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Sample records for spanish women born

  1. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.

  2. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  3. Indicadores de salud reproductiva y perinatal en mujeres inmigrantes y autóctonas residentes en Cataluña y en la Comunitat Valenciana (2005-2006 Reproductive and perinatal health indicators in immigrant and Spanish-born women in Catalonia and Valencia (2005-2006

    Isabel Río

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de nacimientos de madres adolescentes, de prematuridad y de bajo peso al nacer en mujeres españolas e inmigrantes originarias de Latinoamérica, Europa del Este, Magreb y África Subsahariana, residentes en Cataluña y en la Comunitat Valenciana, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: A partir de los datos proporcionados por los registros de metabolopatías de ambas comunidades autónomas, se obtuvieron las proporciones y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% de: 1 madres menores de 20 años, 2 neonatos prematuros (Objectives: To determine the prevalence of teenage maternity, preterm birth and low birth weight in Spanish and immigrant mothers from Latin America, eastern Europe, Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa resident in Catalonia and Valencia from 2005 and 2006. Methods: Using data from congenital metabolic disorders registers in both regions, proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the following: 1 mothers aged less than 20 years; 2 preterm (<37 weeks and very preterm (<32 weeks births; and 3 low birth weight (<2500g and very low birth weight (<1500g neonates. The calculations were performed for mothers from each of the geographical areas of origin (Spain, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Maghreb and Sub-Sahara. These proportions were compared in Spanish-born and immigrant women and the significance of differences was assessed using chi-squared tests. Results: The prevalence of teenage mothers was between three and five times higher in immigrants than in Spanish women, the highest rate being found in women from eastern Europe. Preterm births, very preterm births and very low birth weight were more frequent in eastern European women than in Spanish women. The prevalence of prematurity and very low birth weight was higher in sub-Saharan mothers than in Spanish women. Conclusions: The number of births in teenage mothers was higher in immigrant mothers from all origins than in

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  5. [The possibility of registering in the Spanish Civil Registry children born abroad from surrogate mothers].

    De Barrón Arniches, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    In the Spanish Civil Registry it is now possible to register "natural" children of a homosexual marriage born overseas through surrogate pregnancy. And this is despite article 10.1 of the current Spanish law regarding assisted human reproduction techniques, which declares fully null and void contracts renouncing maternal relationship, and orders imperatively that in these cases, the relationship of children is determined by birth. This article analyses and formulates a criticism regarding the Resolution of the Office of Registries and Notaries, of February 18, 2009, insisting on some relevant issues such as legal security and greater interest of the minor, in the context of the analysis of the facts of the case and the arguments put forward in the resolution.

  6. Sexuality in older Spanish women: voices and reflections.

    Freixas, Anna; Luque, Barbara; Reina, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Our research has been aimed at understanding the experience, practice, and sexual life in a group of Spanish women over 50 years of age. We studied a sample of 729 women between 50 and 80 years old. Our results provide qualitative and quantitative information and important insights about the sexual life of Spanish women and identify differences in the experience and reality of sexual life after the age of 70. The status of having or lacking a partner, and a personal interest in emotional relationships and sexual practices, are elements that determine the possibility of enjoying a satisfying postmenopausal sexuality.

  7. U.S.-born compared to non-U.S.-born abused women: analysis of baseline data.

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Koci, Anne; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    It is evident from recent studies that a woman's citizenship status does not exempt her from exposure to partner violence. The purpose of this article was to examine if social support, self-efficacy, and marginalization of abused women differ based on U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. The findings suggest that women who were born in the United States had significantly higher self-efficacy scores compared to non-U.S.-born women without documents. There were no significant differences in social support among abused women who are U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. In addition, women who were not born in the United States and did not have documents had higher marginalization.

  8. Perception of Risk for Developing Diabetes Among Foreign-Born Spanish-Speaking US Latinos.

    Joiner, Kevin L; Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Kennedy, Christine M; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Chen, Jyu-Lin; Janson, Susan L

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe perception of risk for developing diabetes among foreign-born Spanish-speaking US Latinos. Participants (N = 146), recruited at food-pantry distribution events and free clinics, were surveyed using the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes in Spanish. Type 2 diabetes risk factors measured included body mass index, physical activity, and A1C. Sample characteristics were mean (SD) age of 39.5 (9.9) years, 58% with less than a high school graduate-level education, and 65% with a family income less than $15,000/year. Prevalence of risk factors was 81% overweight or obese, 47% less than 150 minutes/week moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity, and 12% A1C consistent with prediabetes. Of the 135 participants with complete data, 31% perceived a high/moderate risk for developing diabetes. In univariate logistic regression analyses, 9 of 18 potential variables were significant (P perception of risk. When these 9 variables were entered into a multiple logistic regression model, 5 were significant predictors of perception of risk: history of gestational diabetes, high school graduate or above, optimistic bias, worry, and perceived personal disease risk. Use of the Spanish-language translation of the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes revealed factors influencing perception of risk for developing diabetes. Results can be used to promote culturally acceptable type 2 diabetes primary prevention strategies and provide a useful comparison to other populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  10. The sexual and reproductive health of foreign-born women in the United States.

    Tapales, Athena; Douglas-Hall, Ayana; Whitehead, Hannah

    2018-02-14

    To explore the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviors, health insurance coverage and use of SRH services of women in the United States (U.S.) by nativity, disaggregated by race and ethnicity. We analyzed publicly available and restricted data from the National Survey of Family Growth to assess differences and similarities between foreign-born and U.S.-born women, both overall and within Hispanic, non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and NH Asian groups. A larger proportion of foreign-born women than U.S.-born women lacked health insurance coverage. Foreign-born women utilized SRH services at lower rates than U.S.-born women; this effect diminished at the multivariate level, although race and ethnicity differences remained. Overall, foreign-born women were less likely to pay for SRH services with private insurance than U.S.-born women. Foreign-born women were less likely to use the most effective contraceptive methods than U.S.-born women, with some variation across race and ethnicity: NH white and NH black foreign-born women were less likely to use highly effective contraceptive methods than their U.S.-born counterparts, but among Hispanic women, the reverse was true. Our findings demonstrate that the SRH behaviors, needs and outcomes of foreign-born women differ from those of U.S-born women within the same race/ethnic group. This paper contributes to the emergent literature on immigrants in the U.S. by laying the foundation for further research on the SRH of the foreign-born population in the country, which is critical for developing public health policies and programs to understand better and serve this growing and diverse population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strangers in Paradise: The Life and Literature of Foreign-Born Women in California.

    Friedman, Adele C.

    This paper presents student research from a class project on the Life and Literature of Foreign-Born Women in California. It examines the role of these women in agriculture, the arts, and political and economic life. Specific accounts of women from Russia, Poland, France, and Mexico are given. Others mentioned include those women born in America…

  12. Financial cost of lymphedema borne by women with breast cancer

    Xu, Ying; Kalfa, Senia; Koelmeyer, Louise; Parkinson, Bonny; Mackie, Helen; Viveros, Hector; Gollan, Paul; Taksa, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our study examines the financial cost of lymphedema following a diagnosis of breast cancer and addresses a significant knowledge gap regarding the additional impact of lymphedema on breast cancer survivors. Methods An online national survey was conducted with 361 women who had either breast cancer without lymphedema (BC) (group 1, n = 209) or breast cancer with lymphedema (BC+LE) (group 2, n = 152). Participant recruitment was supported by the Breast Cancer Network Australia and the Australasian Lymphology Association. Results Both breast cancer and lymphedema result in significant out‐of‐pocket financial costs borne by women. Of patients with BC+LE, 80% indicated that their breast cancer diagnosis had affected them financially compared with 67% in the BC group (P < .020). For patients with lymphedema, over half (56%) indicated that this specific additional diagnosis to their breast cancer affected them financially and that costs increased with lymphedema severity. The cost of compression garments formed a large proportion of these costs (40.1%). The average number of attendances to a therapist each year was 5.8 (range, 0‐45). Twenty‐five patients (16.4%) had an episode of cellulitis in the past year. The incidence of cellulitis was 7.7% in 91 patients with subclinical or mild lymphedema compared with 29.5% of 61 patients with more extensive lymphedema (P < .001). The average out‐of‐pocket financial cost of lymphedema care borne by women was A$977 per annum, ranging from A$207 for subclinical lymphedema to over A$1400 for moderate or severe lymphedema. Conclusions This study identifies an additional detrimental effect of lymphedema on women in terms of financial costs. PMID:27479170

  13. The Pluralism of Women?s Associations in Spanish Cities: A Proposed Typology [ENG

    Jonas Radl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to analyse pluralism within the context of women?s associations in Spanish cities. Specifically, a methodological proposal is made in order to develop a typology of women?s associations. It is applied to data from a survey conducted in five cities in Spain. The main results confirm the pluralism within this type of associations. However, besides the two main types of women?s associations identified by the literature (the feminist movement and women?s associations, other hybrid types are identified here according to their role in the coproduction of public services. Thus, co-production, as well as their own agendas, their political activism and the delivery of their own public services, appears as an important dimension in classifying women?s associations and enhancing the knowledge about them in Spain.

  14. Psychological assessment among immigrant and Spanish women during the postpartum period in Spain.

    Pérez-Ramírez, Francisca; García-García, Inmaculada; Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-04-01

    to describe whether there were differences in sociodemographic, obstetric, perinatal and psychological variables between immigrant women and native-born women in Spain during the first 24 h after delivery. The immediate postpartum period is a critical time when physical and psychological disorders are likely to occur. Immigrant women have, in general, poor perinatal and psychological results during this time. One hundred and three women at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital (Granada, Spain) were divided into two groups: 50 Spanish and 53 immigrants. The instruments used were the Life Orientation Test, the Stress Vulnerability Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Sociodemographic and obstetric data were obtained from the healthcare providers reports. During the postpartum period, the immigrant women had higher mean scores on the following subscales: interpersonal sensitivity (F(1,102) = 4.06; p psychological and emotional support from their families, midwives and the rest of healthcare providers than are native Spaniards immediately after delivery.

  15. [Analysis of the body composition of Spanish women with fibromyalgia].

    Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Heredia, José M; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the anthropometric profile and body composition of women from Southern Spain diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) and to compare the observed values with values from other studies conducted on FM patients and with national reference values. The body composition of 104 women diagnosed with FM was assessed using an eight-electrode impedance meter. The reliability of the body composition measurement was tested in a randomly selected sub-sample (n=28). The reliability study showed a test-retest systematic error close to zero in most of the parameters studied. The women with FM who were studied had a mean weight of 71.3±13.4 kg, height of 158±6 cm, body mass index of 28.6±5.1 kg/m(2), body fat mass of 38.6±7.6%, total body water of 31.6±3.8 l and muscle mass of 23.4±3.0 kg. In general, there were no substantial differences in weight and body mass index between women with FM and those analyzed in other Spanish and European studies involving FM patients, nor when they were compared with regional or national reference values. However, the prevalence of obesity in the women with FM under study was 33.7%, a higher figure than that from the national reference data for obesity in similarly aged women (i.e. 26,4%). The results suggest that obesity is a common condition in women diagnosed with FM, its prevalence in this population being higher than the national reference values. This study provides detailed information about the body composition characteristics of women with FM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. METHODS: A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases...... language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care factors, major...

  17. Perception of Risk for Developing Diabetes among Foreign-Born Spanish-Speaking U.S. Latinos

    Joiner, Kevin L.; Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Kennedy, Christine M.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Chen, Jyu-Lin; Janson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe perception of risk for developing diabetes among foreign-born Spanish-speaking U.S. Latinos. Methods Participants (N=146), recruited at food-pantry distribution events and free clinics, were surveyed using the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes in Spanish. Type 2 diabetes risk factors measured included: Body Mass Index, physical activity, and Hemoglobin A1C. Results Sample characteristics were mean age 39.5 (±9.9) years old, 58% with less than a high school graduate level education, and 65% with a family income less than $15,000/year. Prevalence of risk factors was 81% overweight or obese, 47% risk for developing diabetes. In univariate logistic regression analyses, 9 of 18 potential variables were significant (pperception of risk. When these 9 variables were entered into a multiple logistic regression model, 5 were significant predictors of perception of risk: history of gestational diabetes, ≥ high school graduate, optimistic bias, worry, and perceived personal disease risk. Conclusions This is the first study using the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes in Spanish in this population and reveals factors that influence perception of risk for developing diabetes. The results can be used to promote culturally acceptable type 2 diabetes primary prevention strategies and provide a useful comparison to other populations. PMID:27150605

  18. Violence in the massage parlor industry: experiences of Canadian-born and immigrant women.

    Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Caitlin; Patrick, David M

    2012-01-01

    We examined and contrasted 129 Canadian-born and immigrant women's experiences of violence and associated structural and interpersonal factors within indoor commercial sex venues. The majority experienced at least one form of structural, interpersonal, or both types of violence, with the attempted removal of a condom during sexual services being cited most frequently. Canadian-born women reported more frequent violent assaults in the survey data. The women's qualitative narratives illustrated that perceptions of violence differed significantly among Canadian versus non-Canadian born women. Findings concerning racialization and gendered relations of power have important implications for prevention and interventions to support victims of abuse.

  19. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  20. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  1. Post-term surveillance and birth outcomes in South Asian-born compared with Australian-born women.

    Yim, C; Wong, L; Cabalag, C; Wallace, E M; Davies-Tuck, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine if apparently healthy post-term South Asian-born (SA) women were more likely to have abnormal post-term fetal surveillance than Australian- and New Zealand-born (AUS/NZ) women, whether those abnormalities were associated with increased rates of obstetric intervention and adverse perinatal outcomes, and whether SA women and their babies were at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the post-term period irrespective of their post-term surveillance outcomes. Post-term surveillance and perinatal outcomes of 145 SA and 272 AUS/NZ nulliparous women with a singleton post-term pregnancy were compared in a retrospective multicentre cohort analysis. Post-term SA women were not significantly more likely to have a low amniotic fluid index (AFI) than AUS/NZ women. However, they were nearly four times more likely (odds ratio 3.75; 95% CI 1.49-9.44) to have an abnormal CTG (P=0.005). Irrespective of maternal region of birth having an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) or AFI was not associated with adverse intrapartum or perinatal outcomes. However, post-term SA women were significantly more likely than AUS/NZ women to have intrapartum fetal compromise (P=0.03) and an intrapartum cesarean section (P=0.002). Babies of SA women were more also significantly likely to be admitted to the Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (P=0.02). Post-term SA women experience higher rates of fetal compromise (antenatal and intrapartum) and obstetric intervention than AUS/NZ women. Irrespective of maternal region of birth an abnormal CTG or AFI was not predictive of adverse outcomes.

  2. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal......%) were born to women with fertility problems. In all, 313 children born to women with fertility problems (0.36%) and 5176 children born to women without fertility problems (0.28%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes was not affected by maternal fertility status (hazard ratio...

  3. Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

  4. Trends in rates of natural conceptions among Danish women born during 1960-1984

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Sobotka, Tomás; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    born in 1960 to 2.15 among women born in 1984, with stable values of 2.15-2.16 projected in the youngest cohorts analysed, 1979-1984. The projected decline was a consequence of a decrease in induced abortion rates and an increase in the use of ART among the younger cohorts. Furthermore, we projected...... not be included, which led to underestimation of the frequency of births after ART treatment.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSThe results of our study contribute new insights to the research field of declining fertility rates in Europe and many other parts of the world.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTSThis study......STUDY QUESTIONThe aim of the study was to analyse trends in the rate of natural conceptions (RNC) among birth cohorts of women born during the period 1960-1984.SUMMARY ANSWERIn this nationwide study of Danish-born female cohorts born during the period 1960-1984, we found a gradual decline...

  5. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  6. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fact Sheet on Women of Spanish Origin in the United States.

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    March 1971 data are given for women of Spanish origin in the United States. Country of origin, population, family composition, educational attainment, labor force participation, type of work, income, and low income level are covered. Where separate data for women are not available, data for both sexes are shown. (KM)

  8. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  9. Spanish women's attitudes towards menstruation and use of a continuous, daily use hormonal combined contraceptive regimen.

    Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; García-Calvo, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this survey was to explore the attitude of Spanish women towards menstruation, as well as their acceptability of a daily, continuous, combination oral contraceptive regimen. National survey carried out in Spain in 2006. A total of 588 women aged between 18 and 45 years old answered an anonymous questionnaire that included questions regarding menstruation and acceptability of new contraceptive regimens. Overall, 24.5% of women expressed interest in using the continuous oral contraceptive regimen. This percentage increased up to nearly 50% in women younger than 25 years old and those not using any contraceptive method but willing to use them in the future. The attitude of Spanish women towards menstruation observed in this survey seems to be more conservative than that obtained in other recent international surveys. An improvement in the education provided by practitioners would help women to make informed decisions.

  10. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women born in Greenland

    Jacobsen, Jytte Lindskov; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Greenlanders and to evaluate the quality of the current screening procedure for gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study of consecutive birth-log data and medical records on pregnant....... However, only 54% of those women were screened. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was calculated to be 4.3% among high-risk Greenlandic pregnant women (2/46) (95% CI 0-10.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a suboptimal screening rate, the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders seems to be relatively low...... women who had given birth in Nuuk during 2008. METHODS: Information about maternal weight, weight gain in pregnancy, height, blood pressure, result of oral glucose tolerance test, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol habits, ethnicity, delivery and birth weight and length was collected...

  11. METABOLIC MEDICATIONS FOR THE REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN BORN TO DRUG ADDICTED WOMEN

    A.A. Dzhumagaziev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented the study results of the physical and neuro psychic growth of children, who were born to drug addicted women. they studied the active state of the dehydrogenase peripheral blood lymphocytes, reflecting the metabolic disorder at the tissue level and body level in general, as well as the ways to correct them with metabolic therapy assisted by glycine and biotredin. They also analyzed the results of the complex therapy and rehabilitation of the children, who were born to drug addicted women.Key words: drug embryopathy, metabolic therapy, children, rehabilitation.

  12. Induced abortion and contraception use: among immigrant and Canadian-born women in Calgary, Alta.

    Prey, Beatrice du; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A; Drummond, Neil

    2014-09-01

    To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks' gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of

  13. Communication barriers among Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders: lost in translation?

    Khan, Aqsa A; Sevilla, Claudia; Wieslander, Cecilia K; Moran, Meghan B; Rashid, Rezoana; Mittal, Brita; Maliski, Sally L; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate barriers in communication and disease understanding among office staff and interpreters when communicating with Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders. We conducted a qualitative study to evaluate barriers to communication with Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders among office staff and interpreters. Sixteen office staff and interpreters were interviewed; interview questions focused on experiences with Spanish-speaking patients with pelvic floor disorders in the clinic setting. Interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methodology. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several barriers in communication as identified by office staff and interpreters. Three major classes were predominant: patient, interpreter, and system-related barriers. Patient-related barriers included a lack of understanding of anatomy and medical terminology and inhibited discussions due to embarrassment. Provider-related barriers included poor interpreter knowledge of pelvic floor vocabulary and the use of office staff without interpreting credentials. System-related barriers included poor access to information. From these preliminary themes, an emergent concept was revealed: it is highly likely that Spanish-speaking women with pelvic floor disorders have poor understanding of their condition owing to multiple obstacles in communication. There are many levels of barriers to communications with Latin women treated for pelvic floor disorders, arising from the patient, interpreter, and the system itself. These barriers contribute to a low level of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment options, and administered therapies.

  14. The Spanish version of the fatique assessment scale : Reliability and validity assessment in postpartum women

    Cano-Climent, A.; Oliver-Roig, A.; Cabrero-Garcia, J.; de Vries, J.; Richart-Martinez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most widely reported symptom by women during pregnancy, labour, the postpartum period, and early parenting. The objective was to translate the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) into Spanish and assess its psychometric properties. Methods Instrumental Design. The FAS was

  15. Growth of infants born to HIV-infected women when fed a ...

    Growth of infants born to HIV-infected women when fed a ... breast-feeding.1 This must be balanced against the many benefits of ... milk formulas for their newborn infants. Outcome ... Inclusion criteria were normally grown (birth weight 2500–.

  16. Cognitive and Social Development In Preschool Children Born To Women Using Substances

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...

  17. Work Experiences of Foreign-Born Asian Women Counseling and Psychology Faculty

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Mok, Geoffrey; Nishida, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Eleven foreign-born and -raised Asian women faculty in counseling and psychology programs in the United States were interviewed about their work experiences. Analysis using consensual qualitative research revealed 7 sources of stressors, 6 emotional reactions associated with stressors, 5 coping strategies, and 4 types of intrinsic rewards gained…

  18. mortality in a cohort of children born to hiv-1 infected women from ...

    Nsuami M. Nsa W. Kamenga M. Badi N. Utshudi M Mortality in HJV-1 seropositive women,. their spouses, and their newly born dtildren during 36 months of follow-up in Kinshasha, Zaire. AIDS 1994; S, 667-fiTL. 10. Division of Oilld Health and Deve1opment.lntegrated Management ofCh£ldhooillU1U!SS. Information Pack.

  19. Factors associated with lack of adherence to antenatal care in African immigrant women and Spanish women in northern Spain: the role of social risk factors in combination with language proficiency.

    Santibáñez, Miguel; Paz-Zulueta, Maria; Ruiz, María; Castro, Irene; Llorca, Javier

    2015-01-01

    to examine the association and interaction between language proficiency, social risk factors and lack of adherence to antenatal care in African immigrant women (AIW). retrospective cohort study. Two hundred and thirty-one AIW with delivery dates from 2007 to 2010 were identified, and data were collected on knowledge of Spanish, referral to a social worker because of social risk factors, and adequacy of antenatal care using the Kessner Index (KI) and the authors' own index (OI). The Spanish-born population sample was obtained by simple random sampling in a 1:3 ratio. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by non-conditional logistic regression. The term 'language*referral to social worker' was included in the logistic models to study interaction. eighty-four per cent of AIW had insufficient knowledge of Spanish, and 47% had been referred to a social worker. Of the AIW who had not been referred to a social worker, the association between poor knowledge of Spanish and inadequate antenatal care was weak and not significant (OR for KI 1.31). On the contrary, of the AIW who had been referred to a social worker, the association was stronger and significant (OR for KI 8.98; p interaction=0.026). Social risk factors were the main independent factors associated with inadequate antenatal care in Spanish women (adjusted OR 3.17; 95% confidence interval 1.42-7.06). this study found that the main factor associated with inadequate antenatal care in AIW is insufficient language proficiency, but only in the presence of social risk factors, which have also been associated with worse antenatal care in Spanish women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. UK-born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn infant.

    Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison

    2011-10-01

    to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant. in-depth semi-structured interviews. 34 UK-born women of Black African, Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Irish parentage and 30 health-care professionals. women and health-care professionals were recruited primarily from hospitals serving large numbers of ethnic minority women in London and Birmingham. despite being aware of the benefits of exclusive breast feeding, many women chose to feed their infant with formula. The main barriers to breast feeding were the perceived difficulties of breast feeding, a family preference for formula feed, and embarrassment about breast feeding in front of others. Reports from women of South Asian parentage, particularly those who lived with an extended family, suggested that their intentions to breast feed were compromised by the context of their family life. The lack of privacy in these households and grandparental pressure appeared to be key issues. Unlike other participants, Irish women reported an intention to feed their infant with formula before giving birth. The key facilitators to breast feeding were the self-confidence and determination of women and the supportive role of health-care professionals. these findings point to common but also culturally specific mechanisms that may hinder both the initiation and maintenance of breast feeding in UK-born ethnic minority women. They signal potential benefits from the inclusion of family members in breast-feeding support programmes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence against foreign-born women: a Swedish population-based study.

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Essén, Birgitta; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is an increasing global phenomenon. Little is known about violence against foreign-born women, despite a possible increased concentration of risk factors in this group. This study investigated prevalence of perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence and its relation to country of birth among women (18-64 years) residing in southern Sweden, using data obtained from the 2004 Public Health Survey in Scania, Sweden. Foreign-born women reported significantly higher rates of both perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence compared with Swedish-born women. Foreign-born women exposed to violence originated primarily from middle/low-income countries (versus high-income countries). The risk of perceived threat of violence remained significantly increased among foreign-born even after further adjustment for potential confounders, such as marital status and disposable income. After similar adjustment, increased exposure to physical violence was no longer significantly related to foreign-born status, but instead was largely attributable to marital status and low levels of disposable income. Foreign-born women, however, had a greater risk of physical violence in the home than Swedish-born women, and violence in the home was the most frequently reported setting for violence exposure among foreign-born women. Migration may confer an increased risk of interpersonal violence against women. Although the underlying causes of this increased risk are unknown, a complex set of factors may be involved, including socioeconomic disadvantage. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Being a bridge: Swedish antenatal care midwives' encounters with Somali-born women and questions of violence; a qualitative study.

    Byrskog, Ulrika; Olsson, Pia; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie-Klingberg

    2015-01-16

    Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence. Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis. The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women's' strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman's access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women. Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives' ability to identify Somali born woman's resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the

  3. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  4. Sexual Pain Disorders in Spanish Women Drug Users.

    Del Río, Francisco Javier; Cabello-Santamaría, Francisco; Cabello-García, Marina A; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo

    2017-01-28

    The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. The results indicate that women consumers obtained a higher mean scores in sexual pain disorder (4.88 > 2.89, that is 65.12%), plus higher mean scores on state anxiety (23.82 > 14.56) and trait anxiety (30.93 > 16.95), and lower average figure in erotophilia (84.93 < 95.81). It was also verified that the period of abstinence does not improve sexual response. Substance consumption affects sexual response in women negatively. Sexual response does not improve with abstinence period.

  5. Mammography Screening Trends: The Perspective of African American Women Born Pre/Post World War II

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209

  6. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    of any mental disorder (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.20-1.26) and for most of the 11 main discharge groups, including schizophrenia (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.27), mood (affective) disorders (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15-1.28) and disorders of psychological development (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09-1.21) as well as the subgroup...... not previously studied (e.g. neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders and disorders of adult personality and behaviour). These important findings should be investigated further in large epidemiological studies designed to differentiate between factors related to fertility treatment and to the underlying......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient...

  7. Equivalence and standard scores of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness across Spanish men and women

    Pablo Santos-Iglesias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the measurement invariance and differential item functioning of the Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness across gender. The sample was composed of 1,600 women and 1,598 men from Spain, with ages ranging from 18 to 84 years old. The Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness only showed weak invariance for men and women. The differential item functioning analysis showed that only item 2 ("I feel that I am shy when it comes to sex" flagged moderate uniform differential item functioning. More specifically, women tended to respond "Always" to this item more frequently than did men. Results strongly suggested eliminating item 2, resulting in a final version with 18 items clustered into two dimensions with good reliability values for men and women. Standard scores for both Initiation and No Shyness/Refusal reflected traditional sexual scripts for men and women.

  8. Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation

    Cuervo, Marta; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. PMID:25333199

  9. Born Both Ways: The Alloparenting Hypothesis for Sexual Fluidity in Women

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the primacy of reproduction, same-sex sexual behavior poses an evolutionary puzzle. Why would selection fashion motivational mechanisms to engage in sexual behaviors with members of the same sex? We propose the alloparenting hypothesis, which posits that sexual fluidity in women is a contingent adaptation that increased ancestral women's ability to form pair bonds with female alloparents who helped them rear children to reproductive age. Ancestral women recurrently faced the adaptive problems of securing resources and care for their offspring, but were frequently confronted with either a dearth of paternal resources due to their mates' death, an absence of paternal investment due to rape, or a divestment of paternal resources due to their mates' extra-pair mating efforts. A fluid sexuality would have helped ancestral women secure resources and care for their offspring by promoting the acquisition of allomothering investment from unrelated women. Under this view, most heterosexual women are born with the capacity to form romantic bonds with both sexes. Sexual fluidity is a conditional reproductive strategy with pursuit of men as the default strategy and same-sex sexual responsiveness triggered when inadequate paternal investment occurs or when women with alloparenting capabilities are encountered. Discussion focuses on (a evidence for alloparenting and sexual fluidity in humans and other primates; (b alternative explanations for sexual fluidity in women; and (c fourteen circumstances predicted to promote same-sex sexual behavior in women.

  10. Women, engagement and censorship in the Spanish Cinema. 1939-1959

    Fátima Gil Gascón, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available his article analyses the formation of women’s identity in relation to love and courtship in the Spanish cinema during the first Franco regime (1939-1959. To this end, two hundred films produced in Spain during this time were analysed. These films were chosen based on two criteria: Their permanence in the box office and their relevance to the subject under study. This research was complemented with the analysis of the censorship reports about these films, which facilitated the understanding of the guidelines and influence of the government towards the representation of an official model of the Spanish women. Moreover, in order to know whether other media also contributed to the creation of the feminine identity, we consulted the most important women’s magazines and compared their messages whit those offered to women on the big screen.The analysis shows that the cinema of this years present a vision of love that was very far from the romantic and passionate feeling that appeared in other artistic representations. Female audiences that went to the cinema during this time assimilated a concept of love intrinsically linked to marriage and the formation of a family. This reality was in consonance with the mission to which, according to the Francoist regime, the Spanish women were destined.

  11. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, Mar?a ?.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  12. The Development of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Women Who Had Genitourinary Infections During Pregnancy.

    Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl C K; O'Shea, T Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Fichorova, Raina N; Dammann, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Gestational genitourinary infections, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental impairments among infants born near term, have not been studied among very preterm infants. The mothers of 989 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation were interviewed about urine, bladder, or kidney infections (UTIs) and cervical or vaginal infections (CVIs) during pregnancy, as well as other exposures and characteristics, and their charts were reviewed for the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study (2002-2004). At 2 years of age, these infants underwent a neurodevelopmental assessment. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models of developmental adversities were used to adjust for potential confounders. Infants born to women who reported a UTI were less likely than were others to have a very low Mental Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3, 0.8), whereas infants born to women who reported a CVI were more likely than others to have a low Psychomotor Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 2.7). In this high-risk sample, maternal gestational CVI, but not UTI, was associated with a higher risk of impaired motor development at 2 years of age. The apparent protective effect of UTI might be spurious, reflect confounding due to untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria among women who were not given a diagnosis of UTI, or reflect preconditioning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spanish American Women Writers: Simmering Identity Over a Low Fire

    Ksenija Bilbija

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After establishing the parallel between the kitchen and the alchemist's laboratory, this article shows that traditionally, the kitchen has come to symbolize the space associated with the marginalization of women. However, the recent explosion of the novels dedicated to the resemantization and reevaluation of the realm of the kitchen is the best evidence that it is also a space from which much creativity emanates. A close reading of two such cookbook/novels, Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel and Like Potatoes for Varenike by Sylvia Plager, points toward a quite parodic and critical gender perspective. Furthermore, it calls for a reinterpretation of stereotypical power relations and of male and female identity symbols.

