly auto-similar, i.e. they are almost linear with the radial coordinate. Different strain localization regimes are observed : shear can be localized at the bottom, at the top of the shear cell, or it can be even quite distributed. This behavior originates from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. Then we study the effective friction at the cylindrical wall, and point out the strong link between wall friction, slip and fluctuations of forces and velocities. Even if the system is globally below the sliding threshold, force fluctuations trigger slip events, leading to a nonzero wall slip velocity and an effective wall friction coefficient different from the particle-wall one. A scaling law was found linking slip velocity, granular temperature in the main flow direction and effective friction. Our results suggest that fluctuations are an important ingredient for theories aiming to capture the interface rheology of granular materials.

  16. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  17. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-01-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  18. Skewness and flatness factors of the longitudinal velocity derivative in wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenidi, Lyazid; Antonia, Robert A.; Talluru, Murali K.; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Hot-wire measurements are carried out in turbulent boundary layers over smooth and rough walls in order the assess the behavior of the skewness (S ) and flatness (F ) factors of the longitudinal velocity derivative as y , the distance from the wall, increases. The measurements are complemented by direct numerical simulations of a smooth wall turbulent channel flow. It is observed that, as the distance to the wall increases, S and F vary significantly before approaching a constant in the outer layer of the boundary layer. Further, S and F exhibit a nontrivial dependence on the Taylor microscale Reynolds number (Reλ). For example, in the region below about 0.2 δ (δ is the boundary layer thickness) where Reλ varies significantly, S and F strongly vary with Reλ and can be multivalued at a given Reλ. In the outer region, between 0.3 δ and 0.6 δ , S , F , and Reλ remain approximately constant. The channel flow direct numerical simulation data for S and F exhibit a similar behavior. These results point to the ambiguity that can arise when assessing the Reλ dependence of S and F in wall shear flows. In particular, the multivaluedness of S and F can lead to erroneous conclusions if y /δ is known only poorly, as is the case for the atmospheric shear layer (ASL). If the laboratory turbulent boundary layer is considered an adequate surrogate to the neutral ASL, then the behavior of S and F in the ASL is expected to be similar to that reported here.

  19. Leading-Edge Noise Prediction of General Airfoil Profiles with Spanwise-Varying Inflow Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miotto, Renato Fuzaro; Wolf, William Roberto; De Santana, Leandro Dantas

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the leading-edge noise radiated by an airfoil undergoing a turbulent inflow. The noise prediction of generic airfoil profiles subjected to spanwise-varying inflow conditions is performed with the support of Amiet’s theory and the inverse strip technique. In the

  20. Leading-Edge Noise Prediction of General Airfoil Profiles with Spanwise-Varying Inflow Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miotto, Renato Fuzaro; Wolf, William Roberto; De Santana, Leandro Dantas

    This paper presents a study of the leading-edge noise radiated by an airfoil undergoing a turbulent inflow. The noise prediction of generic airfoil profiles subjected to spanwise-varying inflow conditions is performed with the support of Amiet’s theory and the inverse strip technique. In the

  1. The role of the velocity gradient in laminar convective heat transfer through a tube with a uniform wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liangbi; Zhang Qiang; Li Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy conservation equation of convective heat transfer is used to explain convective heat transfer there are two points that are difficult for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand: thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of temperature; on the wall surface (the fluid side) the velocity is zero, a diffusion equation of temperature is gained from energy conservation equation, however, temperature cannot be transported. Consequently, the real physical meaning of thermal diffusivity is not clearly reflected in the energy conservation equation, and whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process on the wall surface is not clear. Through a simple convective heat transfer case: laminar convective heat transfer in a tube with a uniform wall heat flux on the tube wall, this paper explains these points more clearly. The results declare that it is easier for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand these points when a description of heat transfer in terms of the heat flux is used. In this description, thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux; the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer appears, on the wall surface, the fact whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process can be explained and understood easily. The results are not only essential for teachers to improve the efficiency of university-level physics education regarding heat transfer, but they also enrich the theories for understanding heat transfer

  2. Pollutant Dispersion in Boundary Layers Exposed to Rural-to-Urban Transitions: Varying the Spanwise Length Scale of the Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, J. M.; Eisma, H. E.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Elsinga, G. E.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Westerweel, J.

    2017-05-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence, have been used to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanisms in regions where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. The urban roughness was characterized by an array of rectangular obstacles in an in-line arrangement. The streamwise length scale of the roughness was kept constant, while the spanwise length scale was varied by varying the obstacle aspect ratio l / h between 1 and 8, where l is the spanwise dimension of the obstacles and h is the height of the obstacles. Additionally, the case of two-dimensional roughness (riblets) was considered in LES. A smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer of depth 10 h was used as the approaching flow, and a line source of passive tracer was placed 2 h upstream of the urban canopy. The experimental and numerical results show good agreement, while minor discrepancies are readily explained. It is found that for l/h=2 the drag induced by the urban canopy is largest of all considered cases, and is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In addition, due to the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identified that is responsible for street-canyon ventilation for the sixth street and onwards. Moreover, it is shown that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the canopy, while the streamwise length scale does not show a similar trend.

  3. Effect of superconducting solenoid model cores on spanwise iron magnet roll control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with conventional ferromagnetic fuselage cores, superconducting solenoid cores appear to offer significant reductions in the projected cost of a large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system. The provision of sufficient magnetic roll torque capability has been a long-standing problem with all magnetic suspension and balance systems; and the spanwise iron magnet scheme appears to be the most powerful system available. This scheme utilizes iron cores which are installed in the wings of the model. It was anticipated that the magnetization of these cores, and hence the roll torque generated, would be affected by the powerful external magnetic field of the superconducting solenoid. A preliminary study has been made of the effect of the superconducting solenoid fuselage model core concept on the spanwise iron magnet roll torque generation schemes. Computed data for one representative configuration indicate that reductions in available roll torque occur over a range of applied magnetic field levels. These results indicate that a 30-percent increase in roll electromagnet capacity over that previously determined will be required for a representative 8-foot wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system design.

  4. The effects of non-uniform flow velocity on vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotube conveying fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad [Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.

  5. The effects of non-uniform flow velocity on vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotube conveying fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Hosseini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.

  6. Experimental investigations on frictional resistance and velocity distribution of rough wall with regularly distributed triangular ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozawa, Masaaki; Ito, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Kawashima, Hideki; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow over the regularly distributed triangular ribs was investigated. • Simultaneous measurement of flow resistance and velocity profile was performed. • Flow resistance was measured directly and velocity profile was measured by LDV. • Flow resistance was estimated by the information of the velocity field. • Estimated flow resistance has good agreement with the measured flow resistance. -- Abstract: The relationship between the flow resistance of a turbulent flow over triangular ribs regularly distributed on a wall surface and the velocity distribution around the ribs was investigated experimentally. A concentric cylinder device composed of an inner test cylinder and an outer cylinder was employed to measure the flow resistance using the torque of the shaft of the inner cylinder and the velocity distribution of the flow around a rib by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) simultaneously. We prepared four inner test cylinders having 4, 8, 12 and 16 triangular ribs on the surface with the same interval between them. Each rib had an isosceles right triangle V-shape and a height of 2 mm. To investigate the relationship between flow resistance and velocity distribution, we estimated the frictional drag and pressure drag acting on the surface of the ribs separately using the velocity distribution. Therefore, we could also estimate the total flow resistance using the velocity distribution. As a result of the experiment, the flow resistance and the attachment point downstream of the rib were shown to depend on the distance between ribs. Moreover, the flow resistance estimated using the velocity distribution had good agreement with the flow resistance measured using the torque of the inner cylinder

  7. Capabilities of wind tunnels with two-adaptive walls to minimize boundary interference in 3-D model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstock, Rainer; Lee, Edwin E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An initial wind tunnel test was made to validate a new wall adaptation method for 3-D models in test sections with two adaptive walls. First part of the adaptation strategy is an on-line assessment of wall interference at the model position. The wall induced blockage was very small at all test conditions. Lift interference occurred at higher angles of attack with the walls set aerodynamically straight. The adaptation of the top and bottom tunnel walls is aimed at achieving a correctable flow condition. The blockage was virtually zero throughout the wing planform after the wall adjustment. The lift curve measured with the walls adapted agreed very well with interference free data for Mach 0.7, regardless of the vertical position of the wing in the test section. The 2-D wall adaptation can significantly improve the correctability of 3-D model data. Nevertheless, residual spanwise variations of wall interference are inevitable.

  8. Experimental Studies of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows and Flow Control. Streamwise Pressure Profiles and Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    faculties. The geometry corresponded to "Pak B" LPT airfoil. The test section simulated LPT flow in a passage. Three experimental studies were performed: (a) Boundary layer measurements for ten baseline cases under high and low freestream turbulence conditions at five Reynolds numbers of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000, based on passage exit velocity and suction surface wetted length; (b) Passive flow control studies with three thicknesses of two-dimensional bars, and two heights of three-dimensional circular cylinders with different spanwise separations, at same flow conditions as the 10 baseline cases; (c) Active flow control with oscillating synthetic (zero net mass flow) vortex generator jets, for one case with low freestream turbulence and a low Reynolds number of 25,000. The Passive flow control was successful at controlling the separation problem at low Reynolds numbers, with varying degrees of success from case to case and varying levels of impact at higher Reynolds numbers. The active flow control successfully eliminated the large separation problem for the low Reynolds number case. Very detailed data was acquired using hot-wire anemometry, including single and two velocity components, integral boundary layer quantities, turbulence statistics and spectra, turbulent shear stresses and their spectra, and intermittency, documenting transition, separation and reattachment. Models were constructed to correlate the results. The report includes a summary of the work performed and reprints of the publications describing the various studies. The folders in this supplement contain processed data in ASCII format. Streamwise pressure profiles and velocity profiles are included. The velocity profiles were acquired using single sensor and cross sensor hot-wire probes which were traversed from the wall to the freestream at various streamwise locations. In some of the flow control cases (3D Trips and Jets) profiles were acquired at multiple spanwise locations.

  9. The Spanwise Distribution of Losses in Prismatic Turbine Cascade with Non-Uniform Inlet Velocity Profile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fürst, J.; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-141 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : prismatic turbine cascade * losses * velocity profile Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=21&C=2

  10. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  11. Spanwise drag variation on low Re wings -- revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanling; Spedding, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance measurement and prediction of airfoils and wings at chord Reynolds numbers below 105 is both difficult and increasingly important in application to small-scale aircraft. Not only are the aerodynamics strongly affected by the dynamics of the unstable laminar boundary layer but the flow is decreasingly likely to be two-dimensional as Re decreases. The spanwise variation of the flow along a two-dimensional geometry is often held to be responsible for the large variations in measured profile drag coefficient. Here we measure local two-dimensional drag coefficients along a finite wing using non-intrusive PIV methods. Variations in Cd (y) can be related to local flow variations on the wing itself. Integrated values can be compared with force balance data, and the proper description of drag components at low Re will be discussed.

  12. Growth and wall-transpiration control of nonlinear unsteady Görtler vortices forced by free-stream vortical disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marensi, Elena; Ricco, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    The generation, nonlinear evolution, and wall-transpiration control of unsteady Görtler vortices in an incompressible boundary layer over a concave plate is studied theoretically and numerically. Görtler rolls are initiated and driven by free-stream vortical perturbations of which only the low-frequency components are considered because they penetrate the most into the boundary layer. The formation and development of the disturbances are governed by the nonlinear unsteady boundary-region equations with the centrifugal force included. These equations are subject to appropriate initial and outer boundary conditions, which account for the influence of the upstream and free-stream forcing in a rigorous and mutually consistent manner. Numerical solutions show that the stabilizing effect on nonlinearity, which also occurs in flat-plate boundary layers, is significantly enhanced in the presence of centrifugal forces. Sufficiently downstream, the nonlinear vortices excited at different free-stream turbulence intensities Tu saturate at the same level, proving that the initial amplitude of the forcing becomes unimportant. At low Tu, the disturbance exhibits a quasi-exponential growth with the growth rate being intensified for more curved plates and for lower frequencies. At higher Tu, in the typical range of turbomachinery applications, the Görtler vortices do not undergo a modal stage as nonlinearity saturates rapidly, and the wall curvature does not affect the boundary-layer response. Good quantitative agreement with data from direct numerical simulations and experiments is obtained. Steady spanwise-uniform and spanwise-modulated zero-mass-flow-rate wall transpiration is shown to attenuate the growth of the Görtler vortices significantly. A novel modified version of the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi identity, used for the first time to study a transitional flow, reveals which terms in the streamwise momentum balance are mostly affected by the wall transpiration, thus

  13. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  14. CFD modelling of the wall friction velocity field in the ITER tokamak resulting from airflow during a loss of vacuum accident—Consequences for particle resuspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélain, T., E-mail: thomas.gelain@irsn.fr; Rondeau, A.; Peillon, S.; Sabroux, J.C.; Gensdarmes, F.

    2015-11-15

    During a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), dusts that will be present in the future tokamak ITER are likely to be re-suspended. Such aerosols formed may present a risk for explosion and airborne contamination. This article presents parameters that govern the forces affecting particles deposited on a wall and subject to airflow. It is shown the influence of three parameters in the dust mobilization mechanism, i.e.: the particles diameter, the fluid density and the friction velocity. From numerical simulations, it is determined the evolution of wall friction velocities in the vacuum vessel (VV) of ITER during a LOVA. The numerical calculations performed with ANSYS CFX code provide average friction velocities in the lower part of the tokamak between 12 m s{sup −1} at a pressure of 150 Pa, and 0.5 m s{sup −1} at a pressure of 10{sup 5} Pa.

  15. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric

  16. Heat release effects on mixing scales of non-premixed turbulent wall-jets: A direct numerical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouransari, Zeinab; Vervisch, Luc; Johansson, Arne V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A non-premixed turbulent flame close to a solid surface is studied using DNS. ► Heat release effects delay transition and enlarge fluctuation of density and pressure. ► The fine-scale structures damped and surface wrinkling diminished due to heat-release. ► Using semilocal scaling improves the collapse of turbulence statistic in inner region. ► There are regions of the flame where considerable (up to 10%) premixed burning occurs. -- Abstract: The present study concerns the role of heat release effects on characteristics mixing scales of turbulence in reacting wall-jet flows. Direct numerical simulations of exothermic reacting turbulent wall-jets are performed and compared to the isothermal reacting case. An evaluation of the heat-release effects on the structure of turbulence is given by examining the mixture fraction surface characteristics, diagnosing vortices and exploring the dissipation rate of the fuel and passive scalar concentrations, and moreover by illustration of probability density functions of reacting species and scatter plots of the local temperature against the mixture fraction. Primarily, heat release effects delay the transition, enlarge the fluctuation intensities of density and pressure and also enhance the fluctuation level of the species concentrations. However, it has a damping effect on all velocity fluctuation intensities and the Reynolds shear stress. A key result is that the fine-scale structures of turbulence are damped, the surface wrinkling is diminished and the vortices become larger due to heat-release effects. Taking into account the varying density by using semi-local scaling improves the collapse of the turbulence statistics in the inner region, but does not eliminate heat release induced differences in the outer region. Examining the two-dimensional premultiplied spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations indicates a shifting in the positions of the outer peaks, associated with large

  17. Turbulence and transport of passive scalar in magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with different orientations of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Prasanta K.; Zikanov, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent passive scalar transport in an MHD flow in a channel is studied using DNS. ► Magnetic fields of wall-normal, spanwise, and streamwise orientations are considered. ► Magnetic fields suppress turbulent transport and modifies scalar distribution. ► The effect is particularly strong at wall-normal and spanwise magnetic fields. ► Decrease of Nusselt number is approximated by a linear function of magnetic interaction parameter. - Abstract: DNS of turbulent flow and passive scalar transport in a channel are conducted for the situation when the fluid is electrically conducting (for example, a liquid metal) and the flow is affected by an imposed magnetic field. The cases of wall-normal, spanwise, and streamwise orientation of the magnetic field are considered. As main results, we find that the magnetic fields, especially those in the wall-normal and spanwise directions, significantly reduce the turbulent scalar transport and modify the properties of the scalar distribution.

  18. Structure measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1987-09-01

    Extensive hot-wire measurements have been made to determine the structure of the large eddy in a synthejc turbulent boundary layer on a flat-plate model. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a nominal free-stream velocity of 12 m/s. The synthetic turbulent boundary layer had a hexagonal pattern of eddies and a ratio of streamwise scale to spanwise scale of 3.2:1. The measured celerity of the large eddy was 84.2 percent of the free-stream velocity. There was some loss of coherence, but very little distortion, as the eddies moved downstream. Several mean properties of the synthetic boundary layer were found to agree quite well with the mean properties of a natural turbulent boundary layer at the same Reynolds number. The large eddy is composed of a pair of primary counter-rotating vortices about five [...] long in the streamwise direction and about one [...] apart in the spanwise direction, where [...] is the mean boundary-layer thickness. The sense of the primary pair is such as to pump fluid away from the wall in the region between the vortices. A secondary pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, having a sense opposite to that of the primary pair, is observed outside of and slightly downstream from the primary vortices. Both pairs of vortices extend across the full thickness of the boundary layer and are inclined at a shallow angle to the surface of the flat plate. The data show that the mean vorticity vectors are not tangential to the large-eddy vortices. In fact, the streamwise and normal vorticity components that signal the presence of the eddy are of the same order of magnitude. Definite signatures are obtained in terms of the mean skin-friction coefficient and the mean wake parameter averaged at constant phase. Velocities induced by the vortices are partly responsible for entrainment of irrotational fluid, for transport of momentum, for generation of Reynolds stresses, and for maintenance of streamwise and normal vorticity in the outer

  19. Altered Aortic Upper Wall TDI Velocity Is Inversely Related with Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Operated Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Saba, Luca; Marras, Andrea R; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients often develop progressive aortic root dilatation due to an impairment in aortic elastic properties. (1) to assess aortic elasticity at the level of the aortic upper wall by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI); (2) to evaluate the influence of aortic elasticity on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in TOF patients. Twenty-eight postoperative TOF patients (14 males, 14 females. Mean age: 25.7 ± 1.6 years) and 28 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were examined. Aortic distensibility and stiffness index were calculated. Aortic wall systolic and diastolic velocities, LV systolic and diastolic parameters were assessed by TDI. Aortic distensibility was significantly lower (P = .024), and aortic stiffness index significantly higher (P = .036) in TOF patients compared to controls. E/E' was significantly higher in TOF than in control group (P < .001). Aortic upper wall early diastolic velocity (AWEDV) was significantly correlated with aortic stiffness index (r: -0.42; P < .03), aortic distensibility (r = 0.54; P < .004), left atrial volume (r = -0.62; P = .0004), and E/E' ratio (r = -0.87; P < .0001). The latter relationship remained significant even when excluding the influence of age at surgery (r = -0.60; P < .0007) and of previous palliative surgery (r = -0.53; P < .02). Aortic elastic properties can be directly assessed using TDI to measure AWEDV. Aortic elasticity is significantly lower in postoperative TOF patients, exerting a negative effect also on LV diastolic function, with a potential long-term influence on clinical status. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The structure of a jet in cross flow at low velocity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, Shridhar; Abraham, Bruce M.; Katz, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines in detail the flow structure and associated wall pressure fluctuations caused by the injection of a round, turbulent jet into a turbulent boundary layer. The velocity ratio, r, ratio of mean jet velocity to the mean cross flow, varies from 0.5 to 2.5 and the Reynolds number based on the cross flow speed and jet diameter is 1.9x10 4 . Particle image velocimetry is used to measure the flow and flush mounted pressure sensors installed at several locations used to determine the wall pressure. The results consist of sample instantaneous flow structures, distributions of mean velocity, vorticity and turbulence intensity, as well as wall pressure spectra. The flow structure depends strongly on the velocity ratio and there are two distinctly different regions. At low velocity ratios, namely r 2, the near-wall flow behind the jet resembles a Karman vortex street and the wall-normal vortical structures contain cross flow boundary layer vorticity. Autospectra of the pressure signals show that the effect of the jet is mainly in the 15-100 Hz range. At r 2, the wall pressure levels reach a plateau demonstrating the diminishing effect of the jet on the near-wall flow. Consistent with the flow structure, the highest wall pressure fluctuations occur off the jet centerline for r 2. Also, the advection speed of near-wall vortical structures increase with r at r 2 it is a constant

  1. Normal loads program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [evaluation of spanwise and chordwise loading distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.

  2. On the Effect of Rigid Swept Surface Waves on Turbulent Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, M.; Wilkinson, S. P.; Balakumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Passive turbulent drag reduction techniques are of interest as a cost effective means to improve air vehicle fuel consumption. In the past, rigid surface waves slanted at an angle from the streamwise direction were deemed ineffective to reduce skin friction drag due to the pressure drag that they generate. A recent analysis seeking similarities to the spanwise shear stress generated by spatial Stokes layers suggested that there may be a range of wavelength, amplitude, and orientation in which the wavy surface would reduce turbulent drag. The present work explores, by experiments and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), the effect of swept wavy surfaces on skin friction and pressure drag. Plates with shallow and deep wave patterns were rapid-prototyped and tested using a drag balance in the 7x11 inch Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA LaRC Research Center. The measured drag o set between the wavy plates and the reference at plate is found to be within the experimental repeatability limit. Oil vapor flow measurements indicate a mean spanwise flow over the deep waves. The turbulent flow in channels with at walls, swept wavy walls and spatial Stokes spanwise velocity forcing was simulated at a friction Reynolds number of two hundred. The time-averaged and dynamic turbulent flow characteristics of the three channel types are compared. The drag obtained for the channel with shallow waves is slightly larger than for the at channel, within the range of the experiments. In the case of the large waves, the simulation over predicts the drag. The shortcomings of the Stokes layer analogy model for the estimation of the spanwise shear stress and drag are discussed.

  3. Downstream fish passage guide walls: A hydraulic scale model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2018-01-01

    Partial-depth guide walls are used to improve passage efficiency and reduce the delay of out-migrating anadromous fish species by guiding fish to a bypass route (i.e. weir, pipe, sluice gate) that circumvents the turbine intakes, where survival is usually lower. Evaluation and monitoring studies, however, indicate a high propensity for some fish to pass underneath, rather than along, the guide walls, compromising their effectiveness. In the present study we evaluated a range of guide wall structures to identify where/if the flow field shifts from sweeping (i.e. flow direction primarily along the wall and towards the bypass) to downward-dominant. Many migratory fish species, particularly juveniles, are known to drift with the flow and/or exhibit rheotactic behaviour during their migration. When these behaviours are present, fish follow the path of the flow field. Hence, maintaining a strong sweeping velocity in relation to the downward velocity along a guide wall is essential to successful fish guidance. Nine experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional velocity components upstream of a scale model guide wall set at a wide range of depths and angles to flow. Results demonstrated how each guide wall configuration affected the three-dimensional velocity components, and hence the downward and sweeping velocity, along the full length of the guide wall. In general, the velocities produced in the scale model were sweeping dominant near the water surface and either downward dominant or close to the transitional depth near the bottom of the guide wall. The primary exception to this shift from sweeping do downward flow was for the minimum guide wall angle tested in this study (15°). At 15° the flow pattern was fully sweeping dominant for every cross-section, indicating that a guide wall with a relatively small angle may be more likely to produce conditions favorable to efficient guidance. A critical next step is to evaluate the behaviour of migratory fish as

  4. Dynamics of one-dimensional domain walls interacting with disorder potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shibauchi, T.; Argyle, B.; Gignac, L.; Zabel, T.; Weller, D.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics of 1D perpendicular-anisotropy domain walls in a few monolayer-thin Co films is imaged by polar Kerr microscopy. When domain walls, driven by a square-pulsed magnetic fields, travel through a random disordered potential landscape, they display Gaussian-distributed roughness characteristic of this landscape. Average velocity of the domain wall driven by a constant magnetic field strongly depends on a strain field which modifies (increases) the elastic energy of the wall and reduces the wall velocity

  5. Turbulent Structure of a Simplified Urban Fluid Flow Studied Through Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace

    2018-02-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.

  6. Unsteady MHD stagnation flow over a moving wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, M.; Nath, G.

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady viscous stagnation flow of an electrically conducting fluid over a continuously moving wall with an applied magnetic field has been investigated when the free stream and wall velocities increase arbitrarily with time. The flow is initially (t = 0) steady and at time t > 0, it becomes unsteady. The semi-similar solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations along with the energy equation governing the flow and heat transfer has been obtained numerically. Also the self-similar solution is obtained when the surface and free stream velocities vary inversely as a linear function of time. The shear stress and the heat transfer increase with time and magnetic field. The surface shear stress vanishes for certain value of the ratio of the wall velocity to the free stream velocity. (author)

  7. Re-understanding the law-of-the-wall for wall-bounded turbulence based on in-depth investigation of DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochao; Xu, Hongyi

    2018-05-01

    Based on direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of the straight ducts, namely square and rectangular annular ducts, detailed analyses were conducted for the mean streamwise velocity, relevant velocity scales, and turbulence statistics. It is concluded that turbulent boundary layers (TBL) should be broadly classified into three types (Type-A, -B, and -C) in terms of their distribution patterns of the time-averaged local wall-shear stress (τ _w ) or the mean local frictional velocity (u_τ ) . With reference to the Type-A TBL analysis by von Karman in developing the law-of-the-wall using the time-averaged local frictional velocity (u_τ ) as scale, the current study extended the approach to the Type-B TBL and obtained the analytical expressions for streamwise velocity in the inner-layer using ensemble-averaged frictional velocity (\\bar{{u}}_τ ) as scale. These analytical formulae were formed by introducing the general damping and enhancing functions. Further, the research applied a near-wall DNS-guided integration to the governing equations of Type-B TBL and quantitatively proved the correctness and accuracy of the inner-layer analytical expressions for this type.

  8. Phenomenology of wall-bounded Newtonian turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S

    2006-01-01

    We construct a simple analytic model for wall-bounded turbulence, containing only four adjustable parameters. Two of these parameters are responsible for the viscous dissipation of the components of the Reynolds stress tensor. The other two parameters control the nonlinear relaxation of these objects. The model offers an analytic description of the profiles of the mean velocity and the correlation functions of velocity fluctuations in the entire boundary region, from the viscous sublayer, through the buffer layer, and further into the log-law turbulent region. In particular, the model predicts a very simple distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy in the log-law region between the velocity components: the streamwise component contains a half of the total energy whereas the wall-normal and cross-stream components contain a quarter each. In addition, the model predicts a very simple relation between the von Kármán slope k and the turbulent velocity in the log-law region v+ (in wall units): v+=6k. These predictions are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulation data and with recent laboratory experiments.

  9. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  10. Influence of Coherent Structures on the Wall Shear Stress in Axial Flow Between a Cylinder and a Plane Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabbouchi, Imed; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    Synchronised hot-film and hot-wire measurements were made in the narrower region of a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod. The hot-film probe was mounted flush with the channel bottom wall to measure the wall shear stress, while the hot-wire probe was placed at a fixed position, selected in order to easily detect the passage of coherent structures. Mean and rms profiles of the wall shear stress show the influence of the gap to diameter ratio on their respective distributions. The latter presented peculiarities that could only be explained by the presence of coherent structures in the flow between the rod and the wall. Evidence of this presence is seen in the velocity power spectra. The strong influence of the coherent structures on the wall shear stress spatial and temporal distributions is established through velocity-wall shear stress cross-correlations functions and through conditionally sampled measurements

  11. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  12. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Zhukova, V.; Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M.; Perov, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe 74 B 13 Si 11 C 2 microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height

  13. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukova, V., E-mail: valentina.zhukova@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011 (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe{sub 74}B{sub 13}Si{sub 11}C{sub 2} microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height.

  14. Development of Autonomous Boat-Type Robot for Automated Velocity Measurement in Straight Natural River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjou, Michio; Nagasaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The present study describes an automated system to measure the river flow velocity. A combination of the camera-tracking system and the Proportional/Integral/Derivative (PID) control could enable the boat-type robot to remain in position against the mainstream; this results in reasonable evaluation of the mean velocity by a duty ratio which corresponds to rotation speed of the screw propeller. A laser range finder module was installed to measure the local water depth. Reliable laboratory experiments with the prototype boat robot and electromagnetic velocimetry were conducted to obtain a calibration curve that connects the duty ratio and mean current velocity. The remaining accuracy in the target point was also examined quantitatively. The fluctuation in the spanwise direction is within half of the robot length. It was therefore found that the robot remains well within the target region. We used two-dimensional navigation tests to guarantee that the prototype moved smoothly to the target points and successfully measured the streamwise velocity profiles across the mainstream. Moreover, the present robot was found to move successfully not only in the laboratory flume but also in a small natural river. The robot could move smoothly from the starting point near the operator's site toward the target point where the velocity is measured, and it could evaluate the cross-sectional discharge.

  15. The superflow state of 3He-B at a diffusive wall. Quasiclassical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, N.B.; Soininen, P.I.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report first computations considering effects of a rough wall on the counterflow state in superfluid 3 He-B for high flow velocities. Using the quasiclassical Green's-function formalism supplemented by the boundary conditions for a diffusive wall, they calculate the order-parameter field and the supercurrent near a container wall for various pressures and temperatures. One of the results is that the current density at the wall as a function of the flow has a maximum at the velocity which is about half of the pair breaking velocity

  16. A numerical study of scalar dispersion downstream of a wall-mounted cube using direct simulations and algebraic flux models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R., E-mail: riccardo.rossi12@unibo.i [Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica Computazionale Seconda Facolta di Ingegneria di Forli, Universita di Bologna Via Fontanelle 40, 47100 Forli (Italy); Center for Turbulence Research Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Philips, D.A.; Iaccarino, G. [Center for Turbulence Research Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The computed DNS statistics indicate that a gradient-transport scheme can be applied to the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. {yields} The streamwise scalar flux is characterized by a counter-gradient transport mechanism in the wake region close to the obstacle. {yields} The wake profiles of scalar fluctuations and the shape of probability density functions do not suggest a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. {yields} The evaluation of scalar dispersion models must include a careful assessment of the computed mean velocity field and Reynolds stress tensor. {yields} Algebraic models provide an improved prediction of the mean concentration field as compared to the standard eddy-diffusivity model. -- Abstract: The dispersion of a passive scalar downstream of a wall-mounted cube is examined using direct numerical simulations and turbulence models applied to the Reynolds equations. The scalar is released from a circular source located on top of the obstacle, which is immersed in a developing boundary-layer flow. Direct simulations are performed to give insight into the mixing process and to provide a reference database for turbulence closures. Algebraic flux models are evaluated against the standard eddy-diffusivity representation. Coherent structures periodically released from the cube top are responsible for a counter-diffusion mechanism appearing in the streamwise scalar flux. Alternating vortex pairs form from the lateral edges of the cube, but the intensity profiles and probability density functions of scalar fluctuations suggest that they do not cause a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. The gradient-transport scheme is consistent with the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. From the comparative study with our direct simulations, we further stress that Reynolds stress predictions must be carefully evaluated along with scalar flux closures in order to establish the reliability of

  17. A numerical study of scalar dispersion downstream of a wall-mounted cube using direct simulations and algebraic flux models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.; Philips, D.A.; Iaccarino, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The computed DNS statistics indicate that a gradient-transport scheme can be applied to the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. → The streamwise scalar flux is characterized by a counter-gradient transport mechanism in the wake region close to the obstacle. → The wake profiles of scalar fluctuations and the shape of probability density functions do not suggest a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. → The evaluation of scalar dispersion models must include a careful assessment of the computed mean velocity field and Reynolds stress tensor. → Algebraic models provide an improved prediction of the mean concentration field as compared to the standard eddy-diffusivity model. -- Abstract: The dispersion of a passive scalar downstream of a wall-mounted cube is examined using direct numerical simulations and turbulence models applied to the Reynolds equations. The scalar is released from a circular source located on top of the obstacle, which is immersed in a developing boundary-layer flow. Direct simulations are performed to give insight into the mixing process and to provide a reference database for turbulence closures. Algebraic flux models are evaluated against the standard eddy-diffusivity representation. Coherent structures periodically released from the cube top are responsible for a counter-diffusion mechanism appearing in the streamwise scalar flux. Alternating vortex pairs form from the lateral edges of the cube, but the intensity profiles and probability density functions of scalar fluctuations suggest that they do not cause a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. The gradient-transport scheme is consistent with the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. From the comparative study with our direct simulations, we further stress that Reynolds stress predictions must be carefully evaluated along with scalar flux closures in order to establish the reliability of Reynolds

  18. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  19. Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.

  20. Numerical calculation of velocity distribution near a vertical flat plate immersed in bubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Horihata, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Aragaki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Ikuho; Isoda, Shinji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid and gas velocity distributions for bubble flow near a vertical flat plate were calculated numerically by using the SIMPLER method, where the flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, and at steady state. The two-fluid flow model was used in the numerical analysis. To calculate the drag force on a small bubble, Stokes' law for a rigid sphere is applicable. The dimensionless velocity distributions which were arranged with characteristic boundary layer thickness and maximum liquid velocity were adjusted with a single line and their forms were similar to that for single-phase wall-jet flow. The average wall shear stress derived from the velocity gradient at the plate wall was strongly affected by bubble diameter but not by inlet liquid velocity. The present dimensionless velocity distributions obtained numerically agreed well with previous experimental results, and the proposed numerical algorithm was validated. (author)

  1. Stochastic Analysis of Natural Convection in Vertical Channels with Random Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Chiba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to derive the statistics of temperature and velocity fields of laminar natural convection in a heated vertical channel with random wall temperature. The wall temperature is expressed as a random function with respect to time, or a random process. First, analytical solutions of the transient temperature and flow velocity fields for an arbitrary temporal variation in the channel wall temperature are obtained by the integral transform and convolution theorem. Second, the autocorrelations of the temperature and velocity are formed from the solutions, assuming a stationarity in time. The mean square values of temperature and velocity are computed under the condition that the fluctuation in the channel wall temperature can be considered as white noise or a stationary Markov process. Numerical results demonstrate that a decrease in the Prandtl number or an increase in the correlation time of the random process increases the level of mean square velocity but does not change its spatial distribution tendency, which is a bell-shaped profile with a peak at a certain horizontal distance from the channel wall. The peak position is not substantially affected by the Prandtl number or the correlation time.

