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Sample records for spanish soils volume

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalized and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V.- Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs

  3. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs

  4. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume I.-Galicia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim. a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary)' source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs

  6. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume IV.- Valencia and Murcia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Valencia and Murcia. (Author) 63 refs

  7. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Milian, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 67 refs

  8. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs

  9. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  10. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 36 refs

  11. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume II.- Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore. an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco. (Author) 34 refs

  12. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  13. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIII.- Navarra and La Rioja; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XIII.- Navarra y La Rioja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas of Navarra and La Rioja. (Author) 46 refs.

  14. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils.- Volume I-Galicia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen I.- Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; roquero, C; Magister, M

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume IV.- Valencia and Murcia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles Volumen IV.- Valencia y Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Roquero, C; Magister, M

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Valencia and Murcia. (Author) 63 refs.

  16. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XV.- Aragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Lago, C [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs.

  17. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XIV. Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schimid, T; Lago, C [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after and accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs.

  18. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles Volumen III.- Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millam, R; Schmid, T; Roquero, C; Magister, M

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs.

  19. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. volumen VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granda y Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Lago, C [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs.

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen VI.- Andalucia (a): Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla y Huelva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Lago, C [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Huelva of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 67 refs.

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VIII.- Castilla-La Mancha (a): Toledo and Ciudad Real; Bade de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen VIII.- Castilla-La Mancha (a): Toledo y Ciudad Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve thin aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior ot its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 32 refs.

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca; Base de datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. volumen X. Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  3. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria y Segovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  4. Migration of radiostrontium in Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olondo, C.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the strontium migration occurs in the main Spanish soils and has obtained a tool that is able to reproduce. This would have established the depth distribution profiles of the activity of that isotope presents the soil, thereby obtaining a graphical representation of the current radiological situation of the ground.

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume II.- Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos EspaNoles Volumen II.- Asturias, Cantabria y pais Vasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. (Author) 34 refs.

  6. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  7. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs.

  8. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen XIII.- Navarra and La Rioja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas of Navarra and La Rioja. (Author) 46 refs

  9. Training volume and performance of young Spanish national and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the volume of training of young national and international level swimmers, how it evolves andits relationship with performance. The sample comprised of 202 swimmers (11to 18 years old), selected by the Royal Spanish Swimming Federation. The volumes of pool and ...

  10. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen VIII.- Castilla-La Mancha (a): Toledo and Ciudad Real

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 32 refs

  11. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen IX.- Castilla-La Mancha (b): Guadalajara, Cuenca y Albacete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Guadalajara, Cuenca and Albacete of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 41 refs

  12. Source identification of soil mercury in the Spanish islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Carbonell, Gregoria; Nanos, Nikos; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg(-1)) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg(-1)). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified.

  13. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... environment. Lowland soils are primarily peat soils, and only a minor part of the total soil volume of peat soils is occupied by macropores (>30 µm). Since water primarily flows in these macropores, the majority of the soil matrix is bypassed (the immobile domain). Phosphorus released in the immobile domain...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  14. Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    , 2010 and Tenerife, 2012 (the next meeting will be held in Barcelona in 2014). In addition, several contributions, courses and workshops have been celebrated in Spanish or international forums as the EGU General Assembly, the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties (FESP2011 and forthcoming FESP2013) and the International Conference on Geomorphology have been also sponsored. Other activities include the publication of book series (two volumes have been published: Cerdá and Jordán, 2010; Cerdà and Mataix-Solera, 2009. The third one is currently in preparation), books of abstracts (Díaz-Raviña et al., 2010; Jordán et al., 2009), a series of technical reports (in preparation) and special issues in international journals (in, for example, Catena, Geoderma, Environmental Research or the International Journal of Wildland Fire). A four-monthly journal (FLAMMA; http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/flamma) is published regularly since 2010 with an increasing audience and issues scheduled until 2014. Also, the network has promoted voluntary environmental actions and educational activities. 4. MAIN CHALLENGES The next challenges are to continue promoting the interaction between scientists, decision makers, forest management staff and end-users and to establish new connections with European institutions and research groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" was supported between 2007 and 2009 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-28764-E 2007-2008 and CGL2008-01632-E 2009). REFERENCES Cerdà, A. Jordán, A. (Eds.). 2010. Actualización de Métodos y Técnicas para el Estudio de los Suelos Afectados por Incendios Forestales [Updated methods and techniques for the study of soils affected by wildfires; in Spanish]. Cátedra de Divulgació de la Ciència, Universitat de València, FUEGORED 2010. Valencia. 521 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (Eds). 2009. Efectos de los

  15. Quantifying Uncertainty in Soil Volume Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.D.; Hays, D.C.; Johnson, R.L.; Durham, L.A.; Winters, M.