  14. Indigenous women in Spanish American Historic Epic Poetry

    Lise Segas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epic poetry has always been considered a masculine genre. The eruption of a group identity, masculine, white, aristocratic and christian, is the result of the representation and the exclusion of the Other, fictitious and singular, but in fact composed of a variety of ethnic groups, origins, sex, genders, religions and different degrees between fiction and historicity. Indeed, in the historical epic poetry which narrated the Conquest, except for the conquistadors listed at length and the indigenous kings and caciques, only few characters are distinguished by a historical individualisation. The Other, Amerindian and female, makes a shy entrance into history, into singularity, into the (historical and christian truth. It is the case of interpreters: Malinche and India Catalina, only historical native women that appear as part of the narrative plot as well as in the conquest enterprise in the poems of Lasso de la Vega (Cortés valeroso y Mexicana, Mexicana, of Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias and of Saavedra Guzmán (El peregrino indiano.

  15. Behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy.

    Güveli, Betül T; Gürses, Candan; Ataklı, Dilek; Akça Kalem, Şükriye; Dirican, Ahmet; Bebek, Nerses; Baykan, Betül; Gökyiğit, Aysen

    2015-04-01

    Greater risks of congenital malformation as well as cognitive and behavioral development in later childhood occur as a result of in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We examined the effects of AEDs on behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy. Children aged 6-15 years and born to women with epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Information was collected on the women's demographics and the details of their usage/non-usage of AEDs during pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for the Children-Revised (WICS-R) test was administered to the children. The Alexander IQ test and the Conner Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were administered to the mothers. Comparisons were made between children who had been exposed and not exposed to AEDs in utero and if exposed, according to exposure to AED monotherapy or polytherapy. The mother's education level and IQ score and data from the same parent's siblings were evaluated with respect to consanguinity. Forty-one children born to 28 women with epilepsy were enrolled. Seven mothers had multiple pregnancies. Twenty-three pregnancies (56%) were exposed to monotherapy and five (12·1%) to polytherapy. The remaining 13 (31·7%) were not exposed to AEDs. Maternal education level was a significant major factor in child IQ development (P sibling assessment indicated a negative effect of valproate on IQ. It is important that the AED dosage be reduced to a minimum to maintain seizure control for healthy cognitive and behavioral development of a child.

  16. Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary concentrations of phthalates and phenols in a population of Spanish pregnant women and children.

    Casas, Lidia; Fernández, Mariana F; Llop, Sabrina; Guxens, Mònica; Ballester, Ferran; Olea, Nicolás; Irurzun, Mikel Basterrechea; Rodríguez, Loreto Santa Marina; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Calafat, Antonia M; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    Phthalate and phenol exposure is prevalent among the general population and of potential concern for pregnant women and children because of their suspected susceptibility to endocrine effects. To evaluate the extent of exposure to several phthalates and phenols in a sample of Spanish pregnant women - according to their individual characteristics (age, social class, education, and body mass index) - and children who participated in the INMA - Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project. One spot urine sample was taken during the third trimester of pregnancy from 120 pregnant women and from 30 4-year old children belonging to 5 Spanish birth cohorts, and analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites and 9 phenols. Three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; two metabolites of dibutyl phthalates, mono-isobutyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate; monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate; and two phenols, methyl paraben (M-PB) and 2,5-dichlorophenol were detected in the urine samples of all women. The highest urinary concentrations were for MEP and M-PB. Urinary concentrations of all phthalate metabolites and of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and bisphenol A were lower in the pregnant women than in the children. Among women, a positive relationship with social class and education was shown for most of the phthalate metabolites and phenols. Almost all phthalate metabolites varied by region even after adjusting for social class and education. Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  19. Validity of a combined fibromyalgia (FM) questionnaires to asses physical activity levels in Spanish elderly women: an experimental approach.

    Cancela, José María; Varela, Silvia; Alvarez, María José; Molina, Antonio; Ayán, Carlos; Martín, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires designed to assess the level of physical activity among elderly Spanish speaking women usually have problems of reproducibility and are difficult to administer. This study aims to validate a Spanish combined version of two questionnaires originally designed to assess physical activity levels in fibromyalgia women. The leisure time physical activity instrument (LTPAI) and the physical activity at home and work instrument (PAHWI). Both questionnaires were translated to Spanish using translation/back translation methodology, and then were administered to 44 women aged 60-80 twice, with an interval of 2 weeks. During the first administration, participants answered the Yale physical activity questionnaires (YPAS) and performed the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Although the Spanish version of the LTPAI and the PAWHI showed poor test-retest reliability and poor construct validity, the sum of the two questionnaires showed much better associations. The results suggest that the Spanish combined version of LTPAI and PAHWI would seem to be useful tools for assessing the level of physical activity among elderly Spanish speaking women. Nevertheless, such considerations as the cultural adaptation of their content or the link between the intensity of physical activity as perceived and that actually done must be adjusted for greater efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems.

    Svahn, M F; Hargreave, M; Nielsen, T S S; Plessen, K J; Jensen, S M; Kjaer, S K; Jensen, A

    2015-09-01

    Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders in children born to women with fertility problems. Few studies have investigated the risk of mental disorders in children born after fertility treatment and although some studies have pointed to an increased risk, others found no association. The inconsistent results may be due to methodological constraints in many previous studies, including small sample size and short follow-up, resulting in imprecise risk estimates and lack of information on risk patterns of mental disorders in adulthood. This nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study included all 2 412 721 children born in Denmark between 1969 and 2006. All children were followed from date of birth until date of hospital contact for a mental disorder, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. Information concerning maternal fertility status for all children in the cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort, which contains data on nearly all women with fertility problems in Denmark since 1963. A total of 124 269 (5%) children were born to women with fertility problems and 2 288 452 (95%) to women without fertility problems. To identify children hospitalized for a mental disorder, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal fertility status and the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for various groups of mental disorders, including any mental disorder and all 11 main discharge diagnostic groups, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases

  1. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population

    Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Objective Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. Methods To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. Results The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). Conclusions By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. PMID:29490955

  2. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population.

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana Maria; Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Marianismo and Caregiving Role Beliefs Among U.S.-Born and Immigrant Mexican Women.

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Anthony, Katherine P

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to explore how women of Mexican-origin conceptualized caregiving as a construct in terms of cultural beliefs, social norms, role functioning, and familial obligations. We examined the personal experiences of U.S-born and immigrant Mexican female caregivers to identify how these 2 groups differed in their views of the caregiver role. We conducted 1-time in-depth interviews with 44 caregivers living in Southern California. Our study was guided by marianismo, a traditional role occupied by women in the Mexican family. We analyzed data from a grounded theory approach involving the constant comparative method to refine and categorize the data. The majority of all caregivers had similar views about caregiving as an undertaking by choice, and almost all caregivers engaged in self-sacrificing actions to fulfill the marianismo role. Despite these similarities, U.S.-born and immigrant caregivers used different words to describe the same concepts or assigned different meanings to other key aspects of caregiving, suggesting that these 2 groups had different underlying motivations for caregiving and orientations to the role. Our findings highlight the complexity of language and culture in underlying caregiving concepts, making the concepts challenging to operationalize and define in a heterogeneous sample of Latinos. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Why does fertility remain high among certain UK-born ethnic minority women?

    Hill Kulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown high total fertility among certain UK-born ethnic minorities, but the reasons behind their high fertility have remained far from clear. Some researchers attribute their elevated fertility levels to cultural factors, whereas others argue that high fertility is the consequence of their poor education and labour market prospects. Objective: This study investigates fertility among the descendants of immigrants in the UK and examines the determinants of high fertility among certain ethnic minority groups. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply multivariate event history analysis. Results: The analysis shows, first, that relatively high second-, third-, and fourth-birth rates are responsible for the elevated total fertility among certain UK-born minorities, especially women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. There is little variation in the first-birth rates among natives and immigrant descendants. Second, although fertility differences between ethnic minorities and native British women slightly decrease once religiosity and number of siblings are controlled for, significant differences persist. We conclude that cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic groups in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be only minor. Contribution: Cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic minorities in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be negligible.

  5. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey.

    Torloni, M R; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, A P

    2014-04-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Systematic review. Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Articles with any information on CS. Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in northern Uganda.

    Atim, Teddy; Mazurana, Dyan; Marshak, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    Girls and women who bear children owing to wartime sexual violence committed by armed actors face challenges in gaining acceptance on return to their families and societies. This study analyses the lives of women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in Uganda. It draws on a population-based survey of 1,844 households in the Acholi and Lango sub-regions of northern Uganda, as well as on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 with 67 purposefully selected women survivors of wartime sexual violence. The study finds that: stigma is linked to broader gender discriminatory sociocultural norms and practices and changes under different circumstances; women's economic agency is essential to reducing stigma; households with members who suffered war-related sexual violence experienced significantly higher rates of violence post conflict than did other households; and the passage of time is less of a determining factor in their acceptance and reintegration than previously thought. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  7. Episiotomy rate in Vietnamese-born women in Australia: support for a change in obstetric practice in Viet Nam.

    Trinh, Anh T; Khambalia, Amina; Ampt, Amanda; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L

    2013-05-01

    To describe the use of episiotomy among Vietnamese-born women in Australia, including risk factors for, and pregnancy outcomes associated with, episiotomy. This population-based, retrospective cohort study included data on 598 305 singleton, term (i.e. ≥ 37 weeks' gestation) and vertex-presenting vaginal births between 2001 and 2010. Data were obtained from linked, validated, population-level birth and hospitalization data sets. Contingency tables and multivariate analysis were used to compare risk factors and pregnancy outcomes in women who did or did not have an episiotomy. The episiotomy rate in 12 208 Vietnamese-born women was 29.9%, compared with 15.1% in Australian-born women. Among Vietnamese-born women, those who had an episiotomy were significantly more likely than those who did not to be primiparous, give birth in a private hospital, have induced labour or undergo instrumental delivery. In these women, having an episiotomy was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-1.46) and postnatal hospitalization for more than 4 days (aOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Among multiparous women only, episiotomy was positively associated with a third- or fourth-degree perineal tear (aOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.31-3.06); in contrast, among primiparous women the association was negative (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.37-0.60). Episiotomy was performed in far fewer Vietnamese-born women giving birth in Australia than in Viet Nam, where more than 85% undergo the procedure, and was not associated with adverse outcomes. A lower episiotomy rate should be achievable in Viet Nam.

  8. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE), compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50)]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect...

  9. HIV risk and barriers to care for African-born immigrant women: a sociocultural outlook

    Okoro ON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olihe N Okoro,1 Shanasha O Whitson2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Duluth, 2Community Partnership Collaborative 2.0, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Data from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2015 show that African-born (AB women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2015, these women accounted for more than half (54% of all new cases of HIV reported among females in Minnesota and 34% of all known female cases in the state. This study was a needs assessment for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in vulnerable subgroups within the AB population and adequacy of HIV care for AB persons. The primary objective of this study was to gain an insight into the strategies that will limit the spread of HIV infection and enhance HIV care among AB immigrants. Methods: Community advocates, community-based organizations (CBOs, clinicians, and other HIV-related service providers were invited to participate in a focus group, structured interview or complete an assessment tool using the same questionnaire about HIV and PrEP among AB persons. A thematic analysis was then conducted on the open-ended questions addressing perceived barriers. Results: Findings suggest the following gender-specific sociocultural factors that drive HIV transmission and constitute barriers to HIV treatment for AB women: domestic/intimate partner violence, gender-biased stigma, discriminatory cultural beliefs and normative values/expectations, unprotected sex with husbands who have sex with other men, gender discordance in health care (preference for female provider, and sexual/reproductive health illiteracy. Recommendation: Based on recommendations, a community-based sexual and reproductive health education is being initiated with a curriculum that will be 1 broad (inclusive but not limited to HIV, 2 culturally sensitive/responsive, and 3 at appropriate

  10. Gut hormone activity of children born to women with and without gestational diabetes.

    Chandler-Laney, P C; Bush, N C; Rouse, D J; Mancuso, M S; Gower, B A

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Children born to women with gestational diabetes have greater risk for obesity. Obesity in adults and children is associated with blunted postprandial gut hormone responses. What this study adds Children of women with gestational diabetes have a blunted postprandial response of GLP-1. Children of women with gestational diabetes have high fasting PYY concentrations. Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risk for obesity. Obesity is associated with a blunted postprandial gut hormone response, which may impair satiety and thereby contribute to weight gain. The postprandial response of gut hormones among children of women with GDM has not previously been investigated. To examine whether children of women with GDM have suppressed peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), and higher concentrations of ghrelin, following a meal challenge. A secondary objective was to investigate associations of these hormones with children's free-living energy intake. Children (n = 42) aged 5-10 years were stratified into two groups: offspring of GDM mothers (OGD) and of non-diabetic mothers (CTRL). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and circulating PYY, GLP-1 and total ghrelin were measured during a liquid meal challenge. Energy intake was assessed by three 24-h diet recalls. Between-groups analyses of fasting and incremental area under the curve (AUC) found no differences in ghrelin. Incremental AUC for GLP-1 was greater among the CTRL vs. OGD (P potential role of postprandial GLP-1 suppression and high-fasting PYY concentrations on the feeding behaviour and risk for obesity among children exposed to GDM in utero. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  12. Tau Fifine Fiafia: the binge drinking behaviours of nine New Zealand born Niuean women living in Auckland.

    Gray, Josephine; Nosa, Vili

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the binge drinking behaviours and attitudes of nine New Zealand born Niuean women aged 18 to 45 plus years living in Auckland who are heavy binge drinkers. Taped interviews were conducted individually with nine Niuean participants, utilising a semi-structured interviewing schedule in both Niuean and English languages. This study argues that excessive drinking style of binge drinking commonly practised with the younger generation of Niuean women. The study highlighted the important role of supportive friends and women within a drinking circle compared to the cultural and gender restrictions when drinking with males. NZ born Niuean women outlined there were fewer limitations on alcohol use and behaviour associated with drunkenness; the reason for drinking was to reach a level of intoxication. Alcohol consumption was seen as a way of socialising, having fun, being happy and feeling safe primarily when drinking with other women, even though participants experienced negative behaviour when safety was threatened. The Niuean community needs to address alcohol related issues affecting Niuean women through education awareness within social and cultural gatherings. This study is not a representative study and it cannot be generalised to all New Zealand born Niuean women because the sampling size is too small. The aim of this paper is to look at the binge drinking behaviours of nine New Zealand born Niuean women living in Auckland. A qualitative research methodology offace to face interviews was used to interview NZ born Niuean women and their alcohol consumption. Participants were recruited by using a snow ball methodology. Participants were also approached throughout the community on the telephone and via email/internet about the research. Participants were also from Niuean gatherings such as Niuean cultural workshops, weaving groups, church groups, and sports groups, Niuean websites. A semi-structured interview format was used making it

  13. Factors associated with a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in healthy Spanish women before pregnancy.

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Fernández, Julia Gómez; Prieto, Carmen Amezcua; Moreno, Juan Mozas; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2014-03-01

    To analyse the factors associated with the level of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in healthy Spanish women before pregnancy. A prospective series of 1175 women. An FFQ validated in Spanish populations served to collect dietary data. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Index was used to assess the level of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern. Polytomic regression was performed to identify the associated factors. Catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Andalusia, Spain. The women were invited to participate in the study at the 20th-22nd gestational week. The selection criteria were: Spanish nationality, 18 years of age or older, singleton pregnancy and absence of health problems that required modifying the diet or physical activity. An inverse relationship was found between women's age and level of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, with a clear dose-response association: a younger age entailed worse adherence (P smoking and sedentary lifestyle had a positive relationship with low adherence, giving OR = 5·36 (95 % 1·91, 15·07) for women who smoked >20 cigarettes/d and OR = 2·07 (95 % CI 1·34, 3·17) for sedentary women. Higher age, higher educational level, and higher social class of the women were associated with a higher level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P smoking and lack of exercise were associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet.

  14. Timing of prenatal starvation in women and birth weight in their first and second born offspring: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort study

    Lumey, L. H.; Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the long-term effects of severe in utero maternal undernutrition on offspring birth weight. Birth weights were analyzed of 575 first born and 454 second born offspring of 683 women born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, at the time of a severe famine at the end of World War II. In utero

  15. An Examination of Cultural Values and Pain Management in Foreign-Born Spanish-Speaking Hispanics Seeking Care at a Federally Qualified Health Center.

    Torres, Calia A; Thorn, Beverly E; Kapoor, Shweta; DeMonte, Colette

    2017-11-01

    Most studies done with Hispanics illustrate their preference for self-management practices; therefore, examining the factors driving patients to seek medical care for pain management will help elucidate what patients want and need from their doctors for pain management. The aim of the present study was to obtain patients' perspectives and enhance our understanding of the cultural beliefs influencing pain management decisions of foreign-born Spanish-speaking Hispanics with low acculturation. Twenty-four individuals (17 females and 7 males) with self-reported chronic pain completed the study. Participants attended a focus group and shared about pain management practices and their experiences with medical care for pain management. Descriptive data on pain and mood variables were collected to examine how this population compares with the norms reported in the pain literature for Hispanics. Participants reported a preference for pain self-management and noninvasive medical treatments and expressed negative attitudes toward pain medications, although wanting the option of pain medications as a "last resort." Satisfaction with medical care for pain was highly influenced by the participants' expectations and preference for personal, warm, and friendly interactions. Our findings are consistent with previous reports on Hispanics' preference for self-care practices. Perhaps foreign-born Hispanics may rely on self-care practices and delay medical attention for pain management because of their unfamiliarity with the US health care system. Other potential explanations for a reliance on self-care for pain management involve patients having a limited understanding of or access to effective treatment options for chronic pain and negative experiences with US medical providers. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  17. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  18. Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular clinical characteristics of Spanish women with stable ischaemic heart disease: Data from the SIRENA study.

    Gámez, José M; Masmiquel, Luis; Ripoll, Tomás; Barrios, Vivencio; Anguita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and the cardiovascular clinical characteristics of Spanish women with stable ischaemic heart disease was studied in a nationwide cross-sectional study. Diabetes was related to a higher burden of risk factors, comorbidity, multivessel disease and coronary surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Itziar Churruca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  20. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women.

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  1. Walking, biking or sport: how Spanish women attending breast cancer screening meet physical activity recommendations?

    Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; Salas, Dolores; Vallés, Guillermo; Abad-Fernandez, Ma Soledad; Vidal, Carmen; Sanchez-Contador Escudero, Carmen; Ascunce-Elizaga, Nieves; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Pedraz, Carmen; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-10-01

    The aim is to analyse physical activity (PA), the fulfillment recommendation of at least 150 min of moderate PA, through walking/biking (W&B), sport, both types of PA and the factors associated with inactivity by Spanish women who attended breast cancer screening programmes. The DDM-Spain is a multicentre cross-sectional study involving 3584 women, aged 45-68, attending screening in seven Spanish cities. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including age, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, family burden and PA. PA was converted into metabolic equivalent of task (METs), categorized as low ≤ 600 METs min per week (m/w), moderate 600-3000 METs m/w and high ≥ 3000 METs m/w. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with inactivity for each type of PA. No women achieved a high level of PA through sport. 79.2% achieved a high or moderate level of PA by W&B. Lack of sport was associated with being overweight (odds ratio OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.06 to 1.62), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.38), smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.00) and living with a disabled person (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.81), whereas enough sport practice was associated with higher educational or socio-economic level (SEL). Regarding W&B, inactivity was associated with BMI ≥ 30 (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.49 to 2.45) and living with someone >74 (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.58). Inactivity for both types of exercise was associated with a BMI ≥ 30 (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.8), smoking (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.81) and living with someone >74 (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.28). Family burden and BMI ≥ 30 are inversely associated with both types of PA. W&B is the most common type of PA regardless of educational and SEL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal education and perinatal outcomes among Spanish women residing in southern Spain (2001-2011).

    Juárez, Sol; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara A; Ramiro-Fariñas, Diego; Viciana-Fernández, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that educational differences in perinatal outcomes have increased in some countries (Eastern Europe) while remained stable in others (Scandinavian countries). However, less is known about the experience of Southern Europe. This study aims to evaluate the association between maternal education and perinatal outcomes derived from birthweight (low birthweight and macrosomia) and gestational age (pre-term and post-term births) among Spaniards living in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia during the period 2001-2011 (around 19 % of births in Spain); and to evaluate whether the educational differences narrowed or widened during that period, which includes both an economic boom (2001-2008) and the global economic crisis (2009-2011). This study uses the Andalusian Population Longitudinal Database and the Vital Statistics Data provided by the Spanish National Statistics Institute. We study live and singleton births of Spanish mothers who lived in Andalusia at the time of delivery (n = 404,951). ORs with 95 % confidence intervals (crude and adjusted) were estimated using multinomial regression models. A negative educational gradient is observed in all perinatal outcomes studied (i.e., the higher the educational status, the lower the risk of negative perinatal outcomes). However, when disaggregating the sample in two periods, the gradient is only statistically significant for pre-term birth during 2001-2008, while a full gradient is observed in all perinatal indicators in the period 2009-2011 with an increase in the educational inequalities in macrosomia and post-term. Further studies are needed in order to confirm whether there is a causal association between the widening of the educational differences in perinatal outcomes and the onset of the economic crisis in Spain, or the widening can be explained by other factors, such as changes in childbearing patterns and the composition of women accessing motherhood.

  3. Early cognitive development in children born to women with epilepsy: a prospective report.

    Bromley, Rebecca L; Mawer, George; Love, Jenna; Kelly, James; Purdy, Laura; McEwan, Lauren; Briggs, Maria; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Shi, Xin; Sin, Xin; Baker, Gus A

    2010-10-01

    In this prospective study the early cognitive development of children born to women with epilepsy (n = 198) was assessed and compared to a group of children representative of the general population (n = 230). The children were assessed when younger than the age of 2 years using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, either in their local participating hospital or in their home. The assessments were completed by an assessor who was blinded to whether the child's mother had epilepsy and to antiepileptic drug type. Children exposed to sodium valproate had a statistically significant increased risk of delayed early development in comparison to the control children. Linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant effect of sodium valproate exposure on the child's overall developmental level that was not accounted for by confounding variables. Delayed early development is also noted for children within an ad hoc group of less commonly utilized antiepileptic drugs, although conclusions cannot be drawn due to the size of this group (n = 13). Children exposed to either carbamazepine or lamotrigine in utero did not differ significantly in their overall developmental ability. Differences noted in specific developmental areas for these two groups were not statistically significant after the control for confounders such as socioeconomic status and maternal IQ. Women with epilepsy should be informed of the risks posed to their potential offspring prior to pregnancy to allow for informed decisions regarding treatment. Children exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs should be monitored throughout childhood to allow for early intervention when necessary. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Risk of Childhood Rheumatic and Non-Rheumatic Autoimmune Diseases in Children Born to Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Couture, Julie; Bernatsky, Sasha; Scott, Susan; Pineau, Christian A; Vinet, Evelyne

    2018-05-23

    Several autoimmune diseases have familial aggregation and possibly, common genetic predispositions. In a large population-based study, we evaluated if children born to mothers with SLE have an increased risk of rheumatic and non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases, versus children born to mothers without SLE. Using the "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)", we identified children born live to SLE mothers and their matched controls, and ascertained autoimmune diseases based on ≥1 hospitalization or ≥2 physician visits with a relevant diagnostic code. We adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, obstetrical complications, calendar birth year, and sex of child. 509 women with SLE had 719 children, while 5824 matched controls had 8493 children. Mean follow-up was 9.1 (SD 5.8) years. Children born to mothers with SLE had similar frequency of rheumatic autoimmune diagnoses (0.14%, 95% CI 0.01, 0.90) versus controls (0.19%, 95% CI 0.11, 0.32). There was a trend towards more non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases in SLE offspring (1.11%, 95% CI 0.52, 2.27) versus controls (0.48%, 95% CI 0.35, 0.66). In multivariate analyses, we did not see a clear increase in rheumatic autoimmune disease (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.11-4.82) but children born to mothers with SLE had a substantially increased risk of non-rheumatic autoimmune disease versus controls (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.06-5.03). Although the vast majority of offspring have no autoimmune disease, children born to women with SLE may have an increased risk of non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases, versus controls. Additional studies assessing offspring through to adulthood would be additionally enlightening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of Quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study.

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Côté, José; Cara, Chantal

    2012-10-18

    In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one's decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and intersectoral levels. Mobilization of actors from

  6. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and

  7. An approach to the socio-labour situation of disabled women in rural communities in a Spanish region.

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Bayot-Mestre, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer socio-labour discrimination because of both their gender and their disability. The situation is gradually improving, thanks to the national and supranational organisations, which in the past few decades have made considerable progress in improving the legislation, providing financial resources and encouraging social awareness. Despite this, few studies quantify this double discrimination in order to permit the evaluation of the socio-labour situation of this group of people. This scarcity is even more pronounced for rural areas, where many other factors hinder the integration of disabled women into the labour market and generate some specific problems that the specialist literature seldom addresses. The current work presents the results of a survey on the socio-economic situation of disabled women in a strongly rural area: the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha. It stresses the fundamental difficulties of these women in integrating into the labour market and the most urgent political measures needed to help this group.

  8. Women's satisfaction with care at the birthplace in Austria: Evaluation of the Babies Born Better survey national dataset.

    Luegmair, Karolina; Zenzmaier, Christoph; Oblasser, Claudia; König-Bachmann, Martina

    2018-04-01

    to evaluate women's satisfaction with care at the birthplace in Austria and to provide reference data for cross-country comparisons within the international Babies Born Better project. a cross-sectional design was applied. The data were extracted from the Babies Born Better survey as a national sub-dataset that included all participants with Austria as the indicated country of residence. an online survey targeting women who had given birth within the last five years and distributed primarily via social media. In addition to sociodemographic and closed-ended questions regarding pregnancy and the childbirth environment, the women's childbirth experiences and satisfaction with the birthplace were obtained with three open-ended questions regarding (i) best experience of care, (ii) required changes in care and (iii) honest description of the experienced care. five hundred thirty-nine women who had given birth in Austria within the last five years. based on the concepts of public health, salutogenesis and self-efficacy, a deductive coding framework was developed and applied to analyse the qualitative data of the Babies Born Better survey. Regarding honest descriptions of the experienced care at the birthplace, 82% were positive, indicating that most of the respondents were mostly satisfied with the care experienced. More than 95% of the survey participants' positive experiences and more than 87% of their negative experiences with care could be assigned to the categories of the deductive coding framework. Whereas positive experiences mainly addressed care experienced at the individual level, negative experiences more frequently related to issues of the existing infrastructure, breastfeeding counselling or topics not covered by the coding framework. Evaluation of these unassigned responses revealed an emphasis on antenatal and puerperal care as well as insufficient reimbursements of expenses by health insurance funds and the desire for more midwifery-led care. although the

  9. Genetic analysis of high bone mass cases from the BARCOS cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Patricia Sarrión

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600 displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4. While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F, which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM.

  10. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale).

    Cotelo, María Del Carmen Suárez; Movilla-Fernández, María Jesús; Pita-García, Paula; Novío, Silvia

    2018-04-22

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women ( n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI 95% = 0.735⁻0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  11. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale

    María del Carmen Suárez Cotelo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297 were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain. Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75, which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948, showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  12. Female sexuality and historical time: a comparison of sexual biographies of German women born between 1895 and 1936.

    von Sydow, K

    1996-10-01

    Ninety-one German women ages 50 to 91 years (birth cohorts: 1895 to 1936) were interviewed in-depth about their sexual development through the life span. This article presents the results on the historical change in female sexuality during childhood, puberty, and young marriage. The sample was divided into four subgroups, according to the year of birth, which were compared to each other. In contrast to the older groups, a higher percentage of women in the younger cohorts had experience in childhood sexual play, masturbation, "real" and faked orgasm, with historical time only having a slight influence on marital sexuality and fertility experiences. Data indicate that subjects born later were not only more experienced sexually but changed intraindividually more often in sexual matters, whereas the older women mostly "conserved" the sexual morals and habits learned in youth. Subjective sexual experience of the interviewees is illustrated by quotations.

  13. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  14. Attitudes of Spanish women toward premenstrual symptoms, premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: results of a nationwide survey.

    Lete, Iñaki; Dueñas, José Luis; Serrano, Isabel; Doval, José Luis; Martínez-Salmeán, Javier; Coll, Carme; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Arbat, Agnès

    2011-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of women with premenstrual symptoms in relation to their perception of complaints and request for medical advice. Cross-sectional study of a representative cohort of 2018 Spanish women aged 15-49 years. Participants were personally interviewed at home and completed the premenstrual symptoms screening tool. A total of 1554 women (73.7%) complained of some of the premenstrual symptoms during the last 12 menstrual cycles. The prevalence of moderate or severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was 8.9% and the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) 1.1%. Only 291 (18.7%) women had sought medical advice. The main reason given by 90.6% of symptomatic women for not seeking medical consultation was to consider that symptoms were normal. A total of 175 (60.1%) women received pharmacological treatment (hormonal contraceptives in 95% followed by analgesics in 50% and anti-inflammatory agents in 44%), 20% were not treated because physicians considered that symptoms were not important and would disappear spontaneously, and 12% received only advice to change life style. Women suffering from PMS or PMDD do not usually seek medical advice and among those seeking medical care, in many cases, an adequate response to their demands is not obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Rouleau Geneviève

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12. They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1 Respecting for self and confidants; 2 Feeling apprehension; 3 Exercising control to ensure protection; 4 Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5 Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6 Suffering internally; and 7 Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter

  16. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the 'migration three delays' model.