  2. Characterisation of minimal-span plane Couette turbulence with pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Atsushi; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio

    2018-04-01

    The turbulence statistics and dynamics in the spanwise-minimal plane Couette flow with pressure gradients, so-called, Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flow, are investigated using direct numerical simulation. The large-scale motion is limited in the spanwise box dimension as in the minimal-span channel turbulence of Flores & Jiménez (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 071704). The effect of the top wall, where normal pressure-driven Poiseuille flow is realised, is distinguished from the events on the bottom wall, where the pressure gradient results in mild or almost-zero wall-shear stress. A proper scaling of turbulence statistics in minimal-span C-P flows is presented. Also the ‘shear-less’ wall-bounded turbulence, where the Corrsin shear parameter is very weak compared to normal wall-bounded turbulence, represents local separation, which is also observed as spanwise streaks of reversed flow in full-size plane C-P turbulence. The local separation is a multi-scale event, which grows up to the order of the channel height even in the minimal-span geometry.

  3. High Resolution 3D Experimental Investigation of Flow Structures and Turbulence Statistics in the Viscous and Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy is implemented to perform 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. The measurements are performed at a resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50), sufficient for resolving buffer layer structures and for measuring the instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the sublayer. The data provides detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall shear stress components along with the characteristic flow structures, including streamwise counter-rotating vortex pairs, multiple streamwise vortices, and rare hairpins. Conditional sampling identifies characteristic length scales of 70 wall units in spanwise and 10 wall units in wall-normal direction. In the region of high stress, the conditionally averaged flow consists of a stagnation-like sweeping motion induced by a counter rotating pair of streamwise vortices. Regions with low stress are associated with ejection motion, also generated by pairs of counter-rotating vortices. Statistics on the local strain and geometric alignment between strain and vorticity shows that the high shear generating vortices are inclined at 45 to streamwise direction, indicating that vortices are being stretched. Results of on-going analysis examines statistics of helicity, strain and impacts of near-wall structures.

  4. 3-D MDT with spherical targets by bilinear interpolation for determining blood velocity profiles including the vessel wall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2018-02-01

    A numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3-D) implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets, including the effect from the vessel wall on the blood flow, is presented. The targets were implanted within arterioles and subjected to an externally uniform applied magnetic field in order to increase the effectiveness of targeting magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs). The capture area (As) of the MDCPs was determined by inspection of the particle trajectories simulated from the particle equations of motion. The blood flow velocities at any particle position around the target were obtained by applying bilinear interpolation to the numerical blood velocity data. The effects on As of the type of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, average blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the externally applied magnetic field strength (μ0H0) were evaluated. Furthermore, the appropriate μ0H0 and Rp for the IA-MDT design is suggested. In the case of the SS409 target and magnetite MDCPs, dimensionless capture areas ranging from 4.1- to 12.4 and corresponding to particle capture efficiencies of 31-94% were obtained with Rp ranging from 100- to 500 nm, weight fraction of 80%, μ0H0 of 0.6 T and an average blood flow rate of 0.01 ms-1. In addition, the more general 3-D modelling of IA-MDT in this work is applicable to IA-MDT using spherical targets implanted within blood vessels for both laminar and potential blood flows including the wall effect.

  5. Vortex generation and wave-vortex interaction over a concave plate with roughness and suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    1993-01-01

    The generation and amplification of vortices by surface homogeneities, both in the form of surface waviness and of wall-normal velocity, is investigated using the nonlinear parabolic stability equations. Transients and issues of algebraic growth are avoided through the use of a similarity solution as initial condition for the vortex. In the absence of curvature, the vortex decays as the square root of 1/x when flowing over streamwise aligned riblets of constant height, and grows as the square root of x when flowing over a corresponding streamwise aligned variation of blowing/suction transpiration velocity. However, in the presence of wall inhomogeneities having both streamwise and spanwise periodicity, the growth of the vortex can be much larger. In the presence of curvature, the vortex develops into a Gortler vortex. The 'direct' and 'indirect' interaction mechanisms possible in wave-vortex interaction are presented. The 'direct' interaction does not lead to strong resonance with the flow conditions investigated. The 'indirect' interaction leads to K-type transition.

  6. Laminar boundary layer near the rotating end wall of a confined vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, W. J.; Levy, E. K.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the fluid mechanics in a confined vortex are discussed with particular emphasis on behavior away from the axis of symmetry and near the end walls. The vortex is generated in a rotating cylindrical chamber with an exit opening in one end. Both end walls rotate. For the range of flow rates and swirl ratios (S between 1 and 5) of interest here, the flow field far from the end walls behaves as inviscid and irrotational; and the end wall boundary layers are thin and laminar. Measurements and calculations of tangential and radial velocity in the end wall region show the development of a secondary flow resulting in a strong velocity 'overshoot' in the radial component. Results illustrating the nature of the velocity variations on the end walls are presented; and it is shown that the mass flow rate through the end wall boundary layers, while only a small fraction of the total flow, increases with increasing swirl and with decreasing total flow rate through the chamber.

  7. Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film

  8. Effect of membrane and through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon-Sik

    2003-11-01

    This study clarified the effect of a membrane and a through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity due to irregularity of crack surface. Each stress component relates to fatigue crack growth behavior directly in general and thus the wild-used K I solutions are anticipated to give good evaluation results on it. Meanwhile, it is necessary to notify that surface irregularity for coolant leakage assessment is made by stress history in nature. Surface irregularity is known to be largely classified into the following two aspects: surface roughness due to continuous crack opening and closure behavior and surface turnover due to cyclic bending stress dominance. Therefore, the deterministic parameters on resistance of coolant leakage by surface irregularity are considered to be not only stress history but crack opening behavior. (author)

  9. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE

    2011-04-08

    Using high-resolution 3-D vortex simulations, this study seeks a mechanistic understanding of vorticity dynamics in transverse jets at a finite Reynolds number. A full no-slip boundary condition, rigorously formulated in terms of vorticity generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary condition that suppresses the separation of the wall boundary layer away from the jet nozzle. By contrasting results obtained with these two boundary conditions, we characterize near-field vortical structures formed as the wall boundary layer separates on the backside of the jet. Using various Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, it is demonstrated that several near-wall vortical structures are formed as the wall boundary layer separates. The counter-rotating vortex pair, manifested by the presence of vortices aligned with the jet trajectory, is initiated closer to the jet exit. Moreover tornado-like wall-normal vortices originate from the separation of spanwise vorticity in the wall boundary layer at the side of the jet and from the entrainment of streamwise wall vortices in the recirculation zone on the lee side. These tornado-like vortices are absent in the case where separation is suppressed. Tornado-like vortices merge with counter-rotating vorticity originating in the jet shear layer, significantly increasing wall-normal circulation and causing deeper jet penetration into the crossflow stream. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Pipe Flow and Wall Turbulence Using a Modified Navier-Stokes Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirkovsky, L.; Muriel, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a derived incompressible modified Navier-Stokes equation to model pipe flow and wall turbulence. We reproduce the observed flattened paraboloid velocity profiles of turbulence that cannot be obtained directly using standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions found are in harmony with multi-valued velocity fields as a definition of turbulence. Repeating the procedure for the flow of turbulent fluid between two parallel flat plates we find similar flattened velocity profiles. We extend the analysis to the turbulent flow along a single wall and compare the results with experimental data and the established controversial von Karman logarithmic law of the wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Age-related changes in aortic 3D blood flow velocities and wall shear stress: Implications for the identification of altered hemodynamics in patients with aortic valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pim; Garcia, Julio; Potters, Wouter V.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Collins, Jeremy D.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in peak systolic aortic 3D velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in healthy controls and to investigate the importance of age-matching for 3D mapping of abnormal aortic hemodynamics in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV). 4D flow MRI (fields strengths = 1.5-3T;

  12. Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a microparallel channel with corrugated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buren, Mandula; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a perturbation method is introduced to study the electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) flow in a microparallel channel with slightly corrugated walls. The corrugations of the two walls are periodic sinusoidal waves of small amplitude either in phase or half-period out of phase, and the perturbation solutions of velocity and volume flow rate are obtained. Using numerical computation the effects of the corrugations on the flow are graphically analysed. The results show that the influence of corrugation on the flow decreases with Hartmann number. The phase difference of wall corrugations becomes unimportant when the wavenumber is greater than 3 or when the Hartmann number is greater than 4. With the increase in wavenumber, the decreasing effects of corrugations on the flow increase. When the wavenumber is smaller than the threshold wavenumber (it is a function of Hartmann number) and the wall corrugations are half-period out of phase, the corrugations can enhance the mean velocity of EMHD flow. However, the mean velocity is always decreased when the corrugations are in phase. (paper)

  13. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  14. Minimization of Ohmic Losses for Domain Wall Motion in a Ferromagnetic Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiakov, O. A.; Liu, Y.; Abanov, Ar.

    2010-11-01

    We study current-induced domain-wall motion in a narrow ferromagnetic wire. We propose a way to move domain walls with a resonant time-dependent current which dramatically decreases the Ohmic losses in the wire and allows driving of the domain wall with higher speed without burning the wire. For any domain-wall velocity we find the time dependence of the current needed to minimize the Ohmic losses. Below a critical domain-wall velocity specified by the parameters of the wire the minimal Ohmic losses are achieved by dc current. Furthermore, we identify the wire parameters for which the losses reduction from its dc value is the most dramatic.

  15. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one

  16. Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.

  17. Evolution of dispersion coefficient in the single rough-walled fracture before and after circulated flow near the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding detailed solute transport mechanism in a single fracture is required to expand it to the complex fractured medium. Dispersion in the variable-aperture fractures occurs by combined effects of molecular diffusion, macro dispersion and Taylor dispersion. It has been reported that Taylor dispersion which is proportional to the square of the velocity dominates for the high velocity, while macro dispersion is proportional to the velocity. Contributions of each scheme are different as the velocity changes. To investigate relationship between Reynolds number and dispersion coefficient, single acrylic rough-walled fracture which has 20 cm length and 1.03 mm average aperture was designed. In this experiment, dispersion coefficient was calculated at the middle of the fracture and at the edge of the fracture via moment analysis using breakthrough curve (BTC) of fluorescent solute under the Reynolds number 0.08, 0.28, 2.78, 8.2 and 16.4. In the results, distinct dispersion regime was observed at the highly rough-walled fracture, which is inconsistent with the model that was suggested by previous research. In the range of Re 2.78. The reason of this transition zone was related to the generation of circulated flow near the wall. It can flush the trapped contaminant out to the main flow channel, which makes tailing effect diminished. Also, these circulation zones were visualized using microscope, CCD camera and fluorescent particles.

  18. Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re{sub r} = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in

  19. Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the

  20. Minimization of Ohmic losses for domain wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanov, Artem; Tretiakov, Oleg; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    We study current-induced domain-wall motion in a narrow ferromagnetic wire. We propose a way to move domain walls with a resonant time-dependent current which dramatically decreases the Ohmic losses in the wire and allows driving of the domain wall with higher speed without burning the wire. For any domain wall velocity we find the time-dependence of the current needed to minimize the Ohmic losses. Below a critical domain-wall velocity specified by the parameters of the wire the minimal Ohmic losses are achieved by dc current. Furthermore, we identify the wire parameters for which the losses reduction from its dc value is the most dramatic. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. 0757992 and Welch Foundation (A-1678).

  1. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  2. Logarithmic scaling for fluctuations of a scalar concentration in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Hideaki; Morinaga, Takeshi; Yagi, Toshimasa; Mori, Kazuyasu

    2017-12-01

    Within wall turbulence, there is a sublayer where the mean velocity and the variance of velocity fluctuations vary logarithmically with the height from the wall. This logarithmic scaling is also known for the mean concentration of a passive scalar. By using heat as such a scalar in a laboratory experiment of a turbulent boundary layer, the existence of the logarithmic scaling is shown here for the variance of fluctuations of the scalar concentration. It is reproduced by a model of energy-containing eddies that are attached to the wall.

  3. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  4. Turbulent transport and shear at the E x B velocity in wall plasma of the TF-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulence of near-the-wall plasma and potentialities of affecting the turbulence and periphery transport of the TF-2 tokamak by inducing radial electric fields and ergodization of periphery magnetic structure have been investigated, the results are presented. Essential role of the E x B velocity shear in suppression of the turbulence and turbulent transport in periphery has been pointed out. Decrease in transport losses stemming from effect of radial electric fields is brought about suppression of turbulence amplitude, decrease in correlations and decrease in the width of the wave numbers spectrum. Profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, turbulence level, electric fields over entire periphery of discharge change as a result. Ergodization of magnetic structure also results in the change of properties of periphery turbulence and turbulent transport [ru

  5. Direct numerical simulation of MHD flow with electrically conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, S.; Kunugi, T.; Naito, N.; Sagara, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 2D vortex problem and 3D turbulent channel flow are treated numerically to assess the effect of electrically conducting walls on turbulent MHD flow. As a first approximation, the twin vortex pair is considered as a model of a turbulent eddy near the wall. As the eddy approaches and collides with the wall, a high value electrical potential is induced inside the wall. The Lorentz force, associated with the potential distribution, reduces the velocity gradient in the near-wall region. When considering a fully developed turbulent channel flow, a high electrical conductivity wall was chosen to emphasize the effect of electromagnetic coupling between the wall and the flow. The analysis was performed using DNS. The results are compared with a non-MHD flow and MHD flow in the insulated channel. The mean velocity within the logarithmic region in the case of the electrically conducting wall is slightly higher than that in the non-conducting wall case. Thus, the drag is smaller compared to that in the non-conducting wall case due to a reduction of the Reynolds stress in the near wall region through the Lorentz force. This mechanism is explained via reduction of the production term in the Reynolds shear stress budget

  6. Numerical simulation of a high velocity impact on fiber reinforced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Vinckier, David

    1994-01-01

    Whereas the calculation of a high velocity impact on isotropical materials can be done on a routine basis, the simulation of the impact and penetration process into nonisotropical materials such as reinforced concrete or fiber reinforced materials still is a research task.We present the calculation of an impact of a metallic fragment on a modern protective wall structure. Such lightweight protective walls typically consist of two layers, a first outer layer made out of a material with high hardness and a backing layer. The materials for the backing layer are preferably fiber reinforced materials. Such types of walls offer a protection against fragments in a wide velocity range.For our calculations we used a non-linear finite element Lagrange code with explicit time integration. To be able to simulate the high velocity penetration process with a continuous erosion of the impacting metallic fragment, we used our newly developed contact algorithm with eroding surfaces. This contact algorithm is vectorized to a high degree and especially robust as it was developed to work for a wide range of contact-impact problems. To model the behavior of the fiber reinforced material under the highly dynamic loads, we present a material model which initially was developed to calculate the crash behavior (automotive applications) of modern high strength fiber-matrix systems. The model can describe the failure and the postfailure behavior up to complete material crushing.A detailed simulation shows the impact of a metallic fragment with a velocity of 750ms -1 on a protective wall with two layers, the deformation and erosion of fragment and wall material and the failure of the fiber reinforced material. ((orig.))

  7. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shock velocity in weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the principal mechanism(s) for the shock velocity increase in weakly ionized gases. This paper reports experimental data on the propagation of spark-generated shock waves (1< Mach<3) into weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon glow discharges (1 < p<20 Torr). In order to distinguish between effects due solely to the presence of electrons and effects due to heating of the background gas via elastic collisions with electrons, the weakly ionized discharge was pulsed on/off. Laser deflection methods determined the shock velocity, and the electron number density was collected using a microwave hairpin resonator. In the afterglow of nitrogen, air, and argon discharges, the shock velocity first decreased, not at the characteristic time for electrons to diffuse to the walls, but rather at the characteristic time for the centerline gas temperature to equilibrate with the wall temperature. These data support the conclusion that the principal mechanism for the increase in shock velocity in weakly ionized gases is thermal heating of the neutral gas species via elastic collisions with electrons

  9. Reynolds number and settling velocity influence for finite-release particle-laden gravity currents in a basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.

  10. Reynolds stress analysis of EMHD-controlled wall turbulence. Part I. Streamwise forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.H.; Karniadakis, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we investigate numerically turbulent flow of low electrical conductivity fluid subject to electro-magnetic (EMHD) forcing. The configuration is similar to the one considered in the experimental work of Henoch and Stace [Phys. Fluids 7, 1371 (1995)] but in a channel geometry. The lower wall of the channel is covered with alternating streamwise electrodes and magnets to create a Lorentz force in the positive streamwise direction. Two cases are considered in detail corresponding to interaction parameter values of 0.4 (case 1) and 0.1 (case 2). The effect of switching off and on the electrodes is also studied for the two cases. At the Reynolds number considered (Re τ ∼200), a drag increase was obtained for all cases, in agreement with the experiments of Henoch and Stace. A Reynolds stress analysis was performed based on a new decomposition of the gradients normal to the wall of the Reynolds stress -u'v'. It was found that the vortex stretching term w'w 2 ' and the spanwise variation of the stress component u'w' are responsible for the drag increase. More specifically, the term ∂(u'w')/∂x 3 is associated with secondary vortical motions in the near-wall and becomes large and positive for large shear stress in regions where fluid is moving toward the wall. In contrast, negative values are associated with regions of lower shear where fluid is being lifted away from the wall. Unlike the unperturbed flow, in the controlled flow high speed near-wall streamwise jets are present (case 1) even in the time-averaged fields. Other changes in turbulence structure are quantified using streak spacing, vortex lines, vorticity quadrant analysis, and plots of the rms value of the vorticity angle. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-11-01

    This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channel for arbitrary piston motions. By changing the piston speed and the length of piston travel we cover a range of values of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles during the decay of the flow are unsteady with reverse flow near the wall, and are highly unstable due to their inflectional nature. In the pipe, we observe from flow visualization that the flow becomes unstable with the formation of what appears to be a helical vortex. The wavelength of the instability [simeq R: similar, equals]3[delta] where [delta] is the average boundary layer thickness, the average being taken over the time the flow is unstable. The time of formation of the vortices scales with the average convective time scale and is [simeq R: similar, equals]39/([Delta]u/[delta]), where [Delta]u=(umax[minus sign]umin) and umax, umin and [delta] are the maximum velocity, minimum velocity and boundary layer thickness respectively at each instant of time. The time to transition to turbulence is [simeq R: similar, equals]33/([Delta]u/[delta]). Quasi-steady linear stability analysis of the velocity profiles brings out two important results. First that the stability characteristics of velocity profiles with reverse flow near the wall collapse when scaled with the above variables. Second that the wavenumber corresponding to maximum growth does not change much during the instability even though the velocity profile does change substantially. Using the results from the experiments and the

  12. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  13. Effect of Gas Velocity on the Dust Sediment Layer in the Coupled Field of Corona Plasma and Cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Mingshan; Ma Chaochen; Li Minghua; Danish, S N

    2006-01-01

    A dust sediment layer was found on the outer tube wall when the ESCP (electrostatic centrifugal precipitator) trapped diesel particulates or ganister sand. The Compton back scatter method was used to measure the sediment thickness during the experiment. The effect of the inlet gas velocity on the dust sediment layer was investigated. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used to measure the velocity field between the inner barb tube wall and the outer tube wall. Experiments showed that the thickness of the sediment increased with time, and the sediment layer at the lower end was much thicker than that at the upper end. The agglomeration on the outer tube wall could be removed when the inlet gas velocity was increased to a certain value

  14. Reynolds number and end-wall effects on a lid-driven cavity flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.K.; Koseff, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in a lid-driven cavity of square cross section (depth = width = 150 mm) for Reynolds numbers (Re, based on lid speed and cavity width) between 3200 and 10 000, and spanwise aspect ratios (SAR) between 0.25:1 and 1:1. Flow visualization using polystyrene beads and two-dimensional laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements have shed new light on the momentum transfer processes within the cavity. This paper focuses on the variation, with Re and SAR, of the mean and the rms velocities profiles, as well as the /similar to/(U'V') profile, along the horizontal and vertical centerlines in the symmetry plane. In addition, the contribution of the large-scale ''organized structures,'' and the high-frequency ''turbulent'' velocity fluctuations to the total rms is examined. At low Re, the organized structures account for most of the energy contained in the flow irrespective of SAR. As the Re increases, however, so does the energy content of the higher frequency fluctuations. This trend is not independent of SAR; a reduction in the SAR causes the ''organized structures'' to again become more evident

  15. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  16. Influence of temperature on current-induced domain wall motion and its Walker breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lvchao; Hu, Jingguo; Su, Yuanchang; Zhu, Jinrong

    2016-01-01

    The current-driven domain wall propagation along a thin ferromagnetic strip with thermal field is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the velocity of domain wall is almost independent of temperature until Walker breakdown happened. However the thermal field can suppress Walker breakdown and makes domain wall move faster. Further analysis indicates that the thermal field tends to keep the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the domain wall stay in high value, which can promote domain wall motion and suppress the Walker breakdown by breaking the period of domain wall transformation. - Highlights: • Influences of temperature on the displacement and the velocity of DW are shown. • The suppression of Walker breakdown by temperature is given. • The reason for suppressing Walker breakdown is analyzed. • The breaking transformation period of Walker breakdown by temperature is given.

  17. Spanwise homogeneous buoyancy-drag model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing and experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimonte, Guy

    2000-01-01

    A buoyancy-drag model for Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing is developed on the premise that the bubble and spike regions behave as distinct and spanwise homogeneous fluids. Then, mass conservation is applied accross the mixing zone to obtain their average mixture densities dynamically. These are used to explicitly calculate the inertia and buoyancy terms in the evolutionary equation. The only unknown parameter in the model is the Newtonian drag constant C∼2.5±0.6, which is determined from turbulent RT experiments over various Atwood numbers A and acceleration histories g(t). The bubble (i=2) and spike (i=1) amplitudes are found to obey the familiar h i =α i Agt 2 for a constant g and h i ∼t θ i for an impulsive g. For bubbles, both α 2 and θ 2 are insensitive to A. For the spikes, both α 1 and θ 1 increase as a power law with the density ratio. However, θ 1 is not universal because it depends on the initial value of h 1 /h 2 . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Manipulation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using Synthetic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Zachary; Gomit, Guillaume; Lavoie, Philippe; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the application of active flow control, in the form of synthetic jet actuators, of turbulent boundary layers. An array of 2 synthetic jets are oriented in the spanwise direction and located approximately 2.7 meters downstream from the leading edge of a flat plate. Actuation is applied perpendicular to the surface of the flat plate with varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies (open-loop). Two-component large window particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed at the University of Southampton, in the streamwise-wall-normal plane. Complementary stereo PIV measurements were performed at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), in the spanwise-wall-normal plane. The freestream Reynolds number is 3x104, based on the boundary layer thickness. The skin friction Reynolds number is 1,200 based on the skin friction velocity. The experiments at Southampton allow for the observation of the control effects as the flow propagates downstream. The experiments at UTIAS allow for the observation of the streamwise vorticity induced from the actuation. Overall the two experiments provide a 3D representation of the flow field with respect to actuation effects. The current work focuses on the comparison of the two experiments, as well as the effects of varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies on the turbulent boundary layer. Funded Supported by Airbus.

  19. Identification of flow structures in fully developed canonical and wavy channels by means of modal decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebali, Sacha; Garicano-Mena, Jesús; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio

    2018-04-01

    A Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of fully developed channel flows is undertaken in order to study the main differences in flow features between a plane-channel flow and a passively “controlled” flow wherein the mean friction was reduced relative to the baseline by modifying the geometry in order to generate a streamwise-periodic spanwise pressure gradient, as is the case for an oblique wavy wall. The present analysis reports POD and DMD modes for the plane channel, jointly with the application of a sparsity-promoting method, as well as a reconstruction of the Reynolds shear stress with the dynamic modes. Additionally, a dynamic link between the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the friction on the wall is sought by means of a composite approach both in the plane and wavy cases. One of the DMD modes associated with the wavy-wall friction exhibits a meandering motion which was hardly identifiable on the instantaneous friction fluctuations.

  20. The role of fluid-wall interactions on confined liquid diffusion using Mori theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Reena; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of fluid confined in a nano-channel with smooth walls have been studied through velocity autocorrelation function within the memory function approach by incorporating the atomic level interactions of fluid with the confining wall. Expressions for the second and fourth sum rules of velocity autocorrelation have been derived for nano-channel which involves fluid-fluid and fluid-wall interactions. These expressions, in addition, involve pair correlation function and density profiles. The numerical contributions of fluid-wall interaction to sum rules are found to play a very significant role, specifically at smaller channel width. Results obtained for velocity autocorrelation and self-diffusion coefficient of a fluid confined to different widths of the nanochannel have been compared with the computer simulation results. The comparison shows a good agreement except when the width of the channel is of the order of two atomic diameters, where it becomes difficult to estimate sum rules involving the triplet correlation’s contribution

  1. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  2. A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for computation of high Reynolds number equilibrium and non-equilibrium wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yifeng; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2014-11-01

    A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for high Reynolds number, wall-bounded turbulence is presented. In this approach, a coarse-grained LES is performed in the full-domain, along with a nested, fine-resolution LES in a minimal flow unit. The coupling between the two domains is achieved by renormalizing the instantaneous LES velocity fields to match the profiles of kinetic energies of components of the mean velocity and velocity fluctuations in both domains to those of the minimal flow unit in the near-wall region, and to those of the full-domain in the outer region. The method is of fixed computational cost, independent of Reτ , in homogenous flows, and is O (Reτ) in strongly non-homogenous flows. The method has been applied to equilibrium turbulent channel flows at 1000 shear-driven, 3D turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 2000 . In equilibrium channel flow, the friction coefficient and the one-point turbulence statistics are predicted in agreement with Dean's correlation and available DNS and experimental data. In shear-driven, 3D channel flow, the evolution of turbulence statistics is predicted in agreement with experimental data of Driver & Hebbar (1991) in shear-driven, 3D boundary layer flow.

  3. On a turbulent wall model to predict hemolysis numerically in medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Chang, Minwook; Kang, Seongwon; Hur, Nahmkeon; Kim, Wonjung

    2017-11-01

    Analyzing degradation of red blood cells is very important for medical devices with blood flows. The blood shear stress has been recognized as the most dominant factor for hemolysis in medical devices. Compared to laminar flows, turbulent flows have higher shear stress values in the regions near the wall. In case of predicting hemolysis numerically, this phenomenon can require a very fine mesh and large computational resources. In order to resolve this issue, the purpose of this study is to develop a turbulent wall model to predict the hemolysis more efficiently. In order to decrease the numerical error of hemolysis prediction in a coarse grid resolution, we divided the computational domain into two regions and applied different approaches to each region. In the near-wall region with a steep velocity gradient, an analytic approach using modeled velocity profile is applied to reduce a numerical error to allow a coarse grid resolution. We adopt the Van Driest law as a model for the mean velocity profile. In a region far from the wall, a regular numerical discretization is applied. The proposed turbulent wall model is evaluated for a few turbulent flows inside a cannula and centrifugal pumps. The results present that the proposed turbulent wall model for hemolysis improves the computational efficiency significantly for engineering applications. Corresponding author.

  4. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  5. The importance of high injection velocity to reduce plasma armature growth and drag in hypervelocity railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Dixon, W.R.; Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R.C.; Susoeff, A.R.; Asay, J.R.; Shaninpoor, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas are required to serve as armature in hypervelocity railguns. Typically, the plasmas are at temperatures of about 20-30,000 K and result in a high heat flux on the barrel wall. Slow moving plasmas radiate heat and melt the launcher wall causing it to ablate and resulting in a growth of the armature mass and length. As the velocity increases, the more massive and longer armature will result in greater viscous drag and ultimately limit the maximum achievable velocity. Several possible means of reducing the armature growth are possible. This paper discusses two of them, use of heat resistant barrel materials, and reduction of wall heating by reduction of exposure time through use of a high initial velocity. A summary of experimentally based, material ablation resistance calculations is presented. Second, the benefit of high injection velocity is evaluated. Finally, a joint SNLA and LLNL railgun research project based on the above considerations are described

  6. Longitudinal vortices in a transitioning boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, J.B.; Backwelder, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Naturally occurring spanwise variations of the streamwise velocity component, characteristic of longitudinal vortices embedded in a transitioning boundary layer were explored using hot-wire anemometers. A vibrating ribbon introduced stable or unstable Tollmien-Schlichting waves into the laminar boundary layer. These damped or growing disturbances always developed a strong three-dimensional pattern even though no spanwise perturbations were artificially induced. Changing the radius of the leading edge and other modifications to the flat plate, wind tunnel and boundary layer did not alter the spanwise wavelength of the vortices. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of microclimate between wall and furniture with CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    velocities and diffusion transport in constructions is presented. It is a CFD model where the air is modelled as a mixture of dry air and water vapour and walls fluids modelled with ordinary wall characteristics as material properties. This enables easy modelling of moisture transfer within the walls....... This investigation has special focus on the coupling of the moisture transfers in the wall and the moisture content of the air. The microclimate in a room is studied for different geometrical configurations, meaning that the moisture and temperature conditions are analysed and discussed using different distances...

  8. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J [Cardiovascular Research Group Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Buick, J M [Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Anglesea Building, Anglesea Road, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-21

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  9. Three-dimensional modelling of the human carotid artery using the lattice Boltzmann method: I. Model and velocity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J M

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool in the investigation of human blood flow and arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. It is known that near wall velocity and shear are important in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper results for a simulation of blood flow in a three-dimensional carotid artery geometry using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented. The velocity fields in the body of the fluid are analysed at six times of interest during a physiologically accurate velocity waveform. It is found that the three-dimensional model agrees well with previous literature results for carotid artery flow. Regions of low near wall velocity and circulatory flow are observed near the outer wall of the bifurcation and in the lower regions of the external carotid artery, which are regions that are typically prone to atherosclerosis.

  10. Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.

  11. Influence of slip velocity in Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow between parallel plates - A mathematical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, D. S.; Lee, U Sik

    2016-01-01

    This theoretical study investigates three types of basic flows of viscous incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid such as (i) plane Couette flow, (ii) Poiseuille flow and (iii) generalized Couette flow with slip velocity at the boundary. The analytic solutions to the nonlinear boundary value problems have been obtained. The effects of various physical parameters on the velocity, flow rate, wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow are analyzed through appropriate graphs. It is observed that in plane Poiseuille flow and generalized Couette flow, the velocity and flow rate of the fluid increase considerably with the increase of the slip parameter, power law index, pressure gradient. The fluid velocity is significantly higher in plane Poiseuille flow than in plane Couette flow. The wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow decrease considerably with the increase of the power law index and increase significantly with the increase of the yield stress of the fluid. The wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow are considerably higher in plane Poiseuille flow than in generalized Couette flow.

  12. Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.

    2011-08-01

    In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.

  13. Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies

  14. Laminar flow in porous pipes and ducts with variable suction or injection at the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Araujo, P.M. de; Stuckenbruck, S.

    1977-01-01

    The laminar flow of an incompressible fluid is analysed along a porous-walled straight circular tube and a flat duct formed by parallel porous plates. The non-similarity of velocity profiles is verified and the analytical solution is obtained by expanding the axial velocity component in a power series. The mass flow through the walls is taken into consideration as an application of Darcy's Law. Adverse axial pressure gradients and occasional reverse flow near the wall are pointed out in the work. (Author) [pt

  15. Axial flow velocity patterns in a normal human pulmonary artery model: pulsatile in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P

    1990-01-01

    It has been clinically observed that the flow velocity patterns in the pulmonary artery are directly modified by disease. The present study addresses the hypothesis that altered velocity patterns relate to the severity of various diseases in the pulmonary artery. This paper lays a foundation for that analysis by providing a detailed description of flow velocity patterns in the normal pulmonary artery, using flow visualization and laser Doppler anemometry techniques. The studies were conducted in an in vitro rigid model in a right heart pulse duplicator system. In the main pulmonary artery, a broad central flow field was observed throughout systole. The maximum axial velocity (150 cm s-1) was measured at peak systole. In the left pulmonary artery, the axial velocities were approximately evenly distributed in the perpendicular plane. However, in the bifurcation plane, they were slightly skewed toward the inner wall at peak systole and during the deceleration phase. In the right pulmonary artery, the axial velocity in the perpendicular plane had a very marked M-shaped profile at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, due to a pair of strong secondary flows. In the bifurcation plane, higher axial velocities were observed along the inner wall, while lower axial velocities were observed along the outer wall and in the center. Overall, relatively low levels of turbulence were observed in all the branches during systole. The maximum turbulence intensity measured was at the boundary of the broad central flow field in the main pulmonary artery at peak systole.