    2009-01-01

    Proper planning and design for remediating contaminated environmental media require an adequate understanding of the types of contaminants and the lateral and vertical extent of contamination. In the case of contaminated soils, this generally takes the form of volume estimates that are prepared as part of a Feasibility Study for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites and/or as part of the remedial design. These estimates are typically single values representing what is believed to be the most likely volume of contaminated soil present at the site. These single-value estimates, however, do not convey the level of confidence associated with the estimates. Unfortunately, the experience has been that pre-remediation soil volume estimates often significantly underestimate the actual volume of contaminated soils that are encountered during the course of remediation. This underestimation has significant implications, both technically (e.g., inappropriate remedial designs) and programmatically (e.g., establishing technically defensible budget and schedule baselines). Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has developed a joint Bayesian/geostatistical methodology for estimating contaminated soil volumes based on sampling results, that also provides upper and lower probabilistic bounds on those volumes. This paper evaluates the performance of this method in a retrospective study that compares volume estimates derived using this technique with actual excavated soil volumes for select Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood properties that have completed remedial action by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District. (authors)

  16. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  17. Soil and art: the Spanish Society of Soil Science calendar for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Poch, Rosa M.; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco; Pérez-Moreira, Roxelio; Asins, Sabina; Porta, Jaume; Cortés, Amparo; Badía, David; Del Moral, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS: www.secs.com.es) is preparing since 2009 a calendar dealing with a topic chosen by its members, with the main aim to disseminate the importance of the soil to the society. In this contribution, we want to show the calendar 2016, developed during 2015, (International Year of Soils) dedicated to soil and art. We chose, for the twelve months of the year, a selection of paintings where soil is present, and where we, as soil scientists, can interpret what the artist observed about the soil or its management. An introduction written by professor F. Díaz-Fierros describes the evolution of different styles in different regions of Western Europe and US, and how soil was reflected in artworks. The selected paintings date from XV century to current times, by autors of different schools of art and very varying styles. The main features shown in these paintings are soil colour, soil structure, horizonation, and even soil profiles that can be classified. Other paintings show ploughing as main land management practice, and also soil conservation practices and the effects of fire as soil degradation. Artworks included in the calendar (in order of appearance): The ploughed field. 1888. Vincent Van Gogh. Zundert, The Netherlands (1853-1869) Los Cigarrales (alrededores de Toledo). Aureliano de Beruete y Moret. ca. 1905. Casa del Museo Goya - Museo de Arte Hispánico. Castres (France) Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Miniature. Musée Condé, Bibliothèque, Chantilly (France)(1413-1416). Paul, Jean and Herman de Limbourg The Dunes near Haarlem. 1667. Jan Wijnants. (1632-1684). National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin. Archaeology: Rooted in the Past. 2010. GC Myers, New York, USA (1959) La forêt au sol rouge. 1891. Georges Lacombe, Versalles (1868-1916) Sitges des de la Creu de Ribes. 1892. Santiago Rusiñol. Barcelona (1861-1931). Courtesy of the Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza (Madrid) De Kruisdraging. 1606. Pieter Brueghel the

  18. Migration of radiostrontium in Spanish soils.; Migracion de radioestroncio en los suelos espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olondo, C.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the strontium migration occurs in the main Spanish soils and has obtained a tool that is able to reproduce. This would have established the depth distribution profiles of the activity of that isotope presents the soil, thereby obtaining a graphical representation of the current radiological situation of the ground.