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit; Högberg, Ulf; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-04-12

    Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases of maternal death. An assessment protocol was developed that applied both the 'migration three delays' framework and a modified version of the Confidential Enquiry from the United Kingdom. The main outcomes were major and minor suboptimal factors associated with maternal death in this high-income, low-maternal mortality context. Major and minor suboptimal factors were associated with a majority of maternal deaths and significantly more often to foreign-born women (p = 0.01). The main delays to care-seeking were non-compliance among foreign-born women and communication barriers, such as incongruent language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. Suboptimal care factors, major and minor, were present in more than 2/3 of maternal deaths in this high-income setting. Those related to migration were associated to miscommunication, lack of professional interpreters, and limited knowledge about rare diseases and pregnancy complications. Increased insight into a migration perspective is advocated for maternity clinicians who provide care to foreign-born women.

  17. Free Women's Contributions to Working-Class Women's Sexual Education during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and Beyond

    Giner, Elisenda; Ruiz, Laura; Serrano, Mª Ángeles; Valls, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Women's sexuality, and the ways they experience it, has been a major topic in feminist theories and movements throughout history. For the more than 20,000 working-class women who participated in the Free Women movement in Spain (the libertarian women's movement, which started in 1936), women's sexuality was also a key topic in…

  18. Effect of family background on the educational gradient in lifetime fertility of Finnish women born 1940-50.

    Nisén, Jessica; Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between education and fertility in women has been found in many societies but the causes of this association remain inadequately understood. We investigated whether observed and unobserved family-background characteristics explained educational differences in lifetime fertility among 35,212 Finnish women born in 1940-50. Poisson and logistic regression models, adjusted for measured socio-demographic family-background characteristics and for unobserved family characteristics shared by siblings, were used to analyse the relationship between education and the number of children, having any children, and fertility beyond the first child. The woman's education and the socio-economic position of the family were negatively associated with fertility. Observed family characteristics moderately (3-28 per cent) explained the association between education and fertility, and results from models including unobserved characteristics supported this interpretation. The remaining association may represent a causal relationship between education and fertility or joint preferences that form independently of our measures of background.

  19. The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in twentieth-century Europe, women born 1916–65

    Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof

    2016-01-01

    During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484

  20. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Care Disparities Among English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse at Public and Private Hospitals: What Are the Barriers?

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Dunivan, Gena C; Wieslander, Cecelia K; Sevilla, Claudia; Barrera, Biatris; Rashid, Rezoana; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karen; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer Tash

    The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Thirty-three women were Spanish-speaking and 25 were English-speaking. Spanish speakers were younger (P = 0.0469) and less likely to have a high school diploma (P speaking women had more concerns that the bulge or treatments could lead to cancer, were more resistant to treatment options, and were less likely to be offered surgery. Women in the private hospital desired more information, were less embarrassed, and were more likely to be offered surgery as first-line treatment. The concept emerged that patient care for POP varied based on socioeconomic status and language and suggested the presence of disparities in care for underserved women with POP. The discrepancies in care for Spanish-speaking women and women being treated at public hospitals suggest that there are disparities in care for POP treatment for underserved women. These differences may be secondary to profit-driven pressures from private hospitals or language barriers, low socioeconomic status, low health literacy, and barriers to health care.

  2. Disparities in vaccinations and cancer screening among U.S.- and foreign-born Arab and European American non-Hispanic White women.

    Dallo, Florence J; Kindratt, Tiffany B

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in vaccinations and cancer screening exist when comparing foreign-born and U.S.-born women collectively and disaggregated by race and ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the age-adjusted prevalence of not receiving a flu or pneumonia vaccine, clinical breast examination, mammogram or Pap smear among U.S.- and foreign-born White women by region of birth and examine associations while controlling for potential confounders. We pooled 12 years of National Health Interview Survey data (n = 117,893). To approximate an "Arab-American" ethnicity, we identified 15 "Arab" countries from the Middle East region that comprise the Arab Nations. Data was requested from the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center. We used the χ(2) statistic to compare descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were used for inferential statistics. Compared to U.S.-born, foreign-born Whites from the Arab Nations had higher estimates of not receiving recommended vaccinations and cancer screenings. In crude and adjusted analyses, foreign-born Arab-American women were less likely to report receiving a flu vaccine (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21-0.58), pneumonia vaccine (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32), Pap smear (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.31), or clinical breast examination (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07-0.37) compared with U.S.-born White women. There were no differences for mammography. This national study examining uptake of flu and pneumonia vaccines and preventive cancer screenings suggests that estimates are lower for foreign-born Arab-American women compared with U.S.-born White women. Future studies should collect qualitative data that assess the cultural context surrounding prevention and screening behaviors among Arab-American women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertility patterns of college graduates by field of study, US women born 1960-79.

    Michelmore, Katherine; Musick, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Building on recent European studies, we used the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide the first analysis of fertility differences between groups of US college graduates by their undergraduate field of study. We used multilevel event-history models to investigate possible institutional and selection mechanisms linking field of study to delayed fertility and childlessness. The results are consistent with those found for Europe in showing an overall difference of 10 percentage points between levels of childlessness across fields, with the lowest levels occurring for women in health and education, intermediate levels for women in science and technology, and the highest levels for women in arts and social sciences. The mediating roles of the following field characteristics were assessed: motherhood employment penalties; percentage of men; family attitudes; and marriage patterns. Childlessness was higher among women in fields with a moderate representation of men, less traditional family attitudes, and late age at first marriage.

  4. Cognitive, emotional and social development in adolescents born to substance using women

    Birk Irner, Tina; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow-up assessme......The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow......-up assessments, which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, The Tower of London test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The adolescents scored significantly lower than the norms on Wechsler’s subtests and Full-Scale IQ...... of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general....

  5. Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates born to opioid maintained women.

    Ebner, Nina; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Baewert, Andjela; Jagsch, Reinhold; Peternell, Alexandra; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

    2007-03-16

    Neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers are at risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which often requires pharmacological treatment. This study examined the effect of opioid maintenance treatment on the incidence and timing of NAS, and compared two different NAS treatments (phenobarbital versus morphine hydrochloride). Fifty-three neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers were included in this study. The mothers received methadone (n=22), slow-release oral morphine (n=17) or buprenorphine (n=14) throughout pregnancy. Irrespective of maintenance treatment, all neonates showed APGAR scores comparable to infants of non-opioid dependent mothers. No difference was found between the three maintenance groups regarding neonatal weight, length or head circumference. Sixty percent (n=32) of neonates required treatment for NAS [68% in the methadone-maintained group (n=15), 82% in the morphine-maintained group (n=14), and 21% in the buprenorphine-maintained group (n=3)]. The mean duration from birth to requirement of NAS treatment was 33 h for the morphine-maintained group, 34 h for the buprenorphine-maintained group and 58 h for the methadone-maintained group. In neonates requiring NAS treatment, those receiving morphine required a significantly shorter mean duration of treatment (9.9 days) versus those treated with phenobarbital (17.7 days). Results suggest that morphine hydrochloride is preferable for neonates suffering NAS due to opioid withdrawal.

  6. The status of newborn infants born to women with hypertensive disorders

    N. A. Shakhbazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of 239 newborn infants born to mothers with hypertensive syndrome (a study group and that of 51 neonates from healthy mothers (a control group were analyzed. Neonatal mortality and morbidity rates were studied in relation to gestational age and the type and severity of hypertensive disorders. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were found to lead to still birth in 2,1% of cases, late miscarriage in 12,1%, prematurity in 47,7%, and intrauterine growth retardation in 27,6%. The incidence of diseases in the infants born to hypertensive mothers was 6,6 times higher than that in those from healthy mothers. The most common nosological entities among the newborn infants were intracranial hemorrhage (29,3%, respiratory distress syndrome (20,1%, hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (22,6%, polycythemia (8,4%, and hyperbihrubinemia (8,8%. Reproductive losses in hypertensive disorders accounted for 17,2% and occurred in 70,7% of cases in the early postnatal period. Severe pathology and prematurity are responsible for high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates.

  7. Cognitive, Emotional and Social Development in Adolescents Born to Substance Using Women

    Irner, Tina; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May Jonna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow-up assessme......The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12–16 at the time of follow......-up assessments, which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, The Tower of London test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The adolescents scored significantly lower than the norms on Wechsler’s subtests and Full-Scale IQ...... of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general....

  8. Validation of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in a healthy Spanish sample and women with anorexia nervosa.

    Redondo, Iratxe; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to build a Spanish version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) including limited time of response and an integrated glossary, and to test its validity. A total of 433 university students (121 men and 350 women) and 38 anorexic women completed the RMET and other related measures of empathy and alexithymia. The results of the Parallel Analysis suggested a unidimensional structure for 19 items, which was verified through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Similarly to other research, this factor had a low reliability (α = .56, ρ = .59); however, regarding validity, the total score of the instrument showed positive correlations with empathy and negatives with alexithymia. Furthermore, healthy females were superior to males in RMET, and to anorexic women; but no significant differences appeared between healthy men and the anorexic group. This study confirms the validity of the test and permits a relatively short and inexpensive means of administration in large samples of adults. Besides, it suggests the necessity of assessing and treating the theory of mind in anorexic women.

  9. Education and childlessness: The relationship between educational field, educational level, and childlessness among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the concept of educational attainment to cover the field of education taken in addition to the conventional level of education attained. Our empirical investigation uses register records containing childbearing and educational histories of an entire cohort of women born in Sweden (about a quarter-million individuals. This allows us to operate with a high number of educational field-and-level combinations (some sixty in all. It turns out that the field of education serves as an indicator of a woman's potential reproductive behavior better than the mere level attained. We discover that in each field permanent childlessness increases some with the educational level, but that the field itself is the more important. In general, we find that women educated for jobs in teaching and health care are in a class of their own, with much lower permanent childlessness at each educational level than in any other major grouping. Women educated in arts and humanities or for religious occupations have unusually high fractions permanently childless. Our results cast doubt on the assumption that higher education per se must result in higher childlessness. In our opinion, several factors intrinsic and extrinsic to an educational system (such as its flexibility, its gender structure, and the manner in which education is hooked up to the labor market may influence the relationship between education and childlessness, and we would not expect a simple, unidirectional relationship.

  10. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  11. Women Are Born For Science Dear Friends, First and foremost I ...

    TSC

    reaction was that of disbelief. Why disbelief ? ... Yet the best cooks in the world are men. Who ... are men . Who maintains the house ? yet Hospitality Industry is also ... Women with very demanding jobs sometimes move to less demanding ones ... If you are someone who enjoys operations and lot of action , you could be a.

  12. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  13. Employment and divorce among Dutch women born between 1903 and 1937

    Fokkema, T.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Women's increased economic independence is often regarded as a major contributor to the rise in the divorce rate since the 1960s. The rise in female labor-force participation and educational attainment has eroded the benefits of the traditional gender division within marriage and reduced the

  14. Spanish Mystic Women of the Golden Century within the Ottoman Empire: Seven Arabic Manuscripts Found in Aleppo (Syria

    Francisco Fernando del Río Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the existence of seven manuscripts conserved in three different collections of Aleppo (Syria: the Greek-Catholic/Melkite, the Georges and Mathilde Salem Foundation and the Maronite libraries. These seven co­pies contain the Arabic translations of some mystical works written by two mystic women of the Spanish Golden Century, Teresa de Ávila and María de Ágreda. The history of these Arabic versions, translated right in the heart of the Ottoman Arabic provinces, constitutes an interesting object of study that is directly linked with the manner in which many  European Western works passed to the Mediterranean Levant during the 16th and 17th centuries.

  15. Microcephaly Prevalence in Infants Born to Zika Virus-Infected Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is an emergent flavivirus transmitted by Aedes genus mosquitoes that recently reached the Americas and was soon implicated in an increase of microcephaly incidence. The objective of the present study is to systematically review the published data and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of microcephaly in babies born to Zika virus-infected women during pregnancy. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases, included cohort studies, and excluded case reports and case series publications. We extracted sample sizes and the number of microcephaly cases from eight studies, which permitted a calculation of prevalence rates that are pooled in a random-effects model meta-analysis. We estimated the prevalence of microcephaly of 2.3% (95% CI = 1.0–5.3%) among all pregnancies. Limitations include mixed samples of women infected at different pregnancy times, since it is known that infection at the first trimester is associated with higher risk to congenital anomalies. The estimates are deceptively low, given the devastating impact the infection causes over children and their families. We hope our study contributes to public health knowledge to fight Zika virus epidemics to protect mothers and their newborns. PMID:28783051

  16. Effect of family background on the educational gradient in lifetime fertility of Finnish women born 1940–50

    Nisén, Jessica; Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between education and fertility in women has been found in many societies but the causes of this association remain inadequately understood. We investigated whether observed and unobserved family-background characteristics explained educational differences in lifetime fertility among 35,212 Finnish women born in 1940–50. Poisson and logistic regression models, adjusted for measured socio-demographic family-background characteristics and for unobserved family characteristics shared by siblings, were used to analyse the relationship between education and the number of children, having any children, and fertility beyond the first child. The woman's education and the socio-economic position of the family were negatively associated with fertility. Observed family characteristics moderately (3–28 per cent) explained the association between education and fertility, and results from models including unobserved characteristics supported this interpretation. The remaining association may represent a causal relationship between education and fertility or joint preferences that form independently of our measures of background. PMID:24946905

  17. Working ladies: Mennonite women in the enterprise of Spanish Lookout, Belize

    Roessingh, C.H.; Mol, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of women in the labour system of the Mennonite entrepreneurs in a community in Belize, Central America. The labour system of the Mennonite enterprises is mainly organised independently of the general Belizean labour system. Mennonite women have gained a pivotal

  18. Leadership Characteristics and Training Needs of Women and Men in Charge of Spanish Universities

    Sánchez-Moreno, Marita; López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results obtained by two consecutive enquiries into the leadership styles and training needs of women and men leading higher education organisations. It compares the findings of the first stage of two studies, based on ad hoc questionnaires responded to by 136 women and 129 men. Results showed only subtle differences…

  19. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy. Analysis of 922 patients from the Spanish VACH cohort

    Estrada Vicente

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics. Methods Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included. Results Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221, HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64, LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134, and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163. Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p Conclusions In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio.

  20. Lifetime smoking habits among Norwegian men and women born between 1890 and 1994: a cohort analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-10-17

    Providing lifetime smoking prevalence data and gender-specific cigarette consumption data for use in epidemiological studies of tobacco-induced cancer in Norway. Characterising smoking patterns in birth cohorts is essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control interventions and predicting smoking-related mortality. Norway. Previously analysed annual surveys of smoking habits from 1954 to 1992, and individual lifetime smoking histories collected in 1965 from a sample of people born in 1893-1927, were supplemented with new annual surveys of smoking habits from 1993 to 2013. Age range 15-74 years. Current smoking proportions in 5-year gender-and-birth cohorts of people born between 1890 and 1994. The proportion of smokers increased in male cohorts until the 1950s, when the highest proportion of male smokers (76-78%) was observed among those born in 1915-1934. Among women, the peak (52%) occurred 20 years later, in women born in 1940-1949. After 1970 smoking has declined in all cohorts of men and women. In the 1890-1894 cohorts, male smoking prevalence was several times higher than female, but the gap declined until no gender difference was present among those born after 1950. Gender-specific per capita consumption was even more skewed, and men have consumed over 70% of all cigarettes since 1930. The incidence of lung cancer for men peaked at around 2000, with the highest incidence rate estimated at ca. 38%. The incidence of lung cancer for women is still increasing, and estimated incidence rate for 2011 was 25.2%. In an epidemiological perspective, men have had a longer and more intense exposure to cigarettes than women. The gender-specific incidence of lung cancer reflects the gender difference in consumption over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Developmental status and home environment among children born to immigrant women married to Taiwanese men.

    Chen, Chwen-Jen; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine (a) the developmental status and home environments of children (6-24 months) of immigrant women married to Taiwanese men, and (b) the association of child developmental status with parental socio-demographics, maternal language abilities, and home environment qualities. Participants were 61 children and their mothers from China and Vietnam. Data were collected with interviews, home observations, and developmental testing. The children had lower cognitive and language but higher motor and social development scores compared with native norms. Home environment and maternal perceived language ability were positively associated with child development. The association of home environment and maternal language ability with early childhood development was supported for immigrant populations in Taiwan. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. "Without us the world does not move." Immigrant women in the Spanish work context

    María Pilar Moreno Jiménez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to learn the perspective of immigrant women in the workplace, taking into account the speeches of the protagonists themselves. The overall objective was to find the job conditions from their own perspectives. We conducted four focus groups (Latin American, Eastern European, Moroccan and sub-Saharan Africa with a total of 47 women. The analysis of their speeches shows points in common because they are women, workers and immigrants, and some differences according to their place of origin. We describe the background of the migration project, working conditions (loss of job status and ethnicization, instability, prejudice and the effects of these working conditions (cynicism, social isolation, different relationships with employers, resignation and submission. The reflections in the text dialogue with thoughts of other authors to enhance the visibility of women migrants, different but with many common points.

  3. Men s and women's attitudes toward organic food consumption. A Spanish case study

    Olivas, R.; Bernabeu, R.

    2012-11-01

    The study of the behaviour of food consumers in general and of organic food in particular, is revealed as the key element for agrofood business in its strategy to accommodate supply to consumer needs and desires. In research on organic food consumer behaviour, various papers suggest the existence of differences between men and women in their preferences, purchase, consumption and willingness to pay. Proposing to determine whether differences between men and women in the consumption of organic food come from their lifestyles, a series of surveys was conducted in the metropolitan area of Madrid in December, 2006. The results obtained through structural equation analysis indicates the model for men ({chi}{sup 2}/df = 1.76 p < 0.01, CFI = 0.907) as well as the model for women ({chi}{sup 2}/df = 1.87 p < 0.01, CFI = 0.857) can be considered acceptable, they suggest that women are more proactive in the consumption of organic food. While women are more motivated due to eating a healthy diet, men are more influenced by their social circumstances. In conclusion the basic commercial strategy for increasing organic food consumption in Spain would be for businesses as well as the government to conduct communication campaigns addressed basically to women, the clear promoters of healthy eating in the home. (Author) 65 refs.

  4. Study on the correlation between mercury contents in hair of lying-in women and their new-born babies by INAA

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Chai Zhifang

    1994-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been performed on 27 pairs of scalp hair samples for mothers and their new-born babies living in Haidian District, Beijing. The transfer of mercury in pregnant women and its accumulation in new-born babies were studied. The results showed that a significant positive correlation exists between the mercury contents in maternal and infant hair (γ = + 0.856, P < 0.001), and the infant level exceeded the maternal level by 12%. It was found that the concentration of mercury in maternal hair was gradually decreased during pregnancy

  5. A born dreamer

    Lawrence

    encouraged me to believe that education was the only way to fulfil one's dreams ... liant student, financial constraints prevented him from pursuing. A born ... higher education. .... to fulfil one's dream despite difficulties, which women face. How-.

  6. The Feminization of Female Figures in Spanish Women's Poetry of the 1980s

    Sharon Keefe Ugalde

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how women poets appropriate and transform man-made biblical and literary figures—Eve, Lot's wife, and Ophelia—in order to express female meaning. Poetry by women published since the democratization of Spain in the late 1970s serves as the basis of the study. Three strategies of feminization stand out. Enhancement reflects the predicament of poets living roles imposed by male denomination, but sensing the presence of a silenced, imprisoned self. Subversion is aimed at dismantling patriarchally defined reality, and revision corresponds to the constructive task of self-discovery. Poets, for example, embrace Ophelia, recognizing that their desperation (like hers is rooted in patriarchal order, and subvert the image of Lot's wife into a demand for autonomy. Eve is revised to communicate the awareness that female subjectivity is closely bound to female eroticism, and perhaps most astonishingly, poor, helpless Ophelia comes to symbolize woman's new freedom and power to inscribe herself.

  7. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33–35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP study

    Figueras-Aloy Jose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33–35 weeks' gestational age (GA. Methods The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA who were hospitalised with RSV, and 371 age-matched controls. The model was validated internally by 100-fold bootstrapping. Discriminant function analysis was used to analyse combinations of risk factors to predict RSV hospitalisation. Successive models were chosen that had the highest probability for discriminating between hospitalised and non-hospitalised infants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results An initial 15 variable model was produced with a discriminant function of 72% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.795. A step-wise reduction exercise, alongside recalculations of some variables, produced a final model consisting of 7 variables: birth ± 10 weeks of start of season, birth weight, breast feeding for ≤ 2 months, siblings ≥ 2 years, family members with atopy, family members with wheeze, and gender. The discrimination of this model was 71% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.791. At the 0.75 sensitivity intercept, the false positive fraction was 0.33. The 100-fold bootstrapping resulted in a mean discriminant function of 72% (standard deviation: 2.18 and a median area under the ROC curve of 0.785 (range: 0.768–0.790, indicating a good internal validation. The calculated NNT for intervention to treat all at risk patients with a 75% level of protection was 11.7 (95% confidence interval: 9.5–13.6. Conclusion A robust model based on seven risk factors was developed, which is able to predict which premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA are at highest risk of hospitalisation from RSV. The model could be

  8. Cigarette Smoking among US- and Foreign-Born European and Arab American Non-Hispanic White Men and Women.

    Kindratt, Tiffany B; Dallo, Florence J; Roddy, Juliette

    2018-03-09

    Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. Collectively, we found that current smoking was highest among males compared to females. Prevalence was highest among Arab American males (26%) compared to other US-born (24%) and foreign-born European males (21%). US-born males smoked more cigarettes per day (20.2) yet more Arab American males (61%) tried to quit in the last year compared to European (41%) and US-born (42%) counterparts. Arab American females were least likely to smoke compared to other groups. In crude analyses, Arab American males had greater odds (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.74) of smoking compared to US-born White males. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health insurance, comorbidity, and acculturation effects, Arab American males had lower odds (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.88) of current smoking compared to US-born males. Arab American females had lower odds (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) of current smoking compared to US-born White females. This is the first national study to examine smoking among Arab Americans. Our study was limited to cigarette smoking behaviors as opposed to other forms of tobacco consumption. More studies are needed to explore smoking among US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans.

  9. High Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia Predicts CMV Sequelae in Asymptomatic Congenitally Infected Newborns Born to Women With Primary Infection During Pregnancy.

    Forner, Gabriella; Abate, Davide; Mengoli, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio; Gussetti, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) clearance in blood and urine and the relationship between the viral load in blood at birth and the development of late-onset sequelae in asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. Thirty-three newborns with congenital asymptomatic CMV infection born to women with primary CMV infection during pregnancy were enrolled. CMV infection was monitored by polymerase chain reaction analysis of blood and urine. The follow-up examination was concluded at 6 years of age. Ten infants developed postnatal sequelae, whereas twenty-three infants remained asymptomatic. Fifty percent of babies cleared CMV in blood and urine within 3 and 36 months, respectively. Logistic multivariate regression revealed that the risk of neonatal clinical disease crossed the level of 50% with a DNAemia at birth of ≥ 12,000 copies/mL (P = .0002). The risk of hearing deficit crossed the level of 50% with a DNAemia at birth of ≥ 17,000 copies/mL (P = .0001). No significant difference was found between the kinetics of CMV clearance in asymptomatic children as compared to babies with late-onset disease. Asymptomatic newborns with a CMV DNAemia at birth of ≥ 12,000 copies/mL were more likely to experience CMV-related sequelae. The risk of hearing deficit increased with a viral load in blood of ≥ 17,000 copies/mL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Factor structure and psychometric properties of english and spanish versions of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale among Hispanic women in a primary care setting.

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Bagner, Daniel M

    2014-12-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts.

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-13

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003-2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log 10 -transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log 10 -unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-5.86% (95% CI: -9.91%, -1.63%) and percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-4.75% (95% CI: -8.16%, -0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data ( n =640). Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this study suggest that PFAS exposures during pregnancy may

  13. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B.; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003–2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log10-transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log10-unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log10-unit increase=−5.86% (95% CI: −9.91%, −1.63%) and percent median change per log10-unit increase=−4.75% (95% CI: −8.16%, −0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log10-unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data (n=640). Conclusions: Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this

  14. Cross-cultural validity of the Spanish version of PHQ-9 among pregnant Peruvian women: a Rasch item response theory analysis.

    Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Fann, Jesse R; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the validity of the Spanish language version of the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale in a large sample of pregnant Peruvian women using Rasch item response theory (IRT) approaches. We further sought to examine the appropriateness of the response formats, reliability and potential differential item functioning (DIF) by maternal age, educational attainment and employment status. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1520 pregnant women in Lima, Peru. A structured interview was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and PHQ-9 items. Data from the PHQ-9 were fitted to the Rasch IRT model and tested for appropriate category ordering, the assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence, item fit, reliability and presence of DIF. The Spanish language version of PHQ-9 demonstrated unidimensionality, local independence, and acceptable fit for the Rasch IRT model. However, we detected disordered response categories for the original four response categories. After collapsing "more than half the days" and "nearly every day", the response categories ordered properly and the PHQ-9 fit the Rasch IRT model. The PHQ-9 had moderate internal consistency (person separation index, PSI=0.72). Additionally, the items of PHQ-9 were free of DIF with regard to age, educational attainment, and employment status. The Spanish language version of the PHQ-9 was shown to have item properties of an effective screening instrument. Collapsing rating scale categories and reconstructing three-point Likert scale for all items improved the fit of the instrument. Future studies are warranted to establish new cutoff scores and criterion validity of the three-point Likert scale response options for the Spanish language version of the PHQ-9. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (i): Epidemiology and diagnosis. Congenital tuberculosis].

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; Del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy. Neonatal TB can be acquired in utero (congenital TB), or through airborne transmission after delivery (postnatal TB). Congenital TB is extremely rare and does not cause fetal malformations. It may be evident at birth, although it usually presents after the second week of life. In newborns with no family history of TB, the disease should be considered in cases of miliary pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly with focal lesions, or lymphocytic meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia, especially in those born to immigrants from high TB-burden countries. TST is usually negative, and IGRAs have lower sensitivity than in older children. However, the yield of acid-fast smear and culture is higher, mostly in congenital TB. Molecular diagnosis techniques enable early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance mutations. There is a substantial risk of disseminated disease and death. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Article Commentary: A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States

    Leeya F. Pinder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population's high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population.

  17. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Åkerman, Eva; Essén, Birgitta; Westerling, Ragnar; Larsson, Elin

    2017-02-01

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

  18. What Lies Behind NSF Astronomer Demographics? Subjectivities of Women, Minorities and Foreign-born Astronomers within Meshworks of Big Science Astronomy

    Guillen, Reynal; Gu, D.; Holbrook, J.; Murillo, L. F.; Traweek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our current research focuses on the trajectory of scientists working with large-scale databases in astronomy, following them as they strategically build their careers, digital infrastructures, and make their epistemological commitments. We look specifically at how gender, ethnicity, nationality intersect in the process of subject formation in astronomy, as well as in the process of enrolling partners for the construction of instruments, design and implementation of large-scale databases. Work once figured as merely technical support, such assembling data catalogs, or as graphic design, generating pleasing images for public support, has been repositioned at the core of the field. Some have argued that such databases enable a new kind of scientific inquiry based on data exploration, such as the "fourth paradigm" or "data-driven" science. Our preliminary findings based on oral history interviews and ethnography provide insights into meshworks of women, African-American, "Hispanic," Asian-American and foreign-born astronomers. Our preliminary data suggest African-American men are more successful in sustaining astronomy careers than Chicano and Asian-American men. A distinctive theme in our data is the glocal character of meshworks available to and created by foreign-born women astronomers working at US facilities. Other data show that the proportion of Asian to Asian American and foreign-born Latina/o to Chicana/o astronomers is approximately equal. Futhermore, Asians and Latinas/os are represented in significantly greater numbers than Asian Americans and Chicanas/os. Among professional astronomers in the US, each ethnic minority group is numbered on the order of tens, not hundreds. Project support is provided by the NSF EAGER program to University of California, Los Angeles under award 0956589.

  19. El papel de las mujeres en la política española: el caso del PSOE Women's role in the spanish politics: the PSOE case

    Gema Sánchez Medero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la incorporación de las mujeres en los distintos niveles de la vida política, como puede ser, los partidos políticos y las instituciones representativas. Los aspectos sobre los que ha versado el mismo son las medidas o acciones que han desarrollado el Partido Socialista Obrero Español entorno a la democracia paritaria, para así poder evaluar las consecuencias que han producido sobre la propia organización partidista, y sobre aquellos ámbitos institucionales donde han obtenido representación (Cortes Generales, Parlamentos Autonómicos, y Ayuntamientos para averiguar hasta que punto la integración de las mujeres en la vida política es real, o sólo obedece a intereses partidistas.This article analyzes women incorporation in different levels of political life, namely in the political parties and representative institutions. The aspects it focused on were the actions taken by the PSOE (Spanish Labour Socialist Party in relation to the paritary democracy, so as to properly evaluate the consequences produced on the organization party itself and on those institutional areas where they have obtained representation (General Spanish Parliament, Autonomous Parliaments, and City Halls, to observe whether women are actually committed to political life or such integration only obeys to political party interests.

  20. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in Spanish community-dwelling middle-aged and older women: Association with balance confidence, fear of falling and fall risk.