  16. Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  17. Near Wall measurement in Turbulent Flow over Rough Wall using microscopic HPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    Using holographic PIV, 3D velocity measurements are being performed in a turbulent rough wall channel flow. Our objective is to examine the contribution of coherent structures to the flow dynamics, momentum and energy fluxes in the roughness sublayer. The 0.45mm high, pyramid-shaped roughness is uniformly distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of a 5X20cm rectangular channel flow, where the Reτ is 3400. To facilitate recording of holograms through a rough plate, the working fluid is a concentrated solution of NaI in water, whose optical refractive index is matched with that of the acrylic rough plates. The test section is illuminated by a collimated laser beam from the top, and the sample volume extends from the bottom wall up to 7 roughness heights. After passing through the sample volume, the in-line hologram is magnified and recorded on a 4864X3248 pixels camera at a resolution of 0.74μm/pixel. The flow is locally seeded with 2μm particles. Reconstruction, spatial filtering and particle tracking provide the 3D velocity field. This approach has been successfully implemented recently, as preliminary data demonstrate.

  18. The response of skin friction, wall heat transfer and pressure drop to wall waviness in the presence of buoyancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. B. Rao

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar natural convection flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid confined between two long vertical wavy walls has been analysed taking the fluid properties constant and variable. In particular, attention is restricted to estimate the effects of viscous dissipation and wall waviness on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. Use has been made of a linearization technique to simplify the governing equations and of Galerkin's method in the solution. The solutions obtained for the velocity and the temperature-fields hold good for all values of the Grashof number and wave number of the wavy walls.

  19. Study of droplet flow in a T-shape microchannel with bottom wall fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yan; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Zhaomiao

    2018-03-01

    Droplet generation in a T-shape microchannel, with a main channel width of 50 μm , side channel width of 25 μm, and height of 50 μm, is simulated to study the effects of the forced fluctuation of the bottom wall. The periodic fluctuations of the bottom wall are applied on the near junction part of the main channel in the T-shape microchannel. Effects of bottom wall's shape, fluctuation periods, and amplitudes on the droplet generation are covered in the research of this protocol. In the simulation, the average size is affected a little by the fluctuations, but significantly by the fixed shape of the deformed bottom wall, while the droplet size range is expanded by the fluctuations under most of the conditions. Droplet sizes are distributed in a periodic pattern with small amplitude along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the bottom wall near the T-junction, while the droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation. The droplet velocity is varied by the bottom wall motion, especially under the shorter period and the larger amplitude. When the fluctuation period is similar to the droplet emerging period, the droplet size is as stable as the non-fluctuation case after a development stage at the beginning of flow, while the droplet velocity is varied by the moving wall with the scope up to 80% of the average velocity under the conditions of this investigation.

  20. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y"+ up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  1. Domain wall manipulation in magnetic nanotubes induced by electric current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otálora, J A; López-López, J A; Landeros, P; Núñez, A S

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the injection of electric currents can be used to independently manipulate the position and chirality of vortex-like domain walls in metallic ferromagnetic nanotubes. We support this proposal upon theoretical and numerical assessment of the magnetization dynamics driven by such currents. We show that proper interplay between the tube geometry, magnitude of the electric current and the duration of a current pulse, can be used to manipulate the position, velocity and chirality of a vortex domain wall. Our calculations suggest that domain wall velocities greater than 1 km s -1 can be achieved for tube diameters of the order of 30 nm and increasing with it. We also find that the transition from steady to precessional domain wall motion occurs for very high electric current densities, of the order of 10 13 A m -2 . Furthermore, the great stability displayed by such chiral magnetic configurations, and the reduced Ohmic loses provided by the current pulses, lead to highly reproducible and efficient domain wall reversal mechanisms.

  2. A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2011-07-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.

  3. Hybrid micro-/nano-particle image velocimetry for 3D3C multi-scale velocity field measurement in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Young Uk; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional two-dimensional (2D) micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique has inherent bias error due to the depth of focus along the optical axis to measure the velocity field near the wall of a microfluidics device. However, the far-field measurement of velocity vectors yields good accuracy for micro-scale flows. Nano-PIV using the evanescent wave of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy can measure near-field velocity vectors within a distance of around 200 nm from the solid surface. A micro-/nano-hybrid PIV system is proposed to measure both near- and far-field velocity vectors simultaneously in microfluidics. A near-field particle image can be obtained by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy using nanoparticles, and the far-field velocity vectors are measured by three-hole defocusing micro-particle tracking velocimetry (micro-PTV) using micro-particles. In order to identify near- and far-field particle images, lasers of different wavelengths are adopted and tested in a straight microchannel for acquiring the three-dimensional three-component velocity field. We found that the new technique gives superior accuracy for the velocity profile near the wall compared to that of conventional nano-PIV. This method has been successfully applied to precisely measure wall shear stress in 2D microscale Poiseulle flows

  4. Two-phase wall friction model for the trace computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weidong

    2005-01-01

    The wall drag model in the TRAC/RELAP5 Advanced Computational Engine computer code (TRACE) has certain known deficiencies. For example, in an annular flow regime, the code predicts an unphysical high liquid velocity compared to the experimental data. To address those deficiencies, a new wall frictional drag package has been developed and implemented in the TRACE code to model the wall drag for two-phase flow system code. The modeled flow regimes are (1) annular/mist, (2) bubbly/slug, and (3) bubbly/slug with wall nucleation. The new models use void fraction (instead of flow quality) as the correlating variable to minimize the calculation oscillation. In addition, the models allow for transitions between the three regimes. The annular/mist regime is subdivided into three separate regimes for pure annular flow, annular flow with entrainment, and film breakdown. For adiabatic two-phase bubbly/slug flows, the vapor phase primarily exists outside of the boundary layer, and the wall shear uses single-phase liquid velocity for friction calculation. The vapor phase wall friction drag is set to zero for bubbly/slug flows. For bubbly/slug flows with wall nucleation, the bubbles are presented within the hydrodynamic boundary layer, and the two-phase wall friction drag is significantly higher with a pronounced mass flux effect. An empirical correlation has been studied and applied to account for nucleate boiling. Verification and validation tests have been performed, and the test results showed a significant code improvement. (authors)

  5. The stochastic nature of the domain wall motion along high perpendicular anisotropy strips with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The domain wall dynamics along thin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy driven by either magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents is theoretically analyzed by means of full micromagnetic simulations and a one-dimensional model, including both surface roughness and thermal effects. At finite temperature, the results show a field dependence of the domain wall velocity in good qualitative agreement with available experimental measurements, indicating a low field, low velocity creep regime, and a high field, linear regime separated by a smeared depinning region. Similar behaviors were also observed under applied currents. In the low current creep regime the velocity-current characteristic does not depend significantly on the non-adiabaticity. At high currents, where the domain wall velocity becomes insensitive to surface pinning, the domain wall shows a precessional behavior even when the non-adiabatic parameter is equal to the Gilbert damping. These analyses confirm the relevance of both thermal fluctuations and surface roughness for the domain wall dynamics, and that complete micromagnetic modeling and one-dimensional studies taking into account these effects are required to interpret the experimental measurements in order to get a better understanding of the origin, the role and the magnitude of the non-adiabaticity. (paper)

  6. Effects of Fast-Ion Injection on a Magnetized Sheath near a Floating Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiajia; Hu Zhanghu; Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian

    2013-01-01

    A fully kinetic particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is employed to self-consistently study the effects of fast-ion injection on sheath potential and electric field profile in collisional magnetized plasma with a floating absorbing wall. The influences of the fast-ion injection velocity and density, the magnetic field and angle θ 0 formed by the magnetic field and the x-axis on the sheath potential and electric field are discussed in detail. Numerical results show that increasing fast-ion injection density or decreasing injection velocity can enhance the potential drop and electric field in the sheath. Also, increasing the magnetic field strength can weaken the loss of charged particles to the wall and thus decrease the potential and electric field in the sheath. The time evolution of ion flux and velocity distribution on the wall is found to be significantly affected by the magnetic field.

  7. Flow induced vibration and stability analysis of multi wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Jae [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Woon [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The free vibration and flow induced flutter instability of cantilever multi wall carbon nanotubes conveying fluid are investigated and the nanotubes are modeled as thin-walled beams. The non-classical effects of the transverse shear, rotary inertia, warping inhibition, and van der Waals forces between two walls are incorporated into the structural model. The governing equations and associated boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton's principle. A numerical analysis is carried out by using the extended Galerkin method, which enables us to obtain more accurate solutions compared to the conventional Galerkin method. Cantilevered carbon nanotubes are damped with decaying amplitude for a flow velocity below a certain critical value. However, beyond this critical flow velocity, flutter instability may occur. The variations in the critical flow velocity with respect to both the radius ratio and length of the carbon nanotubes are investigated and pertinent conclusions are outlined. The differences in the vibration and instability characteristics between the Timoshenko beam theory and Euler beam theory are revealed. A comparative analysis of the natural frequencies and flutter characteristics of MWCNTs and SWCNTs is also performed.

  8. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  9. Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuykov Andrey L'vovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

  10. An experimental study of the fluid mechanics associated with porous walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Heaman, J.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    The fluid mechanics of air exiting from a porous material is investigated. The experiments are filter rating dependent, as porous walls with filter ratings differing by about three orders of magnitude are studied. The flow behavior is investigated for its spatial and temporal stability. The results from the investigation are related to jet behavior in at least one of the following categories: (1) jet coalescence effects with increasing flow rate; (2) jet field decay with increasing distance from the porous wall; (3) jet field temporal turbulence characteristics; and (4) single jet turbulence characteristics. The measurements show that coalescence effects cause jet development, and this development stage can be traced by measuring the pseudoturbulence (spatial velocity variations) at any flow rate. The pseudoturbulence variation with increasing mass flow reveals an initial increasing trend followed by a leveling trend, both of which are directly proportional to the filter rating. A critical velocity begins this leveling trend and represents the onset of fully developed jetting action in the flow field. A correlation is developed to predict the onset of fully developed jets in the flow emerging from a porous wall. The data further show that the fully developed jet dimensions are independent of the filter rating, thus providing a length scale for this type of flow field (1 mm). Individual jet characteristics provide another unifying trend with similar velocity decay behavior with distance; however, the respective turbulence magnitudes show vast differences between jets from the same sample. Measurements of the flow decay with distance from the porous wall show that the higher spatial frequency components of the jet field dissipate faster than the lower frequency components. Flow turbulence intensity measurements show an out of phase behavior with the velocity field and are generally found to increase as the distance from the wall is increased.

  11. Active Flow Control and Global Stability Analysis of Separated Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip M.

    definition of the coefficient of momentum, which successfully characterizes suppression of separation and lift enhancement. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With the modified coefficient of momentum, this single value is able to categorize controlled flows into separated, transitional, and attached flows. With inadequate control input (separated flow regime), lift decreased compared to the baseline flow. Increasing the modified coefficient of momentum, flow transitions from separated to attached and accordingly results in improved aerodynamic forces. Modifying the spanwise spacing, it is shown that the minimum modified coefficient of momentum input required to begin transitioning the flow is dependent on actuator spacing. The growth (or decay) of perturbations can facilitate or inhibit the influence of flow control inputs. Biglobal stability analysis is considered to further analyze the behavior of control inputs on separated flow over a symmetric airfoil. Assuming a spanwise periodic waveform for the perturbations, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors about a base flow are solved to understand the influence of spanwise variation on the development of the flow. Two algorithms are developed and validated to solve for the eigenvalues of the flow: an algebraic eigenvalue solver (matrix based) and a time-stepping algorithm. The matrix based approach is formulated without ever storing the matrices, creating a computationally memory efficient algorithm. Increasing the Reynolds number to Re = 23,000 over a NACA 0012 airfoil, the time-stepper method is implemented due to rising computational cost of the matrix-based method. Stability analysis about the time-averaged flow is performed for spanwise wavenumbers of beta = 1/c, 10pi/ c and 20pi/c, which the latter two wavenumbers are representative of the spanwise spacing between the

  12. Impact of a drop onto a wetted wall: description of crown formation and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, I. V.; Tropea, C.

    2002-12-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid film with a relatively high impact velocity, leading to the formation of a crown-like ejection, is studied theoretically. The motion of a kinematic discontinuity in the liquid film on the wall due to the drop impact, the formation of the upward jet at this kinematic discontinuity and its elevation are analysed. Four main regions of the drop and film are considered: the perturbed liquid film on the wall inside the crown, the unperturbed liquid film on the wall outside the crown, the upward jet forming a crown, and the free rim bounding this jet. The theory of Yarin & Weiss (1995) for the propagation of the kinematic discontinuity is generalized here for the case of arbitrary velocity vectors in the inner and outer liquid films on the wall. Next, the mass, momentum balance and Bernoulli equations at the base of the crown are considered in order to obtain the velocity and the thickness of the jet on the wall. Furthermore, the dynamic equations of motion of the crown are developed in the Lagrangian form. An analytical solution for the crown shape is obtained in the asymptotic case of such high impact velocities that the surface tension and the viscosity effects can be neglected in comparison to inertial effects. The edge of the crown is described by the motion of a rim, formed due to the surface tension.

  13. Numerical analysis of developing turbulent flow in a U-bend of strong curvature with rib-roughened walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Chiriki

    2003-01-01

    Numerical analysis has been performed for three-dimensional developing turbulent flow in the U-bend of strong curvature with rib-roughened walls by using an algebraic Reynolds stress model. In this calculation, the algebraic Reynolds stress model is adopted in order to predict preciously Reynolds stresses and boundary fitted-coordinate system is introduced as the method for coordinate transformation to set exactly boundary conditions along complicated shape in rib-roughed walls. Calculated results of mean velocity and Reynolds stresses are compared with the experimental data in order to examine the validity of the presented numerical method and the algebraic Reynolds stress model. It has been pointed out as a characteristic feature from the experimental result that the maximum velocity appears near the inner wall of curved duct, which phenomenon is not recognized in mild curved duct. The present method could predict such velocity profiles correctly and reproduce the separated flow generated near the outlet cross section of curved duct. Adding to this, calculated results show clearly that the generation of maximum velocity near a inner wall is caused by pressure driven secondary flow which moves to inner wall from outer wall along symmetrical axis. As for the comparison of Reynolds stresses, the present turbulent model relatively predicts the experimental data well except for the flow separated region which is located near the outlet cross section of curved duct. (author)

  14. Field- and current-driven domain wall dynamics: An experimental picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, G.S.D.; Knutson, C.; Tsoi, M.; Erskine, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Field- and current-driven domain wall velocities are measured and discussed in terms of existing spin-torque models. A reversal in the roles of adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-torque is shown to arise in those models below and above Walker breakdown. The measured dependence of velocity on current is the same in both regimes, indicating both spin-torque components have similar magnitude. However, the models on which these conclusions are based have serious quantitative shortcomings in describing the observed field-driven wall dynamics, for which they were originally developed. Hence, the applicability of simple one-dimensional models to most experimental conditions may be limited

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Gas-Phase Radial Dispersion in Fixed Beds with Wall Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Dixon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective medium approach to radial fixed bed dispersion models, in which radial dispersion of mass is superimposed on axial plug flow, is based on a constant effective dispersion coefficient, DT. For packed beds of a small tube-to-particle diameter ratio (N, the experimentally-observed decrease in this parameter near the tube wall is accounted for by a lumped resistance located at the tube wall, the wall mass transfer coefficient km. This work presents validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations to obtain detailed radial velocity and concentration profiles for eight different computer-generated packed tubes of spheres in the range 5.04 ≤ N ≤ 9.3 and over a range of flow rates 87 ≤ Re ≤ 870 where Re is based on superficial velocity and the particle diameter dp. Initial runs with pure air gave axial velocity profiles vz(r averaged over the length of the packing. Then, simulations with the tube wall coated with methane yielded radial concentration profiles. A model with only DT could not describe the radial concentration profiles. The two-parameter model with DT and km agreed better with the bed-center concentration profiles, but not with the sharp decreases in concentration close to the tube wall. A three-parameter model based on classical two-layer mixing length theory, with a wall-function for the decrease in transverse radial convective transport in the near-wall region, showed greatly improved ability to reproduce the near-wall concentration profiles.

  16. 2D Temperature Analysis of Energy and Exergy Characteristics of Laminar Steady Flow across a Square Cylinder under Strong Blockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozgun Korukcu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy characteristics of a square cylinder (SC in confined flow are investigated computationally by numerically handling the steady-state continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations in the Reynolds number range of Re = 10–50, where the blockage ratio (β = B/H is kept constant at the high level of β = 0.8. Computations indicated for the upstream region that, the mean non-dimensional streamwise (u/Uo and spanwise (v/Uo velocities attain the values of u/Uo = 0.840®0.879 and v/Uo = 0.236®0.386 (Re = 10®50 on the front-surface of the SC, implying that Reynolds number and blockage have stronger impact on the spanwise momentum activity. It is determined that flows with high Reynolds number interact with the front-surface of the SC developing thinner thermal boundary layers and greater temperature gradients, which promotes the thermal entropy generation values as well. The strict guidance of the throat, not only resulted in the fully developed flow character, but also imposed additional cooling; such that the analysis pointed out the drop of duct wall (y = 0.025 m non-dimensional temperature values (ζ from ζ = 0.387®0.926 (Re = 10®50 at xth = 0 mm to ζ = 0.002®0.266 at xth = 40 mm. In the downstream region, spanwise thermal disturbances are evaluated to be most inspectable in the vortex driven region, where the temperature values show decrease trends in the spanwise direction. In the corresponding domain, exergy destruction is determined to grow with Reynolds number and decrease in the streamwise direction (xds = 0®10 mm. Besides, asymmetric entropy distributions as well were recorded due to the comprehensive mixing caused by the vortex system.

  17. Temperature fluctuations in fully-developed turbulent channel flow with heated upper wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Carla; Mueller, Michael; Hultmark, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The interactions and scaling differences between the velocity field and temperature field in a wall-bounded turbulent flow are investigated. In particular, a fully developed turbulent channel flow perturbed by a step change in the wall temperature is considered with a focus on the details of the developing thermal boundary layer. For this specific study, temperature acts as a passive scalar, having no dynamical effect on the flow. A combination of experimental investigation and direct numerical simulation (DNS) is presented. Velocity and temperature data are acquired with high accuracy where, the flow is allowed to reach a fully-developed state before encountering a heated upper wall at constant temperature. The experimental data is compared with DNS data where simulations of the same configuration are conducted.

  18. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail: sohel0991@gmail.com; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  19. Development Characteristics of Velocity Transports in An Isothermal Heated Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Dezhong; Chen, Hanping; Wang, Yanping

    2007-06-01

    The development characteristics, turbulence transports for stresses and kinetic energy of a cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant solution for a two-dimensional channel flow have been experimentally investigated. Time mean velocity and fluctuating velocity are measured using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at the Reynolds number 1.78×104 and isothermal heated temperature 31°C. Although mean velocity profiles at three cross sections show that the fluid is almost fully developed, the peak location of fluctuating intensity for the CTAC solution is slightly away from the wall downstream from the fluid and the peak location of fluctuating intensity is observed at far away from the wall than that of water. The location where the velocity gradient has its maximum, the fluctuating intensity does not get the high value. The elastic shear stress contribution to the total shear stress is 15 percents to 36 percents and it gets to the maximum near to the wall. The surfactant elastic shear stress is almost a liner function of the height of the channel, which means that the elastic stress contribution of the different cross locations is approximately the same. The fluctuating surfactant stress work is negative and the fluctuating elastic shear stresses produce rather than dissipate kinetic energy.

  20. Dynamics of domain wall driven by spin-transfer torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chureemart, P.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-torque switching of magnetic devices offers new technological possibilities for data storage and integrated circuits. We have investigated domain-wall motion in a ferromagnetic thin film driven by a spin-polarized current using an atomistic spin model with a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation including the effect of the spin-transfer torque. The presence of the spin-transfer torque is shown to create an out-of-plane domain wall, in contrast to the external-field-driven case where an in-plane wall is found. We have investigated the effect of the spin torque on domain-wall displacement, domain-wall velocity, and domain-wall width, as well as the equilibration time in the presence of the spin-transfer torque. We have shown that the minimum spin-current density, regarded as the critical value for domain-wall motion, decreases with increasing temperature.

  1. Numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of a boundary layer developed on wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Lorenzo; Camarri, Simone; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    The development of passive methods leading to a laminar to turbulent transition delay in a boundary layer (BL) is a topic of great interest both for applications and academic research. In literature it has been shown that a proper and stable spanwise velocity modulation can reduce the growth rate of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and delay transition. In this study, we investigate numerically the possibility of obtaining a stabilizing effect of the TS waves through the use of a spanwise sinusoidal modulation of a flat plate. This type of control has been already successfully investigated experimentally. An extensive set of direct numerical simulations is carried out to study the evolution of a BL flow developed on wavy surfaces with different geometric characteristics, and the results will be presented here. Moreover, since this configuration is characterized by a slowly-varying flow field in streamwise direction, a local stability analysis is applied to define the neutral stability curves for the BL flow controlled by this type of wall modifications. These results give the possibility of investigating this control strategy and understanding the effect of the free parameters on the stabilization mechanism.

  2. Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements with Wall Shear Stress and Uncertainty Quantification for the FDA Nozzle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2016-03-01

    We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over

  3. Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation observed in bistable glass-coated microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onufer, J., E-mail: jozef.onufer@tuke.sk; Ziman, J., E-mail: jan.ziman@tuke.sk; Kladivová, M., E-mail: maria.kladivova@tuke.sk

    2015-12-15

    Systematic study of domain wall velocity versus applied magnetic field dependences in glass-coated amorphous Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} wire was carried out, revealing the existence of a very interesting phenomenon. Domain wall mobility can be significantly different in cases when magnetization reversal caused by domain wall motion results in different orientation of magnetization. The magnitude and sign of this so-called unidirectional effect can change along the wire. There are also samples with weak unidirectional effect in which it is possible, in regions of higher values of applied magnetic field, to observe the highest wall velocities. It is very probable that damping of domain wall motion is responsible for this effect. As a hypothesis a mechanism based on eddy current damping of domain wall motion was proposed for interpretation of this effect. In the framework of this mechanism asymmetric and non-linear volt-ampere characteristics of the metal–glass interface might be responsible for the unidirectional effect. - Highlights: • Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation was observed. • The magnitude and sign of the unidirectional effect can change along the wire. • A hypothesis for interpretation of the unidirectional effect is proposed.

  4. The effects of local blowing perturbations on thermal turbulent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Araya, Guillermo; Leonardi, Stefano; Castillo, Luciano

    2013-11-01

    Blowing is an active flow control technique with several industrial applications, particularly in film cooling of turbine blades. In the past, the effects of localized blowing have been mostly analyzed on the velocity field and its influence of the flow parameters and turbulence structures (Krogstad and Kourakine, 2000). However, little literature can be found on the effects of blowing on the coherent thermal structures. In the present study, an incompressible turbulent channel flow with given steady blowing at the wall is simulated via DNS by means of five spanwise holes. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half channel height is approximately Re = 394 and the molecular Prandtl number is Pr = 0.71. Temperature is considered a passive scalar with isothermal conditions at the wall. Different blowing amplitudes and perturbing angles (with respect to the streamwise direction) are applied to find out their effects on the turbulent thermal structures by means of a two-point correlation analysis. In addition, local reduction and increase of drag are connected to vorticity. The corresponding influence of perturbing amplitudes and angles on the energy budget of thermal fluctuations and turbulent Prandtl numbers are also shown and discussed.

  5. Experimental study of bypass flow in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor using hot wire anemometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Noushin; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant flow behavior in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor is studied. • Hot wire anemometry is applied for high frequency velocity measurements. • Bypass flow is identified within the velocity profiles of near wall gaps. • Effect of gap geometry and Reynolds number on bypass flow is investigated. • Variation of velocity power spectra with radial location and Reynolds number is studied. - Abstract: Coolant flow behavior through the core of an annular pebble bed reactor is investigated in this experimental study. A high frequency hot wire anemometry system coupled with an X-probe is used for measurement of axial and radial velocity components at different points within two near wall gaps at five different modified Reynolds numbers (Re m = 2043–6857). The velocity profiles within the gaps verify the presence of an area of increased velocity close to the pebble bed outer reflector wall, which is known as the bypass flow. Moreover, the characteristics of the coolant flow profile are seen to be highly dependent on the gap geometry. The effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profiles varies as the geometry of the gap changes. The time histories of the local velocities measured with considerably high frequency are further analyzed using power spectral density technique. Power spectral plots illustrate substantial spatial variation of the energy content, spectral shape, and the slope of the energy cascade region. A significant correlation between Reynolds number and characteristics of the velocity power spectra is observed

  6. Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.

  7. An Examination of Parameters Affecting Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past a Square Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankbadi, M. R.; Georgiadis, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Separated flow over a bluff body is analyzed via large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow around a square cylinder features a variety of complex flow phenomena such as highly unsteady vortical structures, reverse flow in the near wall region, and wake turbulence. The formation of spanwise vortices is often times artificially suppressed in computations by either insufficient depth or a coarse spanwise resolution. As the resolution is refined and the domain extended, the artificial turbulent energy exchange between spanwise and streamwise turbulence is eliminated within the wake region. A parametric study is performed highlighting the effects of spanwise vortices where the spanwise computational domain's resolution and depth are varied. For Re=22,000, the mean and turbulent statistics computed from the numerical large eddy simulations (NLES) are in good agreement with experimental data. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the wake of the cylinder. Mesh independence is illustrated by comparing a mesh resolution of 2 million to 16 million. Sensitivities to time stepping were minimized and sampling frequency sensitivities were nonpresent. While increasing the spanwise depth and resolution can be costly, this practice was found to be necessary to eliminating the artificial turbulent energy exchange.

  8. Essential Development of Streamwise Vortical/Secondary Flows in All Ducts with Corners or Slope Discontinuities in Perimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Hassan; Vidal, Alvaro; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Schlatter, Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fully-developed turbulent flow through various straight ducts with sharp or rounded corners of various radii were performed to study influence of corner geometry on secondary flows. Unexpectedly, increased rounding of corners in rectangular ducts does not lead to monotonic trend towards pipe case. Instead, secondary vortices relocate close to regions of wall-curvature change. This behavior is connected to inhomogeneous interaction between near-wall bursting events, which are further characterized in this work with definition of their local preferential direction, and vorticity fluxes. Although these motions are relatively weak compared to streamwise velocity their effect on turbulence statistics and shear-stress distribution is very important and has not been sufficiently documented or fully understood. Flow through spanwise-periodic channels, with sinusoidal function to define the geometry of wall, yw = +/- h + A cos(ωz) , was also studied as model flow that is parametrically changed using A and ω, while taking advantage of many resulting symmetries. Consequences on experimental facilities and comparisons between experiments and various numerical and theoretical models are discussed revealing the uniqueness of pipe flow.

  9. Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen

    2003-01-01

    The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence

  10. Effect of Wall Friction and Vortex Generation on Radial Void Distribution The Wall - Vortex Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, Zia

    1974-09-15

    Arguments are presented to prove the existence of rolling vortices in two-phase flow. In liquid phase they will appear in a boundary layer near the walls while in the continuous vapor phase they will occur near the interface with a liquid film. The intensity and size of these vortices are expected to depend on the local velocity gradients normal to the walls. A discussion is given of the interaction between the rotational field associated with such vortices and bubbles in liquid flow or droplets in vapor-flow. This interaction is called the wall-vortex effect. It appears that several, apparently unrelated, phenomena observed in two-phase flow systems may be interpreted in terms of this mechanism. Among these are: Radial void peaking near the walls; Slip ratios less than unity observed even in vertical upward flow; Reduced droplet diffusion near the liquid film; Reduced vapor mixing between subchannels at low steam qualities; and Accelerated flashing process in flow of depressurized liquid. Finally, a comparison with the well-known Magnus effect is also included

  11. Active compliant wall for skin friction reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pätzold, A.; Peltzer, I.; Nitsche, W.; Goldin, N.; King, R.; Haller, D.; Woias, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Objective: Delay of laminar-turbulent transition on a wing by active wall actuation. • Natural, convective TS-instabilities are damped by travelling counter waves. • Piezo driven active wall and model predictive controller were developed. • TS amplitudes were damped by 83.6% (equals 15.7 dB within instability band). • Significant effect on skin friction distribution. -- Abstract: In order to reduce skin friction drag, an active laminarisation method is developed. Laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition caused by Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves is delayed by attenuation of these convective instabilities. An actively driven compliant wall is integrated as part of a wing’s surface. Different configurations of piezo-based actuators are combined with an array of sensitive surface flow sensors. Wall-normal actuation as well as inclined wall displacement are investigated. Together with a realtime-control strategy, transition onset is shifted downstream by six average TS-wave lengths. Using the example of flow velocity, the influence of variable flow conditions on TS-damping rates was investigated. Besides, the boundary layer flow downstream of the active wall area as well as required wall deflections and the global damping effect on skin friction are presented in this paper

  12. Gas Near a Wall: Shortened Mean Free Path, Reduced Viscosity, and the Manifestation of the Knudsen Layer in the Navier-Stokes Solution of a Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Rafail V.

    2018-06-01

    For the gas near a solid planar wall, we propose a scaling formula for the mean free path of a molecule as a function of the distance from the wall, under the assumption of a uniform distribution of the incident directions of the molecular free flight. We subsequently impose the same scaling onto the viscosity of the gas near the wall and compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the velocity of a shear flow parallel to the wall. Under the simplifying assumption of constant temperature of the gas, the velocity profile becomes an explicit nonlinear function of the distance from the wall and exhibits a Knudsen boundary layer near the wall. To verify the validity of the obtained formula, we perform the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computations for the shear flow of argon and nitrogen at normal density and temperature. We find excellent agreement between our velocity approximation and the computed DSMC velocity profiles both within the Knudsen boundary layer and away from it.

  13. Simulation of High-Speed Droplet Impact Against Dry Substrates with Partial Velocity Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita

    2017-11-01

    High-speed droplet impact can be used to clean substrates such as silicon wafers. Radially spreading shear flow after the impact may allow for mechanically removing contaminant particles at substrate surfaces. Since it is a big challenge to experimentally explore such complicated flow that exhibits contact line motion and water hammer, its flow feature is not well understood. Here, we aim to numerically evaluate shear flow caused by the impact of a spherical water droplet (of submillimeter sizes) at high speed (up to 50 m/s) against a dry rigid wall. We model the flow based on compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Stokes' hypothesis and solve them by a high-order-accurate finite volume method equipped with shock and interface capturing. To treat the motion of a contact line between the three phases (the droplet, the rigid wall, and the ambient air) in a robust manner, we permit velocity slip at the wall with Navier's model, for wall slip is known to come into play under steep velocity gradients that can arise from high-speed droplet impact. In our presentation, we will examine radially spreading flow after the droplet impact and the resulting wall shear stress generation from the simulation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17J02211.

  14. Quantification and Control of Wall Effects in Porous Media Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E. J.; Mays, D. C.; Neupauer, R.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow dynamics in porous media are dominated by media heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can create preferential pathways in which local seepage velocities dwarf system seepage velocities, further complicating an already incomplete understanding of dispersive processes. In physical models of porous media flows, apparatus walls introduce preferential flow paths (i.e., wall effects) that may overwhelm other naturally occurring preferential pathways within the apparatus, leading to deceptive results. We used planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in conjunction with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media and pore fluid to observe fluid dynamics in the porous media, with particular attention to the region near the apparatus walls in a 17 cm x 8 cm x 7 cm uniform flow cell. Hexagonal close packed spheres were used to create an isotropic, homogenous porous media field in the interior of the apparatus. Visualization of the movement of a fluorescent dye revealed the influence of the wall in creating higher permeability preferential flow paths in an otherwise homogenous media packing. These preferential flow paths extended approximately one half of one sphere diameter from the wall for homogenously packed regions, with a quickly diminishing effect on flow dynamics for homogenous media adjacent to the preferential pathway, but with major influence on flow dynamics for adjoining heterogeneous regions. Multiple approaches to mitigate wall effects were investigated, and a modified wall was created such that the fluid dynamics near the wall mimics the fluid dynamics within the homogenous porous media. This research supports the design of a two-dimensional experimental apparatus that will simulate engineered pumping schemes for use in contaminant remediation. However, this research could benefit the design of fixed bed reactors or other engineering challenges in which vessel walls contribute to unwanted preferential flow.

  15. Microscopic and low Reynolds number flows between two intersecting permeable walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, R.; Fujikawa, T.; Yaguchi, H.; Fujikawa, S.

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved in an analytical way to clarify characteristics of low-Re flows in a microscopic channel consisting of two intersecting permeable walls, the intersection of which is supposed to be a sink or a source. Such flows are, therefore, considered to be an extension of the so-called Jeffery–Hamel flow to the permeable wall case. A set of nonlinear forth-order ordinary differential equations are obtained, and their solutions are sought for the small permeable velocity compared with the main flow one by a perturbation method. The solutions contain the solutions found in the past, such as the flow between two parallel permeable walls studied by Berman and the Jeffery–Hamel flow between the impermeable walls as special cases. Velocity distribution and friction loss in pressure along the main stream are represented in the explicit manner and compared with those of the Jeffery–Hamel flow. Numerical examples show that the wall permeability has a great influence on the friction loss. Furthermore, it is shown that the convergent main flow accompanied with the fluid addition through the walls is inversely directed away from the origin due to the balance of the main flow and the permeable one, while the flow accompanied with fluid suction is just directed toward the origin regardless of conditions.