  19. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: Main projects and activities developed during the last years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Jaume; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Arbelo, Carmen D.; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Badía, David; Alcañiz, Josep M.; Santos, Fernando; Hermosin, M. Carmen; Barral, M. Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (in Spanish: Sociedad Española de la Ciencia del Suelo, SECS) was founded in 1947 by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) to promote cohesion and collaboration between soil science professionals, and with an innovative spirit and a willingness to serve the society. The objectives are: to promote the study, knowledge, research and protection of the soil; to spread, from a scientific point of view, the role played by the soil in favour of society, through ecosystem services such as the production of food and raw materials; The SECS also focus on the protection of other habitats and the conservation of our archaeological heritage; and to preserve knowledge of the soil, its management and use, both from the production and environmental point of view, leading to the optimization of its capabilities. The activities and services of the SECS are accessible on the web site www.secs.com.es, which is continually updated. In this contribution, we will show some examples of recent projects and activities developed by the SECS such as: the edition of the Spanish Journal of Soil Science (SJSS) since 2011; books like the white book on "Tratamiento del suelo en los libros de texto de ESO y Bachillerato en España" available in http://www.secs.com.es/archivo/libro-suelo.pdf, in which the term "Soil" is analysed in many secondary school books (152) in the Spanish education system; conferences, courses, exhibitions, expositions, calendars, the comic "Vivir en el suelo" in diferent languages, and diverse material to promote and disseminate the importance of the soil to the society; and last but not least, the Multingual Soil Science Dictionary (Spanish, Catalan, Gallician and Potuguese with translations in English and French (in process)) available online: http://cit.iec.cat/GLOSECS/inici.html. The promotion of student teams for soil science contests, the SECS Award to attend the Simposio Latinoamericano de Enseñanza y Educación en Ciencia

  20. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-01-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs

  1. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  2. An Assessment of the radiological vulnerability for Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schimid, T.; Lago, C.; Gutierrez, J.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented to assess the radiological vulnerability of soils, based exclusively on their pedagogical properties. The radiological vulnerability defined as the potential capacity of soils to fix or transfer deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium to plants, is represented in terms of vulnerability indexes. Two pathways are considered, the external irradiation and their transfer through the food chain, where the top horizon and a critical depth of 60 cm is taken into account, respectively, Partial vulnerability indexes are considered for each pathway, which allows a qualitative prediction of the behaviour of the contaminants in soils Global indexes have been obtained as the sum of the partial indexes. The methodology has been applied and validated using a data base consisting of more than 2000 soil profiles selected from all over Spain. This included a pedagogical characterisation and normalisation of the different soil profiles. Results have been obtained for individual soil profiles and with the aid of a GIS, the distribution of the partial and global indexes have been presented for the most representative soil types. (Author)

  3. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  4. Inventory and vertical migration of {sup 137}Cs in Spanish mainland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F. [Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country, Alda Urquijo, s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, L.M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, M. [Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country, Alda Urquijo, s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Barrera, M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country, Alda Urquijo, s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Valino, F. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Olondo, C., E-mail: kontxi.olondo@ehu.es [Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country, Alda Urquijo, s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Caro, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    In this study the total activity of {sup 137}Cs deposited per unit area over the Spanish peninsular territory was analysed using a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} mesh grid, with samples taken from 29 points. The deposited activities ranged between 251 and 6074 Bq/m{sup 2}. A linear relationship was obtained between these values and the mean annual rainfall at each sampling point which allowed a map to be drawn, using GIS software, which shows the distribution of total deposited {sup 137}Cs activity across the Spanish mainland. At twelve of these sampling points the vertical migration profile of {sup 137}Cs was obtained. These profiles are separated into two groups with different behaviour, one of which includes clay and loam soils and the other containing sandy soils. For both groups of profiles the parameters of the convective-diffusive model, which describes the vertical migration of {sup 137}Cs in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) were calculated. - Highlights: > Measured the {sup 137}Cs activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [251, 6074] Bq/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 1726 Bq/m{sup 2}. > Establishment of the {sup 137}Cs background by means of a {sup 137}Cs inventory map showing its distribution in the Spanish mainland. > {sup 137}Cs shows two different behaviour tendencies in soil depending on it. > The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. > Analysed those parameters, the two tendencies have been reflected in the obtained values.