    Aibar-Almazán, Agustín; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Jiménez-García, José D; Achalandabaso, Alexander; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; de la Torre-Cruz, Manuel; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the association of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with fear of falling (FoF) and balance confidence in a Spanish sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling women. A total of 235 women (69.21±7.56 years) participated in this study. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), hand-grip strength, and physical performance (gait speed) were evaluated for the diagnosis of sarcopenia, obesity, and SO. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) were employed to assess FoF and balance confidence, respectively. Scores of >26 on the FES-I and risk of falling. The independent associations of sarcopenia, obesity and SO with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk were evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regressions, adjusting for potential confounding variables. 27.23% and 18.72% of women presented with sarcopenia and SO, respectively. Gait speed, body mass index (BMI), and fall history were independently associated with ABC score (adjusted-R 2 =0.152) and fall risk (ABC) (adjusted-R 2 =0.115). FES-I score was independently associated (adjusted-R 2 =0.193) with fall history, gait speed, BMI, and depression, which, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, remained independent factors for fall risk measured as FES-I score (adjusted-R 2 =0.243). In community-dwelling middle-aged and older Spanish women, BMI, gait speed, and fall history were independently associated with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk. Depression was related only to FoF, and, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, was an independent predictor of fall risk as assessed by the FES-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    Ruth Blanco-Rojo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  2. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  3. Spanish I

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  4. Food insecurity and mental health: an analysis of routine primary care data of pregnant women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora; Kelly, Brian; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-04-01

    Since 2008, use of food banks has risen sharply in the UK; however, evidence on the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is sparse. The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory of common mental disorder across the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and postnatal period for food secure compared with food insecure women. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort, the nested BiB1000 study and primary care records were linked based on National Health Service (NHS) numbers. Data linkage was completed for 1297, and primary care records were available from 18 months prior to 40 months after birth of the cohort child. Incidence rates of common mental disorders per 1000 patient years at risk were compared between food secure and insecure women, and for Pakistani compared with white British women, in 10 6-month periods around pregnancy. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios, adjusted for ethnicity and exposure. Food insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of common mental disorder before and during pregnancy (incidence rate ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8, p=0.001) and after giving birth (incidence rate ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7, p=0.029). Our study shows that food insecure women have worse mental health than food secure women, and that this difference is most pronounced for white British pregnant women. These findings provide evidence for concerns expressed by public health experts that food insecurity may become the next public health emergency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Fertility patterns of college graduates by field of study, U.S. women born 1960--79

    Michelmore, Katherine; Musick, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Building on recent European studies, we used the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide the first analysis of fertility differences between groups of U.S. college graduates by their undergraduate field of study. We used multilevel event-history models to investigate possible institutional and selection mechanisms linking field of study to delayed fertility and childlessness. The results are consistent with those found for Europe in showing an overall difference of 10 percentage points between levels of childlessness across fields, with the lowest levels occurring for women in health and education, intermediate levels for women in science and technology, and the highest levels for women in arts and social sciences. The mediating roles of the following field characteristics were assessed: motherhood employment penalties; percentage of men; family attitudes; and marriage patterns. Childlessness was higher among women in fields with a moderate representation of men, less traditional family attitudes, and late age at first marriage. PMID:24266547

  6. 24-month HIV-free survival among infants born to HIV-positive women enrolled in Option B+ program in Kigali, Rwanda: The Kabeho Study.

    Gill, Michelle M; Hoffman, Heather J; Ndatimana, Dieudonne; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Guay, Laura; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Bobrow, Emily A; Asiimwe, Anita; Mofenson, Lynne M

    2017-12-01

    Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision to all pregnant HIV-positive women ("Option B+") has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2013, but there remain limited data on the effects of Option B+ on long-term HIV-free survival in breastfeeding HIV-exposed infants. The Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) study enrolled HIV-positive women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 2 weeks postpartum in 14 heath facilities implementing Option B+ in Kigali, Rwanda. Mother-child pairs in the longitudinal observational cohort were followed until 24 months postpartum, with HIV diagnostic testing at 6 weeks, and 9, 18 and 24 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate HIV transmission, survival, and HIV-free survival through 24 months. We enrolled 608 HIV-positive women in 2013-2014; birth outcome data were available for 600 women and 597 live-born infants. By 6 weeks, 11 infants had died and 3 infants had confirmed HIV infection (0.5% transmission; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-1.6). At 9 months, there were 9 additional deaths and 2 new infections (cumulative transmission 0.9%, 95% CI 0.4-2.2). At 18 months, there were 6 additional deaths and no new infant infections. At 24 months, there were no additional child deaths and 1 new infection (cumulative 2.2%, 95% CI 0.7-7.0), for an overall 24-month HIV-free survival of 93.2% (95% CI 89.5-95.6). Low transmission rates and high HIV-free survival at 24 months were achieved in breastfeeding infants of HIV-positive mothers receiving universal ART in urban health facilities in Rwanda, though vigilance on maintaining viral suppression for ART-experienced women is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    ) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female......BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent...... included all individuals born in Denmark in 1905. At baseline in 1998, a total of 2262 persons participated in the intake survey (63%). In total, 225 of 364 persons (62%) who reached their 100th birthday in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 wave. Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADLs...

  9. Does subsequent criminal justice involvement predict foster care and termination of parental rights for children born to incarcerated women?

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Karim, Nidal; Schmittel, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 83 incarcerated women, who gave birth during incarceration and retained their parental rights through brief sentences, examines the intersection between subsequent criminal justice involvement postrelease and child welfare outcomes. Ten years of multiple state-level administrative data sets are used to determine if arrest or conviction predict foster care and/or termination of parental rights. Findings indicate that only felony arrest is a significant predictor of foster care involvement. Additionally, 69% of mothers retained legal custody, despite subsequent criminal involvement for many, suggesting supportive parenting programs and resources need to be available to these women throughout and after incarceration.

  10. Congenital abnormalities and other birth outcomes in children born to women with ulcerative colitis in Denmark and Sweden.

    Stephansson, Olof; Larsson, Heidi; Pedersen, Lars; Kieler, Helle; Granath, Fredrik; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Falconer, Henrik; Ekbom, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Nørgaard, Mette

    2011-03-01

    Studies of women with ulcerative colitis (UC) during pregnancy have reported increased risks of preterm delivery, growth restriction, and congenital malformation. However, the results are inconsistent due to inadequate study design and limitations in sample size. We performed a population-based prevalence study on 2637 primiparous women with a UC hospital diagnosis prior to delivery and 868,942 primiparous women with no UC diagnosis in Denmark and Sweden, 1994-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks for moderately (32-36 weeks) and very (before 32 weeks) preterm birth, 5-minute Apgar score congenital abnormalities. Maternal UC was associated with increased risk of moderately preterm birth (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-2.05), very preterm birth (POR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02-1.96), cesarean section (POR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.84-2.19), and neonatal death (POR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.04-3.60). The strongest associations were observed for prelabor cesarean section (POR = 2.78, 95% CI: 2.38-3.25) and induced preterm delivery (POR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.95-3.33). There was a slightly increased risk of SGA birth (POR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.54). We found no association between UC and overall risk of congenital abnormalities (POR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.84-1.31) or specific congenital abnormalities. Risks for adverse birth outcomes were higher in women with previous UC-related surgery and hospital admissions. Women with UC have increased risks of preterm delivery, SGA-birth, neonatal death, and cesarean section but not congenital abnormalities. Adverse birth outcomes appeared correlated with UC disease severity. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  11. Preconception use of cART by HIV-positive pregnant women increases the risk of infants being born small for gestational age.

    Ingrid J M Snijdewind

    Full Text Available The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT] currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands.We included singleton HEU infants registered in the ATHENA cohort from 1997 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for single and multiple pregnancies was used to evaluate predictors of small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age, low birth weight and preterm delivery.A total of 1392 children born to 1022 mothers were included. Of these, 331 (23.8% children were SGA. Women starting cART before conception had an increased risk of having a SGA infant compared to women starting cART after conception (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.77, p = 0.03. The risk for SGA was highest in women who started a protease inhibitor-(PI based regimen prior to pregnancy, compared with women who initiated PI-based cART during pregnancy. While the association of preterm delivery and preconception cART was significant in univariate analysis, on multivariate analysis only a non-significant trend was observed (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-1.92, p = 0.06 in women who had started cART before compared to after conception. In multivariate analysis, the risk of low birth weight (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.94-1.92, p = 0.11 was not significantly increased in women who had started cART prior to conception compared to after conception.In our cohort of pregnant HIV-positive women, the use of cART prior to conception, most notably a PI-based regimen, was associated with intrauterine growth restriction resulting in SGA. Data showed a non-significant trend in

  12. Schizophrenia and induced abortions: A national register-based follow-up study among Finnish women born between 1965-1980 with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 1965-1980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.12.2013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 2.28; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between hyperglycaemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in south Asian and white British women: analysis of data from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Farrar, Diane; Fairley, Lesley; Santorelli, Gillian; Tuffnell, Derek; Sheldon, Trevor A; Wright, John; van Overveld, Lydia; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-10-01

    Diagnosis of gestational diabetes predicts risk of infants who are large for gestational age (LGA) and with high adiposity, which in turn aims to predict a future risk of obesity in the offspring. South Asian women have higher risk of gestational diabetes, lower risk of LGA, and on average give birth to infants with greater adiposity than do white European women. Whether the same diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes should apply to both groups of women is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between maternal glucose and adverse perinatal outcomes to ascertain whether thresholds used to diagnose gestational diabetes should differ between south Asian and white British women. We also aimed to assess whether ethnic origin affected prevalence of gestational diabetes irrespective of criteria used. We used data (including results of a 26-28 week gestation oral glucose tolerance test) of women from the Born in Bradford study, a prospective study that recruited women attending the antenatal clinic at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, UK, between 2007 and 2011 and who intended to give birth to their infant in that hospital. We studied the association between fasting and 2 h post-load glucose and three primary outcomes (LGA [defined as birthweight >90th percentile for gestational age], high infant adiposity [sum of skinfolds >90th percentile for gestational age], and caesarean section). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a 1 SD increase in fasting and post-load glucose. We established fasting and post-load glucose thresholds that equated to an OR of 1·75 for LGA and high infant adiposity in each group of women to identify ethnic-specific criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Of 13,773 pregnancies, 3420 were excluded from analyses. Of 10,353 eligible pregnancies, 4088 women were white British, 5408 were south Asian, and 857 were of other ethnic origin. The adjusted ORs of LGA per 1 SD fasting glucose were

  14. Citizenship and Gender Violence on Working Women : Reflections in the Light of Spanish and Brazilian Legal System

    Susana Rodríguez Escanciano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been nearly a decade since the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, where the violence against women was recognized as being an attack on  women’s human rights. Under such perspective and following the recommendations of the community institutions and international organizations, States such as Spain and Brazil have incorporated into their systems specific laws -- Organic Law 1/2004 of 28th December, on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence (LPIVG, in Spain and Law 11.340/2006 (Lei Maria da Penha, in Brazil --.These two provisions have as one of its fundamental objectives, firmly attack such despicable behaviors of violence against women, articulating a set of measures to ensure a whole, full and consistent protection of battered women, making them hold a wide range of rights pertaining to prevention, education, welfare or criminal repression, and down to what is relevant, a series of labor and social security prerogatives, confirming  in the end, a dual purpose endowed strategy: on the one hand, facilitate the employment access for women victims of gender violence and, on the other, ensure the maintenance of their jobs. A comparative study of both legal systems may serve to introduce technical improvements that result in benefit of the protected group.

  15. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2018-03-01

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  16. Women in Free Clinics: An Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life for Prevention and Health Education.

    Kamimura, Akiko; Myers, Kyl; Ashby, Jeanie; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Nourian, Maziar M; Reel, Justine J

    2015-08-01

    Understanding gender influences on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to improve women's health when considering diseases that afflict women specifically. The target population of this study was uninsured female free clinic patients who are low socio-economic status and lack access to healthcare resources. Free clinics provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. While approximately half of free clinic patients are women, there is a paucity of comprehensive health-related data for female free clinic patients. US born English, non-US born English, and Spanish speaking female free clinic patients completed a self-administered survey using a standardized women's HRQoL measure in Fall 2014 (N = 389). Female free clinic patients reported lower HRQoL on all aspects of women's health compared to the US baseline scores, and were less likely to utilize preventive care including: mammograms, Pap smear, and HPV vaccination compared to the US general population. Spanish speakers reported a higher percentage of having had mammography and Pap smear, and heard about HPV compared to the other two groups. US born English speakers reported lower levels of HRQoL in vasomotor symptoms and sleep symptoms, and the lowest percentage of breast health and Pap smear screenings compared to non-US born English and Spanish speakers. Non-US born English speakers reported higher preference for female physician compared to US born English speakers and Spanish speakers. Free clinic female patients need preventative interventions and educational opportunities to improve their overall HRQoL.

  17. Spanish Visit

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  18. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor gene are associated with bone mineral density and body mass index in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Bustamante, M; Nogués, X; Mellibovsky, L; Agueda, L; Jurado, S; Cáceres, E; Blanch, J; Carreras, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Balcells, S

    2007-11-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are complex diseases with a strong genetic component. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI) linkage studies identified a locus at 1q21-23, where the interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) gene is located. The IL6R and the gp130 receptors are the mediators of IL6 action. Serum levels of IL6 and sIL6R (the soluble form of IL6R) are higher in several diseases such as osteoporosis or obesity. Variants at IL6R have been associated with BMI and obesity. However, IL6R is an as-yet-unexplored osteoporosis candidate gene. In the present study we analysed two polymorphisms in the IL6R promoter, -1435 C/T (rs3887104) and -208 G/A (rs4845617), and the Asp358Ala polymorphism (rs8192284), in relation to both BMD and BMI in a cohort of 559 postmenopausal Spanish women. The promoter polymorphisms, -1435 C/T and -208 G/A were associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD (P=0.011 and P=0.025 respectively). The C-A and T-G promoter haplotypes were also associated with FN BMD. Additionally, the Asp358Ala variant was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=0.038). Finally, the -208 G/A polymorphism and the C-G and C-A haplotypes were associated with BMI and obesity, where GG was the risk genotype (P=0.033 for BMI; P=0.010 for obesity). These data suggest that variants in the IL6R gene are not only involved in the determination of BMI but also relevant for the determination of BMD. The IL6R gene may belong to the growing list of genes known to be involved in both phenotypes.

  19. [The contribution of diet and sun exposure to the nutritional status of vitamin D in elderly Spanish women: the five countries study (OPTIFORD Project)].

    Rodríguez Sangrador, M; Beltrán de Miguel, B; Quintanilla Murillas, L; Cuadrado Vives, C; Moreiras Tuny, O

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency represents an important public health problem, especially among elderly people, by increasing the morbimortality. Because of the importance of this, in the year 2001 the "Five Countries Study" was put in place, within the European OPTIFORD project (Towards a strategy for optimal vitamin D fortification). This cross-sectional and observational study aims at knowing the vitamin D status in adolescent and elder women from five European countries, including Spain, according to different dietary and behavioral habits. This work analyzes the relative contribution of sun exposure and diet to the vitamin D status in 53 Caucasian Spanish elder women (72 +/- 1.6 years), with an autonomous life, participating at the Five Countries Study. The information was gathered in summer and winter time, by using homologated and validated questionnaires: health status and life style questionnaire; assessment of sun exposure by a standardized test and using a Viospor UV dosimeter (only in summer time); biochemical analysis of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone; and questionnaire of frequency of selective intake. We observed a direct relationship between sun exposure measured with the dosimeter (741 +/- 624 J/m2) and the number of hours outdoors during the measuring week (3.4 +/- 1.9 hours/day) (p 50 nmol/L (p = 0.01). There is also a direct association between the number of hours outdoors and S-25-OHD (p = 0.09), with differences between the participants in the S-25-OHD 50 nmol/L group. In more than 95% of the sample, mean dietary intakes of vitamin D (5.17 +/- 4.84 microg/day in summer time and 4.70+/- 4.72 microg/day in winter time), the main source of which being fish, did not cover the Recommended Allowances. We did not observe a relationship between the dietary intake and blood levels of vitamin D. By contrast, those participants taking vitamin D supplements presented higher S-25-OHD levels (summer = 69.64 nmol/L and winter = 55 nmol/L) than

  20. Uso de recursos y costos asociados a las fracturas en mujeres españolas Use of resources and costs associated to fractures in spanish women

    Antoni Sicras-Mainar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el uso de recursos y costos debidos a fracturas óseas en mujeres españolas mayores de 50 años en un ámbito poblacional. Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo, en seis centros de atención primaria y dos hospitales urbanos de España. Se registró datos sociodemográficos, de comorbilidad, uso de recursos (consultas médicas en atención primaria, pruebas complementarias, medicación, atención especializada, hospitalizaciones, visitas, urgencias, costos y pérdida de productividad. Se incluyeron los registros de 19 022 mujeres de los cuales el 7% presentó algún tipo de fractura entre el 2003 y 2007. Las fracturas se asociaron mayoritariamente con osteoporosis (OR: 3,2, fibromialgia (OR: 2,4 y alteraciones tiroideas (OR: 2,2. En el modelo corregido, el costo total para las pacientes que tuvieron fractura fue de USD 3727 mientras que en las que no la tuvieron fue USD 2705,5 (pThe objective of the study was to determine the use of resources and costs due to bone fractures in Spanish women above 50 years of age in the population scope. An observational and retrospective study was conducted in six primary care centers and two urban hospitals in Spain. Socio-demographic and co-morbidity data, use of resources (primary care consultations, complementary tests, medications, specialized care, hospitalizations, visits, urgencies, costs and productivity losses were registered. Records of 19 022 women were included, 7% showed some type of fracture between 2003 and 2007. Fractures were mostly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 3.2, fibromyalgia (OR: 2.4 and thyroid changes (OR: 2.2. In the corrected model, the total cost for patients who had a fracture was USD 3727 compared to USD 2705.5 (p<0.001 for those who did not have it. Patients with a fracture generate a greater use of resources, sanitation costs and work productivity losses

  1. The Foster Laboratory in The Residencia de Señoritas. The JAES’s relationship with the International Institute for Girls in Spain, and the Training of Spanish scientist women

    Magallón Portolés, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first third of the twentieth century, relations among American and Spanish university women began; particularly the relationship between the JAE and the International Institute for Girls in Spain had a positive influence in the education of women scientists in Spain. An interchange of students and teachers came out from this relationship, and Spanish women received scholarships to stay in American universities. The history of the Foster Laboratory and some biographical notes of her founder are included in the paper.

    En el primer tercio del siglo XX crecieron diversas líneas de relación entre las universitarias norteamericanas y españolas; en particular, la que se estableció entre la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (JAE y el International Institute for Girls in Spain (IIGS influyó positivamente en la formación de las mujeres de ciencia españolas. Esta relación se concretó en un intercambio de estudiantes y profesoras, y en el establecimiento de una línea de becas para las jóvenes graduadas. El artículo incluye la historia del Laboratorio Foster y la biografía de su fundadora.

  2. Mortality, Morbidity, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants Born to Women Who Received Either Mefloquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study.

    María Rupérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp on the health of sub-Saharan African infants. We have evaluated the safety of IPTp with mefloquine (MQ compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for important infant health and developmental outcomes.In the context of a multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of IPTp with MQ compared to SP in pregnancy carried out in four sub-Saharan countries (Mozambique, Benin, Gabon, and Tanzania, 4,247 newborns, 2,815 born to women who received MQ and 1,432 born to women who received SP for IPTp, were followed up until 12 mo of age. Anthropometric parameters and psychomotor development were assessed at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age, and the incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were determined until 12 mo of age. No significant differences were found in the proportion of infants with stunting, underweight, wasting, and severe acute malnutrition at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age between infants born to women who were on IPTp with MQ versus SP. Except for three items evaluated at 9 mo of age, no significant differences were observed in the psychomotor development milestones assessed. Incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were similar between the two groups. Information on the outcomes at 12 mo of age was unavailable in 26% of the infants, 761 (27% from the MQ group and 377 (26% from the SP group. Reasons for not completing the study were death (4% of total study population, study withdrawal (6%, migration (8%, and loss to follow-up (9%.No significant differences were found between IPTp with MQ and SP administered in pregnancy on infant mortality, morbidity, and nutritional outcomes. The poorer performance on certain psychomotor development milestones at 9 mo of age in children born to women in the MQ group compared to those in the SP group may deserve

  3. Obesity and immigration among Latina women.

    Wolin, Kathleen Y; Colangelo, Laura A; Chiu, Brian C-H; Gapstur, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between acculturation and obesity in Hispanics. We sought to examine the association in a sample of urban Hispanic women. Using data collected in the Chicago Breast Health Project, we used logistic regression to examine the association of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) with language acculturation and years in the US in a sample of 388 Hispanic women. Women self-reported the number of years they had lived in the US (mean 17.6) as well as their preferred language across several domains, which was used to calculate a language acculturation score. Nearly all the women (98%) were born outside the US with the majority (65%) born in Mexico and the majority of women (69%) had low language acculturation, i.e., answered "only Spanish" in every domain. Over half of the women were obese (56%). In multivariable analysis, odds of obesity was twice as high among women living in the US for greater than 20 years compared to those in the US for 10 years or less (OR/year = 2.07, 95% CI 1.25-3.42). In contrast, low language acculturation was not associated with odds of obesity (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.70-1.86). While greater years in the US increased odds of obesity among Hispanic women, no association of obesity with language acculturation was found. These results suggest that mechanisms other than language contribute to the immigration effect.

  4. Birth defects in infants born in 1998-2004 to men and women serving in the U.S. military during the 1990-1991 Gulf War era.

    Bukowinski, Anna T; DeScisciolo, Connie; Conlin, Ava Marie S; K Ryan, Margaret A; Sevick, Carter J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive health persist among U.S. military members who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. This study explores the long-term impact of 1990-1991 Gulf War deployment on the prevalence of birth defects among infants of Gulf War veterans. Health care data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and demographic and deployment information from the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to identify infants born between 1998 and 2004 to both male and female 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds of any birth defect and eight specific birth defects among infants of deployers versus non-deployers. In addition, birth defects were evaluated among infants born to 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans with deployment-specific exposures. Among 178,766 infants identified for these analyses, 3.4% were diagnosed with a birth defect in the first year of life. Compared to infants of non-deployers, infants of deployers were not at increased odds of being diagnosed with a birth defect, or any of eight specific birth defects, in the first year of life. A slightly increased prevalence of birth defects was observed among infants born to men who deployed to the 1990-1991 Gulf War for 153 to 200 days compared to those who deployed for 1 to 92 days. No other deployment-specific exposures were associated with birth defects in these infants. The 1990-1991 Gulf War deployers, including those with specific exposures of concern, were not found to be at increased risk for having infants with birth defects 7 to 14 years after deployment. Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preconception use of cART by HIV-positive pregnant women increases the risk of infants being born small for gestational age

    Smit, Colette; Godfried, Mieke H.; Bakker, Rachel; Nellen, Jeannine F. J. B.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Reiss, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2018-01-01

    Background The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands. Materials and methods We included singleton HEU infants registered in the ATHENA cohort from 1997 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for single and multiple pregnancies was used to evaluate predictors of small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight Women starting cART before conception had an increased risk of having a SGA infant compared to women starting cART after conception (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03−1.77, p = 0.03). The risk for SGA was highest in women who started a protease inhibitor-(PI) based regimen prior to pregnancy, compared with women who initiated PI-based cART during pregnancy. While the association of preterm delivery and preconception cART was significant in univariate analysis, on multivariate analysis only a non-significant trend was observed (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94−1.92, p = 0.06) in women who had started cART before compared to after conception. In multivariate analysis, the risk of low birth weight (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.94−1.92, p = 0.11) was not significantly increased in women who had started cART prior to conception compared to after conception. Conclusion In our cohort of pregnant HIV-positive women, the use of cART prior to conception, most notably a PI-based regimen, was associated with intrauterine growth restriction resulting in SGA. Data showed a non-significant trend in the risk of PTD associated with preconception use of cART compared to its use after conception. More studies are needed with regard to the

  6. Spanish nuclear industry

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  7. Preconception use of cART by HIV-positive pregnant women increases the risk of infants being born small for gestational age.

    Snijdewind, Ingrid J M; Smit, Colette; Godfried, Mieke H; Bakker, Rachel; Nellen, Jeannine F J B; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Reiss, Peter; Steegers, Eric A P; van der Ende, Marchina E

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands. We included singleton HEU infants registered in the ATHENA cohort from 1997 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for single and multiple pregnancies was used to evaluate predictors of small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight pregnant HIV-positive women, the use of cART prior to conception, most notably a PI-based regimen, was associated with intrauterine growth restriction resulting in SGA. Data showed a non-significant trend in the risk of PTD associated with preconception use of cART compared to its use after conception. More studies are needed with regard to the mechanisms taking place in the placenta during fetal growth in pregnant HIV-positive women using cART. It will only be with this knowledge that we can begin to understand the potential impact of HIV and cART on the fetus, in order to be able to determine the optimal individualised drug regimen for HIV-infected women of childbearing age.

  8. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  9. Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by…

  10. Preconception use of cART by HIV-positive pregnant women increases the risk of infants being born small for gestational age

    Snijdewind, Ingrid J. M.; Smit, Colette; Godfried, Mieke H.; Bakker, Rachel; Nellen, Jeannine F. J. B.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Reiss, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2018-01-01

    Background The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as

  11. [Tick-borne diseases].

    Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D

    1993-05-01

    Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.

  12. Circulating Docosahexaenoic Acid Associates with Insulin-Dependent Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Glucose Uptake in Older Women Born from Normal Weight Mothers

    Robert M. Badeau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM or offspring of lean mothers (OLM. Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: Thirty-seven elderly women were separated into elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17 and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20 groups. We measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and insulin-dependent tissue-specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long-chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA was significantly lower in OOM (p = 0.015. DHA/FA associated significantly with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU (p = 0.031 and the metabolizable glucose value derived from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (M-value in the OLM group only (p = 0.050. Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers.

  13. The Spanish Pacification of the Philippines, 1565-1600

    1992-06-05

    to maintain the Spanish nature of the New World criollo (colonial) population. As a result, no one could travel to the Indies without the permission of...considered to be socially inferior to peninsulares (people born in Spain) and criollos (originally called Filipinos)45 9 , they were considered superior

  14. Effects of current education on second- and third-birth rates among Norwegian women and men born in 1964: Substantive interpretations and methodological issues

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been employed to assess the importance of women's education for their second- or third-birth rates. Some researchers have included the educational level measured at a relatively high age in their models, whereas others have included current education. A few have taken selection into account by modelling first-, second-, and higher-order birth rates jointly, with a common unobserved factor. The corresponding education-fertility relationships among men, however, has not attracted any attention. In this study, based on Norwegian register data for the 1964 cohort, a high current educational level for a woman is found to stimulate her second- and third-birth rates. Controlling for selection through joint modelling turns out to be quite unimportant, but the results are very different if the educational level attained by age 39 is included instead of current education. It is important to be aware of such sensitivity to the specification of education. The corresponding effects for men are also positive, but not more strongly positive than those for women. These results may suggest that we should not take for granted that women's education generally reduces fertility, and that it does so because of higher opportunity costs for the better educated. However, it is also possible that a high current educational level is linked with modest aspirations for further schooling, which would tend to stimulate subsequent fertility, that it is partly caused by some individual, family or community characteristics that also lead to high fertility, or that it even to some extent is a result of plans to have a child fairly soon. These alternative interpretations are discussed.

  15. Mujeres de anuncio. Evolución de los modelos de identidad femenina en la publicidad española. // Women from announcement. Changing patterns of female identity in the Spanish advertising

    María José Rebollo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES El Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de CC. de la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla, continuando con sus tareas de investigación y difusión de la Historia de la educación española a través de una didáctica crítica, ha puesto en marcha desde noviembre una nueva exposición financiada por la Unidad de Igualdad de dicha Universidad. Partiendo del principio básico de que el Museo debe poner constantemente en relación pasado y presente, y de la premisa de que la publicidad es un potente mecanismo de educación informal y, a la vez, una eficaz fuente para la investigación histórico-educativa, la finalidad fundamental de esta experiencia ha sido mostrar cómo ha evolucionado la imagen de las mujeres ofrecida como modelo en los anuncios gráficos de las revistas españolas del siglo XX. // (EN The Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of CC. Education of the University of Seville, continuing its research and dissemination of the history of Spanish education through a critical teaching, has launched since November a new exhibition funded by the Equality Unit of the University. Starting from the basic principle that the Museum must constantly put past and present relationship, and the premise that advertising is a powerful mechanism for informal education and, at the same time, an effective source for historical and educational research, the purpose essence of this experience has been to show how it has evolved the image of women offered as a model in the ads of the Spanish magazines of the twentieth century.

  16. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.

  17. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  18. Analysis of children's narrative written by women

    Francisca Sánchez-Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our work tries to approach the study of a corpus of children’s literature published in the adults’ Spanish press during the period from 1920 to 1939 and whose authorship is feminine. It’s fundamental aims, are therefore, to make this production visible; to analyze the different aesthetic and ideological propacals formalised in this writing and reintegrate this artistic production into the literary system which it took place, since it is born inside of this and they are the subsequent historical circumstances that isolate it and turn it into a minor writing. The work is constituted in three phases: women authors who publish in the last third of the nineteenth century; authors who published between 1900 and 1920, and authors writing between 1920 and 1939. The areas for which these women produced are are the school, the family, the woman’s associacions, the editorial, the wold of drawing, and the written press.

  19. Trends in Birth Weight and Gestational Age for Infants Born to HIV-infected, Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Women in Malawi

    Taha, Taha E.; Dadabhai, Sufia S.; Rahman, M. Hafizur; Sun, Jin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton I.

    2012-01-01

    Background We analyzed birth outcomes among infants of treatment-naïve, HIV-infected women from a series of mother-to-child transmission of HIV studies in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods Data from six prospective studies at one research site were analyzed. Mean birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), and frequency of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and preterm (PT) birth (GA<37 weeks) were estimated. We assessed risk factors for LBW and PT birth using mixed-effects logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from earlier studies (1989-94) and later studies (2000-07) are presented separately. Results The analysis included 8874 HIV-exposed infants. Mean BW and GA ranged from 2793 to 3079 g, and 37.8 to 39.0 weeks. Greater maternal age was consistently (during both the early and late periods) associated with lower odds of LBW and PT birth; AOR (95% CI) for both outcomes in the early and late periods, respectively, were 0.98 (0.96-1.00) and 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Female infant gender was consistently associated with higher odds of PT birth during both periods and with higher odds of LBW during the later period. During the early period, higher maternal education was associated with lower odds of LBW (AOR 0.67 (0.48-0.95)) and PT birth (AOR 0.70 (0.51-0.95)) and later birth year was associated with lower odds of PT birth (AOR 0.35 (0.19-0.70)). Conclusions BW and GA remained stable within each time period. This analysis provides important baseline information for monitoring HIV treatment effects on birth outcomes. Modifiable factors affecting BW and GA should continue to be explored. PMID:22327871

  20. Innovative Born Globals

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...... propose hypotheses about the influence of efficiency-centered and novelty-entered business model design on international firm performance. To test these hypotheses, we performed a quantitative survey with 252 founders of international companies in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Additionally, we...... gained further insights through a case study analysis of 11 Born Globals. The results show that business model design matters to international firm performance and the business model design of Born Globals tends to be more efficiency-centered. Based on a multiple case study, we analyzed business models...