  16. Squeeze flow between a sphere and a textured wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastel, T.; Mongruel, A., E-mail: anne.mongruel@upmc.fr [Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes, UMR 7636 CNRS–ESPCI, Université Pierre et Marie Curie–Université Paris-Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-02-15

    The motion of a millimetric sphere, translating in a viscous fluid towards a wettable textured wall, is investigated experimentally. The textures consist of square arrays of cylindrical or square micro-pillars, the height, width, and spacing of which are varied, keeping the periodicity small compared to the sphere radius. An interferometric device is used to measure the sphere vertical displacement, for distances between the sphere and the base of the pillars smaller than 0.1 sphere radius, and with a resolution of 200 nm. At a given distance from the top of the pillars, the sphere velocity is found to be significantly larger than the corresponding velocity for a smooth solid wall. A squeeze flow model of two adjacent fluid layers is developed in the lubrication approximation, one fluid layer having an effective viscosity that reflects the viscous dissipation through the array of pillars. The pressure field in the gap between the sphere and the textured surface is then used to obtain the drag force on the sphere and hence its velocity. Adjustment of the model to the velocity measurements yields the effective viscosity for a given texture. Finally, a correlation between the effective viscosity and the geometry of the pillar array is proposed.

  17. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Svä rd, Magnus; Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  18. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Svärd, Magnus

    2018-01-18

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  19. Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2002-01-01

    Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR

  20. Dual-mode nonlinear instability analysis of a confined planar liquid sheet sandwiched between two gas streams of unequal velocities and prediction of droplet size and velocity distribution using maximum entropy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Debayan; Nath, Sujit; Bhanja, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Twin fluid atomizers utilize the kinetic energy of high speed gases to disintegrate a liquid sheet into fine uniform droplets. Quite often, the gas streams are injected at unequal velocities to enhance the aerodynamic interaction between the liquid sheet and surrounding atmosphere. In order to improve the mixing characteristics, practical atomizers confine the gas flows within ducts. Though the liquid sheet coming out of an injector is usually annular in shape, it can be considered to be planar as the mean radius of curvature is much larger than the sheet thickness. There are numerous studies on breakup of the planar liquid sheet, but none of them considered the simultaneous effects of confinement and unequal gas velocities on the spray characteristics. The present study performs a nonlinear temporal analysis of instabilities in the planar liquid sheet, produced by two co-flowing gas streams moving with unequal velocities within two solid walls. The results show that the para-sinuous mode dominates the breakup process at all flow conditions over the para-varicose mode of breakup. The sheet pattern is strongly influenced by gas velocities, particularly for the para-varicose mode. Spray characteristics are influenced by both gas velocity and proximity to the confining wall, but the former has a much more pronounced effect on droplet size. An increase in the difference between gas velocities at two interfaces drastically shifts the droplet size distribution toward finer droplets. Moreover, asymmetry in gas phase velocities affects the droplet velocity distribution more, only at low liquid Weber numbers for the input conditions chosen in the present study.

  1. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum

  2. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail: ding-yk@vip.sina.com; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum.

  3. Effect of wall thickness and helium cooling channels on duct magnetohydrodynamic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MHD flows in ducts of different wall thickness compared with wall uniform. • Study of velocity, pressure distribution in ducts MHD flows with single pass of helium cooling channels. • Comparison of three types of dual helium cooling channels and acquisition of an option for minimum pressure drop. • A single short duct MHD flow in blanket without FCI has been simulated for pressure gradient analysis. - Abstract: The concept of dual coolant liquid metal (LM) blanket has been proposed in different countries to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DEMO reactor. In the system, helium gas and PbLi eutectic, separated by structure grid, are used to cool main structure materials and to be self-cooled, respectively. The non-uniform wall thickness of structure materials gives rise to wall non-homogeneous conductance ratio. It will lead to electric current distribution changes, resulting in significant changes in the velocity distribution and pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. In order to investigate the effect of helium channels on MHD flows, different methods of numerical simulations cases are carried out including the cases of different wall thicknesses, single pass of helium cooling channels, and three types of dual helium cooling channels. The results showed that helium tubes are able to affect the velocity distribution in the boundary layer by forming wave sharp which transfers from Hartmann boundary layer to the core area. In addition, the potential profile and pressure drop in the cases have been compared to these in the case of walls without cooling channel, and the pressure gradient of a simplified single short duct MHD flow in blanket shows small waver along the central axis in the helium channel position.

  4. Effect of wall thickness and helium cooling channels on duct magnetohydrodynamic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • MHD flows in ducts of different wall thickness compared with wall uniform. • Study of velocity, pressure distribution in ducts MHD flows with single pass of helium cooling channels. • Comparison of three types of dual helium cooling channels and acquisition of an option for minimum pressure drop. • A single short duct MHD flow in blanket without FCI has been simulated for pressure gradient analysis. - Abstract: The concept of dual coolant liquid metal (LM) blanket has been proposed in different countries to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DEMO reactor. In the system, helium gas and PbLi eutectic, separated by structure grid, are used to cool main structure materials and to be self-cooled, respectively. The non-uniform wall thickness of structure materials gives rise to wall non-homogeneous conductance ratio. It will lead to electric current distribution changes, resulting in significant changes in the velocity distribution and pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. In order to investigate the effect of helium channels on MHD flows, different methods of numerical simulations cases are carried out including the cases of different wall thicknesses, single pass of helium cooling channels, and three types of dual helium cooling channels. The results showed that helium tubes are able to affect the velocity distribution in the boundary layer by forming wave sharp which transfers from Hartmann boundary layer to the core area. In addition, the potential profile and pressure drop in the cases have been compared to these in the case of walls without cooling channel, and the pressure gradient of a simplified single short duct MHD flow in blanket shows small waver along the central axis in the helium channel position.

  5. Experimental Investigation on Zonal Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow with Surfactant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Motozawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a drag-reducing channel flow with surfactant additives in a two-dimensional channel was investigated experimentally. We carried out detailed measurements of the instantaneous velocity in the streamwise wall-normal plane and streamwise spanwise plane by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The surfactant used in this experiment is a kind of cationic surfactant CTAC. The weight concentrations of the CTAC solution were 25 and 40 ppm on the flow. We considered the effects of Reynolds number ranging from 10000 to 25000 and the weight concentration of CTAC. The results of this paper showed that in the drag-reducing flow, there appeared an area where the root mean square of streamwise velocity fluctuation and the vorticity fluctuation sharply decreased. This indicated that two layers with different turbulent structure coexisted on the boundary of this area. Moreover, these layers had characteristic flow structures, as confirmed by observation of the instantaneous vorticity fluctuation map.

  6. Stopping times in cessation flows of Bingham plastics with slip at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Maria; Damianou, Yiolanda; Kaoullas, George; Georgiou, Georgios C.

    2012-09-01

    We solve numerically the cessation of axisymmetric Poiseuille flow of a Bingham plastic assuming that slip occurs along the wall. A power-law expression is used to relate the wall shear stress to the slip velocity. The numerical results show that the velocity becomes and remains uniform before complete cessation and that the stopping time is finite only when the exponent sBingham number and the volumetric flow rate decays exponentially. When s>1, the decay is much slower, i.e. polynomial. The asymptotic expressions for the volumetric flow rate in the case of full-slip are also derived.

  7. Wall shear stress measurement of near-wall flow over inclined and curved boundaries by stereo interfacial particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh

    2010-01-01

    In investigations of laminar or turbulent flows, wall shear is often important. Nevertheless, conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) is difficult in near-wall regions. A near-wall measurement technique, named interfacial PIV (IPIV) [Nguyen, C., Nguyen, T., Wells, J., Nakayama, A., 2008. Proposals for PIV of near-wall flow over curved boundaries. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics], handles curved boundaries by means of conformal transformation, directly measures the wall gradient, and yields the near-wall tangential velocity profile at one-pixel resolution. In this paper, we show the feasibility of extending IPIV to measure wall gradients by stereo reconstruction. First, we perform a test on synthetic images generated from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) snapshot of turbulent flow over sinusoidal bed. Comparative assessment of wall gradients derived by IPIV, stereo-IPIV and particle image distortion (PID) [Huang, H.T., Fiedler, H.E., Wang, J.J., 1993. Limitation and improvement of PIV. Experiments in Fluids 15(4), 263-273] is evaluated with DNS data. Also, the sensitivity of IPIV and stereo-IPIV results to the uncertainty of identified wall position is examined. As a practical application of IPIV and stereo-IPIV to experimental images, results from turbulent open channel flow over a backward-facing step are discussed in detail.

  8. Quenching of hot wall of vertical-narrow-annular passages by water falling down counter-currently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Arai, Manabu; Okabayashi, Yoshiaki; Nagae, Takashi; Okano, Yukimitsu

    2004-01-01

    quenching of a thin-gap annular flow passage by gravitational liquid penetration was examined by using water. The outer wall of the test flow channel was made of stainless steel. The inner wall was made of glass or stainless steel. The annular gap spacings tested were 10, 5.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 mm. No inner wall case; the gap width = ∞, was also tested. The stainless steel walls(s) was (were) heated electrically. When the glass wall was used for the inner wall, a fiber scope was inserted inside to observe a flow state. The quenching was observed for the gap spacing over 1.0 mm. When the spacing was less than 1.0 mm, the wall was gradually and monotonously cooled down without any quenching. As the gap spacing became narrow, the counter-current flow limiting; flooding, severely occurred. The peak heat flux during the quenching process became lower than that in pool boiling as the gap spacing became narrower. The quenching propagated from the bottom when the gap spacing was larger than 5 mm. When the gap clearance was less than 2.0 mm, the quenching proceeded from the top in the bottom closed case. It was visually observed that liquid accumulated in the lower portion of the flow passage in the 5 mm gap case and the rewetting front propagated upward from the bottom. In the 1.0 mm gap case, the moving-down of the rewetting front was observed. The quenching velocity became slow as the gap spacing became narrow. Quenching simulation was performed by solving a transient heat conduction equation. The simulation indicated that the quenching velocity becomes fast as the peak heat flux becomes low with the gap spacing, which was opposite to the experimental results. It was also suggested that precursory cooling is one of key factors to control the rewetting velocity; as the precursory cooling becomes weak, the rewetting velocity becomes slow. (author)

  9. Study of domain wall propagation in nanostructured CoPt multilayers by using antisymmetric magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Junquera, A; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M; Menendez, J L; Ravelosona, D

    2010-01-01

    Domain wall propagation has been studied in perpendicular anisotropy CoPt multilayers patterned by e-beam lithography into 5 μm wide wires. Positive and negative peaks appear in time resolved magnetoresistance curves, associated to the different directions of domain wall propagation along the wires. The field dependence of domain wall velocity is well described by a creep model of a 1D wall in the presence of weak disorder with critical exponent μ=1/4.

  10. Modification of the mean near-wall velocity profile of a high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer with the injection of drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-08-01

    The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the

  11. Experimental investigation of the turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1977-04-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to establish reliable information on the transport properties of turbulent flow through subchannels of rod bundles. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities in all directions and, thus, the kinetic energy of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses for a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four rods in parallel. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.07, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 8.7 x 10 4 . On the basis of the data measured the eddy viscosities in the directions normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. Thus, detailed data of the eddy viscosities in direction parallel to the walls in rod bundels were obtained for the first time. The experimental results were compared with predictions by the VELASCO-code. There are considerable differences between calculated and measured data of the time-mean velocity and the wall shear stresses. Attempts to adjust the VELASCO-code against the measurements were not successful. The reasons of the discrepancies are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Low-velocity Impact Response of a Nanocomposite Beam Using an Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Heydari Meybodi

    Full Text Available AbstractLow-velocity impact of a nanocomposite beam made of glass/epoxy reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and clay nanoparticles is investigated in this study. Exerting modified rule of mixture (MROM, the mechanical properties of nanocomposite including matrix, nanoparticles or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, and fiber are attained. In order to analyze the low-velocity impact, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Hertz's contact law are simultaneously employed to govern the equations of motion. Using Ritz's variational approximation method, a set of nonlinear equations in time domain are obtained, which are solved using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The effect of different parameters such as adding nanoparticles or MWCNT's on maximum contact force and energy absorption, stacking sequence, geometrical dimensions (i.e., length, width and height, and initial velocity of the impactor have been studied comprehensively on dynamic behavior of the nanocomposite beam. In addition, the result of analytical model is compared with Finite Element Modeling (FEM.The results reveal that the effect of nanoparticles on energy absorption is more considerable at higher impact energies.

  13. On the force-velocity relationship of a bundle of rigid bio-filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Alessia; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2018-03-01

    In various cellular processes, bio-filaments like F-actin and F-tubulin are able to exploit chemical energy associated with polymerization to perform mechanical work against an obstacle loaded with an external force. The force-velocity relationship quantitatively summarizes the nature of this process. By a stochastic dynamical model, we give, together with the evolution of a staggered bundle of Nf rigid living filaments facing a loaded wall, the corresponding force-velocity relationship. We compute the evolution of the model in the infinite wall diffusion limit and in supercritical conditions (monomer density reduced by critical density ρ^ 1>1 ), and we show that this solution remains valid for moderate non-zero values of the ratio between the wall diffusion and the chemical time scales. We consider two classical protocols: the bundle is opposed either to a constant load or to an optical trap setup, characterized by a harmonic restoring force. The constant load case leads, for each F value, to a stationary velocity Vs t a t(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) after a relaxation with characteristic time τmicro(F). When the bundle (initially taken as an assembly of filament seeds) is subjected to a harmonic restoring force (optical trap load), the bundle elongates and the load increases up to stalling over a characteristic time τOT. Extracted from this single experiment, the force-velocity VO T(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) curve is found to coincide with Vs t a t(F ;Nf,ρ^ 1 ) , except at low loads. We show that this result follows from the adiabatic separation between τmicro and τOT, i.e., τmicro ≪ τOT.

  14. Effect of guide wall on jet impingement cooling in blade leading edge channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qing-Yang; Chung, Heeyoon; Choi, Seok Min; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer, which are affected by the guide wall in a jet impinged leading edge channel, have been investigated numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis via the shear stress transport turbulence model and gamma theta transitional turbulence model. A constant wall heat flux condition has been applied to the leading edge surface. The jet-to-surface distance is constant, which is three times that of the jet diameter. The arrangement of the guide wall near the jet hole is set as a variable. Results presented in this study include the Nusselt number contour, velocity vector, streamline with velocity, and local Nusselt number distribution along the central line on the leading edge surface. The average Nusselt number and average pressure loss between jet nozzle and channel exit are calculated to assess the thermal performance. The application of the guide wall is aimed at improving heat transfer uniformity on the leading edge surface. Results indicated that the streamwise guide wall ensures the vertical jet impingement flow intensity and prevents the flow after impingement to reflux into jet flow. Thus, a combined rectangular guide wall benefits the average heat transfer, thermal performance and heat transfer distribution uniformity

  15. Rashba spin–orbit coupling effects on a current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jisu; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with a strong structural inversion asymmetry [I.M. Miron, T. Moore, H. Szambolics, L.D. Buda-Prejbeanu, S. Auffret, B. Rodmacq, S. Pizzini, J. Vogel, M. Bonfim, A. Schuhl, G. Gaudin, Nat. Mat. 10 (2011) 419] seems to have novel features such as the domain wall motion along the current direction or the delay of the onset of the Walker breakdown. In such a highly asymmetric system, the Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) may affect a domain wall motion. We studied theoretically the RSOC effects on a domain wall motion and found that the RSOC, indeed, can induce the domain wall motion along the current direction in certain situations. It also delays the Walker breakdown and for a strong RSOC, the Walker breakdown does not occur at all. The RSOC effects are sensitive to the magnetic anisotropy of nanowires and also to the ratio between the Gilbert damping parameter α and the non-adiabaticity parameter β. - Highlights: ► Effects of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on a domain wall motion is calculated. ► The effects depend highly on the anisotropy of a magnetic system. ► It modifies the wall velocity for the system with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. ► The modified velocity can be along the current direction in certain situations. ► Rashba spin–orbit coupling also hinders the onset of the Walker breakdown.

  16. Inviscid Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulations for Improved Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kurt; Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of an inviscid flow assumption for wall-modeled large eddy simulations (LES) is examined because of its ability to reduce simulation costs. This assumption is not generally applicable for wall-bounded flows due to the high velocity gradients found near walls. In wall-modeled LES, however, neither the viscous near-wall region or the viscous length scales in the outer flow are resolved. Therefore, the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations have little impact on the resolved flowfield. Zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer results are presented for both viscous and inviscid simulations using a wall model developed previously. The results are very similar and compare favorably to those from another wall model methodology and experimental data. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively. Future research directions are discussed as are preliminary efforts to extend the wall model to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  17. Assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall using four-dimensional flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Dyverfeldt, Petter

    2017-06-01

    To explore the use of MR-estimated turbulence quantities for the assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall. Numerical velocity data for two patient-derived models was obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for two physiological flow rates. The four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI measurements were simulated at three different spatial resolutions and used to investigate the estimation of turbulent wall shear stress (tWSS) using the intravoxel standard deviation (IVSD) of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) estimated near the vessel wall. Accurate estimation of tWSS using the IVSD is limited by the spatial resolution achievable with 4D Flow MRI. TKE, estimated near the wall, has a strong linear relationship to the tWSS (mean R 2  = 0.84). Near-wall TKE estimates from MR simulations have good agreement to CFD-derived ground truth (mean R 2  = 0.90). Maps of near-wall TKE have strong visual correspondence to tWSS. Near-wall estimation of TKE permits assessment of relative maps of tWSS, but direct estimation of tWSS is challenging due to limitations in spatial resolution. Assessment of tWSS and near-wall TKE may open new avenues for analysis of different pathologies. Magn Reson Med 77:2310-2319, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Batch-processed carbon nanotube wall as pressure and flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2010-01-01

    A pressure and flow sensor based on the electrothermal-thermistor effect of a batch-processed carbon nanotube wall (CNT wall) is presented. The negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of CNTs and the temperature dependent tunneling rate through the CNT/silicon junction enable vacuum pressure and flow velocity sensing because the heat transfer rate between CNTs and the surrounding gas molecules differs depending on pressure and flow rate. The CNT walls are synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an array of microelectrodes fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The CNTs are self-assembled between the microelectrodes and substrate across the thickness of a buried oxide layer during the synthesis process, and the simple batch fabrication results in high throughput and yield. A wide pressure range, down to 3 x 10 -3 from 10 5 Pa, and a nitrogen flow velocity range between 1 and 52.4 mm s -1 , are sensed. Further experimental characterizations of the bias voltage dependent response of the sensor as a vacuum pressure gauge are presented.

  19. Effects of wall friction on flow in a quasi-2D hopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil; Birwa, Sumit; Carballo-Ramirez, Brenda; Pleau, Mollie; Easwar, Nalini; Tewari, Shubha

    Our experiments on the gravity-driven flow of spherical particles in a vertical hopper examine how the flow rate varies with opening size and wall friction. We report here on a model simulation using LAMMPS of the experimental geometry, a quasi-2D hopper. Keeping inter-particle friction fixed, the coefficient of friction at the walls is varied from 0.0 to 0.9 for a range of opening sizes. Our simulations find a steady rate of flow at each wall friction and outlet size. The Janssen effect attributes the constant rate of flow of a granular column to the column height independence of the pressure at the base, since the weight of the grains is borne in part by friction at the walls. However, we observe a constant flow regime even in the absence of wall friction, suggesting that wall friction may not be a necessary condition for pressure saturation. The observed velocities of particles near the opening are used to extrapolate their starting positions had they been in free fall. In contrast to scaling predictions, our data suggest that the height of this free-fall arch does not vary with opening size for higher frictional coefficients. We analyze the velocity traces of particles to see the range over which contact interactions remain collisional as they approach the hopper outlet.

  20. Skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow based on streamwise shear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform DNSs of fully developed turbulent channel flows to explore an active flow control concept using streamwise velocity shear control at the wall. • The structural spacing and wall amplitude parameters are systematically changed to achieve a high-efficient drag reduction rate for longitudinal control surface. • Significant drag reduction is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations. • The generation and evolution of the turbulent vortices in the absence of velocity shear and how they contribute to DR have been examined. - Abstract: It is known that stretching and intensification of a hairpin vortex by mean shear play an important role to create a hairpin vortex packet, which generates the large Reynolds shear stress associated with skin-friction drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to suppress the mean shear at the wall for high efficient drag reduction (DR), in the present study, we explore an active flow control concept using streamwise shear control (SSC) at the wall. The longitudinal control surface is periodically spanwise-arranged with no-control surface while varying the structural spacing, and an amplitude parameter for imposing the strength of the actuating streamwise velocity at the wall is introduced to further enhance the skin-friction DR. Significant DR is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations, although a further increase in the parameters amplifies the turbulence activity in the near-wall region. In order to study the direct relationship between turbulent vortical structures and DR under the SSC, temporal evolution with initial eddies extracted by conditional averages for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 events are examined. It is shown that the generation of new vortices is dramatically inhibited with an increase in the parameters

  1. Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7  ×  50.0  ×  14.4 mm 3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of  <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and

  2. Linear estimation of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence at Re τ = 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, S.; Garcia–Gutiérrez, A.; Illingworth, S.

    2018-04-01

    The estimation problem for a fully-developed turbulent channel flow at Re τ = 2000 is considered. Specifically, a Kalman filter is designed using a Navier–Stokes-based linear model. The estimator uses time-resolved velocity measurements at a single wall-normal location (provided by DNS) to estimate the time-resolved velocity field at other wall-normal locations. The estimator is able to reproduce the largest scales with reasonable accuracy for a range of wavenumber pairs, measurement locations and estimation locations. Importantly, the linear model is also able to predict with reasonable accuracy the performance that will be achieved by the estimator when applied to the DNS. A more practical estimation scheme using the shear stress at the wall as measurement is also considered. The estimator is still able to estimate the largest scales with reasonable accuracy, although the estimator’s performance is reduced.

  3. Exhalation velocity of radon-222 of Dutch building materials and the influence of paint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, W. van; Jong, P. de

    1989-02-01

    In order to achieve a better insight concerning the source terms of radon in the Dutch dwelling in the framework of the RENA-programme an investigation has been performed into the exhalation velocity of radon-222 from building materials. From this investigation it turned out that the ventilation factor does not have any influence upon the exhalation velocity, neither an influence of alteration of air pressure could be demonstrated. The influence of air humidity upon the exhalation velocity showed a twofold picture; for gypsum a linear increase of the exhalation velocity with vapour pressure was found, while for concrete a linear decrease with vapour pressure was observed. Further it has been investigated in how far paint systems diminish the exhalation velocity of the Rn-222 from gypsum and concrete. Acryl paints, mostly used in the Dutch dwelling, did not show a decrease of the exhalation velocity and structure paints did even cause an increase of the exhalation velocity. Other types of paint based on chlorous rubber, epoxy resins and poly-urethane, in contrast, showed a clear reduction. From these those based on poly-urethane showed the largest reduction (60-75%) at a double sided treatment of the wall. With the help of a mathematical modelling of the exhalation estimations have been made of the exhalation velocity of Rn-222 at single sided treatment of a wall and for the exhalation velocity of Rn-220. For the fore mentioned poly-urethane-paints this yelds, at an estimate, a reduction of respectively 90-95% and 100%. (author). 40 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Fluorescence-Doped Particles for Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Chrostopher J.; Verkamp, Max; Lowe, T.; Maisto, P.; Byun, G.; Simpson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene latex microspheres (PSLs) have been used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements for several decades. With advances in laser technologies, instrumentation, and data processing, the capability to collect more information about fluid flow beyond velocity is possible using new seed materials. To provide additional measurement capability, PSLs were synthesized with temperature-sensitive fluorescent dyes incorporated within the particle. These multifunctional PSLs would have the greatest impact if they could be used in large scale facilities with minimal modification to the facilities or the existing instrumentation. Consequently, several potential dyes were identified that were amenable to existing laser systems currently utilized in wind tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center as well as other wind and fluid (water) tunnels. PSLs incorporated with Rhodamine B, dichlorofluorescein (DCF, also known as fluorescein 548 or fluorescein 27) and other dyes were synthesized and characterized for morphology and spectral properties. The resulting particles were demonstrated to exhibit fluorescent emission, which would enable determination of both fluid velocity and temperature. They also would allow near-wall velocity measurements whereas laser scatter from surfaces currently prevents near-wall measurements using undoped seed materials. Preliminary results in a wind tunnel facility located at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) have verified fluorescent signal detection and temperature sensitivity of fluorophore-doped PSLs.

  5. Identification and calculation of the universal asymptote for drag reduction by polymers in wall bounded turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Roberto; De Angelis, Elisabetta; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar

    2005-11-04

    Drag reduction by polymers in wall turbulence is bounded from above by a universal maximal drag reduction (MDR) velocity profile that is a log law, estimated experimentally by Virk as V+(y+) approximately 11.7logy+ - 17. Here V+(y+) and y+ are the mean streamwise velocity and the distance from the wall in "wall" units. In this Letter we propose that this MDR profile is an edge solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (with an effective viscosity profile) beyond which no turbulent solutions exist. This insight rationalizes the universality of the MDR and provides a maximum principle which allows an ab initio calculation of the parameters in this law without any viscoelastic experimental input.

  6. Laminar free convection in a vertical tube with constant wall temperature considering the variation of fluid properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A model to analyze Laminar Free convection with variable properties in the entrance of a vertical open tube with constant wall temperature and for one Prandtl number (0.7), is studied. The velocity and temperature profiles are determined by finite difference methods for different rates of wall to ambient temperatures and different values of the velocity in the entrance of the tube. The results will be compared with those obtained in the same problem with constant properties. (Author) [pt

  7. CFD Calculations of the Air Flow Along a Cold Vertical Wall with an Obstacle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper deals with the ability of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict downdraught at a plane wall and at a wall with large obstacles. Quite simple boundary conditions were used in this study. Predictions of the main flow characteristics and the velocity levels in the occupied zone showed...

  8. Experimental detection of domain wall propagation above the Walker field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Kouta; Chiba, Daichi; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohshima, Norikazu; Kasai, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    The domain wall (DW) velocity above the Walker field drops abruptly with increasing magnetic field, because of the so-called Walker breakdown, where the DW moves with a precessional mode. On applying the higher field, the DW velocity again starts to increase gradually. We report the DW propagation around this local minimum regime in detail, investigated through the time-resolved electrical detection technique, with a magnetic tunnel junction. Just above the Walker field, we succeeded in detecting the precessional motion of the DW in a real-time regime, while a different mode appeared around the local minimum of the DW velocity. (paper)

  9. Neural network modeling for near wall turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    A neural network methodology is developed in order to reconstruct the near wall field in a turbulent flow by exploiting flow fields provided by direct numerical simulations. The results obtained from the neural network methodology are compared with the results obtained from prediction and reconstruction using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Using the property that the POD is equivalent to a specific linear neural network, a nonlinear neural network extension is presented. It is shown that for a relatively small additional computational cost nonlinear neural networks provide us with improved reconstruction and prediction capabilities for the near wall velocity fields. Based on these results advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed with an outlook toward the development of near wall models for turbulence modeling and control

  10. Hydrodynamic description of the long-time tails of the linear and rotational velocity autocorrelation functions of a particle in a confined geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydel, Derek; Rice, Stuart A

    2007-12-01

    We report a hydrodynamic analysis of the long-time behavior of the linear and angular velocity autocorrelation functions of an isolated colloid particle constrained to have quasi-two-dimensional motion, and compare the predicted behavior with the results of lattice-Boltzmann simulations. Our analysis uses the singularity method to characterize unsteady linear motion of an incompressible fluid. For bounded fluids we construct an image system with a discrete set of fundamental solutions of the Stokes equation from which we extract the long-time decay of the velocity. For the case that there are free slip boundary conditions at walls separated by H particle diameters, the time evolution of the parallel linear velocity and the perpendicular rotational velocity following impulsive excitation both correspond to the time evolution of a two-dimensional (2D) fluid with effective density rho_(2D)=rhoH. For the case that there are no slip boundary conditions at the walls, the same types of motion correspond to 2D fluid motions with a coefficient of friction xi=pi(2)nu/H(2) modulo a prefactor of order 1, with nu the kinematic viscosity. The linear particle motion perpendicular to the walls also experiences an effective frictional force, but the time dependence is proportional to t(-2) , which cannot be related to either pure 3D or pure 2D fluid motion. Our incompressible fluid model predicts correct self-diffusion constants but it does not capture all of the effects of the fluid confinement on the particle motion. In particular, the linear motion of a particle perpendicular to the walls is influenced by coupling between the density flux and the velocity field, which leads to damped velocity oscillations whose frequency is proportional to c_(s)/H , with c_(s) the velocity of sound. For particle motion parallel to no slip walls there is a slowing down of a density flux that spreads diffusively, which generates a long-time decay proportional to t(-1) .

  11. A study on the shell wall thinning causes identified through experiment, numerical analysis and ultrasonic test of high-pressure feedwater heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo; Woo, Lee; Jin, Tae Eun; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Feedwater heaters of many nuclear power plants have recently experienced severe wall thinning damage, which accelerates as the operation progresses. Several nuclear power plants in Korea have undergone this damage around the impingement baffle - installed downstream of the high-pressure turbine extraction steam line - inside numbers 5A and 5B feedwater heaters. At that point, the extracted steam from the high-pressure turbine consists in the form of two-phase fluid at high temperature, high pressure and high velocity. Since it flows in reverse direction after impinging the impingement baffle, the shell wall of number 5 high-pressure feedwater heater may be affected by flow-accelerated corrosion. This paper describes the comparisons between the numerical analysis results using the FLUENT code and the downscaled experimental data in an effort to determine root causes of the shell wall thinning of the high-pressure feedwater heaters. The numerical analysis and experimental data were also confirmed by the actual wall thickness measured by ultrasonic tests. From the comparison of the results for the local velocity profiles and the wall thinning measurements, the local velocity component only in the y-direction flowing vertically to the shell wall, and not in the x- and z-directions, was analogous to the wall thinning data

  12. Aerodynamics of a thin airfoil flying over and in proximity to a wavy-wall surface. ; Lifting surface theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Ichikawa, M [Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1991-05-04

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a thin airfoil flying over and in proximity to a wavy-wall surface such as uneven ground or water surface were analyzed two-dimensionally by lifting surface theory in the simplest fundamental case only. The theoretical equation was simplified assuming that flow is inviscid and incompressible, all disturbances are sufficiently small, the wall surface is sinusoidal and rigid, and the wall moves in the same direction as free stream but with a constant velocity different from that of the stream. The equation was verified in the case where an airfoil with a constant angle-of-attack flies over a flat ground surface, and calculations were made with a set of important parameters such as mean airfoil height from the wall, wave length of the wall surface and the wall velocity. The whole effect of wavy wall proximity was divided into the first and second-order ground effects. The first one was just Kemp{prime}s upwash problem, and the second one was revealed through the present study which becomes significant for lower airfoil heights. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  14. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echouchene, F. [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Belmabrouk, H., E-mail: frchouchene@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M. [LMFA UMR CNRS 5509, Universite de Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INSA de Lyon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C{sub d} is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  15. A preliminary study on the local impact behavior of Steel-plate Concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kap-sun; Moon, Il-hwan; Choi, Hyung-jin; Nam, Deok-woo

    2017-01-01

    International regulations for nuclear power plants strictly prescribe the design requirements for local impact loads, such as aircraft engine impact, and internal and external missile impact. However, the local impact characteristics of Steel-plate Concrete (SC) walls are not easy to evaluate precisely because the dynamic impact behavior of SC walls which include external steel plate, internal concrete, tie-bars, and studs, is so complex. In this study, dynamic impact characteristics of SC walls subjected to local missile impact load are investigated via actual high-speed impact test and numerical simulation. Three velocity checkout tests and four SC wall tests were performed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) site in the USA. Initial and residual velocity of the missile, strain and acceleration of the back plate, local failure mode (penetration, bulging, splitting and perforation) and deformation size, etc. were measured to study the local behavior of the specimen using high speed cameras and various other instrumentation devices. In addition, a more advanced and applicable numerical simulation method using the finite element (FE) method is proposed and verified by the experimental results. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the local failure evaluation formula for SC walls recently proposed, and future research directions for the development of a refined design method for SC walls are reviewed.

  16. High antiferromagnetic domain wall velocity induced by Néel spin-orbit torques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomonay, O.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 017202. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * domain walls * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  17. OSCILLATING LIGHT WALL ABOVE A SUNSPOT LIGHT BRIDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Fayu [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-05-10

    With the high tempo-spatial Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph 1330 Å images, we find that many bright structures are rooted in the light bridge of NOAA 12192, forming a light wall. The light wall is brighter than the surrounding areas, and the wall top is much brighter than the wall body. The New Vacuum Solar Telescope Hα and the Solar Dynamics Observatory 171 and 131 Å images are also used to study the light-wall properties. In 1330, 171, and 131 Å, the top of the wall has a higher emission, while in the Hα line, the wall-top emission is very low. The wall body corresponds to bright areas in 1330 Å and dark areas in the other lines. The top of the light wall moves upward and downward successively, performing oscillations in height. The deprojected mean height, amplitude, oscillation velocity, and the dominant period are determined to be 3.6 Mm, 0.9 Mm, 15.4 km s{sup −1}, and 3.9 minutes, respectively. We interpret the oscillations of the light wall as the leakage of p-modes from below the photosphere. The constant brightness enhancement of the wall top implies the existence of some kind of atmospheric heating, e.g., via the persistent small-scale reconnection or the magneto-acoustic waves. In another series of 1330 Å images, we find that the wall top in the upward motion phase is significantly brighter than in the downward phase. This kind of oscillation may be powered by the energy released due to intermittent impulsive magnetic reconnection.