  5. Inventory and vertical migration of 137Cs in Spanish mainland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Romero, L.M.; Herranz, M.; Barrera, M.; Idoeta, R.; Valino, F.; Olondo, C.; Caro, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the total activity of 137 Cs deposited per unit area over the Spanish peninsular territory was analysed using a 150 x 150 km 2 mesh grid, with samples taken from 29 points. The deposited activities ranged between 251 and 6074 Bq/m 2 . A linear relationship was obtained between these values and the mean annual rainfall at each sampling point which allowed a map to be drawn, using GIS software, which shows the distribution of total deposited 137 Cs activity across the Spanish mainland. At twelve of these sampling points the vertical migration profile of 137 Cs was obtained. These profiles are separated into two groups with different behaviour, one of which includes clay and loam soils and the other containing sandy soils. For both groups of profiles the parameters of the convective-diffusive model, which describes the vertical migration of 137 Cs in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) were calculated. - Highlights: → Measured the 137 Cs activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [251, 6074] Bq/m 2 , with a mean value of 1726 Bq/m 2 . → Establishment of the 137 Cs background by means of a 137 Cs inventory map showing its distribution in the Spanish mainland. → 137 Cs shows two different behaviour tendencies in soil depending on it. → The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. → Analysed those parameters, the two tendencies have been reflected in the obtained values.

  6. Methodology to assess the radiological sensitivity of soils: Application to Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, C.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology, based on standard physical and chemical soil properties, has been developed to estimate the radiological sensitivity of soils to a 137 C s and 90 S r contamination. In this framework, the soil radiological sensitivity is defined as the soil capability to mobilise or to retain these radionuclides. The purpose of this methodology is to assess, in terms of radiological sensitivity indexes, the behaviour of 137 C s and 90 S r in soils and their fluxes to man, considering two exposure pathways, the external irradiation exposure and the internal exposure from ingestion. The methodology is applied to the great variety of soil types found in Spain, where the soil profile is the reference unit for the assessment. The results for these soil types show, that their basic soil properties are the key to categorise the radiological sensitivity according to the risks considered. The final categorisation allows to identify soils specially sensible and improves the radiological impact assessment predictions. (Author)

  7. Effect of soil moisture and treatment volume on bentazone mobility in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimont, Sophie; Perrin-Ganier, Corinne; Real, Benoit; Schiavon, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Soil moisture affects the leaching behaviour of pesticides by inducing their physical entrapment in the soil structure. Columns containing soil aggregates were dampened to specific initial moisture levels. Bentazon was dripped onto surface aggregates in different volumes. The columns were then percolated after an equilibration period. Soil water from the columns was divided arbitrarily among mobile and immobile regions in order to describe the herbicide redistribution processes in the soil. W...

  8. Soil properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen IX.- Castilla-La Mancha (b): Guadalajara, Cuenca y Albacete; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen IX.- Castila-La Mancha (b): Guadalajara, Cuenca y Albacete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Lago, C [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPC. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Guadalajara, Cuenca and Albacete of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-La Mancha. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila; Base de Datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. Volumen XI. Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid y Avila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled form the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  10. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas

  11. Reproducing {sup 137}Cs vertical migration in Spanish soils - Reproducing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr vertical migration in Spanish mainland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olondo, C.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R. [The University of the Basque Country - UPV/EHU, Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics Dept. Faculty of Engineering, Alda. Urquijo 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    As a result of caesium's and strontium's activity migration study developed in Spanish mainland soils, there has been obtained convective - diffusive migration equation that will reproduce adequately the movement that an activity deposit would follow in this land. Taking into account the dependence on rain that apparent convection velocity shows, it has been defined a new migration parameter that depends only on soil's properties. By means of a least square method and fitting the migration equation to experimental activity profiles, the values showed by the migration parameters in the studied soils, characteristics of that area, have been obtained. After that, there have been obtained the mean values of these parameters for each defined group that, depending on soil's texture, have been observed in the study performed about the movement of both radionuclides in soils and to whom these soils belong. Using these mean values and obtained equation, it has been properly reproduce those vertical activity profiles that were experimentally determined. In order to validate these values, a new sampling programme is carrying out in the north of Spain and, with obtained new sampling points' information, is going to verify if, indeed, obtained mean values also reproduce these new sampling points' activity vertical profile. (authors)