  1. The Needs of the Spanish Speaking Mujer [Woman] in Woman-Manpower Training Programs.

    Nieto-Gomez, Anna

    Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…

  2. The Spanish gas industry

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en las mujeres embarazadas: diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes Prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure: differences between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women

    Adriana Jiménez-Muro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las diferencias que hay entre las mujeres embarazadas españolas e inmigrantes en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco, así como los factores asociados a que las mujeres continúen fumando durante la gestación. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico transversal en mujeres atendidas en el momento del parto en la provincia de Zaragoza. Variables recogidas mediante cuestionario: características sociodemográficas y de consumo de tabaco de la mujer y la pareja, exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco y percepción de riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 2.440 mujeres (35% inmigrantes. El 31,1% fumaba a diario antes de quedarse embarazada y el 18,2% (n=445 fumó durante toda la gestación, con diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes (21,9% frente 8,7%; pObjectives: To identify differences in the prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women, as well as the factors associated with continued smoking during pregnancy. Methods: An epidemiologic cross-sectional study was carried out in women attended at delivery in Zaragoza (Spain. A smoking questionnaire was used to collect the following variables: the women's and partners' sociodemographic factors and smoking behavior, second-hand smoke exposure and perception of the risks of this exposure. Results: We included 2440 women (35% immigrants. A total of 31.1% smoked before becoming pregnant and 18.2% during pregnancy, with significant differences between Spanish and immigrant women (21.9% versus 8.7%; p<0.001. Immigrant women lived with a greater number of smokers, smoked more inside the home, were exposed to second-hand smoke for a greater number of hours per day, avoided public places with second-hand smoke less, and more often worked in bars and restaurants. The following factors were associated with smoking during pregnancy: being Spanish, smoking a greater number of cigarettes before pregnancy

  4. Impact of Neighborhood Environments on Health Consciousness, Information Seeking, and Attitudes among US-Born and Non-US-Born Free Clinic Patients.

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ashby, Jeanie; Jess, Allison; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Nourian, Maziar M; Finlayson, Sarah Yukie; Prudencio, Liana; Reel, Justine J

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of neighborhood environments on health consciousness, information seeking, and attitudes among uninsured free clinic patients to better understand the specific needs of the population for health promotion and prevention efforts. US-born English-speaking, non-US-born English-speaking, and Spanish-speaking free clinic patients completed a self-administered survey using reliable measures in autumn 2014 (N = 769). The results of this study suggest that social cohesion is positively associated with health consciousness, information seeking, and attitudes. Lower levels of available healthy food in the community were associated with higher levels of health consciousness. Although Spanish speakers reported lower levels of the availability of healthy food, social cohesion, and access to the Internet or text messaging compared with US-born or non-US-born English speakers, they were more likely to be health conscious and have higher levels of health information seeking. Spanish speakers as well as non-US-born English speakers, were more likely to attend health education classes compared with US-born English speakers. Health education programs for free clinic patients should include strategies to increase social cohesion. Health education programs should consider the diverse needs of these individual populations to maximize the effectiveness of the programs for free clinic patients.

  5. The Spanish Society of Neurology's official clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy. Special considerations in epilepsy: comorbidities, women of childbearing age, and elderly patients.

    Mauri Llerda, J A; Suller Marti, A; de la Peña Mayor, P; Martínez Ferri, M; Poza Aldea, J J; Gomez Alonso, J; Mercadé Cerdá, J M

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of some population groups (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly) may limit epilepsy management. Antiepileptic treatment in these patients may require adjustments. We searched articles in Pubmed, clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy, and recommendations by the most relevant medical societies regarding epilepsy in special situations (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly). Evidence and recommendations are classified according to the prognostic criteria of Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (2001) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (2004) for therapeutic interventions. Epilepsy treatment in special cases of comorbidities must be selected properly to improve efficacy with the fewest side effects. Adjusting antiepileptic medication and/or hormone therapy is necessary for proper seizure management in catamenial epilepsy. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects and may affect fetal growth and/or cognitive development. Postpartum breastfeeding is recommended, with monitoring for adverse effects if sedative AEDs are used. Finally, the elderly are prone to epilepsy, and diagnostic and treatment characteristics in this group differ from those of other age groups. Although therapeutic limitations may be more frequent in older patients due to comorbidities, they usually respond better to lower doses of AEDs than do other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Factores de riesgo de fracturas por fragilidad en una cohorte de mujeres españolas Risk factors for fragility fractures in a cohort of Spanish women

    Cristian Tebé

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las fracturas por fragilidad constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo fue analizar la asociación de los principales factores de riesgo de osteoporosis con la fracturas por fragilidad en una cohorte de mujeres con indicación de densitometría ósea. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva con seguimiento hasta una fractura por fragilidad, de una población de mujeres de 40 a 90 años de edad con una primera visita para realizarse una densitometría entre enero de 1992 y febrero de 2008. Se calcularon la tasa de incidencia de fracturas por 1000 mujeres-año de seguimiento y la hazard ratio (HR de fractura mediante un modelo de regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se estudiaron 49.735 mujeres con una edad media de 57,8 años (desviación estándar: 8,5. De ellas, 3631 mujeres (7,1% declararon al menos una fractura por fragilidad en las visitas posteriores a la basal. Los factores de riesgo con una mayor HR ajustada fueron la edad >75 años respecto a Introduction: Fragility fractures are an important public health issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the main osteoporotic risk factors related to fragility fracture in a cohort of women with an indication of bone densitometry (BD. Methods: A retrospective cohort was followed-up until a fragile fracture occurred, in a population of women aged 40 to 90 years with a first visit for BD between January 1992 and February 2008. We calculated the incidence rate of fracture per 1000 women-years of follow-up, and the hazard ratio (HR of fragile fracture using a Cox regression model. Results: A total of 49,735 women were studied. The average age of participants was 57.8 years (SD: 8.5. Of these, 3631 women (7.1% reported a new fragility fracture in post-baseline visits. Risk factors with higher adjusted HR were age > 75 years compared with age < 55 years (HR: 3.8; 95% CI: 3.3-4.4 and having a BC result evaluated as osteoporosis compared to normal (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1

  7. Spanish Visit to CERN

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  8. [Tick borne diseases].

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.

  9. Artistas españolas en la dictadura de Franco (1939–1975 = Spanish Women Artists during Franco’s Dictatorship (1939–1975

    Pilar Muñoz López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Se muestra la presencia y la trayectoria de las artistas en la Dictadura de Franco (1939–1975.Objetivos:1. Mostrar su presencia y su actividad en el arte de la época a través de la bibliografía, artículos, catálogos de exposiciones y documentos.2. Análisis y recuperación de la actividad de las artistas en el periodo de la Dictadura de Franco.3. Contribuir a la investigación sobre la historia de las mujeres, así como a un mejor conocimiento de las mujeres artistas para incidir en su visibilización en la Historia del Arte.Metodología: búsqueda de información, estudio y análisis en orden cronológico.Conclusiones: presencia destacada pero menor valoración social y artística.The paper shows the presence and the path of the artists during the Franco’s Dictatorship Age (1939–1975.Goals:1. To show her presence and activity in the art of the period from the bibliography, articles, catalogs and documents.2. To analyse and recovery of the activity of the artists in the period of the dictatorship of Franco.3. To contribute to the research about the history of the women and as a better knowledge about the women artists to increase visibility of the women in the history of art.Methodology: search of information, study and analysis of the temporal order.Conclusions: it shows the prominent presence of the women but with less social and artistic value. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal

  10. Spanish politicians discourse about the responses to violence against women El discurso de los políticos españoles sobre las respuestas a la violencia contra las mujeres

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzes the discourse of some members of the Spanish parliament (MPs in the 2 years before the Gender Violence Act was passed in 2004 to examine how gender-based violence is construed when legal measures are proposed. Methods: Ten members of six different parties of the Spanish parliament were interviewed between November 2002 and March 2003. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. A discourse analysis was performed with Atlas.ti 4.2. Results: Analysis of the interviews showed a discourse that revolved around the victim's report as the main mechanism for the public authorities to intervene and try to end gender-based violence. The interviewees proposed the following steps to help victims to escape from violence: reporting violence to the police, the provision of victim protection, punishment of the perpetrator, and avoidance of problems and death through different measures (law, police, support services. Conclusions: Our analysis shows how a major social problem and the mobilization of women and mass media have had several effects. One of these effects is that lawmakers have turned their attention to this social concern. A solution to this phenomenon is being sought through the mechanisms of the Spanish parliament (promoting changes in the law and government (making more economic resources available. The public action proposed by the MPs interviewed focuses on reporting; their discourse does not include alternative options (or includes only vague options for victims not reporting violence.Objetivo: El estudio analiza el discurso de algunos miembros del Parlamento español en los 2 años previos a la aprobación de la Ley de Protección Integral contra la violencia de género para explorar cómo la violencia de género es percibida durante el proceso de institucionalización de medidas legales. Métodos: Fueron entrevistados 10 miembros de 6 partidos políticos con representación en el Parlamento español entre

  11. Rebellious Women

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  12. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  13. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA Mamografia e teste Papanicolau em mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos Estados Unidos

    Maria E. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.

  14. Vector-borne Infections

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  15. Tick-borne disease.

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  16. Women

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  17. [Cultural scale adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the BRCA Self-Concept Scale in women carriers at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Castejón, Vanessa; Rovira, Tatiana; Sumalla, Enric C; Darder, Esther; Iglesias, Silvia; Ochoa, Cristian; Blanco, Ignacio

    2016-02-19

    Having an inherited predisposition to cancer may have a psychological impact, and one goal of genetic counseling is to promote psychological adjustment to the new situation. Thus, in the genetic context, validated measures of adjustment are required. Given that self-concept is a good indicator of adjustment to the disease or to the risk for it, and a relevant variable in oncology, the goal of the study is to culturally adapt and validate the BRCA Self-Concept Scale. One hundred and sixty-five BRCA carriers' women answered to the questionnaire, previously adapted through a process of forward/back-translation, and to the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) as a measure of convergent validity. Theoretical structure of BRCA Self-Concept Scale was assessed by expert judges, and submitted to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cronbach's α was calculated for each subscale (Stigma, Vulnerability and Control), and correlations with CWS were performed. Expert judges' structure and CFA do not support the original structure of the questionnaire. The respecificity model (with items 10 and 13 loading on Vulnerability factor) show a better fit: comparative fit index 0.973; Tucker-Lewis index 0.968; root mean square error of approximation 0.067. The Cronbach's α is 0.83 for Stigma, 0.84 for Vulnerability, and 0.61 for Control. Evidence of convergent validity with CWS has been obtained (Spearman's rho 0.631 for Stigma, 0.683 for Vulnerability, and -0.363 for Control; Pcancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  19. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    ... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...

  20. Vector borne diseases

    Melillo Fenech, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.

  1. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  2. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  3. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  4. 'Love and trust, you can be blinded': HIV risk within relationships among Latina women in Miami, Florida.

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Avent, Tenesha; Martin, Steve S; Varga, Leah M; Cano, Miguel A; O'Connell, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014. Women were recruited from a diversion program for criminal justice clients and by word of mouth. Eligibility criteria included the following: self-identify as Hispanic/Latino, 18-49 years of age, and self-identify as heterosexual. A two-level open coding analytic approach was conducted to identify themes across groups. Most participants were foreign-born (61%) and represented the following countries: Cuba (47%), Honduras (17.5%), Mexico (12%), as well as Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Colombia, and Venezuela (15%). Participant ages ranged between 18 and 49, with a mean age of 32 years. Relationship factors were important in perceiving HIV risk including male infidelity, women's trust in their male partners, relationship type, and getting caught up in the heat of the moment. For women in the English speaking groups, drug use and trading sex for drugs were also reasons cited for putting them at risk for HIV. English speaking women also reported that women should take more responsibility regarding condom use. Findings emphasize the importance of taking relational and cultural context into account when developing HIV prevention programs for Latina women. Interventions targeting English speaking Latina women should focus on women being more proactive in their sexual health; interventions focused on Spanish speaking women might target their prevention messages to either men or couples.

  5. Differences in sleep habits, study time, and academic performance between US-born and foreign-born college students.

    Eliasson, Arne H; Eliasson, Arn H; Lettieri, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    To inform the design of a sleep improvement program for college students, we assessed academic performance, sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time, hypothesizing that there would be differences between US-born and foreign-born students. Questionnaires queried participants on bedtimes, wake times, nap frequency, differences in weekday and weekend sleep habits, study hours, grade point average, time spent at paid employment, and other extracurricular activities. Comparisons were made using chi square tests for categorical data and t tests for continuous data between US-born and foreign-born students. Of 120 participants (55 % women) with racial diversity (49 whites, 18 blacks, 26 Hispanics, 14 Asians, and 13 other), 49 (41 %) were foreign-born. Comparisons between US-born and foreign-born students showed no differences in average age or gender though US-born had more whites. There were no differences between US-born and foreign-born students for grade point averages, weekday bedtimes, wake times, or total sleep times. However, US-born students averaged 50 min less study time per day (p = 0.01), had almost 9 h less paid employment per week (14.5 vs 23.4 h per week, p = 0.001), and stayed up to socialize more frequently (63 vs 43 %, p = 0.03). Foreign-born students awakened an hour earlier and averaged 40 min less sleep per night on weekends. Cultural differences among college students have a profound effect on sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time. The design of a sleep improvement program targeting a population with diverse cultural backgrounds must factor in such behavioral variations in order to have relevance and impact.

  6. Vector-borne diseases

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs......-agents for which the rate of introduction wasestimated to be very low, no further asse ssments were made. Due to the uncertainty related to someparameters used for the risk assessment or the instable or unpredictability disease situation in some ofthe source regions, it is recommended to update the assessment when...

  7. Assessment of health literacy and numeracy among Spanish-Speaking parents of young children: validation of the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish).

    Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; White, Richard O; Finkle, Joanne P; Prendes, Stefania; Perrin, Eliana M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the health literacy and numeracy skills of Spanish-speaking parents of young children and to validate a new Spanish language health literacy assessment for parents, the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish). Cross-sectional study of Spanish-speaking caregivers of young children (validated tests of health literacy (S-TOFHLA) and numeracy (WRAT-3 Arithmetic). Psychometric analysis was used to examine item characteristics of the PHLAT-10 Spanish, to assess its correlation with sociodemographics and performance on literacy/numeracy assessments, and to generate a shorter 8-item scale (PHLAT-8). Of 176 caregivers, 77% had adequate health literacy (S-TOFHLA), whereas only 0.6% had 9th grade or greater numeracy skills. Mean PHLAT-10 score was 41.6% (SD 21.1). Fewer than one-half (45.5%) were able to read a liquid antibiotic prescription label and demonstrate how much medication to administer within an oral syringe. Less than one-third (31.8%) were able to interpret a food label to determine whether it met WIC (Special supplemental nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children) guidelines. Greater PHLAT-10 score was associated with greater years of education (r = 0.49), S-TOFHLA (r = 0.53), and WRAT-3 (r = 0.55) scores (P Spanish-speaking parents have difficulty performing health-related literacy and numeracy tasks. The Spanish PHLAT demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and may be useful for identifying parents who would benefit from receiving low-literacy child health information. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childbearing patterns among immigrant women and their daughters in Spain: Over-adaptation or structural constraints

    Amparo González-Ferrer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spain, a country with one of the lowest fertility levels in the world, has recently received intense immigration flows that may contribute to fertility recovery. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether the childbearing behaviour of immigrant women and their descendants shows a pattern of convergence with that of Spanish women born in or after 1950. Methods: After merging data from the Fertility and Values Survey (2006 and the National Immigrants Survey (2007, we analyse the transition to first, second, and third birth using event history models, to identify variations in timing and incidence of birth transitions between native Spanish women and immigrant groups. Results: Previous literature has found that migration disrupts immigrants' fertility only temporarily; however, in the case of Spain, most migrant women who moved before starting family formation do not seem to fully compensate for migration-related disruption of fertility at a later stage. Our findings challenge the widespread belief that immigrants' childbearing alone will allow Spain to leave behind the current lowest-low and latest-late fertility scenario. Contribution: This article analyzes for the first time the fertility of different immigrant generations in Spain compared to native women, applying event history techniques. Our findings challenge conventional wisdom that immigration will improve very low fertility levels in Spain.

  9. Childhood socioeconomic status and suicide mortality in early adulthood among Norwegian men and women. A prospective study of Norwegians born between 1955 and 1965 followed for suicide from 1990 to 2001

    Strand, B. H.; Kunst, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Even though the causes of suicide may be rooted in childhood, it is unknown how socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood is related to suicide in adulthood. We describe the association between childhood SEP and suicide mortality in adulthood in Norway using registry data on 613807 Norwegians born

  10. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

  11. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women...... and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post...

  12. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Kegler Michelle C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U

  13. Spanish Home Language Use and English Proficiency as Differential Measures of Language Maintenance and Shift.

    Bills, Garland D.; Hudson, Alan; Chavez, Eduardo Hernandez

    1999-01-01

    Examines 1990 Census data for a large sample of the Hispanic-origin population in the Southwest, exploring two possible indices of language maintenance--Spanish home language claiming and English proficiency--as these are influenced by nativity, time, and age of immigration, citizenship status of the foreign born, education, and income.…

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  15. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  16. Increased organ donations from people born outside Spain.

    Frutos, M A; Mansilla, J J; Ruiz, P; Guerrero, F; Lebrón, M; Ortuño, R; Daga, D; Carballo, M

    2008-11-01

    Organs donated from persons born outside Spain are becoming increasingly numerous. These persons now account for 26.1% of all donors in the "Malaga sector," an area of tourism with a high percentage of immigrants. Acceptance to donation among persons from Europe and South America is similar to that of Spanish persons but lower among those born in Africa. We must recognize the great help that cultural mediators provided not only by assistance with the language barrier but also by generating confidence among families and understanding their emotions, feelings, and traditions, mainly during interviews with families from different social and cultural miliere. To be efficient, the interpreters or cultural mediators need to have received specific training in the organ donation process and to be involved and convinced that organ donation and transplantation is the best solution for severe health problems.

  17. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  18. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  19. Accelerators Spanish steps

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  20. Influence of birth month to play in the Spanish professional football

    Joaquín Reverter-Masía

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children born later in the year of competition have lower chances of promotion due to their low degree of physical, mental and emotional maturity. This phenomenon is known as Relative Age Effect or RAE. The objective of this study is to determine if the date of birth (month of birth is a factor in the configuration of the professional teams of Spanish football. As for the methodology, we determined the months of birth of the players of the first and second division of Spanish football. A total of 42 professional teams were analyzed. The data were arranged in semesters and quarters. The results show that there is a strong tendency for the selection of professional players born in the first quarters of the year compared to those born in the later ones. In conclusion, in Spain there is a predominance of professional football players depending on the month of birth

  1. Neurological development of children born to mothers after kidney transplantation.

    Schreiber-Zamora, Joanna; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Drozdowska-Szymczak, Agnieszka; Czaplinska, Natalia; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena

    2017-12-03

    Pregnancies after kidney transplantation are at high risk of complications such as preterm birth and foetal growth restriction. Until now, the impact of these factors on neurological development of children born to transplant mothers has not been established. A comparison of neurological examinations performed in 36 children of kidney transplant women (study group) and 36 children born to healthy mothers (control group). The children from both groups were born at a similar gestational age and in the similar time period from 12/1996 to 09/2012. Neurological examinations were performed from 07/2010 to 11/2013. Each examination was adjusted to the patient's age and performed after the neonatal period. Three years later children were re-consulted, if they presented neurological deviations or were less than 12 months old at the time of the first examination. Normal neurological development was found in 86% of children in both groups (p = .999). Mild neurological deviations were observed in four (11%) children born to kidney transplant mothers and in five (14%) children born to healthy mothers (p = .999). Moderate deviations were diagnosed in one premature child born to transplant mother, whose pregnancy was complicated with a severe preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. In the study population, no severe neurological disorders were found. Almost all (8/10) children with neurological deviations were born prematurely in good general conditions. The neurological deviations observed in the first year of life were mild and transient. In children over 1 year of age, deviations were more pronounced and continued to maintain. The neurological development of children of kidney transplant women is similar to that of the general population and possible deviations seem to be the result of intrauterine hypotrophy and prematurity. Therefore, in clinical practice, it is necessary to plan post-transplant pregnancies especially in women at high risk of these complications.

  2. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  3. The Infant Born to a Woman with Gestational Diabetes.

    Povinelli, Theresa; Lim, Caitlin; Raines, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with GDM develop insulin resistance, which results in altered glucose tolerance. As a result, there are frequent episodes of hyperglycemia and high levels of circulating amino acids, increasing the transfer of nutrients to the fetus. This article discusses the role of the mother-baby nursing in the care of neonates born to women with gestational diabetes.

  4. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  5. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  6. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  7. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  8. Managerial style in Spanish

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  9. The spanish nuclear choice

    Martin Blazquez, C.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  10. Religiosity and Utilization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Foreign-Born Hispanics in the United States

    Heathcote, John D.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, P. Cougar; Trinidad, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between religiosity and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a sample of foreign-born Hispanic adults, even when excluding prayer as a form of CAM. Data were collected using a self-report Spanish-language survey. Study participants consisted of 306 respondents between…

  11. Born-Infeld Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.

    1999-01-01

    This is only a summary of a lecture delivered at the Infeld Centennial Meeting. In the lecture the history of the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics was presented and some general features of the theory were discussed. (author)

  12. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  13. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  14. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  15. Psychometric Properties of Newly Translated Spanish Life Events Inventory and Daily Hassles Scale.

    Hannan, Jean; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Brooten, Dorothy; Bazzani, Dianne; Romero, Norma R; Chavez, Blanca; Picanes, Joann

    2015-01-01

    Measuring stress in Hispanic Americans, the fastest growing U.S. minority, is problematic. The Life Events Inventory (LEI) and the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), widely used stress instruments, are not available in Spanish. To test the psychometric properties of the translated Spanish versions of the LEI and DHS. A convenience sample of 63 Hispanic women completed both instruments in Spanish and English 2 weeks apart. Internal consistency reliability and stability were strong for both instruments (.85-.97). Reliability and validity evidence for the translated Spanish versions were strong and similar to the English version. Psychometric findings suggest that the newly translated Spanish versions are good representations of the English versions and that these newly translated instruments are ready for use.

  16. Do cultural differences influence batterer intervention program outcomes? A studywith Spanish and Latin American offenders

    Viviana Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.

  17. Women's death in Scandinavia--what makes Denmark different?

    Jacobsen, Rune; Von Euler, My; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    -2000, and born 1900-1950. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for deaths. RESULTS: The high risk of dying among Danish women was associated with being born between the two World Wars, and that a similar pattern was not found for women in Norway and Sweden. A tendency of a cohort effect...... was observed for Swedish women born around 1940. CONCLUSIONS: The currently low life expectancy of Danish women compared with that of women in Norway and Sweden is partly a transitional phenomenon caused by excessive death rates for women born between the two World Wars. Data on smoking prevalence by birth...

  18. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  19. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  20. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  1. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  2. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Development of Multicultural Library Services in the Spanish Public Library Network (2007-2010)

    Garcia Lopez, Fatima; Caridad Sebastian, Mercedes; Morales Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The percentage of foreign-born residents in Spain has multiplied almost fourfold over the last decade. Immigration has changed our society, both from a demographic and economic perspective, and from a cultural and political prospective. The Spanish public library network, a democratic institution that provides services, initially, of…

  4. Obesity Among U.S.- and Foreign-Born Blacks by Region of Birth.

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Ford, Nicole D; Siegel, Karen R

    2015-08-01

    Large, recent migration streams from the non-Hispanic Caribbean islands and Africa have increased the share of U.S. blacks born outside of the U.S. Little is known about health patterns in these foreign-born populations. The purpose of this study is to compare obesity levels among self-identified U.S. blacks across birth regions and examine potential explanations for subgroup differences. Data were from the 2000-2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Three birthplace subgroups were examined: individuals born in the U.S., Caribbean/South America, and Africa, aged 25-59 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Compared to U.S.-born participants, foreign-born participants had significantly lower obesity (BMI ≥30) odds. The AORs were 0.51 (Caribbean/South American-born, 95% CI=0.44, 0.58) and 0.41 (African-born, 95% CI=0.34, 0.50) with reference to U.S.-born individuals. Education, income, and cigarette smoking did not explain the favorable weight pattern of the foreign born. Among the foreign born, those residing in the U.S. for ≥15 years had 51% (95% CI=10%, 108%) higher obesity odds compared with those residing for <5 years. No statistically significant differences in obesity odds between those born in the Caribbean/South America and Africa were detected. Foreign-born blacks generally had lower obesity levels compared to their U.S.-born counterparts, which was not explained by SES or smoking behaviors. Despite this advantage, obesity prevalence among foreign-born black women was around 30%, suggesting that obesity poses a significant health risk this population. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Trust and Children Born of War

    Voicu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two assumptions commonly used in analyzing the formation of social trust. They stress the importance of early socialization, on one hand, and of life events, on the other. We consider birth as a major life event for anyone and focus on the situation of Children Born of War. This group, even if lesser visible in some societies, has the peculiar characteristic to be born and socialized in very specific conditions. Typically, these people are the offspring of foreign soldiers, and local women. They may bear stigma, might be marginalized in family, school and society, and might develop a low level of generalized trust even if they may have lived all life in a culture rich in social trust. We explore at theoretical level their case, bring in a few statistics, and suggest a research direction that may be fruitful in learning about both such hidden populations and about social trust. In the end, we argue upon the importance of the topic for post-conflict societies.

  6. Spanish Comics as Genre

    Kiely, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Since the beginning of literary time, genre has been an issue for critics and scholars. Comics and graphic novels have stepped into the fray in recent decades causing even more confusion. This is even more evident in Spain where the publishers are foolhardy men and women simply out to make money and who are too deeply embedded in their bourgeois…

  7. Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness: a study of psychometric properties in a Spanish sample.

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.

  8. Sex of the first-born and risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy

    Mortensen, Laust H; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Cnattingius, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the chance of successfully maintaining a pregnancy may be influenced by the sex of previously born children. We explored a possible relation between sex of the first-born infant and the risk of preterm birth in the second pregnancy. METHODS: Using data from...... the National Medical Birth Registries in Denmark 1980-2004 and Sweden 1980-2001, we selected all women whose first and second births were singleton and who had information on sex of first-born infant and gestational age for the second (Denmark, n = 393,686; Sweden, n = 603,282). Cox proportional hazards...... regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of preterm birth in the second pregnancy according to the sex of the first-born infant. RESULTS: Compared with women whose first baby was a girl, women with boys had an increased risk of preterm birth in a second pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95...

  9. Spanish translation and validation of the Preschool Activity Card Sort.

    Stoffel, Ashley; Berg, Christine

    2008-05-01

    Few standardized assessments exist for children living in the United States who are Hispanic/Latino. This study reports the Spanish translation process for the Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS), which is a measure of participation in preschool children, and examines content, construct, and concurrent validity. Methods of verifying accuracy of translation included expert review and back translation and supported content validity of the Tarjetas de Actividades Preescolares (TAP). Subsequently, a sample of 37 parents of children between 3 and 6 years of age completed the PACS/TAP by structured interview. Twenty-six parents were Spanish speaking, and 11 were English speaking. A comparison of reported participation by Spanish- and English-speaking children provides initial construct validity of the TAP. Results indicate that the TAP differentiates among children of recent immigrants as compared to preschoolers who were born in the United States on domains of self-care, high and low demand leisure, and educational activities. Results emphasize the importance of considering sociocultural influences when assessing participation. PACS/TAP scores were moderately correlated with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory scores for the self-care domain, but did not correlate with the mobility or social function domains. The PACS/TAP appears to provide a useful means of understanding preschoolers' participation. Future research is needed to further establish the validity of this assessment.

  10. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  11. The Spanish National Dose Registry and Spanish radiation passbooks

    Hernandez, A.; Martin, A.; Villanueva, I.; Amor, I.; Butragueno, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Spanish National Dose Registry (BDN) is the Nuclear Safety Council's (CSN) national database of occupational exposure to radiation. Each month BDN receives records of individual external doses from approved dosimetry services. The dose records include information regarding the occupational activities of exposed workers. The dose information and the statistical analysis prepared by the BDN are a useful tool for effective operational protection of occupationally exposed workers and a support for the CSN in the development and application of the ALARA principle. The Spanish radiation passbook was introduced in 1990 and since then CSN, as regulatory authority, has required that all outside workers entering controlled areas should have radiation passbooks. Nowadays, CSN has implemented improvements in the Spanish radiation Passbooks, taking into account previous experience and Directive 96/29/EURATOM. (author)

  12. Respondent-driven sampling to assess mental health outcomes, stigma and acceptance among women raising children born from sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Scott, Jennifer; Rouhani, Shada; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Kuwert, Philipp; Hacker, Michele R; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2015-04-08

    Assess mental health outcomes among women raising children from sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs) in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and stigma toward and acceptance of women and their children. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2012. 757 adult women raising children from SVRPs were interviewed. A woman aged 18 and older was eligible for the study if she self-identified as a sexual violence survivor since the start of the conflict (∼1996), conceived an SVRP, delivered a liveborn child and was currently raising the child. A woman was ineligible for the study if the SVRP ended with a spontaneous abortion or fetal demise or the child was not currently living or in the care of the biological mother. Trained female Congolese interviewers verbally administered a quantitative survey after obtaining verbal informed consent. Symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and suicidality were assessed, as well as stigma toward the woman and her child. Acceptance of the woman and child from the spouse, family and community were analysed. 48.6% met symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, 57.9% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 43.3% for anxiety and 34.2% reported suicidality. Women who reported stigma from the community (38.4%) or who reported stigma toward the child from the spouse (42.9%), family (31.8%) or community (38.1%) were significantly more likely to meet symptom criteria for most mental health disorders. Although not statistically significant, participants who reported acceptance and acceptance of their children from the spouse, family and community were less likely to meet symptom criteria. Women raising children from SVRPs experience symptoms of mental health disorders. Programming addressing stigma and acceptance following sexual violence may improve mental health outcomes in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  13. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  14. Low birthweight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: the effect of maternal foreign-born status and education.