  18. Influence of radial magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in a curved complaint walls channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Peristaltic transport of Williamson fluid in a curved geometry is modeled. Problem formulation is completed by complaint walls of channel. Radial magnetic field in the analysis is taken into account. Resulting problem formulation is simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Series solution is obtained for small Weissenberg number. Influences of different embedded parameters on the axial velocity and stream function are examined. As expected the velocity in curved channel is not symmetric. Axial velocity is noticed decreasing for Hartman number. Trapped bolus increases for Hartman and curvature parameters. Keywords: Williamson fluid, Curved channel, Radial magnetic field, Complaint walls

  19. Time Resolved Tomographic PIV Measurements of Rough-Wall Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorini, Rinaldo; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Time resolved tomographic PIV is used to study flow structures in the outer region of a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer, focusing on imprints of the roughness on the outer layer. Measurements are performed in a transparent channel installed in the JHU optically index matched facility. The roughness consists of pyramids with height, k = 0.46 mm, and wavelength, λ = 3.2 mm, satisfying h/k = 55 (h = 25.4 mm is the channel half-height), k + = 64 and Re = 40000. The TPIV setup consists of four high-speed cameras operating at 3 kHz, which view the sample volume through acrylic prisms. The flow field is illuminated by an Nd:YLF laser. Following enhancement, calibration, and reconstruction, 643 voxels interrogation volumes with 0.75 overlap provide 3D velocity fields with spacing of 0.5883 mm3. Formation and transport of near-wall 3D U-shaped vortex structures, with base in front of the pyramids, and quasi-streamwise legs extending between pyramid crest lines are evident from the data. Extended streamwise regions of high wall-normal vorticity appear ``latched'' to the roughness elements close to the wall, but are transported downstream at higher elevations. Also evident are traveling streamwise low velocity streaks, which cover many roughness elements. Sponsored by NSF CBET and ONR.

  20. Unidirectional Magnon-Driven Domain Wall Motion due to Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seo-Won

    2018-03-28

    We theoretically study magnon-driven motion of a tranverse domain wall in the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Contrary to previous studies, the domain wall moves along the same direction regardless of the magnon-flow direction. Our symmetry analysis reveals that the odd order DMI contributions to the domain wall velocity are independent of the magnon-flow direction. Corresponding DMI-induced asymmetric transitions from a spin-wave state to another give rise to a large momentum transfer to the domain wall without nonreciprocity and much reflection. This counterintuitive unidirectional motion occurs not only for a spin wave with a single wavevector but also for thermal magnons with distributed wavevectors.

  1. Unidirectional Magnon-Driven Domain Wall Motion due to Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seo-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Go, Gyungchoon; Manchon, Aurelien; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically study magnon-driven motion of a tranverse domain wall in the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Contrary to previous studies, the domain wall moves along the same direction regardless of the magnon-flow direction. Our symmetry analysis reveals that the odd order DMI contributions to the domain wall velocity are independent of the magnon-flow direction. Corresponding DMI-induced asymmetric transitions from a spin-wave state to another give rise to a large momentum transfer to the domain wall without nonreciprocity and much reflection. This counterintuitive unidirectional motion occurs not only for a spin wave with a single wavevector but also for thermal magnons with distributed wavevectors.

  2. Spatio-temporal characteristics of large scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer from direct wall shear stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  3. Wall boundary layer development near the tip region of an IGV of an axial flow compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Sitaram, N.

    1983-01-01

    The annulus wall boundary layer inside the blade passage of the inlet guide vane (IGV) passage of a low-speed axial compressor stage was measured with a miniature five-hole probe. The three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields were measured at various axial and tangential locations. Limiting streamline angles and static pressures were also measured on the casing of the IGV passage. Strong secondary vorticity was developed. The data were analyzed and correlated with the existing velocity profile correlations. The end wall losses were also derived from these data.

  4. Critical ionisation velocity and the dynamics of a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of an ionising wave in a coaxial plasma gun with an azimuthal bias magnetic field is analysed in a theoretical model. Only the radial dependence is treated and instead of including a treatment of the energy balance two separate physical assumptions are made. In the first case it is assumed that the total internal electric field is given by the critical ionisation velocity condition and in the second that the ionisation rate is constant. For consistency wall sheaths are assumed to match the internal plasma potential to that of the walls. On the basis of momentum and particle balance the radial dependence of the electron density, current density, electric field and drift velocity are found. An electron source is required at the cathode and the relative contribution from ionisation within the plasma is deduced. The assumption that there are no ion sources at the electrodes leads to a restriction on the possible values of the axial electric field. (author)

  5. Measurement of Resistive Wall Mode stability in rotating high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimerdes, H.; Bialek, J.; Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A.; Chance, M.S.; Menard, J.E.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Chu, M.S.; Gohil, P.; Jackson, G.L.; Jensen, T.H.; La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.; Strait, E.J.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Liu, Y.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity can stabilize the resistive wall mode and extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional, ideal MHD no-wall limit up to the ideal MHD ideal wall limit. The stabilizing effect has been measured passively by measuring the critical plasma rotation required for stability and actively by probing the plasma with externally applied resonant magnetic fields. These measurements are compared to predictions of rotational stabilization of the sound wave damping and of the kinetic damping model using the MARS code. (author)

  6. Domain-walls motion in glass-coated CoFeSiB amorphous microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.S. E-mail: as.antonov@mtu-net.ru; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Joura, A.V.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Yakunin, A.M

    2002-08-01

    A method for observation of domain-walls motion in amorphous microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Using the method, the magnetization reversal of glass-coated Co-based microwires induced by current pulses of high amplitude is studied. The magnetization reversal is shown to occur due to the nucleation of the domain walls at the sample ends and their subsequent motion along the microwire. The dependencies of the domain-wall velocity on the current pulse amplitude and a longitudinal DC magnetic field are measured. A model describing main features of experimental data is presented.

  7. Domain-walls motion in glass-coated CoFeSiB amorphous microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Joura, A.V.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Yakunin, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for observation of domain-walls motion in amorphous microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Using the method, the magnetization reversal of glass-coated Co-based microwires induced by current pulses of high amplitude is studied. The magnetization reversal is shown to occur due to the nucleation of the domain walls at the sample ends and their subsequent motion along the microwire. The dependencies of the domain-wall velocity on the current pulse amplitude and a longitudinal DC magnetic field are measured. A model describing main features of experimental data is presented

  8. Temperature measurements in a wall stabilized steady flame using CARS

    KAUST Repository

    Sesha Giri, Krishna

    2017-01-05

    Flame quenching by heat loss to a surface continues to be an active area of combustion research. Close wall temperature measurements in an isothermal wall-stabilized flame are reported in this work. Conventional N-vibrational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) thermometry as close as 275 μm to a convex wall cooled with water has been carried out. The standard deviation of mean temperatures is observed to be ~6.5% for high temperatures (>2000K) and ~14% in the lower range (<500K). Methane/air and ethylene/air stoichiometric flames for various global strain rates based on exit bulk velocities are plotted and compared. CH* chemiluminescence is employed to determine the flame location relative to the wall. Flame locations are shown to move closer to the wall with increasing strain rates in addition to higher near-wall temperatures. Peak temperatures for ethylene are considerably higher (~250-300K) than peak temperatures for methane. Preheat zone profiles are similar for different strain rates across fuels. This work demonstrates close wall precise temperature measurments using CARS.

  9. Frequency, delay and velocity analysis for intrinsic channel region of carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gate wrap around field effect transistor is preferred for its good channel control. To study the high frequency behaviour of the device, parameters like cut-off frequency, transit or delay time, velocity are calculated and plotted. Double-walled and array of channels are considered in this work for enhanced output and impedance matching of the device with the measuring equipment terminal respectively. The perfomance of double-walledcarbon nanotube is compared with single-walled carbon nanotube and found that the device with double-wall shows appreciable improvement in its characteristics. Analysis of these parameters are done with various values of source/drain length, gate length, tube diameters and channel densities. The maximum cut-off frequency is found to be 72.3 THz with corresponding velocity as 5x106 m/s for channel density as 3 and gate length as 11nm. The number of channel is varied from 3 to 21 and found that the perfromance of the device containing double-walled carbon nano tube is better for channel number lesser than or equal to 12. The proposed modelling can be used for designing devices to handle high speed applications of future generation.

  10. Helium-filled soap bubbles tracing fidelity in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiros, David Engler; Tuinstra, Marthijn; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    The use of helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSB) as flow tracers for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to measure the properties of turbulent boundary layers is investigated in the velocity range from 30 to 50 m/s. The experiments correspond to momentum thickness-based Reynolds numbers of 3300 and 5100. A single bubble generator delivers nearly neutrally buoyant HFSB to seed the air flow developing over the flat plate. The HFSB motion analysis is performed by PTV using single-frame multi-exposure recordings. The measurements yield the local velocity and turbulence statistics. Planar two-component-PIV measurements with micron-sized droplets (DEHS) conducted under the same conditions provide reference data for the quantities of interest. In addition, the behavior of air-filled soap bubbles is studied where the effect of non-neutral buoyancy is more pronounced. The mean velocity profiles as well as the turbulent stresses obtained with HFSB are in good agreement with the flow statistics obtained with DEHS particles. The study illustrates that HFSB tracers can be used to determine the mean velocity and the turbulent fluctuations of turbulent boundary layers above a distance of approximately two bubble diameters from the wall. This work broadens the current range of application of HFSB from external aerodynamics of large-scale-PIV experiments towards wall-bounded turbulence.

  11. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  12. Resistive-wall wake and impedance for nonultrarelativistic beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual formulas for the resistive-wall wake field are derived considering ultrarelativistic beams, traveling at the speed of light. This simplifies the calculation, and it leads to a cancellation between electric and magnetic fields. However, for proton beams below 10 GeV and for many heavy-ion beams, the velocities may significantly differ from the speed of light. In this paper, we compute the longitudinal and transverse wake fields for velocities smaller than c and examine under which conditions nonrelativistic effects become important. We illustrate our results by a few examples.

  13. Stability of spanwise-modulated flows behind backward-facing steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, A. V.; Dovgal, A. V.; Sorokin, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    An overview and synthesis of researches on development of local vortical disturbances in laminar separated flows downstream of backward-facing steps, in which the velocity field depends essentially on two variables are given. Peculiarities of transition to turbulence in such spatially inhomogeneous separated zones are discussed. The experimental data are supplemented by the linear stability characteristics of model velocity profiles of the separated flow computed using both the classical local formulation and the nonlocal approach based on the Floquet theory for partial differential equations with periodic coefficients. The results clarify the response of the local separated flows to their modulation with stationary geometrical and temperature inhomogeneities. The results can be useful for the development of new methods of laminar separation control.

  14. Helical structure of longitudinal vortices embedded in turbulent wall-bounded flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery

    2009-01-01

    Embedded vortices in turbulent wall-bounded flow over a flat plate, generated by a passive rectangular vane-type vortex generator with variable angle \\beta to the incoming flow in a low-Reynolds number flow (Re = 2600 based on the inlet grid mesh size L = 0:039 m and free stream velocity U....... This is important for flow control, since one thereby can determine the axial velocity induced by the helical vortex as well as the swirl redistributing the axial velocity component for a given device angle \\beta. This also simplifies theoretical studies, e.g. to understand and predict the stability of the vortex...

  15. Experimental study of the spatial distribution of the velocity field of sedimenting particles: mean velocity, pseudo-turbulent fluctuations, intrinsic convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Michel, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work follows previous experiments from Nicolai et al. (95), Peysson and Guazzelli (98) and Segre et al. (97), which consisted in measures of the velocity of particles sedimenting in a liquid at low particular Reynolds numbers. Our goal, introduced in the first part with a bibliographic study, is to determinate the particles velocity fluctuations properties. The fluctuations are indeed of the same order as the mean velocity. We are proceeding with PIV Eulerian measures. The method is described in the second part. Its originality comes from measures obtained in a thin laser light sheet, from one side to the other of the cells, with a square section: the measures are therefore spatially localised. Four sets of cells and three sets of particles were used, giving access to ratios 'cell width over particle radius' ranging from about 50 up to 800. In the third part, we present the results concerning the velocity fluctuations structure and their spatial distribution. The intrinsic convection between to parallel vertical walls is also studied. The velocity fluctuations are organised in eddy structures. Their size (measured with correlation length) is independent of the volume fraction, contradicting the results of Segre et al. (97). The results concerning the velocity fluctuations spatial profiles - from one side to the other of the cell - confirm those published by Peysson and Guazzelli (98) in the case of stronger dilution. The evolution of the spatial mean velocity fluctuations confirms the results obtained by Segre et al. (97). The intrinsic convection is also observed in the case of strong dilutions. (author)

  16. Comparison of superhydrophobic drag reduction between turbulent pipe and channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyung Jae; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-09-01

    It has been known over several decades that canonical wall-bounded internal flows of a pipe and channel share flow similarities, in particular, close to the wall due to the negligible curvature effect. In the present study, direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flows are performed to investigate the influence of the superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) on the turbulence dynamics and the resultant drag reduction (DR) of the flows under similar conditions. SHSs at the wall are modeled in spanwise-alternating longitudinal regions with a boundary with no-slip and shear-free conditions, and the two parameters of the spanwise periodicity (P/δ) and SHS fraction (GF) within a pitch are considered. It is shown, in agreement with previous investigations in channels, that the turbulent drag for the pipe and channel flows over SHSs is continuously decreased with increases in P/δ and GF. However, the DR rate in the pipe flows is greater than that in the channel flows with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stress. The enhanced performance of the DR for the pipe flow is attributed to the increased streamwise slip and weakened Reynolds shear stress contributions. In addition, a mathematical analysis of the spanwise mean vorticity equation suggests that the presence of a strong secondary flow due to the increased spanwise slip of the pipe flows makes a greater negative contribution of advective vorticity transport than the channel flows, resulting in a higher DR value. Finally, an inspection of the origin of the mean secondary flow in turbulent flows over SHSs based on the spatial gradients of the turbulent kinetic energy demonstrates that the secondary flow is both driven and sustained by spatial gradients in the Reynolds stress components, i.e., Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind.

  17. Cilia walls influence on peristaltically induced motion of magneto-fluid through a porous medium at moderate Reynolds number: Numerical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Abo-Elkhair

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses, effects of a magneto-fluid through a Darcy flow model with oscillatory wavy walled whose inner surface is ciliated. The equations that governing the flow are modeled without using any approximations. Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM is used to evaluate the solution of our system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Stream function, velocity and pressure gradient components are obtained by using the vorticity formula. The effects for our arbitrary physical parameters on flow characteristics are analyzed by plotting diagrams and discussed in details. With the help of stream lines the trapping mechanism has also been discussed. The major outcomes for the ciliated channel walls are: The axial velocity is higher without a ciliated walls than that for a ciliated walls and an opposite behaviour is shown near the ciliated channel walls. The pressure gradients in both directions are higher for a ciliated channel walls. More numbers of the trapped bolus in the absent of the eccentricity of the cilia elliptic path.

  18. DEM analysis of the effect of particle-wall impact on the dispersion performance in carrier-based dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2015-06-20

    The impact between particles or agglomerates and a device wall is considered as an important mechanism controlling the dispersion of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In order to characterise the influencing factors and better understand the impact induced dispersion process for carrier-based DPIs, the impact behaviour between an agglomerate and a wall is systematically investigated using the discrete element method. In this study, a carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then allowed to impact with a target wall. The effects of impact velocity, impact angle and work of adhesion on the dispersion performance are analysed. It is shown that API particles in the near-wall regions are more likely to be dispersed due to the deceleration of the carrier particle resulted from the impact with the wall. It is also revealed that the dispersion ratio increases with increasing impact velocity and impact angle, indicating that the normal component of the impact velocity plays a dominant role on the dispersion. Furthermore, the impact induced dispersion performance for carrier-based DPI formulations can be well approximated using a cumulative Weibull distribution function that is governed by the ratio of overall impact energy and adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aidan Jamison

    Full Text Available Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  20. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, R Aidan; Samarage, Chaminda R; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Fouras, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  1. Temperature and velocity fields in natural convection by PIV and LIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Westergaard, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    plate and cooled walls is 1.4×10^10. The flow is turbulent and is similar to some indoor room flows. Combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are used to measure local velocities and temperatures. Data measured in a symmetry plane parallel to a sidewall...

  2. Modulated patterns in a reduced model of a transitional shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaume, C; Knobloch, E; Chini, G P; Julien, K

    2016-01-01

    We consider a close relative of plane Couette flow called Waleffe flow in which the fluid is confined between two free-slip walls and the flow driven by a sinusoidal force. We use a reduced model of such flows constructed elsewhere to compute stationary exact coherent structures in this flow in periodic domains with a large spanwise period. The computations reveal the emergence of stationary states exhibiting strong amplitude and wavelength modulation in the spanwise direction. These modulated states lie on branches exhibiting complex dependence on the Reynolds number but no homoclinic snaking. (paper)

  3. Effect of wall conductances on hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer in a rotating channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Wall conductance effects on the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer between two parallel plates in a rotating frame of reference has been studied when the liquid is permeated by a transverse magnetic field. An exact solution of the governing equation has been obtained. It is found that the velocity current density and the temperature depend only on the sum of the wall conductances phi 1 + phi 2 = phi but magnetic field depends on the individual values of phi 1 and phi 2 where phi 1 and phi 2 are respectively the wall conductance ratios of the upper and lower walls. (Auth.)

  4. A model for near-wall dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthan, S. Ananda; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-10-01

    Experiments indicate that turbulent free convection over a horizontal surface (e.g. Rayleigh Bénard convection) consists of essentially line plumes near the walls, at least for moderately high Rayleigh numbers. Based on this evidence, we propose here a two-dimensional model for near-wall dynamics in Rayleigh Bénard convection and in general for convection over heated horizontal surfaces. The model proposes a periodic array of steady laminar two-dimensional plumes. A plume is fed on either side by boundary layers on the wall. The results from the model are obtained in two ways. One of the methods uses the similarity solution of Rotem & Classen (1969) for the boundary layer and the similarity solution of Fuji (1963) for the plume. We have derived expressions for mean temperature and temperature and velocity fluctuations near the wall. In the second approach, we compute the two-dimensional flow field in a two-dimensional rectangular open cavity. The number of plumes in the cavity depends on the length of the cavity. The plume spacing is determined from the critical length at which the number of plumes increases by one. The results for average plume spacing and the distribution of r.m.s. temperature and velocity fluctuations are shown to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results.

  5. Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1978-04-01

    The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de

  6. Numerical Simulation of Flow Features and Energy Exchange Physics in Near-Wall Region with Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixiang; Wang, Wenquan; Guo, Yakun

    Large eddy simulation is used to explore flow features and energy exchange physics between turbulent flow and structure vibration in the near-wall region with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The statistical turbulence characteristics in the near-wall region of a vibrating wall, such as the skin frictional coefficient, velocity, pressure, vortices, and the coherent structures have been studied for an aerofoil blade passage of a true three-dimensional hydroturbine. The results show that (i) FSI greatly strengthens the turbulence in the inner region of y+ < 25; and (ii) the energy exchange mechanism between the flow and the vibration depends strongly on the vibration-induced vorticity in the inner region. The structural vibration provokes a frequent action between the low- and high-speed streaks to balance the energy deficit caused by the vibration. The velocity profile in the inner layer near the vibrating wall has a significant distinctness, and the viscosity effect of the fluid in the inner region decreases due to the vibration. The flow features in the inner layer are altered by a suitable wall vibration.

  7. A 3-D Computational Study of a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) Spanwise Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2015-01-01

    Results of a computational study carried out to explore the effects of various elastomer configurations joining spanwise contiguous Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) segments are reported here. This research is carried out as a proof-of-concept study that will seek to push the flight envelope in cruise with drag optimization as the objective. The cruise conditions can be well off design such as caused by environmental conditions, maneuvering, etc. To handle these off-design conditions, flap deflection is used so when the flap is deflected in a given direction, the aircraft angle of attack changes accordingly to maintain a given lift. The angle of attack is also a design parameter along with the flap deflection. In a previous 2D study,1 the effect of camber was investigated and the results revealed some insight into the relative merit of various camber settings of the VCCTEF. The present state of the art has not advanced sufficiently to do a full 3-D viscous analysis of the whole NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) wing with VCCTEF deployed with elastomers. Therefore, this study seeks to explore the local effects of three contiguous flap segments on lift and drag of a model devised here to determine possible trades among various flap deflections to achieve desired lift and drag results. Although this approach is an approximation, it provides new insights into the "local" effects of the relative deflections of the contiguous spanwise flap systems and various elastomer segment configurations. The present study is a natural extension of the 2-D study to assess these local 3-D effects. Design cruise condition at 36,000 feet at free stream Mach number of 0.797 and a mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) based Reynolds number of 30.734x10(exp 6) is simulated for an angle of attack (AoA) range of 0 to 6 deg. In the previous 2-D study, the calculations revealed that the parabolic arc camber (1x2x3) and circular arc camber (VCCTEF222) offered the best L

  8. Spectral derivation of the classic laws of wall-bounded turbulent flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2017-08-01

    We show that the classic laws of the mean-velocity profiles (MVPs) of wall-bounded turbulent flows-the 'law of the wall,' the 'defect law' and the 'log law'-can be predicated on a sufficient condition with no manifest ties to the MVPs, namely that viscosity and finite turbulent domains have a depressive effect on the spectrum of turbulent energy. We also show that this sufficient condition is consistent with empirical data on the spectrum and may be deemed a general property of the energetics of wall turbulence. Our findings shed new light on the physical origin of the classic laws and their immediate offshoot, Prandtl's theory of turbulent friction.

  9. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  10. Generalized wall function and its application to compressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wu, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Wall function boundary conditions including the effects of compressibility and heat transfer are improved for compressible turbulent boundary flows. Generalized wall function formulation at zero-pressure gradient is proposed based on coupled velocity and temperature profiles in the entire near-wall region. The parameters in the generalized wall function are well revised. The proposed boundary conditions are integrated into Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code that includes the shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results are presented for a compressible boundary layer over a flat plate at zero-pressure gradient. Compared with experimental data, the computational results show that the generalized wall function reduces the first grid spacing in the directed normal to the wall and proves the feasibility and effectivity of the generalized wall function method.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Multi-layer Insulation Effect on Damage of Stuffed Shield by High-velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUAN Gong-shun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stuffed shield with multi-layer insulation(MLI was designed by improving on Al Whipple shield, and a series of high-velocity impact tests were practiced with a two-stage light gas gun facility at vacuum environment. The damage model of the stuffed shield with different MLI location by Al-sphere projectile impacting was obtained. The effect of MLI on damage of the stuffed shield by high-velocity impact was studied. The results indicate when the MLI is located at front side of the first Al-plate, the protection performance of the stuffed shield is improved with the larger perforation diameter of the first Al-plate and more impact kinetic energy dissipation of the projectile. When MLI is arranged at back side of the first Al-plate, the expansion of the secondary debris cloud from projectile impacting the first Al-plate is restrained, it is not good to improve the protection performance of the stuffed shield. When MLI is arranged at front side of the stuffed wall, the perforation size of the stuffed wall increases; when MLI is arranged at front side of the rear wall, the distribution range of crater on the rear wall decreases.

  12. Experimental characterization of initial conditions and spatio-temporal evolution of a small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O

    2005-09-26

    The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.

  13. Application of Plenoptic PIV for 3D Velocity Measurements Over Roughness Elements in a Refractive Index Matched Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurow, Brian; Johnson, Kyle; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Best, Jim; Christensen, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The application of Plenoptic PIV in a Refractive Index Matched (RIM) facility housed at Illinois is presented. Plenoptic PIV is an emerging 3D diagnostic that exploits the light-field imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera. Plenoptic cameras utilize a microlens array to measure the position and angle of light rays captured by the camera. 3D/3C velocity fields are determined through application of the MART algorithm for volume reconstruction and a conventional 3D cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The RIM facility is a recirculating tunnel with a 62.5% aqueous solution of sodium iodide used as the working fluid. Its resulting index of 1.49 is equal to that of acrylic. Plenoptic PIV was used to measure the 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth wall, a single wall-mounted hemisphere and a full array of hemispheres (i.e. a rough wall) with a k/ δ ~ 4.6. Preliminary time averaged and instantaneous 3D velocity fields will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1235726.

  14. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsu, Joel; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i) flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii) force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii) wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  15. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  16. Discrete Element study of granular material - Bumpy wall interface behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Cheikh, Khadija; Rémond, Sébastien; Pizette, Patrick; Vanhove, Yannick; Djelal, Chafika

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a DEM study of a confined granular material sheared between two parallel bumpy walls. The granular material consists of packed dry spherical particles. The bumpiness is modeled by spheres of a given diameter glued on horizontal planes. Different bumpy surfaces are modeled by varying diameter or concentration of glued spheres. The material is sheared by moving the two bumpy walls at fixed velocity. During shear, the confining pressure applied on each bumpy wall is controlled. The effect of wall bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient and on the granular material behavior at the bumpy walls is reported for various shearing conditions. For given bumpiness and confining pressure that we have studied, it is found that the shear velocity does not affect the shear stress. However, the effective friction coefficient and the behavior of the granular material depend on the bumpiness. When the diameter of the glued spheres is larger than about the average grains diameter of the medium, the latter is uniformly sheared and the effective friction coefficient remains constant. For smaller diameters of the glued spheres, the effective friction coefficient increases with the diameter of glued spheres. The influence of glued spheres concentration is significant only for small glued spheres diameters, typically half of average particle diameter of the granular material. In this case, increasing the concentration of glued spheres leads to a decrease in effective friction coefficient and to shear localization at the interface. For different diameters and concentrations of glued spheres, we show that the effect of bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient can be characterized by the depth of interlocking.

  17. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities and product yields for green building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamble, S. P.; Corsi, R. L.; Morrison, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Indoor surfaces can passively remove ozone that enters buildings, reducing occupant exposure without an energy penalty. However, reactions between ozone and building surfaces can generate and release aerosols and irritating and carcinogenic gases. To identify desirable indoor surfaces the deposition velocity, reaction probability and carbonyl product yields of building materials considered green (listed, recycled, sustainable, etc.) were quantified. Nineteen separate floor, wall or ceiling materials were tested in a 10 L, flow-through laboratory reaction chamber. Inlet ozone concentrations were maintained between 150 and 200 ppb (generally much lower in chamber air), relative humidity at 50%, temperature at 25 °C and exposure occurred over 24 h. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.25 m h -1 for a linoleum style flooring up to 8.2 m h -1 for a clay based paint; reaction probabilities ranged from 8.8 × 10 -7 to 6.9 × 10 -5 respectively. For all materials, product yields of C 1 thru C 12 saturated n-aldehydes, plus acetone ranged from undetectable to greater than 0.70 The most promising material was a clay wall plaster which exhibited a high deposition velocity (5.0 m h -1) and a low product yield (

  18. The smallest thermal scales in a turbulent channel flow at Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.

    2004-01-01

    For describing the turbulent heat transfer from a wall to a fluid at low Reynolds (Re < 10000) and low Prandtl numbers (Pr < 20) a direct numerical simulation (DNS) can be used, which describes all the length and time scales of the phenomenon. The object of this paper is to find out the influence of the smallest temperature scales on the largest ones, which are responsible for the macro behavior of the near-wall heat transfer. Simulation, performed at Re = 2650 and Pr = 1, was calculated for velocity field with the DNS accuracy and for three different temperature fields. First temperature field, calculated with the DNS accuracy, was used as a reference to the second and third temperature fields where the highest Fourier coefficients in streamwise and spanwise directions were filtered and damped. It means, that the smallest temperature scales were not described with DNS accuracy anymore. New approach shows that results, for at least first and second order statistics, are comparable to the DNS ones without filtering and damping. (author)

  19. Performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic racetrack memory: domain wall versus skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasello, R; Puliafito, V; Martinez, E; Manchon, A; Ricci, M; Carpentieri, M; Finocchio, G

    2017-01-01

    A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s −1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions. (paper)

  20. Performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic racetrack memory: domain wall versus skyrmion

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasello, R

    2017-06-20

    A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s−1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions.

  1. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor copyright containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 μm also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK demonstration

  2. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  3. Heat transfer to a dispersed two-phase flow and detailed quench front velocity research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, T.C. de; Molen, S.B. van der

    1985-01-01

    A programme to obtain a data base for 'Boildown and Reflood' computer code development and to obtain information on the influence of non-uniform temperature and/or power profile on the quench front velocity and prequench heat transfer, including unheated wall and grid effects, has been undertaken. It is in two parts. In the first (for the tube, annulus and a 4-rod bundle) an early wetting of the unheated shroud is shown. This leads to an increase in quench front velocity and in liquid transport downstream from the quench front. For the inverted annular flow regime the extended Bromley correlation gives good agreement with the experimental data. In the second part (36-rod bundle reflood test programme) the wall-temperature differences in the radial direction gives rise to heat transfer processes which are described and explained. (U.K.)

  4. Fundamental Characterization of Spanwise Loading and Trailed Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wake characterization, vortex formation , vortex...Configuration The test was conducted in the 7 × 10-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center (operating in its hard - wall mode) for a range of wind speeds up

  5. Study on fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy with different wall thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular cross-section specimens with different section thicknesses were prepared to study the influences of pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity on the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy by means of orthogonal test design method. The results show that pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity can significantly affect the fluidity of magnesium alloy specimens with wall thickness no more than 4 mm, and the pouring temperature is the most influential factor on the fluidity of specimens with wall thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm, while mould temperature is the one for specimens with wall thickness of 4 mm. Increasing pouring temperature between 700 °C and 750 °C is beneficial to the fluidity of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and increasing mould temperature significantly enhances the filling ability of thick (3 and 4 mm section castings. The fluidity of squeeze cast magnesium alloy increases with the increase of wall thickness. It is not recommended to produce magnesium alloy casting with wall thickness of smaller than 3 mm by squeeze cast process due to the poor fluidity. The software DPS was used to generate the regression model, and linear regression equations of the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D with different wall thicknesses are obtained using the test results.

  6. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J. B. R.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  7. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: jbrloureiro@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  8. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  9. Deposition of micron liquid droplets on wall in impinging turbulent air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianshu; Nink, Jacob; Merati, Parviz [Western Michigan University, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Tian, Tian; Li, Yong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shieh, Tom [Toyota Technical Center, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The fluid mechanics of the deposition of micron liquid (olive oil) droplets on a glass wall in an impinging turbulent air jet is studied experimentally. The spatial patterns of droplets deposited on a wall are measured by using luminescent oil visualization technique, and the statistical data of deposited droplets are obtained through microscopic imagery. Two distinct rings of droplets deposited on a wall are found, and the mechanisms of the formation of the inner and outer rings are investigated based on global diagnostics of velocity and skin friction fields. In particular, the intriguing effects of turbulence, including large-scale coherent vortices and small-scale random turbulence, on micron droplet deposition on a wall and coalescence in the air are explored. (orig.)

  10. Tissue motion in blood velocity estimation and its simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    to the improvement of color flow imaging. Optimization based on in-vivo data is difficult since the blood and tissue signals cannot be accurately distinguished and the correct extend of the vessel under investigation is often unknown. This study introduces a model for the simulation of blood velocity data in which...... tissue motion is included. Tissue motion from breathing, heart beat, and vessel pulsation were determined based on in-vivo RF-data obtained from 10 healthy volunteers. The measurements were taken at the carotid artery at one condition and in the liver at three conditions. Each measurement was repeated 10....... The motion due to the heart, when the volunteer was asked to hold his breath, gave a peak velocity of 4.2±1.7 mm/s. The movement of the carotid artery wall due to changing blood pressure had a peak velocity of 8.9±3.7 mm/s over the cardiac cycle. The variations are due to differences in heart rhythm...

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Turbulent Flow Over a Backward Facing Step With Heated Wall: Effect of Pulsating Velocity and Oscillating Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate prediction of the flow and the thermal boundary layer is required to properly simulate gas to wall heat transfer in a turbulent flow. This is studied with a view to application to gas turbine combustors. A typical gas turbine combustion chamber flow presents similarities with the

  12. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu; Kim, Won-Seok; Bisig, André ; Klä ui, Mathias; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  13. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  14. Measurements of wall-shear-stress distribution on an NACA0018 airfoil by liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, N; Oguma, Y; Nakano, T

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s −1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV

  15. Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100 with shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs. Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect.

  16. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function on two-stream instability in low-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from discharge chamber walls is important for plasma maintenance in many low-pressure discharges. The electrons emitted from the walls are accelerated by the sheath electric field and are injected into the plasma as an electron beam. Penetration of this beam through the plasma is subject to the two-stream instability, which tends to slow down the beam electrons and heat the plasma electrons. In the present paper, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to simulate these effects both in a collisionless plasma slab with immobile ions and in a cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster. The two-stream instability occurs if the total electron velocity distribution function of the plasma-beam system is a nonmonotonic function of electron speed. Low-pressure plasmas can be depleted of electrons with energy above the plasma potential. This study reveals that under such conditions the two-stream instability depends crucially on the velocity distribution function of electron emission. It is shown that propagation of the secondary electron beams in Hall thrusters may be free of the two-stream instability if the velocity distribution of secondary electron emission is a monotonically decaying function of speed. In this case, the beams propagate between the walls with minimal loss of the beam current and the secondary electron emission does not affect the thruster plasma properties

  17. DNS of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qiang [Linne Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics, Osquars Backe 18, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: qiang@mech.kth.se; Schlatter, Philipp; Brandt, Luca; Henningson, Dan S. [Linne Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics, Osquars Backe 18, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out. The evolution of several passive scalars with both isoscalar and isoflux wall boundary condition are computed during the simulation. The Navier-Stokes equations as well as the scalar transport equation are solved using a fully spectral method. The highest Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity U{sub {infinity}} and momentum thickness {theta} is Re{sub {theta}}=830, and the molecular Prandtl numbers are 0.2, 0.71 and 2. To the authors' knowledge, this Reynolds number is to date the highest with such a variety of scalars. A large number of turbulence statistics for both flow and scalar fields are obtained and compared when possible to existing experimental and numerical simulations at comparable Reynolds number. The main focus of the present paper is on the statistical behaviour of the scalars in the outer region of the boundary layer, distinctly different from the channel-flow simulations. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed while the influence of the molecular Prandtl number and wall boundary conditions is also highlighted. A Pr scaling for various quantities is proposed in outer scalings. In addition, spanwise two-point correlation and instantaneous fields are employed to investigate the near-wall streak spacing and the coherence between the velocity and the scalar fields. Probability density functions (PDF) and joint probability density functions (JPDF) are shown to identify the intermittency both near the wall and in the outer region of the boundary layer. The present simulation data will be available online for the research community.