  12. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  13. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  14. Volume reduction system by soil classifying. Soil-washing system and problems to be solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshino, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of ground surfaces, buildings and forests in a broad area was caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The national government and municipalities have still been carrying out the decontamination works for livelihood areas after five years from the accident. The government estimated that the amounts of soils and wastes removed by the decontamination works would be about 28,000,000 cubic meters maximum including 20,000,000 cubic meters maximum of soils. The removed soils will be stored in “Interim Storage Facility” then will be finally disposed outside of Fukushima prefecture within 30 years. On the other hand, shortage of the soils as materials needed for the revitalization in Fukushima prefecture is expected. Technical Advisory Council on Remediation and Waste Management, which consists of about 90 companies, started a working group to investigate solutions to these problems. The working group focused on the investigation of the possibility to recycle the soils by washing and classification to use them as the materials for civil engineering works, and to reduce the volume of the interim storage. In the first part of this report, we have evaluated the applicability of various technologies for purification and volume reduction of the removed soils, and have researched usages, required quantities and specifications of the recycled soils. In the second part, we have made trial calculations of the volume reduction effects and costs using the washing and classification system. The calculated results showed the possibilities of reducing the storage capacity of the interim storage facility, as well as the construction and the operation costs by recycling the removed soils with the washing and classification system inside the interim storage facility. At the end of this report, we proposed problems to be solved in order to adopt the washing and classification system. (author)

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  16. Nominalizations in Spanish. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia Sableski

    Using methods developed in transformational generative grammar, three types of nominal constructions in Spanish are treated in this paper: Fact nominalizations ("[El] Escribir es agradable"), Manner nominalizations ("El tocar [de la mujer] es agradable"), and Abstract noun nominalizations ("La construccion rapida de esta escuela es dudosa"). While…

  17. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  18. Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2002-01-01

    The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions

  19. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  20. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  1. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  2. Geostatistical approach for assessing soil volumes requiring remediation: validation using lead-polluted soils underlying a former smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demougeot-Renard, Helene; De Fouquet, Chantal

    2004-10-01

    Assessing the volume of soil requiring remediation and the accuracy of this assessment constitutes an essential step in polluted site management. If this remediation volume is not properly assessed, misclassification may lead both to environmental risks (polluted soils may not be remediated) and financial risks (unexpected discovery of polluted soils may generate additional remediation costs). To minimize such risks, this paper proposes a geostatistical methodology based on stochastic simulations that allows the remediation volume and the uncertainty to be assessed using investigation data. The methodology thoroughly reproduces the conditions in which the soils are classified and extracted at the remediation stage. The validity of the approach is tested by applying it on the data collected during the investigation phase of a former lead smelting works and by comparing the results with the volume that has actually been remediated. This real remediated volume was composed of all the remediation units that were classified as polluted after systematic sampling and analysis during clean-up stage. The volume estimated from the 75 samples collected during site investigation slightly overestimates (5.3% relative error) the remediated volume deduced from 212 remediation units. Furthermore, the real volume falls within the range of uncertainty predicted using the proposed methodology.

  3. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  4. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, J; Iserloh, T; Lassu, T; Cerdà, A; Keestra, S D; Prosdocimi, M; Brings, C; Marzen, M; Ramos, M C; Senciales, J M; Ruiz Sinoga, J D; Seeger, M; Ries, J B

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to enable a quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes in European vineyards using the same methodology and equipment. The study was conducted in four viticultural areas with different characteristics (Valencia and Málaga in Spain, Ruwer-Mosel valley and Saar-Mosel valley in Germany). Old and young vineyards, with conventional and ecological planting and management systems were compared. The same portable rainfall simulator with identical rainfall intensity (40mmh(-1)) and sampling intervals (30min of test duration, collecting the samples at 5-min-intervals) was used over a circular test plot with 0.28m(2). The results of 83 simulations have been analysed and correlation coefficients were calculated for each study area to identify the relationship between environmental plot characteristics, soil texture, soil erosion, runoff and infiltration. The results allow for identification of the main factors related to soil properties, topography and management, which control soil erosion processes in vineyards. The most important factors influencing soil erosion and runoff were the vegetation cover for the ecological German vineyards (with 97.6±8% infiltration coefficients) and stone cover, soil moisture and slope steepness for the conventional land uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating.

  6. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating

  7. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, James [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - New York District 26 Federal Plaza, New York, New York 10278 (United States); Hays, David [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Kansas City District 601 E. 12th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64106 (United States); Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  8. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2012 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gascó, C.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2012) was soil, that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu and 238Pu) and contained natural radionuclides (234U, 238U, U-natural 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Ac, 234Th, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 208Tl and 40K) at environmental level of activity concentration. Two soil matrixes were prepared in order to separate 55Fe and 63Ni analysis. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories.