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2007-12-01

    We investigated whether maternal foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birthweight (LBW) across US Hispanic/Latino subgroups (i.e., Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central/South Americans) in the USA, and whether the association between maternal education and LBW varies by Hispanic/Latino subgroup and by foreign-born status. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the 2002 US Natality Detail Data (n=634,797). Overall, foreign-born Latino women are less likely to have LBW infants than US-born Latino women. The protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among Latino women with less than high school education. The maternal education gradient is significantly flatter among foreign-born Latino women than among their US-born counterparts (peducation (i.e., 0-11 and 12 years) than among women with more education (i.e., 13-15 and 16+ years). The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born Mexicans and Central/South Americans than among their US-born counterparts. As such, maternal foreign-born status and education are associated with LBW, though the direction and strength of these associations vary across Latino subgroups. A "health paradox" is apparent for foreign-born Mexican and Central/South American women among whom there is a weak maternal educational gradient in LBW. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW among Latino subgroups, i.e., different gradients in sending countries, health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, and social support.

  15. Igualdad entre mujeres y hombres tras 40 años de Constitución Española // Equality between women and men after forty years of the Spanish Constitution

    Cristina Zoco Zabala

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of effective equality between women and men in legislation and jurisprudence from the formal and material meaning of the constitutional requirement of equality. The prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex has resulted in the repeal of rules that ignore women in the pursuit of rights or that harm them in real life. However, it has not affected the legal prohibition of multiple discrimination as intersectional discrimination resulting from the confluence of other discriminations with the fact of being a woman. The demand for real and effective equality of women and men has resulted in positive action, repressive actions with a gender perspective and antidiscrimination measures compatible with the requirements of arts. 14 and 9.2 EC. However, effective guarantees of education and training in equality have not been regulated, but rather, voluntary policies that do not translate obligations of prescriptive compliance. Neither is there a transversal regulation of positive actions that allow to eradicate multiple discrimination as qualitatively different discrimination. Likewise, social and scientific evolution has determined the revision of some measures of positive action for women from the perspective of prohibition of discrimination for other subjective reasons (the sexual identity and from the real objective of labor rights of care: parental co-responsibility of the parents. There is a need to transform some measures of positive action for women (suspension of maternity contract in rights that can be enjoyed by pregnant women, regardless of sex or sexual identity. It is even determined the need to convert such rights for pregnant women into measures of parental co-responsibility that can be enjoyed indistinctly by both parents.

  16. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  17. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Resilience Scale.

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Lee, Kathryn; Kury, Felix Salvador

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the Resilience Scale (RS), which was originally created in English by Wagnild and Young (1993). A team of bilingual, bicultural translators participated in the translation process to enhance the linguistic accuracy and cultural appropriateness of the Spanish translation. As part of the convenience sample of 315 women of Mexican descent who participated in the larger study, data from 147 women who preferred to read and write in Spanish were used in this analysis. The English version of the RS consists of a 17-item "Personal Competence" subscale and an 8-item "Acceptance of Self and Life" subscale for a total of 25 items. However, two items had low item-total loadings and were removed to form a modified 23-item RS. The exploratory principal components factor analysis, varimax rotation, and subsequent goodness of fit indices were ambivalent on whether a one or two-factor solution was appropriate, but the chi-square difference test clearly demonstrated that the two-factor solution of the Spanish version was more useful in explaining variance than a one-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability was estimated with Cronbach's alpha (alpha = 0.93) which was acceptable for the 23-item RS as well as its subscales. Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between resilience and life satisfaction (r = 0.36; p resilience and depressive symptoms (r = -0.29; p urban, low-income women of Mexican descent in the U.S.

  18. Astronomy books in Spanish

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  19. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  20. Semantic and Pragmatic Functions of the Spanish Diminutive in Spanish in Contact with Quechua.

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    2001-01-01

    Presents data from the Spanish of Quechua-Spanish bilinguals that exemplify a contact situation that gives rise to a process called structural interference. Concentrates on the use of the diminutive in the Spanish of speakers of Spanish in the Andes. (Author/VWL)

  1. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  2. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  3. Women’s Role in the Spanish Politics: The PSOE Case

    Gema Sánchez Medero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes women incorporation in different levels of political life, namely in the political parties and representative institutions. The aspects it focused on were the actions taken by the PSOE (Spanish Labour Socialist Party in relation to the paritary democracy, so as to properly evaluate the consequences produced on the organization party itself and on those institutional areas where they have obtained representation (General Spanish Parliament, Autonomous Parliaments, and City Halls, to observe whether women are actually committed to political life or such integration only obeys to political party interests.

  4. Bacterial food-borne zoonoses.

    Thorns, C J

    2000-04-01

    In many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. Poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused by these bacteria, although all domestic livestock are reservoirs of infection. In contrast to the enzootic nature of most Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, Salmonella Enteritidis caused a pandemic in both poultry and humans during the latter half of the 20th Century. Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter appear to be more ubiquitous in the environment, colonising a greater variety of hosts and environmental niches. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) also emerged as a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in the 1980s and 1990s. Although infection is relatively rare in humans, clinical disease is often severe, with a significant mortality rate among the young and elderly. The epidemiology of VTEC O157 is poorly understood, although ruminants, especially cattle and sheep, appear to be the major source of infection. The dissemination of S. Enteritidis along the food chain is fairly well understood, and control programmes have been developed to target key areas of poultry meat and egg production. Recent evidence indicates that these control programmes have been associated with an overall reduction of S. Enteritidis along the food chain. Unfortunately, existing controls do not appear to reduce the levels of Campylobacter and VTEC O157 infections. Future control strategies need to consider variations in the epidemiologies of food-borne zoonotic infections, and apply a quantitative risk analysis approach to ensure that the most cost-effective programmes are developed.

  5. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  6. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  7. V Congress of Spanish Geochemistry

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings book present the lectures of V Spanish geochemistry Congress. The sessions were: 1.- Materials geochemistry and geologic process. 2.- Geochemistry prospection 3.- Environmental geochemistry 4.- Isotopic geochemistry 5.- Organic geochemistry 6.- Natural materials geochemistry for industry 7.- Hydrogeochemistry 8.- Mathematical models in geochemistry 9.- Analysis methods in geochemistry 10.-Training of geochemistry 11.-Cosmochemistry

  8. Agentivity Marking in Spanish Nominalisations

    Høeg Müller, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to provide justification for the claim that variation between the prepositions por ‘by’ and de ‘of’ introducing the subject argument in Spanish nominalisations should not be explained as primarily paralleling sentence-level voice or aspectual distinctions...

  9. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  10. Validación de la versión española de las formas cortas del Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 y del Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7 en mujeres embarazadas Validation of the Spanish version of the short forms of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7 in pregnant women

    Regina Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández

    2011-10-01

    . Average values of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 were higher in women with mixed incontinence, were lower in women with stress incontinence and increased with daily losses (p<0.01. The correlation between the UDI-6 and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF (CCI=0.497; 95% CI: 0.326-0.625 and between the IIQ-7 and ICIQ-SF (CCI=0.472; 95% CI: 0.268-0.619 was moderate. The sensitivity and specificity of the UDI-6 for the diagnosis of urinary incontinence was 98.9% and 86.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The Spanish versions of the IIQ-7 and UDI-6 are feasible, reliable, consistent and valid in the measurement of symptoms and quality of life in pregnant Spanish women with urinary incontinence.

  11. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  12. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  13. Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.

    Axmon, A; Rylander, L

    2009-03-01

    To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.

  14. Using geographical information systems to explore disparities in preterm birth rates among foreign-born and U.S.-born Black mothers.

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2011-01-01

    To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003-2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Clear visual patterns of "bad" neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. “Sin nosotras el mundo no se mueve”. Mujeres inmigrantes en España: género y cultura en el contexto laboral "Without us the world does not move." Immigrant women in the Spanish work context

    María Pilar Moreno Jiménez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el presente estudio pretendemos conocer la perspectiva de las mujeres inmigrantes en el ámbito laboral, teniendo en cuenta los discursos de las propias protagonistas. El objetivo general de la investigación ha sido conocer las condiciones laborales de estas trabajadoras desde sus propias perspectivas. Realizamos cuatro grupos focales (latinoamericanas, europeas del este, marroquíes y africanas subsaharianas con un total de 47 mujeres. El análisis de sus discursos muestra puntos en común por ser mujer, trabajadora e inmigrante, y algunas diferencias según su lugar de origen. Describimos contenidos sobre los antecedentes del proyecto migratorio, las condiciones de trabajo (pérdida de estatus y etnización laboral, inestabilidad, víctimas de descalificaciones y los efectos de estas condiciones laborales (cinismo, aislamiento social, diferentes relaciones con los empleadores, resignación y sumisión. Las reflexiones a lo largo del texto dialogan con reflexiones de otros/as autores/as para enriquecer la visibilidad de las mujeres migrantes, a la vez diferentes, a la vez con muchos puntos comunes.

    The present study aimed to learn the perspective of immigrant women in the workplace, taking into account the speeches of the protagonists themselves. The overall objective was to find the job conditions from their own perspectives. We conducted four focus groups (Latin American, Eastern European, Moroccan and sub-Saharan Africa with a total of 47 women. The analysis of their speeches shows points in common because they are women, workers and immigrants, and some differences according to their place of origin. We describe the background of the migration project, working conditions (loss of job status and ethnicization, instability, prejudice and the effects of these working conditions (cynicism, social

  16. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  17. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  18. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  19. We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?

    Leadbetter, Adam; Fredericks, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The phrase "born-digital" refers to those materials which originate in a digital form. In Earth and Space Sciences, this is now very much the norm for data: analogue to digital converters sit on instrument boards and produce a digital record of the observed environment. While much effort has been put in to creating and curating these digital data, there has been little work on using semantic mark up of data from the point of collection - what we term 'born semantic'. In this presentation we report on two efforts to expand this area: Qartod-to-OGC (Q2O) and SenseOCEAN. These projects have taken a common approach to 'born semantic': create or reuse appropriate controlled vocabularies, published to World Wide Web Commission (W3C) standards use standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe instrument setup, deployment and/or outputs using terms from those controlled vocabularies embed URLs from the controlled vocabularies within the SWE documents in a "Linked Data" conformant approach Q2O developed best practices examples of SensorML descriptions of Original Equipment Manufacturers' metadata (model characteristics, capabilities, manufacturer contact, etc ...) set-up and deployment SensorML files; and data centre process-lineage using registered vocabularies to describe terms (including input, output, processes, parameters, quality control flags) One Q2O use case, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory ADCP Waves instance, uses SensorML and registered vocabularies to fully describe the process of computing wave parameters from sensed properties, including quality control tests and associated results. The European Commission Framework Programme 7 project SenseOCEAN draws together world leading marine sensor developers to create a highly integrated multifunction and cost-effective in situ marine biogeochemical sensor system. This project will provide a quantum leap in the ability to measure crucial biogeochemical

  20. Romanian and Spanish Cultural Crossings

    Anisoara Popa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Much more appreciated and known in his time than by posterity, V.A.Urechia was ahistorian, politician and learned man, formed together with great personalities of the generation of the40's, A.I.Cuza's collaborator (the first ruler of the United Principalities, and also our first hispanist.After finishing his studies in Paris, he married Francoise Josephine Dominique Plano, the daughter ofQueen Isabela's of Spain personal doctor, Urechia showed a constant interest and maintained strongconnections with the Spanish cultural space that he discovered to be the origin of the foundingemperor of Dacia Traiana. The subject-matter of the present paper is Urechia's "capital of Spanisheducation" (enhanced in time, the contacts with the great personalities of the Spanish culture of histime , that can be reconstituted due to his work, his memoires, his letters a intercultural dialogue andarticles published in the Spanish and Romanian press, as well as the influence of those contacts on thepersonality, method, and purpose of his cultural approaches. Moreover, we are to point out thecontribution that the personalities had in the intercultural dialogue in Europe, at the end of the 19thcentury.

  1. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy as viewed by the Spanish REVIVE participants: symptoms, management and treatment perceptions.

    Palacios, S; Cancelo, M J; Castelo Branco, C; Llaneza, P; Molero, F; Borrego, R Sanchez

    2017-02-01

    To gain a deeper comprehension of current vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) knowledge among Spanish postmenopausal women. An online survey (REVIVE) was conducted in four European countries with an overall sample of 768 participants included in Spain. Perceptions, experiences and needs of Spanish postmenopausal women in terms of sexual and vaginal health were reported. Vaginal dryness was the most common VVA symptom in Spain (81%). The severity of symptoms reported by postmenopausal women tended to be similar or worse than at onset, especially in the most troublesome symptom, dyspareunia (80%). VVA symptoms significantly impact on Spanish participants' ability to achieve sexual enjoyment (75%), relationship with partner (67%) and sexual spontaneity (66%). Although 71% of participants with partners (83%) were sexually active, their sex drive was reduced by one-third as a consequence of VVA. Despite the fact that women expected doctors to start asking them about menopausal symptoms, this rarely occurred. Treatments were administered mainly vaginally without prescription (62% were using over-the-counter products at the time). Postmenopausal women who had discussed their symptoms with physicians were twice as likely to be treated (66% vs. 33%) than those who had not. Low compliance with treatment was justified by Spanish participants with not bothersome enough symptoms (22%), relief (21%), inability to reverse vaginal changes (15%) and treatment price (13%). Almost half of the participants with a current local estrogen prescription showed satisfaction. The acknowledged main limitation for all treatments was the inability to restore the natural conditions of the vagina. The price of over-the-counter products was also reported as an important concern in Spanish postmenopausal women. VVA remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in Spain, despite its high frequency and significant impact on quality of life. Since patient satisfaction with available treatments remains compromised

  3. Neurological development of children born to liver transplant recipients.

    Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.

  4. Domestic Violence and Social Responsibility in Contemporary Spanish Cinema: A Portfolio View of Behavioral Dynamics

    Zanzana, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Domestic abuse continues to claim many lives in Spain despite a series of new laws to protect women and to punish abusers. This essay explores the cultural influences of contemporary Spanish cinema on domestic violence. Four films are assessed against a Portfolio Model of social responsibility that uses two basic dimensions: realism and human…

  5. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  6. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as

  7. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation and devel...... of knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  8. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy.

  9. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24).

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  10. New birthweight charts according to parity and type of delivery for the Spanish population.

    Terán, José Manuel; Varea, Carlos; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    Birthweight by gestational age charts enable fetal growth to be evaluated in a specific population. Given that maternal profile and obstetric practice have undergone a remarkable change over the past few decades in Spain, this paper presents new Spanish reference percentile charts stratified by gender, parity and type of delivery. They have been prepared with data from the 2010-2014 period of the Spanish Birth Statistics Bulletin. Reference charts have been prepared using the LMS method, corresponding to 1,428,769 single, live births born to Spanish mothers. Percentile values and mean birth weight are compared among newborns according to gender, parity and type of delivery. Newborns to primiparous mothers show significantly lower birthweight than those born to multiparous mothers (pparity and type of delivery-specific birthweight references. These new charts enable a better evaluation of the impact of the demographic, reproductive and obstetric trends currently in Spain on fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  12. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  13. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  14. Childbearing Differences among Three Generations of U.S. Women

    ... NCHS Childbearing Differences Among Three Generations of U.S. Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... System. Keywords: birth cohort, childlessness, total fertility rate Women born in 1935 had on average three births— ...

  15. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  16. Comparative study of polymorphism frequencies of the CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP2C8 and IL-10 genes in Mexican and Spanish women with breast cancer.

    Alcazar-González, Gregorio Antonio; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Rubio-Hernández, Gabriela; Escorza-Treviño, Sergio; Olano-Martin, Estibaliz; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín; Castruita-Avila, Ana Lilia; González-Guerrero, Juan Francisco; le Brun, Stéphane; Simon-Buela, Laureano; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic studies in breast cancer (BC) may predict the efficacy of tamoxifen and the toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We determined the frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene associated with activation of tamoxifen, and those of the genes CYP2C8, CYP3A5 and DPYD associated with toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We also included a IL-10 gene polymorphism associated with advanced tumor stage at diagnosis. Genomic DNAs from 241 BC patients from northeast Mexico were genotyped using DNA microarray technology. For tamoxifen processing, CYP2D6 genotyping predicted that 90.8% of patients were normal metabolizers, 4.2% ultrarapid, 2.1% intermediate and 2.9% poor metabolizers. For paclitaxel and the CYP2C8 gene, 75.3% were normal, 23.4% intermediate and 1.3% poor metabolizers. Regarding the DPYD gene, only one patient was a poor metabolizer. For the IL-10 gene, 47.1% were poor metabolizers. These results contribute valuable information towards personalizing BC chemotherapy in Mexican women.

  17. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  18. Partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants in the Spanish context

    Amparo González-Ferrer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diversification of partnership patterns away from the traditional marriage standard emerged in Spain relatively late. This makes Spain an interesting case for the study of the partnership dynamics of natives and immigrant groups. Objective: This paper analyzes partnership formation and dissolution among immigrant women of various origins, in comparison to natives in Spain. The study aims to identify variations in timing and incidence of partnership transitions. Methods: Data from the Fertility and Values Survey 2006 is used to conduct discrete-time logistic regressions for several union transitions. In a further step, the data are analyzed including cohort interactions to explore the extent to which differences are due to the younger profile of the migrant population. Results: The obtained results lend support to the selection and disruption hypotheses in the case of immigrant women who arrived in Spain before their first union formation. However, when explaining the high propensity of Latin American and EU-15 women to enter cohabiting unions, socialization effects cannot be ruled out. Immigrant women also show higher risk of union dissolution than natives. Conclusions: Immigrant women differ consistently from native Spanish women across the various partnership transitions. They generally display higher risks of forming a union, particularly a cohabiting union, and of separating from their first partner. Models including interactions between birth cohort and migrant status showed that differentials between immigrants and natives are not due to compositional effects.

  19. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. Status of women in physics in Spain in 2011

    López-Sancho, M. P.; Carreras, C.; Chevalier, M.; Campabadal, F.; Yzuel, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We present statistical data updated from the 2008 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. Despite several gender equality measures adopted by the Spanish government, updated data exhibit the same trend: the percentage of women at the staff levels in the universities and at the Spanish High Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; CSIC) remains approximately constant at about 33%. At the universities, the progress of women is slow. However, at the CSIC, both an increase in the number of available posts and the work of the Commission of Women and Science helped to increase the number of women in its top positions, although the net proportion among women and men did not change significantly. We describe the activities carried out by the Women in Physics group of the Spanish Physical Society.

  1. Women doctors have a rougher time – new association born

    security threats and discrimination. These are ... working for gender equality and improving career and ... business. Dr Nomonde Mabuya, a GP in private practice and veteran of the Businesswomen's ... in order to have a family was a thorny.

  2. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  3. The Body Image Concern Inventory: validation in a multiethnic sample and initial development of a Spanish language version.

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2008-12-01

    Dysmorphic appearance concern encompasses preoccupation with a perceived appearance defect, defect checking and camouflaging, and social avoidance. The current study sought to evaluate the internal consistency, factor structure, and convergent validity of a measure of dysmorphic appearance concern, the Body Image Concern Inventory, as well as evaluate the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the instrument. Women recruited as part of a reproductive clinic-based clinical trial completed the BICI and other self-report measures of distress. A total of 1043 women completed the measures in English (M=29 years, range=18-55 years) and 573 women completed the measures in Spanish (M=32 years, range=18-55 years). Both the English and Spanish BICI were internally consistent and correlated moderately with measures of current psychological distress (STAI-S, CES-D). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the measure's proposed factor structure. Applications of the BICI for future research are discussed.

  4. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  5. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...

  6. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  7. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  8. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  9. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  10. Cultural notions in Spanish Dictionaries for Foreigners

    Luis Pablo-Núñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although later than in English, Linguistics applied to the teaching of Spanish language has produced several didactic dictionaries for foreigners in the last two decades. This dictionaries include grammatical information in order to facilitate pronunciation, and morphological or syntactical comprehension; cultural notions, however, are more difficult to include because they go beyond the scope of the lexicon. Through the analysis of some terms related to folk music and gastronomy, we analyse the inclusion of Spanish and Latin American cultural notions in the three main dictionaries of Spanish for foreigners: the dictionary for the teaching of the Spanish language published by Vox-Alcalá University (Diccionario para la enseñanza de la lengua española, the Salamanca Dictionary (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española and the Spanish dictionary for foreigners of SM publishing house (Diccionario de español para extranjeros.

  11. Children born to SLE and APS mothers.

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A

    2014-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Barriers to acceptance of self-sampling for human papillomavirus across ethnolinguistic groups of women.

    Howard, Michelle; Lytwyn, Alice; Lohfeld, Lynne; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Fowler, Nancy; Karwalajtys, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant and low socio-economic (SES) women in North America underutilize Papanicolaou screening. Vaginal swab self-sampling for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening participation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the perceptions of lower SES and immigrant women regarding self-sampling for HPV. Eleven focus-group interviews were conducted: one with Canadian-born English-speaking lower SES women, and two groups each with Arabic, Cantonese, Dari (Afghani), Somali and Spanish (Latino)-speaking women (one group conducted in English, the other in the native language) recently immigrated to Canada. Five to nine women aged 35 to 65 years and married with children participated in each group. Themes included 1) who might use self-sampling and why; 2) aversion to self-sampling and reasons to prefer physician; 3) ways to improve the appeal of self-sampling. Women generally perceived benefits of self-sampling and a small number felt they might use the method, but all groups had some reservations. Reasons included: uncertainty over performing the sampling correctly; fear of hurting themselves; concern about obtaining appropriate material; and concerns about test accuracy. Women preferred testing by a health care professional because they were accustomed to pelvic examinations, it was more convenient, or they trusted the results. Perceptions of self-sampling for HPV were similar across cultures and pertained to issues of confidence in self-sampling and need for physician involvement in care. These findings can inform programs and studies planning to employ self-sampling as a screening modality for cervical cancer.

  13. Validation of Born Traveltime Kernels

    Baig, A. M.; Dahlen, F. A.; Hung, S.

    2001-12-01

    Most inversions for Earth structure using seismic traveltimes rely on linear ray theory to translate observed traveltime anomalies into seismic velocity anomalies distributed throughout the mantle. However, ray theory is not an appropriate tool to use when velocity anomalies have scale lengths less than the width of the Fresnel zone. In the presence of these structures, we need to turn to a scattering theory in order to adequately describe all of the features observed in the waveform. By coupling the Born approximation to ray theory, the first order dependence of heterogeneity on the cross-correlated traveltimes (described by the Fréchet derivative or, more colourfully, the banana-doughnut kernel) may be determined. To determine for what range of parameters these banana-doughnut kernels outperform linear ray theory, we generate several random media specified by their statistical properties, namely the RMS slowness perturbation and the scale length of the heterogeneity. Acoustic waves are numerically generated from a point source using a 3-D pseudo-spectral wave propagation code. These waves are then recorded at a variety of propagation distances from the source introducing a third parameter to the problem: the number of wavelengths traversed by the wave. When all of the heterogeneity has scale lengths larger than the width of the Fresnel zone, ray theory does as good a job at predicting the cross-correlated traveltime as the banana-doughnut kernels do. Below this limit, wavefront healing becomes a significant effect and ray theory ceases to be effective even though the kernels remain relatively accurate provided the heterogeneity is weak. The study of wave propagation in random media is of a more general interest and we will also show our measurements of the velocity shift and the variance of traveltime compare to various theoretical predictions in a given regime.

  14. Ribeiro's typology, genomes, and Spanish colonialism, as viewed from Gran Canaria and Colombia

    Maria Cátira Bortolini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four biallelic and six multiallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms were investigated in 59 Gran Canarian, 60 North African Berber and 46 Spanish subjects. These new data were merged with equivalent literature information to obtain the parental Y-chrosomomal contribution in Gran Canarians, Colombians, and Venezuelans. The results were then compared, for Gran Canarians and Colombians, to those derived from autosomal and mtDNA. In both groups, the Spanish Y-chromosome contribution was much more marked than that estimated using mtDNA. This analysis showed a usual trend in the Spanish Colonial history, characterized by a demographic collapse of the aboriginal population, but with considerable introgression of genes through native women. In accordance to D. Ribeiro's typology for peoples subjected to Colonialism, the Y-chromosomes of these admixed populations are classified as transplanted, their mtDNA as witness, and their autosome sets as new.

  15. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. The role of ENSA in the internationalization of the spanish nuclear industry

    Zubimendi, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Originally born to face the manufacture of the large components for the Spanish nuclear power plants, ENSA is a valid example of internationalization. Mainly based on its high technology and quality as a differential fact, the international success started at the end of the eighties. currently 90% of the manufactured equipment is exported and 50% of the services are performed abroad, ENSA is working for demanding markets as China, France, North America, Taiwan, Argentina, slovenia, Belgium, south Africa, etc. Today, all large equipment being manufactured at ENSA will be exported. (Author)

  17. Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.

    Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates.

  18. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

    Ignacio Bosque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  19. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    Bregar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  20. Contraceptive attitudes and contraceptive failure among women requesting induced abortion in Denmark

    Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate how contraceptive attitudes among Danish-born and immigrant women influence the request of induced abortion. Method: A case-control study, the case group comprising 1,095 Danish-born women and 233 immigrant women requesting abortion, in comparison with a control group of 1...

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Spanish males: a study of the Spanish Rheumatology Society Lupus Registry (RELESSER) cohort.

    Riveros Frutos, A; Casas, I; Rúa-Figueroa, I; López-Longo, F J; Calvo-Alén, J; Galindo, M; Fernández-Nebro, A; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Olivé Marqués, A

    2017-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and immunological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in male patients. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out of 3651 patients (353 men, 9.7%, and 3298 women, 90.2%) diagnosed with SLE, included in the Spanish Rheumatology Society SLE Registry (RELESSER). Results Mean ages (18-92 years) of symptom onset were 37 (SD 17) years (men) and 32 (SD 14) years (women). Male/female ratio was 1/9. Age of onset of symptoms and age at diagnosis were higher in men than in women ( p lupus nephritis was more common in men, being present in 155 (44.8%) of males versus 933 (29%) of females ( p  50 years had a higher mortality (odds ratios 3.6 and 2.1, respectively). Furthermore, SLE patients who developed pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary hypertension, psychiatric involvement, complement deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome also had higher mortality, regardless of gender. Conclusion Patients with SLE over the age of 50 years have an increased risk of mortality. In Caucasians, age at diagnosis and symptom onset is higher in men than in women. The diagnostic delay is shorter in men. Male SLE patients present more cardiovascular comorbidities, and also more serositis, adenopathies, splenomegaly, renal involvement, convulsion, thrombosis, and lupus anticoagulant positivity than women.

  2. The feminist batles. The principals spanish feminist campaigns (1976-1981

    Soraya Gahete Muñoz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The feminist movement developed strongly since 1976. The Spanish situation, after more than forty years of dictatorship, determined the campaigns of the feminist movement. There were many vindications, for example, a new model of family or repeal all laws which are discriminatory for women. Some principal campaigns were to end to the penalty of so-called female adultery, legalize the contraceptive methods and the abortion, get the recognition and the reinforcement the equality between women and men in the constitution, the acceptance of a new sexuality model or a divorce law doesn´t discriminatory for women.

  3. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  4. Changing trend? Sex ratios of children born to Indian immigrants in Norway revisited.

    Tønnessen, Marianne; Aalandslid, Vebjørn; Skjerpen, Terje

    2013-09-05

    In some Western countries, a disturbingly low share of girls has been observed among new-borns from Indian immigrants. Also in Norway, a previous study based on figures from 1969-2005 showed a high percentage of boys among children of Indian origin living in Norway, when the birth was of higher order (third birth or later). This was suggested to reflect a practice of sex-selective abortions in the Indian immigrant population. In this article we have seen whether extended time series for the period 2006-2012 give further support to this claim. Based on data from the Norwegian Central Population Register we used observations for the sex of all live births in Norway for the period 1969-2012 where the mother was born in India. The percentage of boys was calculated for each birth order, during four sub periods. Utilising a binomial probability model we tested whether the observed sex differences among Indian-born women were significantly different from sex differences among all births. Contrary to findings from earlier periods and other Western countries, we found that Indian-born women in Norway gave birth to more girls than boys of higher order in the period 2006-2012. This is somewhat surprising, since sex selection is usually expected to be stronger if the mother already has two or more children. The extended time series do not suggest a prevalence of sex selective abortions among Indian-born women in Norway. We discuss whether the change from a majority of boys to a majority of girls in higher order could be explained by new waves of immigrant women, by new preferences among long-residing immigrant women in Norway - or by mere coincidence.

  5. Pregnancy as an opportunity to diagnose human-immunodeficiency virus immigrant women in Catalonia.

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; López-Lacort, Mónica; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Mur, Antonio; Méndez, María; Mayol, Lluís; Vallmanya, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Casabona, Jordi; Fortuny, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is relevant in the global epidemiology of human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as it represents the main route of infection in children. The study objectives were to determine the rate of HIV-MTCT and its epidemiological trend between the Spanish-born and immigrant population in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. A prospective observational study of mother-child pairs exposed to HIV, treated in 12 hospitals in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. HIV-MTCT rate was estimated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. R and WinBUGS statistical software were used. The analysis included 909 pregnant women, 1,009 pregnancies, and 1,032 children. Data on maternal origin was obtained in 79.4% of women, of whom 32.7% were immigrants, with 53.0% of these from sub-Saharan Africa. The overall HIV-MTCT rate was 1.4% (14/1,023; 95% CI; 0.8-2.3). The risk of MTCT-HIV was 10-fold lower in women with good virological control (P=.01), which was achieved by two-thirds of them. The proportion of immigrants was significantly higher in the period 2008-2014 (Pde Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic

    Serrano Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  7. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  8. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the...

  9. Structure-borne noise at hotels

    Wilson, George Paul; Jue, Deborah A.

    2002-11-01

    Hotels present a challenging environment for building designers to provide suitable noise and vibration isolation between very incompatible uses. While many are familiar with ways to reduce traditional sources of airborne noise and vibration, structure-borne noise and vibration are often overlooked, often with costly repercussions. Structure-borne noise can be very difficult to pinpoint, and troubleshooting the sources of the vibration can be a tedious process. Therefore, the best approach is to avoid the problem altogether during design, with attention to the building construction, potential vibration sources, building uses and equipment locations. In this paper, the relationship between structure-borne vibration and noise are reviewed, typical vibration sources discussed (e.g., aerobic rooms, laundry rooms, mechanical equipment/building services, and subway rail transit), and key details and design guidance to minimize structure-borne noise provided.

  10. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Batic, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-12-01

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes.

  11. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  12. Term infants born at home in Peru are less likely to be hospitalised in the neonatal period than those born in hospital.