  18. DNS of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Schlatter, Philipp; Brandt, Luca; Henningson, Dan S.

    2009-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out. The evolution of several passive scalars with both isoscalar and isoflux wall boundary condition are computed during the simulation. The Navier-Stokes equations as well as the scalar transport equation are solved using a fully spectral method. The highest Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity U ∞ and momentum thickness θ is Re θ =830, and the molecular Prandtl numbers are 0.2, 0.71 and 2. To the authors' knowledge, this Reynolds number is to date the highest with such a variety of scalars. A large number of turbulence statistics for both flow and scalar fields are obtained and compared when possible to existing experimental and numerical simulations at comparable Reynolds number. The main focus of the present paper is on the statistical behaviour of the scalars in the outer region of the boundary layer, distinctly different from the channel-flow simulations. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed while the influence of the molecular Prandtl number and wall boundary conditions is also highlighted. A Pr scaling for various quantities is proposed in outer scalings. In addition, spanwise two-point correlation and instantaneous fields are employed to investigate the near-wall streak spacing and the coherence between the velocity and the scalar fields. Probability density functions (PDF) and joint probability density functions (JPDF) are shown to identify the intermittency both near the wall and in the outer region of the boundary layer. The present simulation data will be available online for the research community.

  19. ELM-Induced Plasma Wall Interactions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Yu, J.H.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.M.; Lasnier, C.J.; McLean, A.G.; Moyer, R.A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tynan, G.R.; Wampler, W.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.C.; Zeng, L.; Bastasz, R.J.; Buchenauer, D.; Whaley, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intense transient fluxes of particles and heat to the main chamber components induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) are of serious concern for ITER. In DIII-D, plasma interaction with the outboard chamber wall is studied using Langmuir probes and optical diagnostics including a fast framing camera. Camera data shows that ELMs feature helical filamentary structures localized at the low field side of the plasma and aligned with the local magnetic field. During the nonlinear phase of an ELM, multiple filaments are ejected from the plasma edge and propagate towards the outboard wall with velocities of 0.5-0.7 km/s. When reaching the wall, filaments result in 'hot spots'--regions of local intense plasma-material interaction (PMI) where the peak incident particle and heat fluxes are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those between ELMs. This interaction pattern has a complicated geometry and is neither toroidally nor poloidally symmetric. In low density/collisionality H-mode discharges, PMI at the outboard wall is almost entirely due to ELMs. In high density/collisionality discharges, contributions of ELMs and inter-ELM periods to PMI at the wall are comparable. A Midplane Material Evaluation Station (MiMES) has been recently installed in order to conduct in situ measurements of erosion/redeposition at the outboard chamber wall, including those caused by ELMs

  20. Comparative study of diastolic filling under varying left ventricular wall stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, Pritam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2014-11-01

    Pathological remodeling of the human cardiac left ventricle (LV) is observed in hypertensive heart failure as a result of pressure overload. Myocardial stiffening occurs in these patients prior to chronic maladaptive changes, resulting in increased LV wall stiffness. The goal of this study was to investigate the change in intraventricular filling fluid dynamics inside a physical model of the LV as a function of wall stiffness. Three LV models of varying wall stiffness were incorporated into an in vitro flow circuit driven by a programmable piston pump. Windkessel elements were used to tune the inflow and systemic pressure in the model with least stiffness to match healthy conditions. Models with stiffer walls were comparatively tested maintaining circuit compliance, resistance and pump amplitude constant. 2D phase-locked PIV measurements along the central plane showed that with increase in wall stiffness, the peak velocity and cardiac output inside the LV decreased. Further, inflow vortex ring propagation toward the LV apex was reduced with increasing stiffness. The above findings indicate the importance of considering LV wall relaxation characteristics in pathological studies of filling fluid dynamics.

  1. Scaling properties of domain wall networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, A. M. M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological evolution of domain wall networks, taking advantage of recent improvements in computing power. We carry out high-resolution field theory simulations in two, three and four spatial dimensions to study the effects of dimensionality and damping on the evolution of the network. Our results are consistent with the expected scale-invariant evolution of the network, which suggests that previous hints of deviations from this behavior may have been due to the limited dynamical range of those simulations. We also use the results of very large (1024 3 ) simulations in three cosmological epochs to provide a calibration for the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls: we numerically determine the two free model parameters to have the values c w =0.5±0.2 and k w =1.1±0.3.

  2. Investigation of processes due to deuterium pellets impinging on a rigid wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoener, M.

    1982-04-01

    Pellets accelerated with a centrifuge - for refuelling thermonuclear plasmas - ought not to be noticeably deformed, let alone destroyed. This happens if the relative velocity between the pellet and the rotor catching it is too high. This report describes an apparatus for determining the variation in shape of deuterium pellets as a function of the relative velocity. In this method the pellet, produced by extrusion, is electromagnetically accelerated by means of metal carriers from which they are separated and shot at a stationary, rigid wall. The impact of the pellet on the target is recorded in seven pictures by spark cinematography and the impact velocity is measured with light barriers. The critical impact velocity for cylindrical deuterium pellets is found to be 48 m/s. Up to this relative velocity deuterium pellets retain their shape, irrespective of the direction of incidence. (orig.)

  3. Reynolds number invariance of the structure inclination angle in wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ivan; Heuer, Weston D C

    2007-09-14

    Cross correlations of the fluctuating wall-shear stress and the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers are reported over 3 orders of magnitude change in Reynolds number. These results are obtained using hot-film and hot-wire anemometry in a wind tunnel facility, and sonic anemometers and a purpose-built wall-shear stress sensor in the near-neutral atmospheric surface layer on the salt flats of Utah's western desert. The direct measurement of fluctuating wall-shear stress in the atmospheric surface layer has not been available before. Structure inclination angles are inferred from the cross correlation results and are found to be invariant over the large range of Reynolds number. The findings justify the prior use of low Reynolds number experiments for obtaining structure angles for near-wall models in the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric surface layer flows.

  4. Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsbrooks, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-04-01

    Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.

  5. Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsbrooks, T.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.

  6. Evaluation of near-wall solution approaches for large-eddy simulations of flow in a centrifugal pump impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump impeller is bounded by complex surfaces, including blades, a hub and a shroud. The primary challenge of the flow simulation arises from the generation of a boundary layer between the surface of the impeller and the moving fluid. The principal objective is to evaluate the near-wall solution approaches that are typically used to deal with the flow in the boundary layer for the large-eddy simulation (LES of a centrifugal pump impeller. Three near-wall solution approaches –the wall-function approach, the wall-resolved approach and the hybrid Reynolds averaged Navier–Stoke (RANS and LES approach – are tested. The simulation results are compared with experimental results conducted through particle imaging velocimetry (PIV and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV. It is found that the wall-function approach is more sparing of computational resources, while the other two approaches have the important advantage of providing highly accurate boundary layer flow prediction. The hybrid RANS/LES approach is suitable for predicting steady-flow features, such as time-averaged velocities and hydraulic losses. Despite the fact that the wall-resolved approach is expensive in terms of computing resources, it exhibits a strong ability to capture a small-scale vortex and predict instantaneous velocity in the near-wall region in the impeller. The wall-resolved approach is thus recommended for the transient simulation of flows in centrifugal pump impellers.

  7. Control of secondary instability of the crossflow and Görtler-like vortices (Success and problems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Viktor V.; Grek, Genrich R.

    The secondary instability on a group of crossflow vortices developing in a swept wing boundary layer is described. It is shown that, for travelling waves, there is a region of linear development, and the growth rate of disturbances appreciably depends on the separation between the vortices. Methods of controlling the secondary instability of the vortices by a controlled wave and local suction are proposed and substantiated. The stability of a flat plate boundary layer modulated by G&ou ml;rtler-like stationary vortices is described. Vortices were generated inside the boundary layer by means of roughness elements arranged in a regular array along the spanwise (z) direction. Transition is not caused directly by these structures, but by the growth of small amplitude travelling waves riding on top of the steady vortices. This situation is analogous to the transition process in Görtler and cross-flows. The waves were found to amplify up to a stage where higher harmonics are gener ated, leading to turbulent breakdown and disintegration of the spanwise boundary layer structure. For strong modulations, the observed instability is quite powerful, and can be excited "naturally" by small uncontrollable background disturbances. Controlled oscillations were then introduced by means of a vibrating ribbon, allowing a detailed investigation of the wave characteristics. The instability seems to be associated with the spanwise gradients of the mean flow, , and at all z-positions, the maximum wave amplitude was found at a wall-normal position where the mean velocity is equal to the phase velocity of the wave, U(y)=c, i.e., at the local critical layer. Unstable waves were observed at frequency well above those for which Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves amplify in the Blasius boundary layer. Excitation at lower frequencies and milder basic flow modulation showed that TS-type waves may a lso develop. Study of the transition control in that flow by means of riblets shows that the effect

  8. Role of wall-attached structures in the interface of the quiescent core region in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jongmin; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The effects of low- and high-speed structures on the interface of the quiescent core region are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent pipe flow. The quiescent core region is a uniform momentum zone located at the center of the pipe flow, which contains the highest streamwise momentum with a low level of turbulence. The interface of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. In the vicinity of the interface of the quiescent core region, the streamwise velocity changes abruptly. The abrupt jump in velocity causes an increase of the velocity gradient. The interface of the quiescent core region is similar to the laminar superlayer in turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The interface of the quiescent core region contains the low- and high-speed structures. They can be classified into wall-attached and detached structures depending on the distance between the structures and the wall. The influence of the detached structures accounted for most of the number of detected structures is negligible due to its small volume. Conversely, the wall-attached structures adjacent to the interface have a huge influence on the statistical amount of the interface, such as entrainment characteristics. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  9. Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channe...

  10. Gravity-induced dynamics of a squirmer microswimmer in wall proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Felix; Blaschke, Johannes; Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Stark, Holger

    2018-02-01

    We perform hydrodynamic simulations using the method of multi-particle collision dynamics and a theoretical analysis to study a single squirmer microswimmer at high Péclet number, which moves in a low Reynolds number fluid and under gravity. The relevant parameters are the ratio α of swimming to bulk sedimentation velocity and the squirmer type β. The combination of self-propulsion, gravitational force, hydrodynamic interactions with the wall, and thermal noise leads to a surprisingly diverse behavior. At α > 1 we observe cruising states, while for α < 1 the squirmer resides close to the bottom wall with the motional state determined by stable fixed points in height and orientation. They strongly depend on the squirmer type β. While neutral squirmers permanently float above the wall with upright orientation, pullers float for α larger than a threshold value {α }th} and are pinned to the wall below {α }th}. In contrast, pushers slide along the wall at lower heights, from which thermal orientational fluctuations drive them into a recurrent floating state with upright orientation, where they remain on the timescale of orientational persistence.

  11. Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Krishnan; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-11-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent boundary layer are important in applications dealing with structural deformation and acoustics. Simulations are performed for flat plate and axisymmetric, spatially evolving zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers at inflow Reynolds number of 1400 and 2200 based on momentum thickness. The simulations generate their own inflow using the recycle-rescale method. The results for mean velocity and second-order statistics show excellent agreement with the data available in literature. The spectral characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations and their relation to flow structure will be discussed. This work is supported by ONR.

  12. Control of 3-D Modes in a Boundary Layer Undergoing Subharmonic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corke, T. C.; Peto, J.; Speer, A.; Paroozan, P.; Sciammarella, C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of alternating standing patterns of wall displacements in the transition region of a Falkner-Skan boundary layer with an adverse pressure gradient is investigated. Transition is controlled by introducing disturbances to excite a pair of oblique modes along with a plane TS mode. The oblique modes are at the TS subharmonic frequency in order to promote subharmonic resonance. Measurements consist of a spanwise rake of hot-wire sensors placed near the wall below the critical layer, and a 2-D (15 x 15) array of optical pressure sensors. The space-time data series are processed using 2-D Fourier analysis to determine the spanwise wave number content of the flow. Of particular interest is the streamwise vortex mode which results from a difference interaction of the subharmonic oblique modes. We examine the effect of different patterns and amplitudes of upstream wall displacements on the development of the travelling and stationary modes in this case leading to transition. Supported by ARO Grant No. DAAH04-93-G-0212

  13. An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

    2007-08-01

    The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

  14. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and ...

  15. Joule heating effects on electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a peristaltically induced micro-channel with different zeta potential and wall slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, N. K.; Shit, G. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic flow of biofluids through a hydrophobic micro-channel with periodically contracting and expanding walls under the influence of an axially applied electric field. The velocity slip effects have been taken into account at the channel walls by employing different slip lengths due to hydrophobic gating. Different temperature jump factors have also been used to investigate the thermomechanical interactions at the fluid-solid interface. The electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a microchannel is simplified under the framework of Debye-Hückel linearization approximation. We have derived the closed-form solutions for the linearized dimensionless boundary value problem under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. The axial velocity, temperature, pressure distribution, stream function, wall shear stress and the Nusselt number have been appraised for diverse values of the parameters approaching into the problem. Our main focus is to determine the effects of different zeta potential on the axial velocity and temperature distribution under electromagnetic environment. This study puts forward an important observation that the different zeta potential plays an important role in controlling fluid velocity. The study further reveals that the temperature increases significantly with the Joule heating parameter and the Brinkman number (arises due to the dissipation of energy).

  16. Numerical simulations of MHD flow transition in ducts with conducting Hartmann walls. Limtech project A3 D4 (TUI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, D.; Boeck, T. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Inst. of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics; Braiden, L.; Molokov, S. [Conventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Buehler, L. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Programm Kernfusion

    2016-07-01

    Pressure-driven magnetohydrodynamic duct flows in a transverse, wall-parallel and uniform field have been studied by direct numerical. The conducting Hartmann walls give rise to a laminar velocity distribution with strong jets at the side walls, which are susceptible to flow instability. The onset of time-dependent flow as well as fully developed turbulent flow have been explored in a wide range of parameters.

  17. Doppler velocity measurements from large and small arteries of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Madala, Sridhar; Entman, Mark L.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Taffet, George E.

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of genetic engineering, mice have become increasingly common as models of human diseases, and this has stimulated the development of techniques to assess the murine cardiovascular system. Our group has developed nonimaging and dedicated Doppler techniques for measuring blood velocity in the large and small peripheral arteries of anesthetized mice. We translated technology originally designed for human vessels for use in smaller mouse vessels at higher heart rates by using higher ultrasonic frequencies, smaller transducers, and higher-speed signal processing. With these methods one can measure cardiac filling and ejection velocities, velocity pulse arrival times for determining pulse wave velocity, peripheral blood velocity and vessel wall motion waveforms, jet velocities for the calculation of the pressure drop across stenoses, and left main coronary velocity for the estimation of coronary flow reserve. These noninvasive methods are convenient and easy to apply, but care must be taken in interpreting measurements due to Doppler sample volume size and angle of incidence. Doppler methods have been used to characterize and evaluate numerous cardiovascular phenotypes in mice and have been particularly useful in evaluating the cardiac and vascular remodeling that occur following transverse aortic constriction. Although duplex ultrasonic echo-Doppler instruments are being applied to mice, dedicated Doppler systems are more suitable for some applications. The magnitudes and waveforms of blood velocities from both cardiac and peripheral sites are similar in mice and humans, such that much of what is learned using Doppler technology in mice may be translated back to humans. PMID:21572013

  18. Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.

  19. Towards grid-converged wall-modeled LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Henry de Frahan, Marc; Churchfield, Matthew; Sprague, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Accurate characterization of incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence is a critical factor in improving accuracy and predictive nature of simulation of wind farm flows. Modern commercial wind turbines operate in the log layer of the ABL that are typically simulated using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES). One of the long-standing issues associated with wall modeling for LES and hybrid RANS-LES for atmospheric boundary layers is the over-prediction of the mean-velocity gradient, commonly referred to as log-layer mismatch. Kawai and Larsson in 2012, identified under-resolution of the near-wall region and the incorrect information received by the wall model as potential causes for the log-layer mismatch in WMLES of smooth-wall boundary-layer flows. To solve the log layer mismatch issue, they proposed linking the wall model to the LES solution at a physical of height of ym, instead of the first grid point. In this study, we extend their wall modeling approach to LES of the rough-wall ABL to investigate issues of log-layer mismatch and grid convergence. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy Technologies Office, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  20. MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, T.; Javed, Maryiam; Asghar, S.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls is analyzed. The flow is engendered due to sinusoidal waves on the channel walls. A series solution is developed for the case in which the amplitude ratio is small. Our computations show that the mean axial velocity of a Johnson-Segalman fluid is smaller than that of a viscous fluid. The variations of various interesting dimensionless parameters are graphed and discussed

  1. Secondary flow in turbulent ducts with increasing aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, R.; Schlatter, P.; Nagib, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14.4 at a center-plane friction Reynolds number Reτ,c≃180 , and aspect ratios 1 and 3 at Reτ,c≃360 , were carried out with the spectral-element code nek5000. The aim of these simulations is to gain insight into the kinematics and dynamics of Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind and its impact on the flow physics of wall-bounded turbulence. The secondary flow is characterized in terms of the cross-plane component of the mean kinetic energy, and its variation in the spanwise direction of the flow. Our results show that averaging times of around 3000 convective time units (based on duct half-height h ) are required to reach a converged state of the secondary flow, which extends up to a spanwise distance of around ≃5 h measured from the side walls. We also show that if the duct is not wide enough to accommodate the whole extent of the secondary flow, then its structure is modified as reflected through a different spanwise distribution of energy. Another confirmation of the extent of the secondary flow is the decay rate of kinetic energy of any remnant secondary motions for zc/h >5 (where zc is the spanwise distance from the corner) in aspect ratios 7, 10, and 14.4, which exhibits a decreasing level of energy with increasing averaging time ta, and in its rapid rate of decay given by ˜ta-1 . This is the same rate of decay observed in a spanwise-periodic channel simulation, which suggests that at the core, the kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area, , behaves as a random variable with zero mean, with rate of decay consistent with central limit theorem. Long-time averages of statistics in a region of rectangular ducts extending about the width of a well-designed channel simulation (i.e., extending about ≃3 h on each side of the center plane) indicate that ducts or experimental facilities with aspect ratios larger than 10 may

  2. Implementation of a correction factor for the Pohlhausen laminar boundary layer applied on the CEVA curved wall jet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Curved wall jets have many technical applications, ranging from aeronautical circulation controlled wings to micro-fluidics and cryogenics. This paper addresses the issue of correctly estimating the boundary layer separation for laminar curved wall jets. For this, the Pohlhausen model was used in conjunction with the CEVA wall jet model with a semi-empirical modification which increases the accuracy for very thin jets. The method is therefore a mix of analytical equations with curve fitted experimental data in order to produce a simple yet effective way of estimating the boundary layer velocity profile along the curved wall. In order to cross-check the results, Newman’s empirical equation – which only provides a separation location but no information regarding the velocity profile - for boundary layer separation was used with good results. The hereby model could be used as a pre-design tool for rapid assessment of aeronautical high-lift applications such as Upper Surface Blown (USB or entrainment wings.

  3. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations with dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.

    2010-08-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in

  4. Analysis of packing microstructure and wall effects in a narrow-bore ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography column using focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Arved E; Schlabach, Sabine; Baranau, Vasili; Stoeckel, Daniela; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Column wall effects are well recognized as major limiting factor in achieving high separation efficiency in HPLC. This is especially important for modern analytical columns packed with small particles, where wall effects dominate the band broadening. Detailed knowledge about the packing microstructure of packed analytical columns has so far not been acquired. Here, we present the first three-dimensional reconstruction protocol for these columns utilizing focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) on a commercial 2.1mm inner diameter×50mm length narrow-bore analytical column packed with 1.7μm bridged-ethyl hybrid silica particles. Two sections from the packed bed are chosen for reconstruction by FIB-SEM: one from the bulk packing region of the column and one from its critical wall region. This allows quantification of structural differences between the wall region and the center of the bed due to effects induced by the hard, confining column wall. Consequences of these effects on local flow velocity in the column are analyzed with flow simulations utilizing the lattice-Boltzmann method. The reconstructions of the bed structures reveal significant structural differences in the wall region (extending radially over approximately 62 particle diameters) compared to the center of the column. It includes the local reduction of the external porosity by up to 10% and an increase of the mean particle diameter by up to 3%, resulting in a decrease of the local flow velocity by up to 23%. In addition, four (more ordered) layers of particles in the direct vicinity of the column wall induce local velocity fluctuations by up to a factor of three regarding the involved velocity amplitudes. These observations highlight the impact of radial variations in packing microstructure on band migration and column performance. This knowledge on morphological peculiarities of column wall effects helps guiding us towards further optimization of the packing process for analytical

  5. Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoarau, C.; Boree, J.; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct

  6. The profile of the domain walls in amorphous glass-covered microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F.; Rigue, J.N. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus Cachoeira do Sul, RS (Brazil); Carara, M., E-mail: carara@smail.ufsm.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Glass-covered microwires with positive magnetostriction were studied. • The single domain wall dynamics was studied under different conditions. • We have evaluated the profile and shape of the moving domain walls. • The domain wall evolves from a bell shape to a parabolic one when a current is applied. - Abstract: We have studied the domain wall dynamics in Joule-annealed amorphous glass-covered microwires with positive magnetostriction in the presence of an electric current, in order to evaluate the profile and shape of the moving domain wall. Such microwires are known to present magnetic bi-stability when axially magnetized. The single domain wall dynamics was evaluated under different conditions, under an axially applied stress and an electric current. We have observed the well known increasing of the domain wall damping with the applied stress due to the increase in the magnetoelastic anisotropy and, when the current is applied, depending on the current intensity and direction, a modification on the axial domain wall damping. When the orthogonal motion of the domain wall is considered, we have observed that the associated velocity present a smaller dependence on the applied current intensity. It was observed a modification on both the domain wall shape and length. In a general way, the domain wall evolves from a bell shape to a parabolic shape as the current intensity is increased. The results were explained in terms of the change in the magnetic energy promoted by the additional Oersted field.

  7. The plasma-wall transition layers in the presence of collisions with a magnetic field parallel to the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, J.; Faudot, E.; Devaux, S.; Heuraux, S.

    2018-01-01

    The plasma-wall transition is studied by means of a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in the configuration of a parallel to the wall magnetic field (B), with collisions between charged particles vs. neutral atoms taken into account. The investigated system consists of a plasma bounded by two absorbing walls separated by 200 electron Debye lengths (λd). The strength of the magnetic field is chosen such as the ratio λ d / r l , with rl being the electron Larmor radius, is smaller or larger than unity. Collisions are modelled with a simple operator that reorients randomly ion or electron velocity, keeping constant the total kinetic energy of both the neutral atom (target) and the incident charged particle. The PIC simulations show that the plasma-wall transition consists in a quasi-neutral region (pre-sheath), from the center of the plasma towards the walls, where the electric potential or electric field profiles are well described by an ambipolar diffusion model, and in a second region at the vicinity of the walls, called the sheath, where the quasi-neutrality breaks down. In this peculiar geometry of B and for a certain range of the mean-free-path, the sheath is found to be composed of two charged layers: the positive one, close to the walls, and the negative one, towards the plasma and before the neutral pre-sheath. Depending on the amplitude of B, the spatial variation of the electric potential can be non-monotonic and presents a maximum within the sheath region. More generally, the sheath extent as well as the potential drop within the sheath and the pre-sheath is studied with respect to B, the mean-free-path, and the ion and electron temperatures.

  8. Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, S.A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt

  9. The effect of wall temperature distribution on streaks in compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Tao, Yang; Xiong, Neng; Qian, Fengxue

    2018-05-01

    The thermal boundary condition at wall is very important for the compressible flow due to the coupling of the energy equation, and a lot of research works about it were carried out in past decades. In most of these works, the wall was assumed as adiabatic or uniform isothermal surface; the flow over a thermal wall with some special temperature distribution was seldom studied. Lagha studied the effect of uniform isothermal wall on the streaks, and pointed out that higher the wall temperature is, the longer the streak (POF, 2011, 23, 015106). So, we designed streamwise stripes of wall temperature distribution on the compressible turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3.0 to learn the effect on the streaks by means of direct numerical simulation in this paper. The mean wall temperature is equal to the adiabatic case approximately, and the width of the temperature stripes is in the same order as the width of the streaks. The streak patterns in near-wall region with different temperature stripes are shown in the paper. Moreover, we find that there is a reduction of friction velocity with the wall temperature stripes when compared with the adiabatic case.

  10. Critical velocities in fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. K.; Rao, L. B.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of stability of fluid-conveying carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium is investigated in this paper. A nonlocal continuum mechanics formulation, which takes the small length scale effects into consideration, is utilized to derive the governing fourth-order partial differential equations. The Fourier series method is used for the case of the pinned-pinned boundary condition of the tube. The Galerkin technique is utilized to find a solution of the governing equation for the case of the clamped-clamped boundary. Closed-form expressions for the critical flow velocity are obtained for different values of the Winkler and Pasternak foundation stiffness parameters. Moreover, new and interesting results are also reported for varying values of the nonlocal length parameter. It is observed that the nonlocal length parameter along with the Winkler and Pasternak foundation stiffness parameters exert considerable effects on the critical velocities of the fluid flow in nanotubes.

  11. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  12. Compressible turbulent channel flow with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, Carlo; Bodart, Julien; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2015-03-01

    We have performed large-eddy simulations of isothermal-wall compressible turbulent channel flow with linear acoustic impedance boundary conditions (IBCs) for the wall-normal velocity component and no-slip conditions for the tangential velocity components. Three bulk Mach numbers, Mb = 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, with a fixed bulk Reynolds number, Reb = 6900, have been investigated. For each Mb, nine different combinations of IBC settings were tested, in addition to a reference case with impermeable walls, resulting in a total of 30 simulations. The adopted numerical coupling strategy allows for a spatially and temporally consistent imposition of physically realizable IBCs in a fully explicit compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The IBCs are formulated in the time domain according to Fung and Ju ["Time-domain impedance boundary conditions for computational acoustics and aeroacoustics," Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 18(6), 503-511 (2004)]. The impedance adopted is a three-parameter damped Helmholtz oscillator with resonant angular frequency, ωr, tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large energy-containing eddies. The tuning condition, which reads ωr = 2πMb (normalized with the speed of sound and channel half-width), reduces the IBCs' free parameters to two: the damping ratio, ζ, and the resistance, R, which have been varied independently with values, ζ = 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and R = 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, for each Mb. The application of the tuned IBCs results in a drag increase up to 300% for Mb = 0.5 and R = 0.01. It is shown that for tuned IBCs, the resistance, R, acts as the inverse of the wall-permeability and that varying the damping ratio, ζ, has a secondary effect on the flow response. Typical buffer-layer turbulent structures are completely suppressed by the application of tuned IBCs. A new resonance buffer layer is established characterized by large spanwise-coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers, with a well-defined streamwise wavelength λx, traveling downstream with

  13. Seismic velocity distribution in the vicinity of a mine tunnel at Thabazimbi, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the refracted arrivals on a seismic reflection profile recorded along the wall of a tunnel at an iron mine near Thabazimbi, South Africa, shows variations in P-wave velocity in dolomite away from the de-stressed zone that vary between 4...

  14. Seismic velocities and attenuation in an underground granitic waste repository subjected to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.

    1984-03-01

    The behavior of a granitic rock mass subjected to thermal load has been studied by an acoustic cross-hole technique between four boreholes, over a period of some two years. Velocities between boreholes were obtained from the times-of-flight of pulses of acoustic waves between transducers clamped to the borehole wall. The attenuation was obtained by a spectral ratios technique. When the heater was turned on, the velocities increased rapidly to an asymptotic value. When the heater was turned off, the velocities decreased rapidly to their original values or below. Velocities along a particular profile were found to increase linearly with the mean temperature in the profile tested. The attenuation showed little correlation with changes in temperature or the associated thermal stresses, but there was a good correlation of attenuation with water content and the related changes in pore pressure. 18 references, 7 figures

  15. Domain wall propagation in Fe-rich amorphous microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panina, L.V. [School of Comp. and Math., Univ. of Plymouth, Drake Circus, PL4 AA, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Ipatov, M.; Zhukova, V. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Zhukov, A., E-mail: arkadi.joukov@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    The domain wall (DW) propagation in magnetically bistable Fe{sub 74}Si{sub 11}B{sub 13}C{sub 2} amorphous microwires with metallic nucleus diameters of 12-16 {mu}m has been investigated in order to explain high DW velocities observed in Sixtus-Tonks like experiments. In micrometric wires, the boundary between two head-to-head domains is very elongated. The DW mobility normal to the wall surface is reduced by the domain aspect ratio and is in the range of a few m/s/Oe in the linear regime. The experimental results in the viscous regime could be quantitatively explained in terms of the domain length and normal mobility limited by the eddy currents and spin relaxation losses.

  16. Impact effects in thin-walled structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukas, J.A.; Gaskill, B.

    1996-01-01

    A key parameter in the design of protective structures is the critical impact velocity, also known as the ballistic limit. This is the velocity below which a striker will fail to penetrate a barrier or some protective device. For strikers with regular shapes, such as cylinders (long and short), spheres and cones, analytical and empirical formulations for the determination of a ballistic limit exist at impact velocities ranging from 250 m/s to 6 km/s or higher. For non-standard shapes, two- and three-dimensional wave propagation codes (hydrocodes) can be valuable adjuncts to experiments in ballistic limit determinations. This is illustrated with the help of the ZeuS code in determining the ballistic limit of a short, tubular projectile striking a thin aluminum barrier and contrasting it to the value of the ballistic limit of a spherical projectile of equal mass against the same target. Several interesting features of the debris cloud generated by a tubular projectile striking a Whipple shield at hypervelocity are also pointed out. The paper concludes with a consideration of hydrodynamic ram effects in fluid-filled thin-walled structures. Where possible, comparisons are made of computed results with experimental data

  17. Squeeze flow of Bingham plastic with stick-slip at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravleva, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    We solve numerically the axisymmetric squeeze flow of a viscoplastic Bingham medium with slip yield boundary condition at the wall. Using the original Bingham model we compute the shape of the yield surface, the velocity, and stress fields employing the augmented Lagrangian methods. We confirm numerically the recently obtained asymptotic solution.

  18. Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok

    2018-04-01

    The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.

  19. Roughness Effects on Organized Motions in a Wall Shear Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigermoser, Christian; Vesely, Lukas; Lapolla, Massimillano; Onorato, Michele

    2006-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layer measurements on a zero-pressure gradient flat plate with two different roughness, a 2D and a 3D roughness, were carried out. The main object of the study was to investigate the impact of the wall roughness on the turbulent flow structures. The momentum thickness Reynolds number for the smooth wall was Reθ˜ 1900. PIV measurements were taken in the streamwise wall-normal plane. The PIV images covered the whole logarithmic region and the major part of the outer layer. The instant flow images for the two roughness show features similar to the one expected in a smooth wall turbulent boundary layer, as described by Adrian et al. (JFM 2000). Statistical analysis was performed to enlighten quantitative differences between the different flow fields. For instance, two point streamwise velocity correlations show that the major effect of the roughness is to tilt the inclination of the hairpin vortex packets towards the wall normal direction; being the 3D roughness more effective in producing this displacement. Full results will be shown and discussed during the presentation.

  20. Induced motion of domain walls in multiferroics with quadratic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimchuk, Victor S., E-mail: viktor.gera@gmail.com [National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Peremohy Avenue 37, 03056 Kiev (Ukraine); Shitov, Anatoliy A., E-mail: shitov@mail.ru [Donbass National Academy of Civil Engineering, Derzhavina Street 2, 86123 Makeevka, Donetsk Region (Ukraine)

    2013-10-15

    We theoretically study the dynamics of 180-degree domain wall of the ab-type in magnetic materials with quadratic magnetoelectric interaction in external alternating magnetic and electric fields. The features of the oscillatory and translational motions of the domain walls and stripe structures depending on the parameters of external fields and characteristics of the multiferroics are discussed. The possibility of the domain walls drift in a purely electric field is established. - Highlights: • We study DW and stripe DS in multiferroics with quadratic magnetoelectric interaction. • We build up the theory of oscillatory and translational (drift) DW and DS motion. • DW motion can be caused by crossed alternating electric and magnetic fields. • DW motion can be caused by alternating “pure” electric field. • DW drift velocity is formed by the AFM and Dzyaloshinskii interaction terms.