  9. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  10. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  11. Use of soft data in a GIS to improve estimation of the volume of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, L.A.M.; Leummens, H.; Stein, A.; Bruijn, P.J. de

    1998-01-01

    In the practice of soil remediation, organoleptic observations such as the smell or the colour of contaminated soil play an important role when determining well-defined volumes of contaminated soil. A geographical information system (GIS) is then used to combine quantitative measurements with such soft data. In this study general procedures concerning how to deal with this type of observation are presented. The procedures were applied to a former gas works site, which was contaminated with cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. The volume of contaminated soil was determined. Use of soft data reduced the uncertainty in the volume of contaminated soil 4 to 16%. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Use of soft data in a GIS to improve estimation of the volume of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, L.A.M.; Leummens, H.; Stein, A.; Bruijn, P.J. de [Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Soil Science and Geology

    1998-01-01

    In the practice of soil remediation, organoleptic observations such as the smell or the colour of contaminated soil play an important role when determining well-defined volumes of contaminated soil. A geographical information system (GIS) is then used to combine quantitative measurements with such soft data. In this study general procedures concerning how to deal with this type of observation are presented. The procedures were applied to a former gas works site, which was contaminated with cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. The volume of contaminated soil was determined. Use of soft data reduced the uncertainty in the volume of contaminated soil 4 to 16%. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report (Volume 1) for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees} to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  14. Demonstration, testing, ampersand evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a draft final report (Volume 1) for US DOE contract entitled, open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,close quotes Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120 degrees to 130 degrees C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow

  15. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  16. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4340 SOIL MICROBE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... SOIL MICROBE MEDIATED ZINC UPTAKE IN SOY BEAN: A REVIEW. Jefwa JM. 1* .... Porg, lipid Plp, high-energetic~P, sugar. Psuc and .... encouragement to prepare this presentation. ... Enviroquest Ltd Ontario, Canada.

  17. 8340 Volume 13 No. 5 December 2013 IMPACT OF SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-05

    Dec 5, 2013 ... other dietary necessities that are consumed by families across the region [2, 3, 4]. ... sticker) – Trichoderma is a fungus used in suppressing soil borne plant .... fungi through antibiosis, mycoparasitism and competition [23].

  18. Lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons evaluated in large-volume soil monoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirastru, Mario; Marrosu, Roberto; Prima, Di Simone; Keesstra, Saskia; Giadrossich, Filippo; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating the lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, of soil horizons is crucial for understanding and modelling the subsurface flow dynamics in many shallow hill soils. A Ks,l measurement method should be able to catch the effects of soil heterogeneities governing hydrological processes

  19. Dynamic Response of Reinforced Soil Systems. Volume 1. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Elements Failure Modes Ai,’Ilast Exposed walls, roof, arch Bruachiig Airbuast/fragment impulse Floor Flexure Fragment penetration Sur;ed walIs, flour , roof...completed panels used in all centrifuge tests are presented in Figures 64 and 65. Connection: For all steel reinforced panels, glue was applied to both the...High Stress Experiments on Soil," Geotechnical Testing Journal , Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 192-202, Dec 1987. 11. Seaman, L., One-Dimensional Stress Wave

  20. Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil

  1. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils; Puesta a Punto de un sistema de Expectrometria Gamma para la Determinacion de Cs-137 en Suelos Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-07-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    participation of people on the days when we started field research with installation of plots and soil samplings, field trips with volunteers of some NGO's, etc., are some of examples of what we will show in this presentation of how to bring soil science to society. Acknowledgements: to the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), FUEGORED, Spanish Soil Science Society, Alcoi and Javea councils, Botánica Mediterrànea, ACIF Alcoi, ACIF Marina Alta, Xàbia Viva, Montgó Viu, and Sierra de Mariola and Montgó Natural Parks for their collaboration.

  3. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw......*-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  4. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 3. Spanish Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    sovereignty over the Tarfaya strip (between Western Sahara and post -colonial Morocco), over the whole of the Western Sahara and over the Spanish enclaves...veillance post , and a supply and repair vessel in the Mediterranean. Admiral of the Fleet Lewin said around the same time that the importance of Gibraltar...5.3.2 El Pais Self-appointed diario independiente de la manana. Its editorial line is controlled by Sr. Javier Pradera, former Communist Party member

  5. Contribution to the relation between volume activity of soil and indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzes, A.