    Lavin, Tina; Preen, David B

    2017-08-01

    More than 50% of women worldwide give birth at home, but little is known about home birth and subsequent neonatal hospitalisation. The objective of the study was to investigate home birth and neonatal hospitalisation of term neonates in Peru. The relationship between birth setting [home - with or without skilled birth attendant (SBA), health centre, hospital] and neonatal hospitalisation (n = 1656) and incubator care (n = 1651) was investigated using data from the 2002 Young Lives Study. Infants were sampled from 20 sentinel sites across Peru. At each sentinel site 100 households with children aged 6-18 months were randomly sampled (therefore the sample only captured children surviving to 6 months of age). Multivariate regression modelling was used with models adjusted for a range of demographic and clinical factors. After adjustment, the odds of hospitalisation were lower in neonates born at home (with SBA OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.0-0.8, p = 0.021; without SBA OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.002) than in those born in hospital. Socio-demographic factors such as ethnicity, rural living, education, socio-economic status and access to transport did not influence neonatal hospitalisation, time in hospital, incubator care or time under incubator care. Neonates born at home were less likely to be hospitalised after birth owing to neonatal morbidity than neonates born in hospital. It is unclear whether this finding reflects poorer accessibility to hospital care for neonates born at home, or if neonates born at home required hospitalisation less frequently than neonates born in hospital owing to lower neonatal morbidity or other factors such as lower rates of medical intervention for home births. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of these findings.

  13. Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden.

    Dunlavy, A C; Garcy, A M; Rostila, M

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign-born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The differential effect of foreign-born status on low birth weight by race/ethnicity and education.

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates whether foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birth weight (LBW) and whether this protective effect varies across racial/ethnic groups and by socioeconomic status (ie, education) within various racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression analyses of the Detail Natality Data, 1998 (n = 2,436,890), were used to examine differentials in LBW by nativity across racial/ethnic groups and by education level. Although foreign-born status does not protect against LBW among white women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96, 1.03) and it increases the risk among Asian women by 24% (95% CI: 1.13, 1.36), it reduces the risk by approximately 25% among black women (95% CI: 0.72, 0.78) and by approximately 19% among Hispanic women (95% CI: 0.78, 0.84). By educational attainment, for whites, blacks, and Hispanics the protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among women with low education (ie, 0-11 years) than among women with more education. The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born white, black, and Hispanic women than among their US-born counterparts. Foreign-born status is associated with LBW. The direction and strength of this association varies across racial/ethnic groups, and within those groups it varies by educational level. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW, including health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, social support, and social environment.

  15. Validation of the Spanish version of Mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale.

    Caballero, Pablo; Delgado-García, Beatriz E; Orts-Cortes, Isabel; Moncho, Joaquin; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Nolasco, Andreu

    2016-04-16

    The "Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale" (MCSRS) is a complete non-validated scale which includes the most important factors associated with maternal satisfaction. Our primary purpose was to describe the internal structure of the scale and validate the reliability and validity of concept of its Spanish version MCSRS-E. The MCSRS was translated into Spanish, back-translated and adapted to the Spanish population. It was then administered following a pilot test with women who met the study participant requirements. The scale structure was obtained by performing an exploratory factorial analysis using a sample of 304 women. The structures obtained were tested by conducting a confirmatory factorial analysis using a sample of 159 women. To test the validity of concept, the structure factors were correlated with expectations prior to childbirth experiences. McDonald's omegas were calculated for each model to establish the reliability of each factor. The study was carried out at four University Hospitals; Alicante, Elche, Torrevieja and Vinalopo Salud of Elche. The inclusion criteria were women aged 18-45 years old who had just delivered a singleton live baby at 38-42 weeks through vaginal delivery. Women who had difficulty speaking and understanding Spanish were excluded. The process generated 5 different possible internal structures in a nested model more consistent with the theory than other internal structures of the MCSRS applied hitherto. All of them had good levels of validation and reliability. This nested model to explain internal structure of MCSRS-E can accommodate different clinical practice scenarios better than the other structures applied to date, and it is a flexible tool which can be used to identify the aspects that should be changed to improve maternal satisfaction and hence maternal health.

  16. Validation of Spanish versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ): a multicenter validation randomized study.

    Omotosho, Tola B; Hardart, Anne; Rogers, Rebecca G; Schaffer, Joseph I; Kobak, William H; Romero, Audrey A

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate Spanish versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ). Spanish versions were developed using back translation and validation was performed by randomizing bilingual women to complete the Spanish or English versions of the questionnaires first. Weighted kappa statistics assessed agreement for individual questions; interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) compared primary and subscale scores. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency of Spanish versions. To detect a 2.7 point difference in scores with 80% power and alpha of 0.05, 44 bilingual subjects were required. Individual questions showed good to excellent agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all but eight questions on the PFIQ. ICCs of primary and subscale scores for both questionnaires showed excellent agreement. (All ICC > 0.79). All Cronbach's alpha values were excellent (>0.84) for the primary scales of both questionnaires. Valid and reliable Spanish versions of the PFIQ and PFDI have been developed.

  17. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  18. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, pap tests, and cervical cancer between US and Peruvian women.

    Han, Chi-Son; Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Tharp, Philip; Walter, Jessica; Allmond, Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.

  19. Cancer mortality does not differ between migrants and Danish-born patients

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Larsen, Maja Olsbjerg; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2014-01-01

    between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999 were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with Danish-born patients. Cancer patients in the cohort were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and deaths and emigrations through the Central Population Register. Using a Cox regression model, mean sex......-specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish......-born women. Correspondingly, migrant women (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49-1.17) showed no significant differences in breast cancer mortality compared with Danish-born women. Regarding lung cancer, neither migrant women (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.45-1.40) nor men (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.14) presented statistical...

  20. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  1. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  2. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  3. Lexicalisation Patterns in Danish and Spanish

    Woldersgaard, Casper A. G

    In this dissertation, I investigate the theoretical framework by Leonard Talmy (2000b) on lexicalisation patterns in Motion events. I examine his characterisations of Co-event languages (e.g., Danish) and Path-event languages (e.g., Spanish), and I relate his work to a Danish language setting....... Furthermore, my objective is to determine whether the predictions set forth by Talmy apply to Danish and Spanish from an empirical perspective, i.e., in a Danish monolingual reference corpus, Korpus-DK, and a Spanish monolingual reference corpus, CORPES. I present different methods for testing Talmy’s theory....... As a consequence, to identify Motion events and discard false positives is an extremely time-consuming process. I suggest that a context-free grammar is a way to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of linguistic data that contain Motion events. Thus, I implement a context-free grammar for Spanish. More...

  4. Cancer Currents Now Available in Spanish

    As part of our effort to more effectively reach patients, health care providers, and researchers with timely, authoritative, and scientifically accurate cancer information, we are now offering selected Cancer Currents blog posts in Spanish.

  5. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  6. Science for women in the spanish enlightenment 1753-1808

    Serrano Jerez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis explora la contribución de las mujeres en la formación de la cultura científica. Concretamente, analiza el papel de las mujeres en la circulación del conocimiento durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, ya sea como actoras o como público y enfatiza las complejas relaciones entre ciencia, género, economía y política. La tesis se estructura alrededor de cuatro espacios: la ciudad, la casa de campo, el cuarto de juegos y la biblioteca. En la ciudad, trato las actividades de la Junta...

  7. The Spanish participation in the SKA

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  8. Internationalisation of Spanish fashion brand Zara

    Lopez, C; Fan, Y

    2008-01-01

    Zara is one of the world’s most successful fashion retailers operating in 59 countries. However, there is little research about the firm in English as the majority of publications have been written in Spanish. This paper seeks to address this gap in the literature by examining the internationalisation process of Zara. This study adopts an in-depth case approach based on extensive secondary research. Literature published in both English and Spanish has been reviewed, including c...

  9. Born Too Soon: Accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specific health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation's Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are affected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was

  10. Spanish Nuclear Industry in Lungmen Project

    Alomar, F.

    1998-01-01

    Spain's Advanced Nuclear Reactors Programs, under DTN's leadership, has meant an active participation the American Design of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, in both General Electric and Westinghouse Programs. This collaboration has given to the Companies, which directly involved, an in-depth knowledge of both Development Programs, as well as it has allowed to establish relationships with Nuclear Island DTN's coordination. These Companies included a broad sample of Spanish Companies most interest in the Nuclear Field: DTN representing Spanish Utilities with Nuclear Assets; Empresarios Agrupados and INITEC as a Joint Venture, representing Spanish A/E; Equipos Nucleares, S.A., representing Nuclear Components Manufacturers; Tecnatom, representing Nuclear Services and Engineering and CIEMAT as National Laboratory. Taiwan Electric Power has awarded its two 1300 MWe Lungmen Units to General Electric. Knowledge acquired by these Spanish Companies along FOAKE First of kind then Engineering has allowed them to bid for some authorities in Lungmen NPP and in some cases to get important awards. Furthermore, the good working relationship which has been established has made way for other Spanish Companies to bid for other Project Packages. On a case by case basis the response of Spanish manufacturer has been irregular . In some instances manufactures have stopped manufacturing nuclear components, and in other instances a distinct lack of interest has been detected. (Author)

  11. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  12. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  13. Inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish as a barrier to cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinas in New York City.

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish among low-income Latinas aged 40 and older and cervical cancer screening knowledge and behavior. Spanish-speaking Latinas aged 40-78 of various nationalities (n = 205) participated in a study that included a survey on cervical cancer knowledge and behavior administered in Spanish and the Spanish version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Compared to those with adequate and marginal health literacy, women with inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish were significantly less likely to have ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.37) or in the last three years (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.68) and were significantly more likely to have had their last Pap test at a local public hospital (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-4.97). Even when controlling for other factors, women with inadequate health literacy were 16.7 times less likely (adjusted odds ratio, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.55) to have ever had a Pap test. Almost half of the population we studied will have difficulty interpreting written medical materials, even in Spanish. When developing efforts to reach women who have not been screened, programs and service providers need to be aware that the women most in need of information about screening may be more likely to be unable to read any written materials provided to them, regardless of the language or level of simplicity of the materials. Programs and strategies need to be implemented to increase screening prevalence and to minimize the identified gaps in regular screening for Latinas who have low health literacy.

  14. Spain. Women in the world.

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  15. Emotional climate in family: comparison between Slovene and Spanish students

    Sonja Čotar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to examine the nature of emotional climate in families of Slovene and Spanish students. Participants in our research were 20 years old psychology students fromSlovenia (N = 75 and Spain (N = 79. The most frequent structure of family organization was five-member's nuclear type. We hypothesised that emotional climate in families does not differ between nations. The results showed that the Slovene and Spanish students indeed reported of the same quality of emotional climate in their families. Second, participants of both samples estimated their mother as the psychologically most important family member and as a person with whom they most frequently establish emotional connections. On the other hand, students report lack of emotional transmission with their fathers – Slovene students even reported that this connection with their fathers contains above all negative emotions. The important phenomenon which forms family structure was also presented in families of both samples – "the coalition of women". Third, participants also attributed big amount of emotions to figure 'nobody', which indicates that they wanted to illustrate their family as mostly positive and as a group with socially accepted behavior. Even more, a lot of emotions was clasiffied – especially negative emotions by Slovene students – to figure 'me', which could be an indictor of egocentric position of participants in their perception of themselves.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Spanish Version of the Therapeutic Alliance with Clinician (TAC) Questionnaire

    Bedregal, Luis E.; Paris, Manuel Jr.; Anez, Luis M.; Shahar, Golan; Davidson, Larry

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader study aimed at evaluating perceived alliance with service providers and level of satisfaction with services received, 103 monolingual Spanish speaking Hispanic women were interviewed. Participants were receiving ongoing behavioral health treatment at three different community service provider sites located in the greater New…

  17. Cross-cultural examination of the five-factor model of drinking motives in Spanish and Canadian undergraduates

    Mezquita, L.; Stewart, S.H.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Grant, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory

  18. From Romanian to “Rumanol”: linguistic confusions in native Romanian spoken by children born in Spain

    Lavinia Seiciuc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After Romania joined the European Union in 2007, a massive wave of Romanian immigrants reached the Western countries in search for work, and the most significant migration took place in the Spanish kingdom. They were not the first Romanians to arrive in Spain, so they added their number to that of those who immigrated before, in the two decades after the fall of the Communist regime. Many Romanian children were born in Spain, so when they reached school age, they were at best bilingual; nevertheless, there are children who need to take Romanian classes in school, as they chose not to learn their native tongue at home. Our article analyzes the ways Spanish influence their pronunciation and orthography of Romanian, based on test papers and homework that demonstrate the level of confusion produced in these children by their bilingualism, with Castilian being their first choice of language.

  19. Benefits of physical exercise in postmenopausal women.

    Mendoza, Nicolás; De Teresa, Carlos; Cano, Antonio; Godoy, Débora; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lapotka, Maryna; Llaneza, Placido; Manonelles, Pedro; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ocón, Olga; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Laura; Vélez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity not only places women's health at risk during menopause, but also increases menopausal problems. Abundant evidence links habitual physical exercise (PE) to a better status on numerous health indicators and better quality of life and to the prevention and treatment of the ailments that typically occur from mid-life onwards. We can infer that PE is something more than a lifestyle: it constitutes a form of therapy in itself. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to PE and menopause (Spanish Menopause Society, Spanish Cardiology Society, Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing of and methods of exercise, based on the best evidence available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  1. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  2. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  3. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  4. The Spanish Renal Registry: 2013 report and evolution from 2007 to 2013

    Eduardo Martín Escobar

    2016-03-01

    40,394 patients from 12 regions of Spain who began RRT between 2004 and 2012 were included in the survival analysis (87% Spanish population coverage. Unadjusted patient survival probabilities after one, 2 and 5 years were 91, 81 and 57%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, better survival was found for non-diabetic patients, women, age below 45, peritoneal dialysis as first RRT and patients who had received at least one transplant.

  5. Rethinking Spanish: Understanding Spanish Speakers Motivations and Reasons to Opt for Either an English Only or a Dual English-Spanish Educational Program

    Wright, Adrienne C.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish-speaking parents choose to enroll their children in either an English only or English-Spanish dual immersion program when presented with both choices. This ethnographic study explored parent's perceptions of the purpose, advantages, and disadvantages of learning in school in English only or in a dual English-Spanish. Through focus group…

  6. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF SPANISH

    Claudia S. Salcedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  2. Scientific Discoveries the Year I Was Born

    Cherif, Abour

    2012-01-01

    The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…

  3. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  4. Spanish program of advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Marco, M.; Redon, R.

    1993-01-01

    The energy Spanish Plan is promoting some actions within the area of advanced reactors. Efforts are focussed onto the European Program of Advanced Reactors, the Program of Passive Plants (EPRI), European Fast Reactor Project and the APWR-1000 Program of INI. Electrical sector utilities and industrial partners supported by the Administration have organized an steering committee. The program of Passive Plants includes activities on Qualification, design and detailed engineering (Qualification project, SBWR project of G.E. and AP600 Project of Westinghouse. The european project on advanced plants has the following Spanish contribution: Analysis of alternative Dossier on European requisites (EUR) and Design of an European Reactor (EPR)

  5. Technology transfer in the Spanish nuclear programme

    Perez-Naredo, F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the process of technology transfer under the Spanish nuclear programme and its three generations of nuclear power plants during the last 20 years, with special reference to the nine new plants equipped with Westinghouse pressurized water reactors and the rising level of national involvement in these stations. It deals with the development of Westinghouse Nuclear's organization in Spain, referring to its staff and to the manufacturers who supply equipment for the programme, going into particular detail where problems of quality assurance are concerned. In conclusion, it summarizes the present capacity of Spanish industry in various areas connected with the design, manufacture and construction of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    M. de Troya-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC. The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0, 7 days after surgery (t1, and 5 months after surgery (t2. The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p<0.05. The lowest values were found at time of diagnosis and postsurgery. Women and patients under 65 years showed the lowest values at the three times. Limitations. Concrete geographic and cultural area. Clinical and histological variables are not analysed. Conclusions. Our results confirm responsiveness of the Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer.

  7. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  8. Intrapreneurship in the Spanish context : a regional analysis

    Turro Sol, A.; Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the influence of internal and external (environmental) factors on intrapreneurship in the Spanish context, considering differences among regions. Methodologically, the study applies logistic regression and uses data from the Spanish Global Entrepreneurship

  9. Remarks on the elaboration of an English–Spanish ...

    Spanish word-combination dictionary examined here, some concluding remarks are made with regard to the educational implications of this kind of dictionary primarily aimed at intermediate- to advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners.

  10. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  11. Working with Spanish-Speaking Latin American Students in Toronto

    Duran, Marcela S.

    1978-01-01

    The problems affecting the reception, adjustment, and placement of Spanish-speaking students into the Toronto school system are discussed, and include immigration patterns, Spanish values, and the Latin American school. (Author/HP)

  12. Lower rates of preterm birth in women of Arab ancestry: an epidemiologic paradox--Michigan, 1993-2002.

    El Reda, Darline K; Grigorescu, Violanda; Posner, Samuel F; Davis-Harrier, Amanda

    2007-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), Arab-American communities in the country; however, little is known about PTB in this population. This study examined the maternal demographic profile and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) among foreign-born and US-born women of Arab ancestry relative to US-born Whites in Michigan. Using Michigan Vital Statistics data, we examined correlates of PTB for primiparous U.S.-born white (n = 205,749), U.S.-born Arab (n=1,697), and foreign-born Arab (n=5,997) women who had had a live-born singleton infant during 1993-2002. We examined variables commonly reported to be associated with PTB, including mother's age and education; insurance type; marital status of parents; receipt of prenatal care; mother's chronic hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use; and infant sex. Foreign-born Arabs are less educated and more likely to be on Medicaid, and they receive less prenatal care than US-born Whites. Prevalence of PTB was 8.5, 8.0, and 7.5% for US-born Whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Pregnancy-related hypertension was the only predictor of PTB that these three groups had in common: Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.1 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.99, 2.21), AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.24, 5.51), and AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.55, 4.31) for US-born whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Foreign-born Arab women in Michigan have a higher-risk maternal demographic profile than that of their US-born white counterparts; however, their prevalence of PTB is lower, which is consistent with the epidemiologic paradox reported among foreign-born Hispanic women.

  13. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The course of pregnancy and the condition of infants born to patients treated for Hodgkin's disease

    Bajsogolov, G.D.; Shishkin, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some data on the pregnancy and delivery of 78 patients with Hodgkin's disease as well as on the condition of 89 infants born to them following radiation and combined treatment. It was established that pregnancy and delivery in most of the women were normal, the infants' psychomotor development (at the age of 1 to 14) was in accordance with age

  15. The Impact of Politics 2.0 in the Spanish Social Media: Tracking the Conversations around the Audiovisual Political Wars

    Noguera, José M.; Correyero, Beatriz

    After the consolidation of weblogs as interactive narratives and producers, audiovisual formats are gaining ground on the Web. Videos are spreading all over the Internet and establishing themselves as a new medium for political propaganda inside social media with tools so powerful like YouTube. This investigation proceeds in two stages: on one hand we are going to examine how this audiovisual formats have enjoyed an enormous amount of attention in blogs during the Spanish pre-electoral campaign for the elections of March 2008. On the other hand, this article tries to investigate the social impact of this phenomenon using data from a content analysis of the blog discussion related to these videos centered on the most popular Spanish political blogs. Also, we study when the audiovisual political messages (made by politicians or by users) "born" and "die" in the Web and with what kind of rules they do.

  16. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  17. Language Planning in the Spanish-Speaking World.

    Sanchez, Aquilino; Duenas, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Reviews diffusion and promotion of the Spanish language from the first Spanish colonizers in the Americas to the present. Describes the situation of Spanish within Spain as a form of internal colonialization and reviews language policies. Analyzes present-day institutional efforts at maintaining language co-existence within different autonomous…

  18. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  19. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  20. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  1. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  2. Evidential Uses in the Spanish of Quechua Speakers in Peru.

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of recordings of spontaneous speech of native speakers of Quechua speaking Spanish as a second language reveals that, using verbal morphological resources of Spanish, they have grammaticalized an epistemic marking system resembling that of Quechua. Sources of this process in both Quechua and Spanish are analyzed. (MSE)

  3. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  4. Profiles of an Acquisition Generation: Nontraditional Heritage Speakers of Spanish

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2018-01-01

    Though definitions vary, the literature on heritage speakers of Spanish identifies two primary attributes: a linguistic and cultural connection to the language. This article profiles four Anglo college students who grew up in bilingual or Spanish-dominant communities in the Southwest who self-identified as Spanish heritage speakers, citing…

  5. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  6. Social Identity in New Mexicans of Spanish-Speaking Descent Highlights Limitations of Using Standardized Ethnic Terminology in Research.

    Hunley, Keith; Edgar, Heather; Healy, Meghan; Mosley, Carmen; Cabana, Graciela S; West, Frankie

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood. They and their parents were frequently born in New Mexico, frequently chose the other of the two terms as a secondary descriptor, and frequently ascribed one of the two terms to their parents. About 10% of NMSD identified as "Mexican American" and "Mexican." About 25% of these individuals, and more than half of their parents, were born in Mexico. They also frequently chose the other of the two terms as a secondary descriptor and frequently ascribed one of the two terms to their parents. Compared to NMSD who identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American," individuals who identified as "Nuevomexicano/a" and "Spanish" had higher European ancestry and lower Native American and African ancestry. Our results also suggest that the term "Hispanic," frequently chosen as both a primary and secondary social identity term by NMSD, may, as it continues to rise in prominence, mask more deeply rooted and potential socially relevant aspects of social identity in New Mexico. More broadly, these results indicate that regional history influences social identity nomenclatures in ways that are potentially incompatible with US Office of Management and Budget standards. This incompatibility may adversely affect the ability of researchers in the social sciences to assess the causes of social inequality and health disparities in individuals of Spanish-speaking descent in different regions of the United States. We argue that

  7. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  8. Library Service to the Spanish Speaking.

    Peterson, Anita R.

    This manual was developed to formalize Inglewood Public Library's existing policies and programs regarding library services to the Spanish speaking, and to define future program goals. The introduction discusses why such services have been initiated, why the manual was developed, and the potential benefits the manual has for library…

  9. Children's Literature Studytour of Spanish America

    Shachter, Jacqueline

    1975-01-01

    Describes a tour of several Spanish American countries to study the children's literature and culture. Discussion focuses on the children's literature found in theatrical performances, government-sponsored magazines, schools, and libraries. Also discussed are the writers and illustrators who create for children. (JMB)

  10. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  11. The spanish radiotherapy park: past and present

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel J.

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as objective to provide a general overview on the spanish radiotherapy park, presenting how was its start and evolution until the current state. Considering only the units of teletherapy and the accelerators. Actually in Spain there is 28 units of Cobalt therapy, in functioning during the last two decades, being advised a rapid substitution to accelerators

  12. Temporal Analysis of English and Spanish Narratives.

    de Johnson, Teresa H.; O'Connell, Daniel C.

    In order to ascertain the effect of different demands on cognitive processes as reflected in speech rate, pause and hesitation phenomena, 90 young men, 45 native speakers of English (U.S.A.) and 45 native speakers of Spanish (Mexico), were asked to retell a story presented in one of three ways: (1) film plus narration; (2) film only; (3) narration…

  13. Prosodic Perception Problems in Spanish Dyslexia

    Cuetos, Fernando; Martínez-García, Cristina; Suárez-Coalla, Paz

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prosody abilities on top of phonological and visual abilities in children with dyslexia in Spanish that can be considered a syllable-timed language. The performances on prosodic tasks (prosodic perception, rise-time perception), phonological tasks (phonological awareness, rapid naming, verbal working…

  14. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  15. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  16. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  17. Teaching iSTART to Understand Spanish

    Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…

  18. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  19. The external dimension of the Spanish transition

    Charles T. Powell

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.

  20. Spanish is Numero Uno for "Project Bright."

    Larew, Leonor A.

    1978-01-01

    In New York State, the 24 brightest fifth and sixth graders from Avon, Caledonia, and York participated in a project funded by Title IV minigrants, distributed through BOCES. The children were bussed to a central point and permitted to study whatever they wished; Spanish was the first subject selected. (EJS)

  1. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  2. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  3. Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus ...

    Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius ) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea inferred from AFLP data. ... Considering the high hydrological connectivity of this region and the species pelagic life history, retention of larvae, different migration route and different spawning season may ...

  4. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  5. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  6. Migration of radiostrontium in Spanish soils

    Olondo, C.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the strontium migration occurs in the main Spanish soils and has obtained a tool that is able to reproduce. This would have established the depth distribution profiles of the activity of that isotope presents the soil, thereby obtaining a graphical representation of the current radiological situation of the ground.

  7. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the ORTO-15 questionnaire for the diagnosis of orthorexia nervosa.

    Parra-Fernandez, María Laura; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Onieva-Zafra, María Dolores; Perez-Haro, Maria José; Casero-Alonso, Víctor; Muñoz Camargo, Juan Carlos; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the validation and analysis of the psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the ORTO-15 questionnaire; an instrument designed to assess orthorexia nervosa behavior. Four hundred and fifty-four Spanish university students (65% women) aged between 18 and 51 years (M = 21.48 ± 0.31) completed the Spanish version of ORTO-15 and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). The Principal Component Analysis suggested a three-factor structure for the abbreviated 11-item version of the instrument. The internal consistency of the measurement was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). The proposed test demonstrated a good predictive capacity at a threshold value of orthorexia nervosa. Its use is expected to greatly contribute to a better understanding of the impact of this disorder in Spain.

  8. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  9. Becoming "Spanish Learners": Identity and Interaction among Multilingual Children in a Spanish-English Dual Language Classroom

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the interactional co-construction of identities among two first-grade students learning Spanish as a third language in a Spanish-English dual language classroom. Drawing on ethnographic and interactional data, the article focuses on a single interaction between these two "Spanish learners" and two of their…

  10. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  11. Severe postwar malnutrition did not have a negative impact on the earnings and subsequent pensions of German men born in 1945-1948.

    Hermanussen, M; Weick, S; Scheffler, C

    2017-10-01

    Poverty has often been associated with malnutrition, stunted growth, impaired cognitive development and poor earnings. We studied whether these associations were found in German men born and raised shortly after World War II during severe and long-standing nationwide malnutrition. We analysed German old-age pension payments, as a rough measure of lifetime earnings, in German men born from 1932 to 1960 and compared the at-risk-of-poverty rates of German men born in 1945-1948 versus 1935-1938 and 1955-1958. Substantially fewer women worked during this period and their longer life expectancy makes their pension payments difficult to interpret. We therefore limited our analysis to men. Men born in the 1930s received the highest monthly old-age pensions and these declined slightly in men born from 1945 to 1948, indicating a minute impairment in work-related income in cohorts born shortly after the war. We also found that there was no evidence for increased at-risk-of-poverty rates in men born in 1945-1948 versus those born in 1935-1938 and in 1955-1958. Being born and raised following World War II was associated with a minute work and pension impairment that was not visible in the at-risk-of-poverty rates. These findings question statements associating early childhood nutrition and future lifetime earnings. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  14. Scalar geons in Born-Infeld gravity

    Afonso, V.I. [Unidade Acadêmica de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia—CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: viafonso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@uv.es, E-mail: drgarcia@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Campo Grande, P-1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-08-01

    The existence of static, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating scalar field solutions in the context of Born-Infeld gravity is explored. Upon a combination of analytical approximations and numerical methods, the equations for a free scalar field (without a potential term) are solved, verifying that the solutions recover the predictions of General Relativity far from the center but finding important new effects in the central regions. We find two classes of objects depending on the ratio between the Schwarzschild radius and a length scale associated to the Born-Infeld theory: massive solutions have a wormhole structure, with their throat at r ≈ 2 M , while for the lighter configurations the topology is Euclidean. The total energy density of these solutions exhibits a solitonic profile with a maximum peaked away from the center, and located at the throat whenever a wormhole exists. The geodesic structure and curvature invariants are analyzed for the various configurations considered.

  15. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  16. VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO

    Gordana Mijovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

  17. On generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    Kruglov, S I

    2010-01-01

    The generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. In this model the propagation of a linearly polarized laser beam in the external transverse magnetic field is considered. It was shown that there is the effect of vacuum birefringence, and we evaluate induced ellipticity. The upper bounds on the combination of parameters introduced from the experimental data of BRST and PVLAS Collaborations were obtained. When two parameters are equal to each other, we arrive at Born-Infeld electrodynamics and the effect of vacuum birefringence vanishes. We find the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors. The trace of the energy-momentum tensor is not zero and the dilatation symmetry is broken. The four-divergence of the dilatation current is equal to the trace of the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and is proportional to the parameter (with the dimension of the field strength) of the model. The dual symmetry is also broken in the model considered.

  18. Generalized Born Models of Macromolecular Solvation Effects

    Bashford, Donald; Case, David A.

    2000-10-01

    It would often be useful in computer simulations to use a simple description of solvation effects, instead of explicitly representing the individual solvent molecules. Continuum dielectric models often work well in describing the thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solvation, and approximations to such models that avoid the need to solve the Poisson equation are attractive because of their computational efficiency. Here we give an overview of one such approximation, the generalized Born model, which is simple and fast enough to be used for molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and nucleic acids. We discuss its strengths and weaknesses, both for its fidelity to the underlying continuum model and for its ability to replace explicit consideration of solvent molecules in macromolecular simulations. We focus particularly on versions of the generalized Born model that have a pair-wise analytical form, and therefore fit most naturally into conventional molecular mechanics calculations.

  19. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-03-21

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.

  20. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS 3 x S 3 background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation

  1. [Pain in Spanish rheumatology outpatient offices: EPIDOR epidemiological study].