  1. Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic for thermal striping phenomena. Results of temperature and velocity measurement among parallel triple jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Kamide, Hideki; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2003-03-01

    A quantitative evaluation on thermal striping, in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing among jets causes thermal fatigue in structural components, is of importance for structural integrity and also reactor safety. The treasonable and safety design could be approved by taking account of decay of temperature fluctuation in fluid, during heat transfer from fluid to structure surface and thermal conduction in the structure. In this study, water experiment was performed for vertical and parallel triple jets along wall, those are cold jet in the center and hot jets on both sides. The local temperature and velocity were measured by movable thermocouples and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The both hot jets flowed leaning to the cold jet. The lean of the jets increased as the jets approached the wall. So the convective mixing region among the jets was shifted upstream near the wall. Temperature fluctuation intensity was dependent of the distance from the wall. Under isovelocity condition, prominent frequency component was observed in the power spectrum density of the temperature fluctuation at the furthest position from the wall. The power at the prominent component decreased as the jets approached the wall. Under non-isovelocity condition, on the other hand, the power spectrum density of temperature fluctuation was independent of the distance from the wall. Comparison of the second moment between of velocity PIV and laser Doppler velocimetry showed that the PIV system had high measurement accuracy. Under non-isovelocity condition, the normal components in the second-order moments of fluctuation were smaller than those under isovelocity condition. Normal components in the second-order moments in turbulence was dependent of the distance from the wall. (author)

  2. Effects of 24-Week Aerobic and Resistance Training on Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Flow Velocity in Elderly Women with Sarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Kwon, Yoochan; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly women. Increases in body fat and decreases in muscle mass are closely associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a 24-week aerobic and resistance training program on carotid parameters in SO. Fifty elderly women (74.1±6.1 years) with SO were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed combined exercise over 24 weeks, consisting of resistance and aerobic training for 50-80 min, 5 times a week. Carotid variables were measured using B-mode ultrasound. The differences in the carotid variables and the relative changes between baseline and after 24 weeks were evaluated. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, CIMT (p=0.013), systolic flow velocity (p=0.007), diastolic flow velocity (p=0.006), and wall shear rate (p=0.010) showed significant interactions. In paired t-test results of the exercise group, CIMT significantly decreased (p<0.01) and systolic flow velocity (p<0.01), diastolic flow velocity (p<0.001), and wall shear rate (p<0.05) significantly increased after 24 weeks. The 24-week combined exercise effectively decreased CIMT and increased carotid flow velocity and wall shear ratio. Therefore, combined exercise is thought to contribute to the improvement of the risk of CVD in elderly women with SO.

  3. PIV study of large-scale flow organisation in slot jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, Maxim V.; Dulin, Vladimir M.; Tokarev, Mikhail P.; Sikovsky, Dmitrii Ph.; Markovich, Dmitriy M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Volumetric velocity measurements are perfumed by PIV to analyse 3D flow organisation in a slot jet. • Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract coherent flow motion. • Movement of quasi-two-dimensional large-scale vortices is associated with jet meandering. • Amplitude of jet meandering is found to be aperiodically modulated. • Secondary longitudinal vortex rolls are important for cross-stream mixing and momentum transfer. - Abstract: The paper reports on particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in turbulent slot jets bounded by two solid walls with the separation distance smaller than the jet width (5–40%). In the far-field such jets are known to manifest features of quasi-two dimensional, two component turbulence. Stereoscopic and tomographic PIV systems were used to analyse local flows. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to extract coherent modes of the velocity fluctuations. The measurements were performed both in the initial region close to the nozzle exit and in the far fields of the developed turbulent slot jets for Re ⩾ 10,000. A POD analysis in the initial region indicates a correlation between quasi-2D vortices rolled-up in the shear layer and local flows in cross-stream planes. While the near-field turbulence shows full 3D features, the wall-normal velocity fluctuations day out gradually due to strong wall-damping resulting in an almost two-component turbulence. On the other hand, the longitudinal vortex rolls take over to act as the main agents in wall-normal and spanwise mixing and momentum transfer. The quantitative analysis indicates that the jet meandering amplitude was aperiodically modulated when arrangement of the large-scale quasi-2D vortices changed between asymmetric and symmetric pattern relatively to the jet axis. The paper shows that the dynamics of turbulent slot jets are more complex than those of 2D, plane and rectangular 3D jets. In particular, the detected secondary longitudinal

  4. Effect of wall compliance on peristaltic transport of a Newtonian fluid in an asymmetric channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Haroun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Peristaltic transport of an incompressible viscous fluid in an asymmetric compliant channel is studied. The channel asymmetry is produced by choosing the peristaltic wave train on the walls to have different amplitudes and phases. The fluid-solid interaction problem is investigated by considering equations of motion of both the fluid and the deformable boundaries. The driving mechanism of the muscle is represented by assuming the channel walls to be compliant. The phenomenon of the “mean flow reversal” is discussed. The effect of wave amplitude ratio, width of the channel, phase difference, wall elastance, wall tension, and wall damping on mean-velocity and reversal flow has been investigated. The results reveal that the reversal flow occurs near the boundaries which is not possible in the elastic symmetric channel case.

  5. Proper orthogonal decomposition-based estimations of the flow field from particle image velocimetry wall-gradient measurements in the backward-facing step flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Mokhasi, Paritosh; Rempfer, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, particle image velocimetry (PIV) results from the recirculation zone of a backward-facing step flow, of which the Reynolds number is 2800 based on bulk velocity upstream of the step and step height (h = 16.5 mm), are used to demonstrate the capability of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based measurement models. Three-component PIV velocity fields are decomposed by POD into a set of spatial basis functions and a set of temporal coefficients. The measurement models are built to relate the low-order POD coefficients, determined from an ensemble of 1050 PIV fields by the 'snapshot' method, to the time-resolved wall gradients, measured by a near-wall measurement technique called stereo interfacial PIV. These models are evaluated in terms of reconstruction and prediction of the low-order temporal POD coefficients of the velocity fields. In order to determine the estimation coefficients of the measurement models, linear stochastic estimation (LSE), quadratic stochastic estimation (QSE), principal component regression (PCR) and kernel ridge regression (KRR) are applied. We denote such approaches as LSE-POD, QSE-POD, PCR-POD and KRR-POD. In addition to comparing the accuracy of measurement models, we introduce multi-time POD-based estimations in which past and future information of the wall-gradient events is used separately or combined. The results show that the multi-time estimation approaches can improve the prediction process. Among these approaches, the proposed multi-time KRR-POD estimation with an optimized window of past wall-gradient information yields the best prediction. Such a multi-time KRR-POD approach offers a useful tool for real-time flow estimation of the velocity field based on wall-gradient data

  6. Survey and research of the latest works of LES about models near wall boundary and applications to complex flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Norio; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2005-02-01

    Since treatments for wall boundaries and flows around complex paths are issues in LES modeling, a literature research on the LES methods for wall boundaries and applications to flows at complex paths was conducted to investigate the latest trend. Publications of domestic or international societies, workshops, symposiums, and journals about for past 3 years (2001-2004) were searched and collected, from which 23 research papers were selected and investigated. For the investigation, the treatments for wall boundaries used in the literature were classified roughly into five methods, i.e. (1) no-slip condition, (2) algebraic wall model (wall function), (3) wall model based on boundary-layer approximations (differential equation wall model), (4) hybrid method, (5) immersed boundary method. No-slip conditions were widely applied in recent works. For algebraic wall models, new wall functions that considered the effect of the velocity component vertical to a wall or circulation regions were examined. There were also some researches that devised the process of calculating the wall-shear stress with a conventional wall function. The researches using differential equation wall models presented the dynamic modification of model coefficients, or the application of high-order turbulence model such as the k-e model to the solution of Navier-Stokes equation in the boundary layer. The researches of hybrid methods focused on the discontinuity of velocity and eddy viscosity at the LES/RANS interface. Several researches that adopted immersed boundary methods for Cartesian girds with curved wall boundaries introduced the investigation of the Poisson solvers and the numerical modification of pressure boundary conditions. Many of investigated researches used hybrid methods. Thus, it is expected that they will be mainly applied to large-scale and complex simulations if the standard treatment for the discontinuity at the interface is developed. (author)

  7. Peak negative myocardial velocity gradient in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison with transmitral flow velocity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Uematsu, M; Shimizu, H; Nakamura, K; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    1998-11-01

    We sought to assess the clinical significance of peak negative myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Peak systolic MVG has been shown useful for the quantitative assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities, but limited data exist regarding the diastolic MVG as an indicator of LV diastolic function. Peak negative MVG was obtained from M-mode tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in 43 subjects with or without impairment of systolic and diastolic performance: 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with normal systolic performance and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and was compared with standard Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. In a subgroup of 30 patients, effects of preload increase on these indices were assessed by performing passive leg lifting. In an additional 11 patients with congestive heart failure at the initial examination, the measurements were repeated after 26+/-16 days of volume-reducing therapy. Peak negative MVG was significantly depressed both in HHD (-3.9+/-1.3/s, p indices failed to distinguish DCM from normal due to the pseudonormalization. Transmitral flow velocity indices were significantly altered (peak early/late diastolic filling velocity [E/A]=1.1+/-0.5 to 1.5+/-0.7, p indicator of LV diastolic function that is less affected by preload alterations than the transmitral flow velocity indices, and thereby could be used for the follow-up of patients with nonischemic LV dysfunction presenting congestive heart failure.

  8. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoarau, C. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Boree, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)], E-mail: jacques.boree@lea.ensma.fr; Laumonier, J.; Gervais, Y. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, LEA UMR CNRS/Universite de Poitiers/ENSMA 6609, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2008-06-15

    The spatio-temporal properties of the unsteady wall pressure field of a model A-pillar conical vortex are studied in this paper by combining 2 component LDV measurements and multi-point pressure measurements using off-set microphones. The model body has sharp edges. Detailed LDV measurements are presented and discussed in the vortex region. The fluctuating velocities are the signature of both an unsteady behaviour of the organised vortical structure interacting with the wall and of finer scale turbulence carried by the unsteady flow. A spectral analysis of the fluctuating pressure under the vortex core is used to analyse the link between the temporal and spatial scales of the unsteady aerodynamics and the wall pressure field. We show that the conical vortex is a guide for the velocity perturbations and that their hydrodynamic pressure footprint is transported at the measured mean axial velocity in a local reference frame aligned with the vortex core. Two distinct peaks of coherence can then be associated with perturbations having (i) a length scale of the order of the full length of the conical structure; (ii) a length scale of the order of the width of the structure. These perturbations may correspond to a global meandering of the structure (low frequency contribution) and to large scale perturbations generated during the rolling-up of the unsteady vortex sheet. Notably, the energy containing higher frequency parts of the PSD are only weakly correlated when distant sensors are considered. The three distinct contributions extracted here have a significant impact as far as Cp' is concerned and should be transmitted in very different ways by the car structure because the frequency and length scale range is very distinct.

  10. Hohlraum glint and laser pre-pulse detector for NIF experiments using velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Clancy, T J; Frieders, G; Celliers, P M; Ralph, J; Turnbull, D P

    2014-11-01

    Laser pre-pulse and early-time laser reflection from the hohlraum wall onto the capsule (termed "glint") can cause capsule imprint and unwanted early-time shocks on indirect drive implosion experiments. In a minor modification to the existing velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic on NIF a fast-response vacuum photodiode was added to detect this light. The measurements show evidence of laser pre-pulse and possible light reflection off the hohlraum wall and onto the capsule.

  11. In vivo 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Wall Shear Stress Estimation in Ascending Aortic Dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieging, Erik T.; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Wentland, Andrew; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate surface-based wall shear stress (WSS) and evaluate flow patterns in ascending aortic dilatation (AscAD) using a high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional velocity encoded, radially undersampled phase contrast magnetic resonance sequence (4D PC-MRI). Materials and Methods 4D PC-MRI was performed in 11 patients with AscAD (46.3±22.0 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (32.9±13.4 years) after written informed consent and IRB-approval. Following manual vessel wall segmentation of the ascending aorta (MATLAB, The Mathworks, Natick, MA), a 3D surface was created using spline interpolation. Spatial WSS variation based on surface division in 12 segments and temporal variation were evaluated in AscAD and normal aortas. Visual analysis of flow patterns was performed based on streamlines and particle traces using EnSight (v9.0, CEI, Apex, NC). Results AscAD was associated with significantly increased diastolic WSS, decreased systolic to diastolic WSS ratio, and delayed onset of peak WSS (all P wall of the ascending aorta. Vortical flow with highest velocities along the anterior wall and increased helical flow during diastole were observed in AscAD compared to controls. Conclusion Changes in WSS in the ascending aorta of AscAD correspond to observed alterations in flow patterns compared to controls. PMID:21563242

  12. Modulated Magnetic Nanowires for Controlling Domain Wall Motion: Toward 3D Magnetic Memories

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Lopatin, Sergei; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are attractive materials for next generation data storage devices owing to the theoretically achievable high domain wall velocity and their efficient fabrication in highly dense arrays. In order to obtain control over domain wall motion, reliable and well-defined pinning sites are required. Here, we show that modulated nanowires consisting of alternating nickel and cobalt sections facilitate efficient domain wall pinning at the interfaces of those sections. By combining electron holography with micromagnetic simulations, the pinning effect can be explained by the interaction of the stray fields generated at the interface and the domain wall. Utilizing a modified differential phase contrast imaging, we visualized the pinned domain wall with a high resolution, revealing its three-dimensional vortex structure with the previously predicted Bloch point at its center. These findings suggest the potential of modulated nanowires for the development of high-density, three-dimensional data storage devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  13. Modulated Magnetic Nanowires for Controlling Domain Wall Motion: Toward 3D Magnetic Memories

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-05-03

    Cylindrical magnetic nanowires are attractive materials for next generation data storage devices owing to the theoretically achievable high domain wall velocity and their efficient fabrication in highly dense arrays. In order to obtain control over domain wall motion, reliable and well-defined pinning sites are required. Here, we show that modulated nanowires consisting of alternating nickel and cobalt sections facilitate efficient domain wall pinning at the interfaces of those sections. By combining electron holography with micromagnetic simulations, the pinning effect can be explained by the interaction of the stray fields generated at the interface and the domain wall. Utilizing a modified differential phase contrast imaging, we visualized the pinned domain wall with a high resolution, revealing its three-dimensional vortex structure with the previously predicted Bloch point at its center. These findings suggest the potential of modulated nanowires for the development of high-density, three-dimensional data storage devices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  14. The dynamics of the asymmetric motion of domain walls of sandwich domain structure in a Fe-based amorphous ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmetko, D.N., E-mail: sergey.zhmetko@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine); Zhmetko, S.D. [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine); Troschenkov, Y.N. [Institute for Magnetism, 36-b Vernadsky Boulevard, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Matsura, A.V. [Department of Physics, Zaporizhzhya National University, 66 Zhukovsky Street, 69063 Zaporizhzhya (Ukraine)

    2013-08-15

    The frequency dependence of asymmetry of the domain walls velocity relative to the middle plane of amorphous ribbon is investigated. An additional pressure of the same direction acting on each domain wall caused by dependence of eddy current damping on the coordinate of the domain wall is revealed. The microscopic mechanisms of this additional pressure are considered. - Highlights: ► Additional pressure on the domain wall, caused by inhomogeneity of its damping. ► Asymmetry of the coordinate of the nucleation of domain walls and their damping. ► Connection between the components of additional pressure and its direction. ► Interaction of domain walls with the surface defects of the amorphous ribbon.

  15. The dynamics of the asymmetric motion of domain walls of sandwich domain structure in a Fe-based amorphous ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmetko, D.N.; Zhmetko, S.D.; Troschenkov, Y.N.; Matsura, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The frequency dependence of asymmetry of the domain walls velocity relative to the middle plane of amorphous ribbon is investigated. An additional pressure of the same direction acting on each domain wall caused by dependence of eddy current damping on the coordinate of the domain wall is revealed. The microscopic mechanisms of this additional pressure are considered. - Highlights: ► Additional pressure on the domain wall, caused by inhomogeneity of its damping. ► Asymmetry of the coordinate of the nucleation of domain walls and their damping. ► Connection between the components of additional pressure and its direction. ► Interaction of domain walls with the surface defects of the amorphous ribbon

  16. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can

  17. Continuous Data Assimilation for a 2D Bénard Convection System Through Horizontal Velocity Measurements Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Aseel; Lunasin, Evelyn; Titi, Edriss S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we propose a continuous data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm for a two-dimensional Bénard convection problem. Specifically we consider the two-dimensional Boussinesq system of a layer of incompressible fluid between two solid horizontal walls, with no-normal flow and stress-free boundary conditions on the walls, and the fluid is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. In this algorithm, we incorporate the observables as a feedback (nudging) term in the evolution equation of the horizontal velocity. We show that under an appropriate choice of the nudging parameter and the size of the spatial coarse mesh observables, and under the assumption that the observed data are error free, the solution of the proposed algorithm converges at an exponential rate, asymptotically in time, to the unique exact unknown reference solution of the original system, associated with the observed data on the horizontal component of the velocity.

  18. Structure of wall-bounded flows at transcritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peter C.; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Ihme, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    At transcritical conditions, the transition of a fluid from a liquidlike state to a gaslike state occurs continuously, which is associated with significant changes in fluid properties. Therefore, boiling in its conventional sense does not exist and the phase transition at transcritical conditions is known as "pseudoboiling." In this work, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a channel flow at transcritical conditions are conducted in which the bottom and top walls are kept at temperatures below and above the pseudoboiling temperature, respectively. Over this temperature range, the density changes by a factor of 18 between both walls. Using the DNS data, the usefulness of the semilocal scaling and the Townsend attached-eddy hypothesis are examined in the context of flows at transcritical conditions—both models have received much empirical support from previous studies. It is found that while the semilocal scaling works reasonably well near the bottom cooled wall, where the fluid density changes only moderately, the same scaling has only limited success near the top wall. In addition, it is shown that the streamwise velocity structure function follows a logarithmic scaling and the streamwise energy spectrum exhibits an inverse wave-number scaling, thus providing support to the attached-eddy model at transcritical conditions.

  19. A comprehensive study on the effect of cavitation on injection velocity in diesel nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier López, J.; Salvador, F.J.; Garza, Oscar A. de la; Arrègle, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cavitation has an indirect effect on the effective injection velocity. ► Cavitation in the injector hole reduces locally the fluid viscosity. ► A lower viscosity leads to a more turbulent velocity profile. ► The more turbulent velocity profile justifies the increase in effective velocity. - Abstract: Results when testing cavitating injection nozzles show a strong reduction in mass flow rate when cavitation appears (the flow is choked), while the momentum flux is reduced to a lesser extent, resulting in an increase in effective injection velocity. So as to better understand the origin of this increase in effective injection velocity, the basic equations for mass and momentum conservation were applied to an injection nozzle in simplified conditions. The study demonstrated that the increase in injection velocity provoked by cavitation is not a direct effect of the latter, but an indirect effect. In fact, the vapor appearance inside the injection hole produces a decrease in the viscosity of the fluid near the wall. This leads to lower momentum flux losses and to a change in the velocity profile, transforming it into a more “top hat” profile type. This change in the profile shape allows explaining why the momentum flux reduction is not so important compared to that of the mass flow rate, thus explaining why the effective injection velocity increases.

  20. The electromagnetic rocket gun - a means to reach ultrahigh velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1983-01-01

    A novel kind of electromagnetic launcher for the acceleration of multigram-size macroparticles, up to velocities required for impact fusion, is proposed. The novel launcher concept combines the efficiency of a gun with the much higher velocities attainable by a rocket. In the proposed concept a rocket-like projectile is launched inside a gun barrel, drawing its energy from a travelling magnetic wave. The travelling magnetic wave heats and ionizes the exhaust jet of the rocket. As a result, the projectile i propelled both by the recoil from the jet and the magnetic pressure of the travelling magnetic wave. In comparison to magnetic linear accelerators, accelerating either superconducting or ferromagnetic projectiles, the proposed concept has several important advantages. First, the exhaust jet is much longer than the rocket-like projectile and which permits a much longer switching time to turn on the travelling magnetic wave. Second, the proposed concept does not require superconducting projectiles, or projectiles made from expensive ferromagnetic material. Third, unlike in railgun accelerators, the projectile can be kept away from the wall, and thereby can reach much larger velocities. (orig.)

  1. One-dimensional Fermi accelerator model with moving wall described by a nonlinear van der Pol oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botari, Tiago; Leonel, Edson D

    2013-01-01

    A modification of the one-dimensional Fermi accelerator model is considered in this work. The dynamics of a classical particle of mass m, confined to bounce elastically between two rigid walls where one is described by a nonlinear van der Pol type oscillator while the other one is fixed, working as a reinjection mechanism of the particle for a next collision, is carefully made by the use of a two-dimensional nonlinear mapping. Two cases are considered: (i) the situation where the particle has mass negligible as compared to the mass of the moving wall and does not affect the motion of it; and (ii) the case where collisions of the particle do affect the movement of the moving wall. For case (i) the phase space is of mixed type leading us to observe a scaling of the average velocity as a function of the parameter (χ) controlling the nonlinearity of the moving wall. For large χ, a diffusion on the velocity is observed leading to the conclusion that Fermi acceleration is taking place. On the other hand, for case (ii), the motion of the moving wall is affected by collisions with the particle. However, due to the properties of the van der Pol oscillator, the moving wall relaxes again to a limit cycle. Such kind of motion absorbs part of the energy of the particle leading to a suppression of the unlimited energy gain as observed in case (i). The phase space shows a set of attractors of different periods whose basin of attraction has a complicated organization.

  2. Role of the leader in the rail gun channel at high launching velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorskii, A. V.; Katsnel'Son, S. S.; Pravdin, S. S.; Fomichev, V. P.

    1992-08-01

    An analysis of the performance of a number of rail guns indicates that one of the factors limiting the launching velocity is the formation of a leader. In experiments, the leader is usually formed as a result of a plasma breakdown between the dielectric projectile and the channel walls. This can be prevented by various technical means. However, at high launching velocities (5 km/s and greater) a leader may form as a result of a breakdown in the ionized gas in the wake of a strong shock wave ahead of the projectile. Further research is needed to find ways of preventing the formation of a leader in the latter case.

  3. Numerical analysis of plasma-wall interaction for an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodura, R.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical code is used to calculate energy and incidence angle of plasma ions and electrons impinging on an absorbing wall. Plasma particles coming from a plasma of given density and temperature traverse a transition layer with an electric space charge field perpendicular to the wall and a given magnetic field of arbitrary angle before being adsorbed in the wall. The 1d electrostatic particle code determines the electric field and the change of particle velocity distributions in the transition layer. When the incidence angle psi of the magnetic field is varied from 0 0 (normal) to 90 0 (tangential), the impact energies W of ions and electrons at the wall stay nearly unchanged. Electrons reach the wall according to an isotropic Maxwellian distribution except for large angles psi where only electrons travelling along the magnetic field have a chance to escape the plasma. Ions hit the wall at increasing angles theta for increasing psi. The incidence angle of cold ions (Tsub(i0) = 0) is always steeper than that of the magnetic field. For nearly grazing incidence angle of the magnetic field psi →90 0 the ion incidence angle theta becomes grazing as well. After the distribution function is determined the sputtering yield of wall incident ions is calculated for different magnetic field angles psi showing maximum yield for psi near to 90 0 . (orig.)

  4. Many-particle hydrodynamic interactions in parallel-wall geometry: Cartesian-representation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blawzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-01-01

    This talk will describe the results of our theoretical and numerical studies of hydrodynamic interactions in a suspension of spherical particles confined between two parallel planar walls, under creeping-flow conditions. We propose an efficient algorithm for evaluating many-particle friction matrix in this system-no Stokesian-dynamics algorithm of this kind has been available so far. Our approach involves expanding the fluid velocity field in the wall-bounded suspension into spherical and Cartesian fundamental sets of Stokes flows. The spherical set is used to describe the interaction of the fluid with the particles and the Cartesian set to describe the interaction with the walls. At the core of our method are transformation relations between the spherical and Cartesian fundamental sets. Using the transformation formulas, we derive a system of linear equations for the force multipoles induced on the particle surfaces; the coefficients in these equations are given in terms of lateral Fourier integrals corresponding to the directions parallel to the walls. The force-multipole equations have been implemented in a numerical algorithm for the evaluation of the multiparticle friction matrix in the wall-bounded system. The algorithm involves subtraction of the particle-wall and particle-particle lubrication contributions to accelerate the convergence of the results with the spherical-harmonics order, and a subtraction of the single-wall contributions to accelerate the convergence of the Fourier integrals. (author)

  5. Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)

  6. An analytical model for displacement velocity of liquid film on a hot vertical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Shu

    1975-01-01

    The downward progress of the advancing front of a liquid film streaming down a heated vertical surface, as it would occur in emergency core cooling, is much slower than in the case of ordinary streaming down along a heated surface already wetted with the liquid. A two-dimensional heat conduction model is developed for evaluating this velocity of the liquid front, which takes account of the heat removal by ordinary flow boiling mechanism. In the analysis, the maximum heat flux and the calefaction temperature are taken up as parameters in addition to the initial dry heated wall temperature, the flow rate and the velocity of downward progress of the liquid front. The temperature profile is calculated for various combinations of these parameters. Two criteria are proposed for choosing the most suitable combination of the parameters. One is to reject solutions that represent an oscillating wall temperature distribution, and the second criterion requires that the length of the zone of violent boiling immediately following the liquid front should not be longer than about 1 mm, this value being determined from comparisons made between experiment and calculation. Application of the above two criteria resulted in reasonable values obtained for the calefaction temperature and the maximum heat flux, and the velocity of the liquid front derived therefrom showed good agreement with experiment. (auth.)

  7. Effects of the finite particle size in turbulent wall-bounded flows of dense suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul

    2018-05-01

    We use interface-resolved simulations to study finite-size effects in turbulent channel flow of neutrally-buoyant spheres. Two cases with particle sizes differing by a factor of 2, at the same solid volume fraction of 20% and bulk Reynolds number are considered. These are complemented with two reference single-phase flows: the unladen case, and the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the effective suspension viscosity of the same mixture in the laminar regime. As recently highlighted in Costa et al. (PRL 117, 134501), a particle-wall layer is responsible for deviations of the statistics from what is observed in the continuum limit where the suspension is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity. Here we investigate the fluid and particle dynamics in this layer and in the bulk. In the particle-wall layer, the near wall inhomogeneity has an influence on the suspension micro-structure over a distance proportional to the particle size. In this layer, particles have a significant (apparent) slip velocity that is reflected in the distribution of wall shear stresses. This is characterized by extreme events (both much higher and much lower than the mean). Based on these observations we provide a scaling for the particle-to-fluid apparent slip velocity as a function of the flow parameters. We also extend the flow scaling laws in to second-order Eulerian statistics in the homogeneous suspension region away from the wall. Finite-size effects in the bulk of the channel become important for larger particles, while negligible for lower-order statistics and smaller particles. Finally, we study the particle dynamics along the wall-normal direction. Our results suggest that 1-point dispersion is dominated by particle-turbulence (and not particle-particle) interactions, while differences in 2-point dispersion and collisional dynamics are consistent with a picture of shear-driven interactions.

  8. Velocity profile and wall shear stress of saccular aneurysms at the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuhei; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Haida, Sayaka; Nakazawa, Nobuhiko; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the aspect ratio (dome/neck) of an aneurysm correlates well with intraaneurysmal blood flow. Aneurysms with an aspect ratio larger than 1.6 carry a higher risk of rupture. We examined the effect of aspect ratio (AR) on intra-aneurysmal flow using experimental models. Flow visualization with particle imaging velocimetry and measurement of wall shear stress using laser Doppler anemometry were performed on three different aneurysm models: AR 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Intraaneurysmal flow consists of inflow, circulation, and outflow. Rapid inflow impinged on the distal neck creating a stagnant point. Rapid flow and maximum wall shear stress were observed in the vicinity of the stagnant point. By changing the Reynold's number, the stagnant point moved. By increasing the AR of the aneurysm, vortices inside the aneurysm sac closed and very slow flow was observed, resulting in very low shear stress markedly at a Reynold's number of 250, compatible with the diastolic phase. In the aneurysm model AR 2.0, both rapid flow at the neck and vortices inside the aneurysm are sufficient to activate platelets, making a thrombus that may anchor on the dome where very slow flow takes place. Hemodynamics in aneurysms larger than AR 2.0 definitely contribute to thrombus formation.

  9. Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2010-01-01

    A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components of the fluc......A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...... of the fluctuating velocity signal. Both conventional k = 0 and dk/dy = 0 wall boundary conditions are considered. Results indicate that either condition can provide accurate solutions, for the bulk of the flow, over both smooth and rough beds. It is argued that the zero-gradient condition is more consistent...... with the near wall physics, however, as it allows direct integration through a viscous sublayer near smooth walls, while avoiding a viscous sublayer near rough walls. This is in contrast to the conventional k = 0 wall boundary condition, which forces resolution of a viscous sublayer in all circumstances...

  10. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  11. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  12. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  13. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  14. Controlling magnetic domain wall motion in the creep regime in He+-irradiated CoFeB/MgO films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Diez, L.; García-Sánchez, F.; Adam, J.-P.; Devolder, T.; Eimer, S.; El Hadri, M. S.; Ravelosona, D.; Lamperti, A.; Mantovan, R.; Ocker, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the effective tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO thin films by He + ion irradiation and its effect on domain wall motion in a low field regime. Magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetisation are found to decrease as a function of the irradiation dose which can be related to the observed irradiation-induced changes in stoichiometry at the CoFeB/MgO interface. These changes in the magnetic intrinsic properties of the film are reflected in the domain wall dynamics at low magnetic fields (H) where irradiation is found to induce a significant decrease in domain wall velocity (v). For all irradiation doses, domain wall velocities at low fields are well described by a creep law, where Ln(v) vs. H −1∕4 behaves linearly, up to a maximum field H*, which has been considered as an approximation to the value of the depinning field H dep . In turn, H* ≈ H dep is seen to increase as a function of the irradiation dose, indicating an irradiation-induced extension of the creep regime of domain wall motion

  15. The Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) curtain wall: Validation and design of a solar air collector curtain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell Corey

    Given the increases in both the environmental and economic costs of energy, there is a need to design and building more sustainable and low-energy building systems now. Curtain wall assemblies show great promise---the spandrel panels within them can be natural solar collectors. By using a Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) in the spandrel cavity, solar energy can be efficiently gathered using the movement of air. There is a need for a numerical model capable of predicting performance of an SDBZ Curtain Wall system. This research designed, constructed and quantified a prototype SDBZ curtain wall system through by experimental testing in a laboratory environment. The laboratory experiments focussed on three main variables: air flow through the system, incoming radiation and collector surface type. Results from the experimental testing were used to validate a one-dimensional numerical model of the prototype. Results from this research show a SDBZ curtain wall system as an effective means of reducing building heating energy consumption through the preheating of incoming exterior ventilation air during the heating season in cold climates. The numerical model showed good correlation with experimental results at higher operating flows and at lower flows when using an apparent velocity at the heat transfer boundary layer. A seasonal simulation for Toronto, ON predicted energy savings of 205 kWh/m2 with an average seasonal efficiency of 28%. This is considered in the upper range when compared to other solar air collectors. Given the lack of published literature for similar systems, this research acts to introduce a simple, innovative approach to collect solar energy that would otherwise be lost to the exterior using already existing components within a curtain wall. Specifically, the research has provided: results from experiments and simulation, a first generation numerical model, aspects of design and construction of the SDBZ curtain wall and specific directions for further

  16. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Jetting of a ultrasound contrast microbubble near a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kausik; Mobadersany, Nima

    2017-11-01

    Micron sized gas-bubbles coated with a stabilizing shell of lipids or proteins, are used as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasound imaging. However, they are increasingly being explored for novel applications in drug delivery through a process called sonoporation, the reversible permeabilization of the cell membrane. Under sufficiently strong acoustic excitations, bubbles form a jet and collapse near a wall. The jetting of free bubbles has been extensively studied by boundary element method (BEM). Here, for the first time, we implemented a rigorous interfacial rheological model of the shell into BEM and investigated the jet formation. The code has been carefully validated against past results. Increasing shell elasticity decreases the maximum bubble volume and the collapse time, while the jet velocity increases. The shear stress on the wall is computed and analyzed. A phase diagram as functions of excitation pressure and wall separation describes jet formation. Effects of shell elasticity and frequency on the phase diagram are investigated. Partially supported by National Science Foundation.

  18. Fully developed magnetohydrodynamic flows in rectangular ducts with insulating walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokov, S.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH; Shishko, A.

    1993-10-01

    In the first part the effect of magnetic field inclination on the flow structure and the pressure drop is considered. The duct walls are insulating. An asymptotic solution to the problem at high Hartmann numbers is obtained. The results show that for a square duct the increase of the pressure gradient due to the field inclination is negligible (less than 10% for any angle). For blanket relevant values of inclination of up to 10 the deviation of the velocity profile from the slug profile is insignificant. The second part studies the flow in a duct with insulating walls parallel to the magnetic field, while the Hartmann walls are covered by an insulating coating. A new type of the boundary condition is derived, which takes into account finite coating resistance. The effect of the latter on the flow characteristics is studied. An exact solution to the problem is obtained and several approximate formulas for the pressure drop at high Hartmann numbers are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Große, S; Schröder, W

    2008-01-01

    A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress

  20. Characteristics of the magnetic wall reflection model on ion acceleration in gas-puff z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, M.; Takasugi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic wall reflection model was examined with the numerical simulation of the trajectory calculation of particles. This model is for the ions accelerated by some current-independent mechanism. The trajectory calculation showed angle dependency of highest velocities of accelerated particles. This characteristics is of the magnetic wall reflection model, not of the other current-independent acceleration mechanism. Thomson parabola measurements of accelerated ions produced in the gas-puff z-pinch experiments were carried out for the verification of the angle dependency. (author)

  1. Stability of ideal and resistive modes in cylindrical plasmas with resistive walls and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Xie, H.X.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization of cylindrical plasmas by resistive walls combined with plasma rotation is analyzed. Perturbations with a single mode rational surface q=m/n in a finitely conducting plasma are treated by the resistive kink dispersion relation of Coppi. The possibilities for stabilization of ideal and resistive instabilities are explored systematically in different regions of parameter space. The study confirms that an ideal instability can be stabilized by a close-fitting wall and a rotation velocity of the order of resistive growth rate. However, the region in parameter space where such stabilization occurs is very small and appears to be difficult to exploit in experiments. The overall conclusion from the cylindrical plasma model is that resistive modes can readily be wall stabilized, whereas complete wall stabilization is hard to achieve for plasmas that are ideally unstable with the wall at infinity. 26 refs, 5 figs

  2. Falling liquid film flow along cascade-typed first wall of laser-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, T.; Nakai, T.; Kawara, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To protect from high energy/particle fluxes caused by nuclear fusion reaction such as extremely high heat flux, X rays, Alpha particles and fuel debris to a first wall of an inertia fusion reactor, a 'cascade-typed' first wall with a falling liquid film flow is proposed as the 'liquid wall' concept which is one of the reactor chamber cooling and wall protection schemes: the reactor chamber can protect by using a liquid metal film flow (such as Li 17 Pb 83 ) over the wall. In order to investigate the feasibility of this concept, we conducted the numerical analyses by using the STREAM code and also conducted the flow visualization experiments. The numerical results suggested that the cascade structure design should be improved, so that we redesigned the cascade-typed first wall and performed the flow visualization as a POP (proof-of-principle) experiment. In the numerical analyses, the water is used as the working liquid and an acrylic plate as the wall. These selections are based on two reasons: (1) from the non-dimensional analysis approach, the Weber number (We=ρu 2 δ/σ: ρ is density, u is velocity, δ is film thickness, σ is surface tension coefficient) should be the same between the design (Li 17 Pb 83 flow) and the model experiment (water flow) because of the free-surface instability, (2) the SiC/SiC composite would be used as the wall material, so that the wall may have the less wettability: the acrylic plate has the similar feature. The redesigned cascade-typed first wall for one step (30 cm height corresponding to 4 Hz laser duration) consists of a liquid tank having a free-surface for keeping the constant water-head located at the backside of the first wall, and connects to a slit which is composed of two plates: one plate is the first wall, and the other is maintaining the liquid level. This design solved the trouble of the previous design. The test section for the flow visualization has the same structure and the same height as the reactor design

  3. Magnetic field effects for copper suspended nanofluid venture through a composite stenosed arteries with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid, E-mail: adil.maths86@gmail.com

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper magnetic field effects for copper nanoparticles for blood flow through composite stenosis in arteries with permeable wall are discussed. The copper nanoparticles for the blood flow with water as base fluid is not explored yet. The equations for the Cu–water nanofluid are developed first time in the literature and simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles and temperature profile. The effect of various flow parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is utilized. - Highlights: • It is observed that the velocity profile is symmetric for all the parameters and when we increase slip parameter α then there will be more resistance between blood and arteries, hence the blood flow slows down and velocity profile decreases. • It is seen that the velocity field rises due to high electromagnetic forces and buoyancy forces as compared to viscous forces. • It is also noticed that velocity is high for all the parameters in case of pure water as compare to Cu-water because copper makes arteries more flexible that makes the blood flow speed slow. • When we rise heat absorption parameter β then definitely temperature increases rapidly. • The wall shear stress increases for different values of the slip parameter α and the Darcy number D{sub α} with rapid change in copper as compared to pure water.

  4. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  5. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  6. A Novel Quasi-3D Method for Cascade Flow Considering Axial Velocity Density Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong; Huang, Xudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel quasi-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method of mid-span flow simulation for compressor cascades is proposed. Two dimension (2D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is shown facing challenge in predicting mid-span flow with a unity Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR). Three dimension (3D) RANS solution also shows distinct discrepancies if the AVDR is not predicted correctly. In this paper, 2D and 3D CFD results discrepancies are analyzed and a novel quasi-3D CFD method is proposed. The new quasi-3D model is derived by reducing 3D RANS Finite Volume Method (FVM) discretization over a one-spanwise-layer structured mesh cell. The sidewall effect is considered by two parts. The first part is explicit interface fluxes of mass, momentum and energy as well as turbulence. The second part is a cell boundary scaling factor representing sidewall boundary layer contraction. The performance of the novel quasi-3D method is validated on mid-span pressure distribution, pressure loss and shock prediction of two typical cascades. The results show good agreement with the experiment data on cascade SJ301-20 and cascade AC6-10 at all test condition. The proposed quasi-3D method shows superior accuracy over traditional 2D RANS method and 3D RANS method in performance prediction of compressor cascade.

  7. Changes in inferior vena cava blood flow velocity and diameter during breathing movements in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Huisman (T.); S. van den Eijnde (Stefan); P.A. Stewart (Patricia); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBreathing movements in the human fetus cause distinct changes in Doppler flow velocity measurements at arterial, venous and cardiac levels. In adults, breathing movements result in a momentary inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava vessel wall. The study objective was to quantify

  8. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  9. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Lopatin, Sergei; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  10. Analysis of the flow close to a hump at the wall of a circular pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Linsingen, I.; Silva Ferreira, R.T. da

    1981-01-01

    To study the laminar fully developed flow close to a circunferencial square hump placed at the wall of a smooth circular pipe is studied. An experimental set up was used to determine the reattachment legth and the velocity and shear stress profiles of the flow for different Reynolds numbers. Simple relations were obtained from the analysis of the data for the reattachment length, maximum velocity and maximum shear stress in different positions along the flow and different Reynolds numbers. (Author) [pt

  11. Study on flow instability for feasibility of a thin liquid film first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okino, Fumito, E-mail: fumito.okino@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University Graduate School of Energy Science, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University Institute of Advanced Energy, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose a probability of an instability wave growth on a liquid metal first wall. • Evaporated gas by the high energy flux is predicted to agitate this instability wave. • Liquid Pb-17Li with a velocity 10 m/s, the ambient gas must be below 6.2 × 10{sup 3} Pa. • This pressure corresponds to 1600 K and it is attainable under a fusion energy flux. • This probability is not yet verified so the full verifications are to be performed. - Abstract: This study proposes a probability of the evaporated gas that agitates a growing instability wave in a thin liquid film first wall. The liquid first wall was considered to be in vacuum and the effect of the ambient gas was neglected but the evaporated gas by the high energy fluxes is a probable cause of unstable wave agitation. The criterion is approximately expressed by the density ratio (Q{sub 2}) and the Weber number (We) as Q{sub 2} × We{sup 0.5} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −4}. Performed indirect experimental supported this criterion. For a case study of liquid Pb-17Li film with a velocity of 10 m/s, the evaporated gas pressure must be below 6.2 × 10{sup 3} Pa to maintain stable conditions. By recent study, this pressure is generated at 1600 K temperature and it is believed to be attainable by the energy fluxes on the first wall. This result is so far not confirmed so the full verification by experimental is to be performed.

  12. Comparison of velocity and temperature fields for two types of spacers in an annular channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lávička David

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement of flow field using a modern laser method (PIV in an annular channel of very small dimension - a fuel cell model. The velocity field was measured in several positions and plains around the spacer. The measurement was extended also to record temperatures by thermocouples soldered into stainless-steel tube wall. The measurement was focused on cooling process of the preheated fuel cell tube model, where the tube was very slowly flooded with water. Main result of the paper is comparison of two spacer's designs with respect to measured velocity and temperature fields.

  13. Measurement of heat transfer effectiveness during collision of a Leidenfrost droplet with a heated wall - 15447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.S.; Kim, H.; Bae, S.W.; Kim, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    Droplet-wall collision heat transfer during dispersed flow film boiling plays a role in predicting cooling rate and peak cladding temperature of overheated fuels during reflood following a LOCA accident in nuclear power plants. This study aims at experimentally studying effects of collision velocity and angle, as dynamic characteristics of the colliding droplet, on heat transfer. The experiments were performed by varying collision velocity from 0.2 to 1.5 m/s and collision angle between the droplet path and the wall in the range from 30 to 90 degrees under atmosphere condition. A single droplet was impinged on an infrared-opaque Pt film deposited on an infrared-transparent sapphire plate, which combination permits to measure temperature distribution of the collision surface using a high-speed infrared camera from below. The instantaneous local surface heat flux was obtained by solving transient heat conduction equation for the heated substrate using the measured surface temperature data as the boundary condition of the collision surface. Total heat transfer amount of a single droplet collision was calculated by integrating the local heat flux distribution on the effective heat transfer area during the collision time. The obtained results confirmed the finding from the previous studies that with increasing collision velocity, the heat transfer effectiveness increases due to the increase of the heat transfer area and the local heat flux value. Interestingly, it was found that as collision angle of a droplet with a constant collision velocity decreases from 90 to 50 degrees and thus the vertical velocity component of the collision decreases, the total heat transfer amount per a collision increases. It was observed that the droplet colliding with an angle less than 90 degrees slides on the surface during the collision and the resulting collision area is larger than that in the normal collision. On the other hand, further decrease of collision angle below 40 degrees

  14. Controlling magnetic domain wall motion in the creep regime in He{sup +}-irradiated CoFeB/MgO films with perpendicular anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Diez, L., E-mail: liza.herrera-diez@ief.u-psud.fr; García-Sánchez, F.; Adam, J.-P.; Devolder, T.; Eimer, S.; El Hadri, M. S.; Ravelosona, D. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, UMR CNRS 8622, 91405 Orsay (France); Lamperti, A.; Mantovan, R. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate (MB) (Italy); Ocker, B. [Singulus Technology AG, Hanauer Landstrasse 103, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    This study presents the effective tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO thin films by He{sup +} ion irradiation and its effect on domain wall motion in a low field regime. Magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetisation are found to decrease as a function of the irradiation dose which can be related to the observed irradiation-induced changes in stoichiometry at the CoFeB/MgO interface. These changes in the magnetic intrinsic properties of the film are reflected in the domain wall dynamics at low magnetic fields (H) where irradiation is found to induce a significant decrease in domain wall velocity (v). For all irradiation doses, domain wall velocities at low fields are well described by a creep law, where Ln(v) vs. H{sup −1∕4} behaves linearly, up to a maximum field H*, which has been considered as an approximation to the value of the depinning field H{sub dep}. In turn, H* ≈ H{sub dep} is seen to increase as a function of the irradiation dose, indicating an irradiation-induced extension of the creep regime of domain wall motion.

  15. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Braking of a magnetic dipole moving with an arbitrary velocity through a conducting pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, B A; Kotel'nikov, Igor A; Tyutin, A A; Cherkasskii, Valerii S

    2006-01-01

    Lectures introducing students to electromagnetic induction phenomena often feature the popular experiment in which a small magnet falling down a long conducting pipe is markedly decelerated by the retarding force due to Foucault eddy currents arising in the pipe. In this paper, a formula for the retarding force, valid both for low velocities (when the force is proportional to the velocity v of magnet motion) and high velocities (when it first decreases as v -1 and then as v -1/2 ), is derived. The last two regimes are analogous to the collisionless (and hence unbounded) acceleration of plasma electrons and have not been previously described in the literature. The calculation of the retarding force in the presence of a longitudinal cut in the pipe wall is carried out, and experiments to measure this force are discussed. (methodological notes)

  17. The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.

  18. Dispersive elastic properties of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegren, James; Lau, Derek; Sokalski, Vincent

    Recent studies on the asymmetric field-driven growth of magnetic bubble domains in perpendicular thin films exhibiting an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) have provided a wealth of experimental evidence to validate models of creep phenomena, as key properties of the domain wall (DW) can be altered with the application of an external in-plane magnetic field. While asymmetric growth behavior has been attributed to the highly anisotropic DW energy, σ (θ) , which results from the combination of DMI and the in-plane field, many experimental results remain anomalous. In this work, we demonstrate that the anisotropy of DW energy alters the elastic response of the DW as characterized by the surface stiffness, σ (θ) = σ (θ) + σ (θ) , and evaluate the impact of this stiffness on the creep law. We find that at in-plane fields larger than and antiparallel to the effective field due to DMI, the DW stiffness decreases rapidly, suggesting that higher energy walls can actually become more mobile than their low energy counterparts. This result is consistent with experiments on CoNi multilayer films where velocity curves for domain walls with DMI fields parallel and antiparallel to the applied field cross over at high in-plane fields.

  19. Magneto-elastic resonant phenomena at the motion of the domain wall in weak ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, A.P.; Zhukov, E.A.; Dobromyslov, M.B.; Kaminsky, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics of domain walls (DWs) in transparent thin orthoferrite samples with weak ferromagnetic ordering is investigated at sub- and supersonic velocities. A resonant increase of Lamb waves and the formation of magnetoelastic solitons under resonant conditions in both an elastic and between a spin and elastic subsystems were observed

  20. Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)

  1. Velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in resulting stokes layer by acoustic standing wave in a duct; Kannai kichi shindo ni okeru stokes sonai onkyoryu ryusoku bunpu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, M; Kawahashi, M [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Acoustic streaming is generated by Reynolds stress in the sense of mean acoustic momentum flux in a sound field. In the case of an acoustic standing wave produced by an air column oscillation in a closed duct, the friction and the Reynolds stress in the resulting Stokes layer are the essentials of acoustic streaming generation in the vicinity of the duct wall. The thickness of the Stokes layer decreases with the oscillatory Reynolds number. The plane wave propagation in the duct is assumed for the case of high Reynolds number except for the thin Stokes layer adjacent to the duct wall. The velocity profiles of the streaming are estimated theoretically from the steady component of the second-order term of a perturbation expansion in which the first-order approximation is a sinusoidal oscillation of the air column with plane waves. The present paper describes theoretical analysis of the velocity profiles of the acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer by means of the matched asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained show the existence of reverse streaming in a very thin layer adjacent to the wall and the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the wall on the velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Spectral assessment of the turbulent convection velocity in a spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Reynolds numbers up to Re θ = 13000

    OpenAIRE

    Renard , N.; Deck , S.; Sagaut , P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A method inspired by del Alamo et al. [1] is derived to assess the wavelength-dependent convection velocity in a zero pressure gradient spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Retheta = 13 000 for all wavelengths and all wall distances, using only estimates of the time power spectral density of the streamwise velocity and of its local spatial derivative. The resulting global convection velocity has a least-squares interpretation and is easily relate...

  3. Effects of flow unsteadiness on the wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Raisee, M

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were performed on pulsating fully turbulent flows in a pipe test rig with a diameter of 100 mm. Sinusoidal oscillatory flow at different frequencies was superimposed on a mean flow of averaged Reynolds number Re=20000 based on the pipe diameter. The measurements have been performed at different forcing frequencies (0.001 + < 0.08) covering all the oscillatory regimes; quasi-steady, relaxation, quasi laminar and high frequency. The amplitude of the flow oscillation was small enough to allow a linear response in the measurements, i.e., all flow parameters showed an oscillatory behavior at the frequency of the flow. The amplitude of the oscillatory flow was about 10% of the mean velocity in all cases. The results include mean and phase averaged values of different parameters. The centerline velocity was measured by a 2D LDA system. Hot film and constant temperature anemometry system was used to determine the wall shear stress. Bulk velocity and pressure gradient along the pipe were also acquired. The results showed a good agreement with the previous analytical, experimental and numerical results available in the literature.

  4. Three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in non-uniform channel having flexible walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

  5. Strain-dependent Damage Evolution and Velocity Reduction in Fault Zones Induced by Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J.; Duan, B.

    2009-12-01

    Low-velocity fault zones (LVFZs) with reduced seismic velocities relative to the surrounding wall rocks are widely observed around active faults. The presence of such a zone will affect rupture propagation, near-field ground motion, and off-fault damage in subsequent earth-quakes. In this study, we quantify the reduction of seismic velocities caused by dynamic rup-ture on a 2D planar fault surrounded by a low-velocity fault zone. First, we implement the damage rheology (Lyakhovsky et al. 1997) in EQdyna (Duan and Oglesby 2006), an explicit dynamic finite element code. We further extend this damage rheology model to include the dependence of strains on crack density. Then, we quantify off-fault continuum damage distribution and velocity reduction induced by earthquake rupture with the presence of a preexisting LVFZ. We find that the presence of a LVFZ affects the tempo-spatial distribu-tions of off-fault damage. Because lack of constraint in some damage parameters, we further investigate the relationship between velocity reduction and these damage prameters by a large suite of numerical simulations. Slip velocity, slip, and near-field ground motions computed from damage rheology are also compared with those from off-fault elastic or elastoplastic responses. We find that the reduction in elastic moduli during dynamic rupture has profound impact on these quantities.

  6. Black holes escaping from domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Sasaki, Misao; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of branes and black holes suggested that a small black hole intersecting a brane may escape via a mechanism of reconnection. Here we consider this problem by studying the interaction of a small black hole and a domain wall composed of a scalar field and simulate the evolution of this system when the black hole acquires an initial recoil velocity. We test and confirm previous results, however, unlike the cases previously studied, in the more general set-up considered here, we are able to follow the evolution of the system also during the separation, and completely illustrate how the escape of the black hole takes place

  7. Influence of Slip Condition on Unsteady Free Convection Flow of Viscous Fluid with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the influence of wall slip condition on a free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with heat transfer and ramped wall temperature. Exact solution of the problem is obtained by using Laplace transform technique. Graphical results to see the effects of Prandtl number Pr, time t, and slip parameter η on velocity and skin friction for the case of ramped and constant temperature of the plate are provided and discussed.

  8. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  9. Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.

  10. Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder with a Nanosecond-Pulse Electrical Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    variation in bow-shock location, but no other factors, including rarefaction effects due to partial-slip walls, made an appreciable difference in the bow...heat transfer coefficient, Ch = 2 q/(ρ∞ u 3 ∞) along the surface of the cylinder at various times after the ns-DBD pulse. The curves were spanwise

  11. The application of slip length models to larger textures in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. We assess the validity of simulations where the surface is modelled as homogeneous slip lengths, comparing them to simulations where the surface texture is resolved. Our results show that once the coherent flow induced by the texture is removed from the velocity fields, the remaining flow sees the surface as homogeneous. We then investigate how the overlying turbulence is modified by the presence of surface texture. For small textures, we show that turbulence is shifted closer to the wall due to the presence of slip, but otherwise remains essentially unmodified. For larger textures, the texture interacts with the turbulent lengthscales, thereby modifying the overlying turbulence. We also show that the saturation of the effect of the spanwise slip length (Fukagata et al. 2006, Busse & Sandham 2012, Seo & Mani 2016), which is drag increasing, is caused by the impermeability imposed at the surface. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  12. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  13. Construction of a 2- by 2-foot transonic adaptive-wall test section at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel G.; Lee, George

    1986-01-01

    The development of a new production-size, two-dimensional, adaptive-wall test section with ventilated walls at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. The new facility incorporates rapid closed-loop operation, computer/sensor integration, and on-line interference assessment and wall corrections. Air flow through the test section is controlled by a series of plenum compartments and three-way slide vales. A fast-scan laser velocimeter was built to measure velocity boundary conditions for the interference assessment scheme. A 15.2-cm- (6.0-in.-) chord NACA 0012 airfoil model will be used in the first experiments during calibration of the facility.

  14. New time scale based k-epsilon model for near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bonded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. The damping function used in the eddy viscosity is chosen to be a function of R(sub y) = (k(sup 1/2)y)/v instead of y(+). Hence, the model could be used for flows with separation. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number standard k-epsilon model. Thus, the proposed model will be also suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows at different Reynolds numbers and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradient are calculated. Results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation and experimental data.

  15. Wavelet phase analysis of two velocity components to infer the structure of interscale transfers in a turbulent boundary-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keylock, Christopher J [Sheffield Fluid Mechanics Group and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Nishimura, Kouichi, E-mail: c.keylock@sheffield.ac.uk [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)

  16. Wavelet phase analysis of two velocity components to infer the structure of interscale transfers in a turbulent boundary-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keylock, Christopher J; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)

  17. Further experiments for mean velocity profile of pipe flow at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports further experimental results obtained in high Reynolds number actual flow facility in Japan. The experiments were performed in a pipe flow with water, and the friction Reynolds number was varied up to Reτ = 5.3 × 104. This high Reynolds number was achieved by using water as the working fluid and adopting a large-diameter pipe (387 mm) while controlling the flow rate and temperature with high accuracy and precision. The streamwise velocity was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry close to the wall, and the mean velocity profile, called log-law profile U+ = (1/κ) ln(y+) + B, is especially focused. After careful verification of the mean velocity profiles in terms of the flow rate accuracy and an evaluation of the consistency of the present results with those from previously measurements in a smaller pipe (100 mm), it was found that the value of κ asymptotically approaches a constant value of κ = 0.384.

  18. Current-induced domain wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, G [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS, Universite Paris-sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Boulle, O [SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Klaeui, M, E-mail: Klaeui@uni-mainz.de [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory of Nanomagnetism and Spin Dynamics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-28

    We review the details of domain wall (DW) propagation due to spin-polarized currents that could potentially be used in magnetic data storage devices based on domains and DWs. We discuss briefly the basics of the underlying spin torque effect and show how the two torques arising from the interaction between the spin-polarized charge carriers and the magnetization lead to complex dynamics of a spin texture such as a DW. By direct imaging we show how confined DWs in nanowires can be displaced using currents in in-plane soft-magnetic materials, and that when using short pulses, fast velocities can be attained. For high-anisotropy out-of-plane magnetized wires with narrow DWs we present approaches to deducing the torque terms and show that in these materials potentially more efficient domain wall motion could be achieved.

  19. Computational analysis for velocity slip and diffusion species with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Hussain, Zakir; Alsaedi, A.; Hobiny, A.

    This article addresses a computational study for carbon nanotubes with diffusion species. Mathematical analysis and modeling are formulated in the presence of slip effect, Darcy porous medium and chemical species. Diffusion coefficients are accounted as equal amount. Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM) is implemented in taking care for convergence control parameters. Residual errors and its graphs are plotted for CNTs nanofluids. The current data is compared with the previous published work. The results are found in favorable agreement. Physically interesting parameters are highlighted. The velocity is dominated for MWCNT than SWCNT. The velocity profile increases for power index when m > 1 while opposite trend is observed for power index when m skin friction coefficient and reverse trend is noticed for slip parameter and wall thickness parameter. Opposite behavior is noticed for concentration profile at surface for homogenous-heterogeneous reactions parameters.

  20. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  1. Swimming trajectories of a three-sphere microswimmer near a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Lisicki, Maciej; Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2018-04-01

    The hydrodynamic flow field generated by self-propelled active particles and swimming microorganisms is strongly altered by the presence of nearby boundaries in a viscous flow. Using a simple model three-linked sphere swimmer, we show that the swimming trajectories near a no-slip wall reveal various scenarios of motion depending on the initial orientation and the distance separating the swimmer from the wall. We find that the swimmer can either be trapped by the wall, completely escape, or perform an oscillatory gliding motion at a constant mean height above the wall. Using a far-field approximation, we find that, at leading order, the wall-induced correction has a source-dipolar or quadrupolar flow structure where the translational and angular velocities of the swimmer decay as inverse third and fourth powers with distance from the wall, respectively. The resulting equations of motion for the trajectories and the relevant order parameters fully characterize the transition between the states and allow for an accurate description of the swimming behavior near a wall. We demonstrate that the transition between the trapping and oscillatory gliding states is first order discontinuous, whereas the transition between the trapping and escaping states is continuous, characterized by non-trivial scaling exponents of the order parameters. In order to model the circular motion of flagellated bacteria near solid interfaces, we further assume that the spheres can undergo rotational motion around the swimming axis. We show that the general three-dimensional motion can be mapped onto a quasi-two-dimensional representational model by an appropriate redefinition of the order parameters governing the transition between the swimming states.

  2. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle (P/D = 1.036, W/D = 1.072)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of the distributions of the mean velocity, the wall shear stresses and the turbulence were performed in a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four parallel rods arranged symmetrically in a rectangular channel (P/D = 1.036, W/D = 1.072). The Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 7.60 x 10 4 . The experimental results show that the momentum transport is highly anisotropic especially in the gaps of the rod bundle. Influences of secondary flow cannot be detected in the distribution of the time-mean velocity, however, such influences are found in the distributions of the turbulence intensities and the kinetic energy of turbulence. Very high turbulence intensities were observed in the gap between the rods. The comparison between experimental wall shear stress distributions and those calculated with the VELASCO-code shows discrepancies especially in the gap between the rods. (orig.) [de

  3. Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.

  4. Resistive Wall Mode Stability and Control in the Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadikin, Dmitriy

    2006-03-01

    Control of MHD instabilities using a conducting wall together with external magnetic fields is an important route to improved performance and reliability in fusion devices. Active control of MHD modes is of interest for both the Advanced Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations. A wide range of unstable, current driven MHD modes is present in the RFP. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can in principle provide stabilization to these modes. However, a real, resistive wall characterized by a wall field diffusion time, cannot stabilize the ideal MHD modes unless they rotate with Alfvenic velocity, which is usually not the case. With a resistive wall, the ideal modes are converted into resistive wall modes (RWM) with growth rates comparable to the inverse wall time. Resistive wall modes have been studied in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell RFP device. Growth rates have been measured and found in agreement with linear MHD stability calculations. An advanced system for active control has been developed and installed on the EXTRAP T2R device. The system includes an array of 128 active saddle coils, fully covering the torus surface. Experiments on EXTRAP T2R have for the first time demonstrated simultaneous active suppression of multiple independent RWMs. In experiments with a partial array, coupling of different modes due to the limited number of feedback coils has been observed, in agreement with theory. Different feedback strategies, such as the intelligent shell, the rotating shell, and mode control have been studied. Further, feedback operation with different types of magnetic field sensors, measuring either the radial or the toroidal field components have been compared

  5. Symmetry Methods of Flow and Heat Transfer between Slowly Expanding or Contracting Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Magalakwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out for the flow and heat transfer of an incompressible laminar and viscous fluid in a rectangular domain bounded by two moving porous walls which enable the fluid to enter or exit during successive expansions or contractions. The basic equations governing the flow are reduced to the ordinary differential equations using Lie-group analysis. Effects of the permeation Reynolds number , porosity , and the dimensionless wall dilation rate on the self-axial velocity are studied both analytically and numerically. The solutions are represented graphically. The analytical procedure is based on double perturbation in the permeation Reynolds number and the wall expansion ratio , whereas the numerical solution is obtained using Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results are correlated and compared for some values of the physical parameters. Lastly, we look at the temperature distribution.

  6. Influence of Housing Wall Compliance on Shock Absorbers in the Context of Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvirenti, G.; Faria, C.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorbers play a key role in vehicle dynamics. Researchers have spent significant effort in order to understand phenomena associated with this component, but there are still several issues to address, in part because new technology development and design trends continually lead to new challenges, among which weight reduction is crucial. For shock absorbers, weight reduction is related to the use of new materials (e.g. composite) or new design paradigms (e.g. more complex geometry, wall thickness, etc.). All of them are directly linked to wall compliance values higher than the actual ones. The present article proposes a first analysis of the phenomena introduced by a high wall compliance, through a modelling approach and various simulations in order to understand the vehicle behaviour changes. It is shown that high values of wall compliance lead to increased hysteresis in the force-velocity curve. However, comfort, handling and ride performances are not significantly affected by this designing parameter.

  7. Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.

  8. Breaking of chiral symmetry in vortex domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otálora, J.A.; López-López, J.A.; Landeros, P.; Vargas, P.; Núñez, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused to the field-induced dynamics of vortex-like domain walls (VDWs) in magnetic nanotubes (MNTs). Based on a dissipative Lagrangian formalism that fully includes damping as well as exchange and dipole–dipole coupling, it is shown that VDW motion is very sensitive to the chirality, giving rise to a chiral asymmetry in the vortex wall propagation. As a consequence, the dynamics of the wall is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes and solid nanowires. Besides the well-known Walker breakdown that stands at the onset of the precessional wall motion, it is found an additional breakdown field (called here the chiral breakdown) that modifies the steady regime of VDWs. We also show outstanding VDWs dynamical properties at low applied fields, as low-field mobilities (∼10km/(sT)) and very short relaxation times (∼1ns), offering a reliable fast control of VDWs velocities (∼1000m/s at applied fields of 0.7 mT). - Highlights: • We model analytically the dynamics of vortex domain walls in magnetic nanotubes. • We fully include damping, exchange and dipole–dipole coupling. • The wall dynamics is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes. • We report and describe an extra dynamical instability, the Chiral Breakdown field. • We report outstanding dynamical properties at weak magnetic fields

  9. Breaking of chiral symmetry in vortex domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otálora, J.A., E-mail: jorge.otalora@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); López-López, J.A.; Landeros, P.; Vargas, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Núñez, A.S. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    This paper is focused to the field-induced dynamics of vortex-like domain walls (VDWs) in magnetic nanotubes (MNTs). Based on a dissipative Lagrangian formalism that fully includes damping as well as exchange and dipole–dipole coupling, it is shown that VDW motion is very sensitive to the chirality, giving rise to a chiral asymmetry in the vortex wall propagation. As a consequence, the dynamics of the wall is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes and solid nanowires. Besides the well-known Walker breakdown that stands at the onset of the precessional wall motion, it is found an additional breakdown field (called here the chiral breakdown) that modifies the steady regime of VDWs. We also show outstanding VDWs dynamical properties at low applied fields, as low-field mobilities (∼10km/(sT)) and very short relaxation times (∼1ns), offering a reliable fast control of VDWs velocities (∼1000m/s at applied fields of 0.7 mT). - Highlights: • We model analytically the dynamics of vortex domain walls in magnetic nanotubes. • We fully include damping, exchange and dipole–dipole coupling. • The wall dynamics is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes. • We report and describe an extra dynamical instability, the Chiral Breakdown field. • We report outstanding dynamical properties at weak magnetic fields.

  10. BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.

  11. BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-04

    We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.

  12. On periodically excited turbulent mixing layer created downstream of a plane Chevron partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kit, E; Wygnanski, I

    2008-01-01

    The flow in a turbulent mixing layer resulting from the merger of two parallel, different velocity streams, created downstream of a 'Chevron'-shaped jagged partition was simulated numerically on the basis of experiments published in 2007. A small flap that was hinged at the trailing edge of the partition could oscillate at a prescribed frequency, and induce regular oscillations in the flow. The latter regulated the large eddy structure that was amenable to phase-locked data acquisition revealing the large spanwise vortices that were generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and streamwise vortices that were triggered by the chevron and were enhanced by a secondary instability in the flow. These, being locked in phase, were mapped by using particle image velocimetry. Numerical simulation of the equations of motion was then carried out in order to reveal the most unstable mechanisms leading to the generation of the streamwise vortical structure. The simulation started by assuming the flow to be two-dimensional (2D) and allowing the large spanwise eddies to develop temporally. At a prescribed time (or the state of development of the large spanwise rolls) the 2D computation was frozen and 3D simulation initiated. The latter exhibited typical evolution of translative instability, which bent the large spanwise structures and stretched some of them to create streamwise vorticity. Bulging of the spanwise eddies was also observed, but the bulging instability is a slower process than the bending one. The results of the simulations compare well to experiments and provide some understanding of this complex interaction.

  13. Induced dusty flow due to normal oscillation of wavy wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan

    2001-01-01

    wall. Solutions are obtained in terms of a series expansion with respect to small amplitude by a regular perturbation method. Graphs of velocity components, both for outer flow and inner flow for various values of mass concentration of dust particles are drawn. The inner and outer solutions are matched by the matching process. An interested application of present result to mechanical engineering may be the possibility of the fluid and dust transportation without an external pressure.

  14. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  15. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  16. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.

  18. MHD-flow in slotted channels with conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, C.B.

    1994-07-01

    A review of experimental results is presented for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in rectangular channels with conducting walls and high aspect ratios (longer side parallel to the applied magnetic field), which are called slotted channels. The slotted channel concept was conceived at Efremov Institute as a method for reducing MHD pressure drop in liquid metal cooled blanket design. The experiments conducted by the authors were aimed at studying both fully developed MHD-flow, and the effect of a magnetic field on the hydrodynamics of 3-D flows in slotted channels. Tests were carried out on five models of the slotted geometry. A good agreement between test and theoretical results for the pressure drop in slotted channels was demonstrated. Application of a open-quotes one-electrode movable probeclose quotes for velocity measurement permitted measurement of the M-shape velocity profiles in the slotted channels. Suppression of 3-D inertial effects in slotted channels of complex geometry was demonstrated based on potential distribution data

  19. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo ["Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer," Appl. Mech. Rev. 50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Reθ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.

  20. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2014-01-29

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo [“Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer,” Appl. Mech. Rev.50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Re θ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.

  1. Spatio-temporal spectra in the logarithmic layer of wall turbulence: large-eddy simulations and simple models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilczek, Michael; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the need to characterize the spatio-temporal structure of turbulence in wall-bounded flows, we study wavenumber–frequency spectra of the streamwise velocity component based on large-eddy simulation (LES) data. The LES data are used to measure spectra as a function of the two

  2. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  3. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.