    Gamero Ruiz, F; Gabriel Sánchez, R; Carbonell Abello, J; Tornero Molina, J; Sánchez-Magro, I

    2005-04-01

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatologic pain in Spanish adult population cared in specialized rheumatology offices. Cross selection study in a population of patients cared in rheumatology offices of public Spanish hospitals. 1,134 patients selected through random sampling based on waiting lists of patients, during a period of 1 week, in rheumatology offices of each participating hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY: Reason behind the consultation (a new patient [NP] or a patient for revision [RP]), characteristics of the patient (sex, age, habits [alcohol/tobacco], marital status), location, type, intensity, duration, tolerance and management of pain; treatment (pharmacological or non-pharmacological) carried out; satisfaction with the treatment; and association with fibromyalgia. The prevalence of pain in NP was 98.6% and in RP 95.1%, with a global prevalence of 96%, predominating mainly in adult sedentary women with fibromyalgia. The frequency of acute pain was 20.9% and this of chronic pain 79.1% [corrected] The prevalence of fibromyalgia was 12% (2.2% in men, and 15.5% in women). The most prevalent pattern of current dominant pain was this of the mechanical type. More frequent associated pathologies were: hypertension (21.7%), depression (14.4%), gastrointestinal diseases (13.8%) and anxiety (13.4%). All variables analyzed in the study showed changes according to age, sex, and type of patient (NP or RP). Most used treatment was pharmacological; more than 57.6% of patients were receiving NSAIDs. In NP, medical prescriber of the treatment was first the general practitioner (56.1%) followed by the rheumatologist (14.1%); in PR the first one was the rheumatologist (69.9%) followed by the general practitioner (16.5%). Our results show that the prevalence of the rheumatologic pain is very high, predominating mainly in adult women with fibromyalgia. Pain location, intensity, and type, associated pathology, and treatment vary according to age

  2. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  3. Born-Infeld gravity in Weitzenboeck spacetime

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Using the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity formulated in Weitzenboeck spacetime, we thoroughly explore a kind of Born-Infeld regular gravity leading to second order field equations for the vielbein components. We explicitly solve the equations of motion for two examples: the extended Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which exists even if the cosmological constant is positive, and a cosmological model with matter, where the scale factor is well behaved, thus giving a singularity-free solution.

  4. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, Suppl. 1 (2008), S29-S43 ISSN 0932-0113. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin, 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : moboviruses * epidemiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  5. Leak detection using structure-borne noise

    Holland, Stephen D. (Inventor); Chimenti, Dale E. (Inventor); Roberts, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for detection and location of air leaks in a pressure vessel, such as a spacecraft, includes sensing structure-borne ultrasound waveforms associated with turbulence caused by a leak from a plurality of sensors and cross correlating the waveforms to determine existence and location of the leak. Different configurations of sensors and corresponding methods can be used. An apparatus for performing the methods is also provided.

  6. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, A [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent.

  7. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    Cordero, R; Molgado, A; Rojas, E

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent

  8. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  9. Gender-based violence in the Spanish cinema

    Beatriz OGANDO DÍAZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena are hardly understood from one single viewpoint. Cinema has a polyhedral approach that discloses the hidden faces of reality. There are many aspects to be shown in gender?based violence (GBV, such as its genesis and the causes of its durability; emotional abuse in the form of controlling behaviors, isolation and submission; and the consequences of all this. The range of operation for GBV is very wide (within the couple, in the family and the workplace, institutional and community?based, among others, as much as it is universal, cutting across social class, race, economic status, religion or nationality. Movies may prove useful in revealing violent male?chauvinist behaviors, some of them so deeply rooted in societies that they tend to become normalized and to go unnoticed. In spite of the efforts towards visibility, and understanding and stopping violence against women, the phenomenon remains largely unknown. The movie industry is now beginning to reflect it in motion pictures, sometimes in a more explicit or argumentative manner, at other times more covertly or obliquely. We have made a selection of ten Spanish movies depicting some of these multiple facets: violence against women in the domestic domain, sexual violence, and violence related to economic and sociocultural aspects.

  10. "Femvertising": Female empowering strategies in recent Spanish commercials

    María Pilar Rodríguez Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a particularly representative case of Popular Culture. Recently, the terms Femvertising and Ad-her-tising have been coined to refer to female-targeted advertising that exhibits qualities of empowering women, feminism, female activism, or women leadership and equality. This article argues that companies producing these female-empowering advertisements show different degrees of commitment to equality, but in certain cases they intend to manipulate users for bigger profits with faux activism. However, feminist strategies in advertising have the potential to disrupt gender norms, and users have the capacity to express dissatisfaction with such tactics. The research on the Spanish market is very limited; therefore, this article will explore and compare two contemporary advertising campaigns by companies Kaiku and Desigual to reveal strategies that in certain cases show a progress in terms or the advancement to gender equality, but in other cases they reinforce inequality by the reproduction of stereotypes. A detailed analysis of the Desigual advertisement “Tú decides” illustrates the power of users to reject a pseudo-feminist campaign.

  11. Validity and reliability of Spanish versions of the Ruminative Responses Scale-Short Form and the Distraction Responses Scale in a sample of Spanish high school and college students.

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the construct validity and reliability of the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale-Short From, and the Distraction Responses Scale of the Response Styles Questionnaire for a sample of 727 Spanish high school and college students who responded anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire (293 men, 434 women; ages 16 to 29 years, M=18.8, SD=3.0). In addition to the above scales, the questionnaire included the Spanish forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trait Anxiety Scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha=.86 for the Ruminative Responses Scale and .78 for the Distraction Responses Scale). As expected, scores on the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale showed positive correlations with those on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Scale and negative associations with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Conversely, the Spanish Distraction Responses Scale was negatively correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory and positively associated with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. These results provide evidence of appropriate reliability for research purposes. Furthermore, the correlational analysis supported prior findings that ruminative response and distraction response styles are differentially associated with reported depressed and positive moods.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  13. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  14. Spanish version of the screening Örebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire: a cross-cultural adaptation and validation.

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2014-10-29

    Spanish is one of the five most spoken languages in the world. There is currently no published Spanish version of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (OMPQ). The aim of the present study is to describe the process of translating the OMPQ into Spanish and to perform an analysis of reliability, internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity. Translation and psychometric testing. Two independent translators translated the OMPQ into Spanish. From both translations a consensus version was achieved. A backward translation was made to verify and resolve any semantic or conceptual problems. A total of 104 patients (67 men/37 women) with a mean age of 53.48 (±11.63), suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders, twice completed a Spanish version of the OMPQ. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability, the internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity with reference to the gold standard questionnaire SF-12v2. All variables except "Coping" showed a rate above 0.85 on reliability. The internal structure calculation through exploratory factor analysis indicated that 75.2% of the variance can be explained with six components with an eigenvalue higher than 1 and 52.1% with only three components higher than 10% of variance explained. In the concurrent criterion-related validity, several significant correlations were seen close to 0.6, exceeding that value in the correlation between general health and total value of the OMPQ. The Spanish version of the screening questionnaire OMPQ can be used to identify Spanish patients with musculoskeletal pain at risk of developing a chronic disability.

  15. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...

  17. The social class gradient in health in Spain and the health status of the Spanish Roma.

    La Parra Casado, Daniel; Gil González, Diana; de la Torre Esteve, María

    2016-10-01

    To determine the social class gradient in health in general Spain population and the health status of the Spanish Roma. The National Health Survey of Spanish Roma 2006 (sample size = 993 people; average age: 33.6 years; 53.1% women) and the National Health Surveys for Spain 2003 (sample size: 21,650 people; average age: 45.5 years; 51.2% women) and 2006 (sample size: 29,478 people; average age: 46 years; 50.7% women) are compared. Several indicators were chosen: self-perceived health, activity limitation, chronic diseases, hearing and sight problems, caries, and obesity. Analysis was based on age-standardised rates and logistic regression models. According to most indicators, Roma's health is worse than that of social class IV-V (manual workers). Some indicators show a remarkable difference between Roma and social class IV-V: experiencing three or more health problems, sight problems, and caries, in both sexes, and hearing problems and obesity, in women. Roma people are placed on an extreme position on the social gradient in health, a situation of extreme health inequality.

  18. Prevalence of and Attitudes towards Smoking among Spanish Health Professionals.

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Ramos Pinedo, Angela; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Marquez, Francisca Lourdes; Palomo Cobos, Luis; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The MPOWER strategy encourages suitable monitoring of the tobacco epidemic among health professionals in all countries. To analyse the prevalence of and attitudes towards tobacco use among Spanish health professionals. A study was conducted based on an online survey. The study population consisted of health professionals (primary care physicians, specialist physicians and nurses). The questionnaire used included questions about tobacco consumption, knowledge of and attitudes towards smoking. The sample size was calculated according to a database with 9,500 e-mail addresses and listings of health centres and hospitals all over Spain. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software programme. The study group comprised a total of 612 health professionals: 322 were women (52.6%), 196 were nurses and 416 were physicians. 11.7% of health professionals were smokers (9.6% regular smokers and 2.1% occasional smokers) and 41.3% were ex-smokers. Within the group of daily smokers, differences were observed between the nurses and the physicians: 11.2 versus 8.9% (p = 0.009). Smoking was recognized as a chronic disorder by 58.2% of health professionals, and 54.6% knew that the most effective intervention to help quit is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. 56% of health professionals always asked their patients about their tobacco consumption. 11.7% of Spanish health professionals are smokers. We found that they have low knowledge about strategies to quit smoking and that there is a low level of therapeutic intervention on smokers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans. Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States. These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations. For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life. Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known. A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  20. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans.  Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States.  These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations.  For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life.  Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known.  A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  1. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Garcés Sánchez, María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Méndez Hernández, María; Merino Moína, Manuel; Montesdeoca Melián, Abián; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). MMRV vaccine could be applied as the second dose if available. Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendation for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. The new 9 genotypes vaccine is now available, expanding the coverage for both gender. Regarding non-funded immunisations, Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics recommends meningococcal B vaccination, with a 3+1 schedule, and requests to be included in the National Immunisation Program. Tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended to adolescents (14-18 years) who are going to live in countries with systematic vaccination against ACWY serogroups, and people >6 weeks of age with risk factors or travellers to countries with very high incidence. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Authorship and data reporting according to gender in four Spanish biomedical journals].

    Schiaffino, A; García, M; Fernández, E

    2001-01-01

    To describe authorship according to gender in the articles published in four Spanish scientific journals of general medicine and public health, and to analyse the type of presentation of the results in relation to the sex of the subjects of the study. We examined 423 articles from four Spanish scientific journals published during 1998. 70.7% of the articles revised had a man as the first author. The sex difference was significant in the editorials (12.4% of the women vs. 29.8% of the men, p < 0.05). Stratification of the results by sex was presented in 167 articles and in 85.6% of them the information about men. Gender inequalities in the publication of scientific works in the field of general medicine and public health are found.

  3. The Disappearing Gender Gap: The Impact of Divorce, Wages, and Preferences on Education Choices and Women's Work. NBER Working Paper No. 17508

    Fernandez, Raquel; Wong, Joyce Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Women born in 1935 went to college significantly less than their male counterparts and married women's labor force participation (LFP) averaged 40% between the ages of thirty and forty. The cohort born twenty years later behaved very differently. The education gender gap was eliminated and married women's LFP averaged 70% over the same ages. In…

  4. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis

  5. MijnBorne2030: evaluatie van een democratisch experiment

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.; Klok, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    This article is about one of the experiments in local democratic renewal: MyBorne2030 (in Dutch ‘MijnBorne2030’). The aim of the project was to develop a communal vision for Borne (a relatively small suburban municipality of 20.000 inhabitants in the East of the Netherlands) for the year 2030. A

  6. Height of Northern Jordanian middle-class adults, born 1960-1990 in the response to improving socio-economic conditions.

    Abu Dalou, Ahmad Yosuf

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to document and explain secular trends in stature among Northern Jordanian men and women between the years of birth 1960 and 1990, as they relate to overall per capita socio-economic improvement, the stature of 360 adults from two Northern governorates, those of Jerash and Irbid, was measured. General linear model (GLM) was used to examine the effect of birth-decade, education level of subject, and their interaction on mean stature of each sex separately. GLM results revealed that women who were born during the following three decades pooled together (1951-1980) did not differ significantly in mean stature from those born during (1981-1990). Among men, stature of those born in the two pooled birth-decades together (1951-1970) did not significantly differ of those were born in the two pooled birth-decades (1971-1990). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Prostate Cancer Prognostic Factors Among Asian Patients Born in the US Compared to Those Born Abroad.

    Xu, Junjun; Goodman, Michael; Jemal, Ahemdin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2015-06-01

    US surveillance data indicate that incidence of prostate cancer differs by place of birth among Asian men. However, it is less clear if the prognostic factors for prostate cancer also differ by place of birth. The study included 7,824 Asian prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 and reported to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of place of birth (foreign born vs. US born) to three outcomes: prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and T classification, adjusting for age, marital status, Rural-Urban Continuum Code, and SEER registry. All outcome variables were binary using different cutoffs: ≥ 4, ≥ 10 and ≥ 20 ng/ml for PSA; ≥ 7 and ≥ 8 for Gleason score; and ≥ T2 and ≥ T3 for T classification. Elevated PSA was more common among foreign born Asian men regardless of the cut point used. In the analysis comparing foreign born versus US born patients by ethnic group, the association with PSA was most pronounced at cut point of ≥ 20 ng/ml for Chinese men (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.75), and at cut point of ≥ 4 ng/ml for Japanese men (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.20-6.21). A statistically significant association with Gleason score was only found for Japanese men and only for the cutoff ≥ 7 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.12-2.61). There was no difference in clinical T classification between foreign-born and US-born Asian men. Inclusion of cases with missing place of birth or restriction of data to those who underwent radical prostatectomy did not substantially change the results. The data suggest that foreign-born Asian prostate cancer patients may have moderately elevated PSA levels at diagnosis compared with their US born counterparts. For the other prognostic markers, the associations were less consistent and did not form a discernible pattern.

  8. Gender diversity in the boardroom. Context and Spanish case

    Angela Giovinco

    2014-11-01

    and institutional investors. All European countries implemented their regulations at different levels, giving suggestions of targets to be reached through their corporate governance codes or through laws, as far as establishing punitive measures in case of failure to reach the established target on time. The present paper focuses on the Spanish market, an interesting jurisdiction because of the methods implemented and the progress witnessed at company level to reach the proposed targets. From 2007 to 2013 the percentage of women on boards passed from 5,78% to 14,56%. Significant the progress done in the last six years and, at the same time there is evidence that Spain moved earlier towards a balanced boardroom at legislative level, but without eliminates strong impact at corporate level except in very few cases. Country regulations did not have an effective impact on the level of women serving on boards at executive and non-executive levels due to the particular market structure. Directors can serve on the board for twelve years maintaining the status of independent director and frequently directors are re-appointed for many subsequent years. Furthermore there is not any rule for the number of boards in which a director can serve. Due to this many directors participate in more than one company board. This together with the twelve years of board tenure is obstacles to the increase of women participating to the board life. Another characteristic of the Spanish market that limits female presence on the boardrooms is the strong presence of families controlling the market. In this case many seats are covered by family representatives. This practice does not leave, much space, for external candidates to seat on the board and consequently limits the presence of women on boards. A stronger level of compliance with gender diversity is more evident from the perspective of mix of background and expertise. This level increased by 29,33% during the period considered in this study

  9. A Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas

    Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant problem for ethnic minorities that remains understudied partly due to a lack of strong measures with established psychometric properties. One screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which was developed for use in primary care has also gained popularity in research settings. The reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 has been well established among predominantly Caucasian samples, in addition to many minority groups. However, there is little evidence regarding its utility among Hispanic Americans, a large and growing cultural group in the United States. In this study, we investigated the reliability and structural validity of the PHQ-9 in Hispanic American women. A community sample of 479 Latina women from southern California completed the PHQ-9 in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Cronbach’s alphas suggested that there was good internal consistency for both the English- and Spanish-language versions. Structural validity was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results support a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas. These results suggest that the PHQ-9 can be used with confidence in both English and Spanish versions to screen Latinas for depression. PMID:21787063

  10. One-stage tooth-borne distraction versus two stage bone-borne distraction in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME).

    Seeberger, Robin; Abe-Nickler, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Kunzmann, Kevin; Zingler, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices in surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) on dental and skeletal structures. A sample of 33 skeletally mature patients with transverse maxillary deficiencies was examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and 3 months after surgery. Fourteen patients were treated with tooth-borne devices and 19 patients with bone-borne devices. Dental crown expansion in the first premolars did not differ significantly between the two groups, and median expansion was 5.55 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.23) in the tooth-borne device group and 4.6 mm (IQR 3.4) in the bone-borne device group. In the first molars, crown expansion and lateral tipping were significantly greater in the tooth-borne device group (P ≤ .02). The median skeletal nasal isthmus increase was significantly more in the bone-borne device group at 3.0 mm than in the tooth-borne device group at 0.98 mm (P ≤ .02). Both tooth-borne and bone-borne devices are effective treatment modalities to correct maxillary transverse deficiencies. Bone-borne devices produced greater widening of the skeletal nasal floor and fewer dental side effects in the first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunophenotypic profile and increased risk of hospital admission for infection in infants born to female kidney transplant recipients.

    Ono, E; Dos Santos, A M; Viana, P O; Dinelli, M I S; Sass, N; De Oliveira, L; Goulart, A L; de Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2015-06-01

    Children born to female kidney recipients are exposed to immunosuppressive drugs during gestation. Little is known about their immune system at birth or in the long term. Twenty-eight children born to female kidney recipients and 40 full-term children born to healthy mothers were evaluated. T, B, NK, NKT, γδT cells were assessed by flow cytometry and functional evaluation of T and dendritic cells after in vitro activation was performed at birth and at 8 months of age. At birth, infants born to female kidney recipients showed lower numbers of CD4+ T, NKT and intense reduction of B cells (median cells/mm(3) , transplant: 153.7 X control: 512.4; p memory and exhausted memory B cells showed higher percentages among children exposed to immunosuppressors when compared to control group. At 8 months, most immune alterations were no longer observed, but four children still had low numbers of some lymphocyte subsets at this age. Children born to female kidney recipients had 4.351 (95% CI: 1.026-15.225; p = 0.046) higher risk of hospital admission in the first months of life-some, with severe clinical manifestations-than those born to healthy women. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Analyzing the Division of Household Labor within Spanish Families

    Balcell s i Ventura, Laia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Do all women experience a labor “double burden”? Are women responsible for domestic tasks in all households? What explains variation in patterns of distribution of household labor across families? In this article, I approach these questions from the perspective of two opposing theoretical approaches: the New Home Economics framework, and the Social Capital or sociological framework. I test the validity of these two frameworks with data from the Spanish Fertility and Family Survey of 1995. The results point towards the validity of the sociological perspective: those families in which the husbands have medium labor status present more egalitarian patterns of household labor distribution. Additionally, the results confirm the importance of attitudinal variables such as religiosity to explain domestic labor division patterns: women with more traditional values experience a more severe double burden.

    ¿Experimentan las mujeres una doble carga laboral? ¿Son las mujeres responsables de las tareas domésticas en los hogares? ¿Qué explica la variación en patrones de distribución de trabajo doméstico que tiene lugar a través de las familias? En este artículo se abordan estas cuestiones partiendo de dos marcos teóricos opuestos: el marco de la New Home Economics, y el del Capital Social, que se ponen a prueba a partir de datos de la Encuesta de Fecundidad y Familia de 1995. Los resultados apuntan hacia la validez de la perspectiva sociológica: las familias donde el marido tiene un estatus laboral medio presentan patrones más equitativos de distribución del trabajo doméstico. Adicionalmente, los resultados confirman la importancia de variables actitudinales como la religiosidad para explicar patrones de división del trabajo doméstico: las mujeres más tradicionales son las que experimentan una mayor doble carga.

  13. Effectiveness of HIV prevention for women: What is working?

    Gil Llario, María Dolores; Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Giménez García, Cristina; Salmerón Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-AIDS remains a public health prob- lem which disproportionally affects women. However, prevention strategies have rarely considered their specific efficacy for them. For this reason, this study examines the differential effectiveness of six intervention elements based on socio-cognitive theories addressing young women. A controlled between-groups design examined the change in risk profile among 167 young Spanish women (mean age ...

  14. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests].

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2008-01-01

    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  15. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  16. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  17. [Literary, biographic and autoethnographic contributions in Spanish medical anthropology: the case of Catalonia].

    Alegre-Agís, Elisa; Riccò, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    The autoethnographic method has been an important contribution to the development of medical anthropology in Spain. This article first reviews and explores documents published before 1980 that are usually classified as literature and autobiography and are linked to the health-disease-care process, a paradigmatic example of which is Ramona Via's diary Com neixen els Catalans [How Catalans are born] published in 1972. The second part of the article is focused on contributions carried out since the 1980s using the concept of autoethnography, which have as their object the body, health and illness based on a subjective ethnographic experience. This period, unlike the first, is characterized by the emergence of anthropologist authors who have promoted the development of this method, legitimized by the Tarragona School and substantialized in the first Spanish conference of autoethnography in 2015.

  18. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    Rebollo, R.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  19. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1995

    Lago, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1995 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  20. Interrelations between grammaticalization and phraseology in Spanish

    Leonor Ruiz Gurillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the relationships between phraseology and grammaticalization in Spanish. According to a functional view of grammaticalization (see E. C. Traugott, we analyse some phraseological units: discourse markers, such as desde luego, conversational routines such as estaría bueno and idioms, such as cubrirse de gloria. Subjectification, intersubjectification or Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change can explain diachronic and phraseological evolution of these units. Corpus is from CORDE and CREA (http://www.rae.es.

  1. Spanish urological schools (1880-1970).

    Pérez-Albacete, M

    2018-05-11

    We researched the start of urological specialisation in Spain, from the end of the 19th century to the institution of the education system (resident medical intern) to learn about the centres and individuals who created the urological teaching units and training schools in which the first Spanish urologists specialised their training. We extracted the references from books on the history of urology, from periodic urological publications and from the posters on history submitted to the congresses of the Spanish Urological Association and filled in the data and dates with the Historical Dictionary of Spanish Urologists. There are 30 urological specialization centres, 8 with official accreditation recognised by the corresponding ministry but whose official status is unknown. These centres are in the urology departments of large Spanish hospitals, university clinic hospitals and in private schools directed by notable urologists. There are 14 main centres, corresponding chronologically to the following cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Las Palmas of Gran Canaria, Cadiz, Santander, Valencia, Granada, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Oviedo, Zaragoza and Salamanca. Urological training in Spain from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century was well-established, both in officially accredited centres and in the urology departments of the main hospitals, in university clinic hospitals and in private schools and clinics. The training was directed by experienced urologists who ensured proper teaching and training, a method that persisted until the institution of the resident medical intern system in 1970. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial impact of malocclusion in Spanish adolescents

    Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Almerich Silla, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion, determine its relationship with the severity of malocclusion, and assess the influence of gender and social class on this relationship in adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 627 Spanish adolescents aged 12 - 15 years underwent intraoral examinations by 3 calibrated examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa > 0.85) at their schools. Psychosocial impact was measured through a self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aes...

  3. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1996

    Lago, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1996 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author) 4 refs

  4. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Spanish population.

    Fernandez Dapica, M P; Gómez-Reino, J J

    1986-06-01

    We have found in our clinic a 28.1% prevalence of familial chondrocalcinosis among 149 family members of 32 patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. The clinical and radiological characteristics of these familial chondrocalcinosis patients were similar to those of the Chiloes with familial chondrocalcinosis previously reported. No significant clinical or radiological differences were detected between our sporadic and familial chondrocalcinosis patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that the Chiloes familial chondrocalcinosis was carried to Chile by Spanish immigrants.

  5. OUTCOMES OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS IN THE TOMSK REGION

    T. S. Pinegina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the Tomsk Region. Patients conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. Revealed the prevalence of autonomic disorders in individuals who have had at different periods of tick-borne encephalitis, which is regarded as the effects of tick-borne infection. Residual effects of tick-borne encephalitis occurs mainly in the form of light paresis after suffering a focal forms. Among the chronic (progredient forms of tick-borne encephalitis often formed hyperkinetic options. Most of the study revealed the presence of precipitating factors that could have an influence on the outcome. Fundamental diffe rences in all-clinical and immunological analyses at patients with various outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis it wasn't noted. KEY WORDS: tick-borne encephalitis, Tomsk Region, the outcomes.

  6. Born too soon: preterm birth matters.

    Howson, Christopher P; Kinney, Mary V; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the fi rst country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the fi rst in a supplement entitled “Born Too Soon”, this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) investments also linking to non-communicable diseases. For preterm babies who survive, the additional burden of prematurity-related disability may aff ect families and health systems. Prematurity is an explicit priority in many high-income settings; however, more attention is needed especially in low- and middle-income countries where the invisibility of preterm birth as well as its myths and misconceptions have slowed action on prevention and care. Recent global attention to preterm birth hit a tipping point in 2012, with the May 2 publication of Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth and with the 2nd annual World Prematurity Day on November 17 which mobilised the actions of partners in many countries to address preterm birth and newborn health. Interventions to strengthen preterm birth prevention and care span the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Both prevention of preterm birth and implementation of care of premature babies require more research, as well as more policy attention and programmatic investment.

  7. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  8. Spanish Identity: Nation, Myth, and History

    Jesús Torrecilla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two centuries, conservatives and liberals have offered two mutually exclusive visions of Spanish history, each with distinct myths, symbols, and heroes. The conservative image, formed in the Middle Ages, was based on the myth of the Reconquest and the need to restore (or keep the homogeneity of a country characterized by its Christian religion and Latin culture. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, faced with Napoleon’s invasion, Spanish liberals understood the danger of associating their modern ideas with France and invented a progressive and democratic Spanish tradition. According to their interpretation, the most authentic Spain was not the one identified with the Reconquest and the Empire, but the Spain of all those who had been excluded from the nation-building process because of their religion or ideas: the tolerant al-Andalus Muslims, the freedom-fighter comuneros and the defenders of the democratic medieval fueros . The great success of the transition to democracy and the Constitution of 1978 resided in the ability of all different tendencies and parties to overcome this division, to build bridges and create a common national project. For the first time in history, Spaniards managed to build a successful society based on consensus, pluralism and democracy. However, as a reality based on agreements, its nature is fragile. What is at stake now in Spain is to strengthen the viability of this model.

  9. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+

  10. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  11. Spanish Occupation of Roussillon in 1815

    Matías Ramisa Verdaguer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the invasion of the French Pyrénées- Orientales department by Spanish troops under the orders of General Castaños in late August 1815, shortly after the Waterloo defeat and the occupation of France by the Seventh Coalition allies. The article also presents the situation before the Waterloo battle in the province of Catalonia, the preparation of the previously mentioned invasion and its consequences, all framed in the foreign policy of the Ferdinand VII government. The sources used in this work are the case files of the National Historical Archive (Madrid that relate to this episode, and specialized literature. The objective of this study was to relate a lesser-known event, occurred shortly after the end of the War of Independence, to highlight the scarce and indecisive Spanish foreign policy during the Congress of Vienna period. The Napoleonic invasion accentuated the Spanish internal crisis and the international decline of the country. This is reflected in the occupation of the Roussillon and rapid withdrawal ordered by General Castaños.

  12. Notes on Born-Infeld-type electrodynamics

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) with three parameters. Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics and exponential electrodynamics are particular cases of this model. The phenomenon of vacuum birefringence in the external magnetic field is studied. We show that there is no singularity of the electric field at the origin of point-like charged particles. The corrections to Coulomb’s law at r →∞ are obtained. We calculate the total electrostatic energy of charges, for different parameters of the model, which is finite.

  13. Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Gravity

    Kim Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to construct wormholes without introducing exotic matters in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with a cosmological constant. Contary to the conventional approach, the throat is located at the place where the solutions can be joined smoothly. The metric and its derivatives are continuous so that the exotic matters are not needed there. The exoticity of the energy-momentum tensor is not essential to sustain the wormhole. We also present a method to check the stability of wormholes in the new approach.

  14. [Tick borne encephalitis and enviromental changes].

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Malzahn, Elzbieta; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Pancewicz, Sławomir S; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Czupryna, Piotr; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Currently observed markedly increased incidence of various tick borne diseases in many parts of Europe is due to documented climatic changes as well anthropogenic influence on habitat structure. One of the analyzed factors is tendency to increase of the spring temperatures, especially in the third decade of the April. Such conditions (spring temperatures above 7-10 degrees C) let the nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus to feed simultaneously on rodents. This increases the risk of infection of Ixodes ricinus with TBE virus, so dangerous for humans.

  15. MRI in tick-borne encephalitis

    Alkadhi, H.; Kollias, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus gives rise to epidemic encephalitis. Mild forms usually manifest as influenza-like episodes or are clinically silent. MRI is usually normal in TBE. We describe severe TBE in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status after a tick bite and a specific antibody response to TBE. MRI revealed pronounced signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia and thalamus, without contrast enhancement. These findings coincide well with neuropathological studies of severe nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory cell infiltrates, neuronophagia and reactive astrocytosis in the deep grey matter. We review the literature and discuss the relevant differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Validation of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Lopez-McKee, Gloria; Bader, Julia

    2011-03-21

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We'll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research.

  17. Women's Health

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  18. Professional burnout and work satisfaction in Spanish allergists: analysis of working conditions in the specialty.

    Chivato Pérez, T; Campos Andreu, A; Negro Alvarez, J M; Caballero Martínez, F

    2011-01-01

    Burnout is a worrying problem in the medical profession and has proven to be highly prevalent in all the care settings and specialty areas in which it has been studied.We applied 2 widely used questionnaires to analyze the working conditions of Spanish allergists in terms of quality of professional life and degree of burnout perceived. Participants completed 2 questionnaires: the 22-item Maslach scale, a structured questionnaire covering different aspects of the feelings and attitudes of professionals toward their work and patients; and the Spanish Quality of Professional Life Questionnaire (CPV-35), a 35-item questionnaire evaluating job satisfaction and perceived quality of life at work. We received 404 questionnaires from throughout Spain. The main sources of motivation were better pay (94.4%), more available resources/technology (85.1%), access to research activities (81%), and promotion in one's professional career (80.1%). Analysis of the scores from the Maslach scale revealed that two-thirds of the allergists interviewed experienced medium and high levels of negative burnout (67.9% and 66.2%, respectively, for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). This situation was in part compensated for by the fact that a slightly lower proportion of the group (59.2%) obtained very high scores on personal accomplishment in their work. Analysis of the scores from the CPV-35 questionnaire revealed 3 complementary aspects of job satisfaction: perceptions of the workload borne (5.8), management support available to cope with daily patient workload (5.6), and levels of intrinsic motivation for work (7.7), which was the highest value. The score for the item summarizing self-perceived overall quality of working life was acceptable (6.4). Promoting intrinsic motivation of Spanish allergists using the motivating factors identified in this study could protect against professional burnout.

  19. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  20. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; Pbite than boys (8% vs 6%; Pbite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.