    1999-01-01

    There were carried out some repeated manual measurements of volume activity of radon-222 (VAR) in both soil air of subsoil and also indoor air of buildings in two different areas in Bratislava. All measurements were done with a portable scintillation detector based on exchangeable Lucas cells. The measurements were repeated in different day and year intervals. There were repeated 259 measurements of volume activity of radon-222 in soil air with the average valuer 11.95 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation 1.53 kBq/m 3 in the subsoil of the one-story house and 597 measurements of VAR in soil air of the subsoil of the second study building with the average 9.44 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation 3.08 kBq/m 3 . Presented results of measurement of radon-222 volume activity in both soil and indoor air demonstrate that also in case of low radon concentrations in soil air of geological basement the level of radon in indoor air could be considerably high. It depends mainly on used technology of laying building foundations, on the distance from subsoil and on regime of ventilation. In case of older buildings the ventilation is very effective way to reduce the presence of radon in indoor air. (author)

  6. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  7. The impact of acid soil volume of reclaimed minespoils on plant growth in minilysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahandeh, H.; Hossner, L.R.; Birkhead, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the influence of randomly distributed acid soil, produced from acid forming materials (AFM), on growth and productivity of crops. This study evaluated the effect of amount and volume of acid soil on the growth of an acid tolerant plant (Coastal bermudga grass, Cynodon dactylon, L.) and an acid intolerant plant (Yuchi arrowleaf clover, Trifolium vesiculosum, Savi) in greenhouse lysimeters. Acid soil (pH=2.5) volumes up to 20% for Yuchi arrowleaf clover and up to 40% for Coastal bermuda grass did not significantly decrease dry matter yield. Concentrations of Al and Mn in plant tissue of clover and bermudagrass were below the toxicity level. In the presence of randomly distributed acid soil, plant roots continued to elongate in non-acid soil, by evading localized areas of low soil pH. These results suggest that the federally mandated zero tolerance for AFM in the top 1.2 m of reclaimed lands may not be reasonable. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The impact of acid soil volume of reclaimed minespoils on plant growth in minilysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahandeh, H.; Hossner, L.R.; Birkhead, J.A. [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). College of Agriculture and Life Science

    1996-06-01

    Limited data are available to assess the influence of randomly distributed acid soil, produced from acid forming materials (AFM), on growth and productivity of crops. This study evaluated the effect of amount and volume of acid soil on the growth of an acid tolerant plant (Coastal bermudga grass, {ital Cynodon dactylon}, L.) and an acid intolerant plant (Yuchi arrowleaf clover, {ital Trifolium vesiculosum}, Savi) in greenhouse lysimeters. Acid soil (pH=2.5) volumes up to 20% for Yuchi arrowleaf clover and up to 40% for Coastal bermuda grass did not significantly decrease dry matter yield. Concentrations of Al and Mn in plant tissue of clover and bermudagrass were below the toxicity level. In the presence of randomly distributed acid soil, plant roots continued to elongate in non-acid soil, by evading localized areas of low soil pH. These results suggest that the federally mandated zero tolerance for AFM in the top 1.2 m of reclaimed lands may not be reasonable. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Results of Long-term Measurement of 222Rn Volume Activity in Soil Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Matos, M.; Boem, R.; Stanys, T.; Hola, O.; Polaskova, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radon in the soil air was continuously monitored for four years. The measured volume activities differ one from another even three times. On the basis of the measured data the annual and average daily courses of the 222 Rn volume activity were studied for individual months. In annual courses the winter and also summer maxima of the 222 Rn volume activity were found out. The study of the average daily courses revealed that the oscillation of the 222 Rn volume activity about its average value during a day is only a few percent. For dry summer months a linear relation was found out between the changes of the 222 Rn volume activity and the changes of the atmospheric pressure in their average daily courses (Authors)

  10. Inventory and vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr fallout and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, L.M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Olondo, C., E-mail: kontxi.olondo@ehu.es [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Valino, F. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Legarda, F. [Department Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque, Country (UPV/EHU), Alda Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper the inventory of {sup 90}Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m{sup 2} and 2047 Bq/m{sup 2}. From these data set and those {sup 137}Cs data obtained in a previous work the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for {sup 137}Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for {sup 90}Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of {sup 90}Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm{sup 2}/year, respectively. - Highlights: > Measured {sup 90}Sr activity in Spanish mainland, being within a range of [173, 2047] Bq/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 793 Bq/m{sup 2}. > Compared the migration capacity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the same soils. > {sup 90}Sr shows a unique behaviour tendency in soil. > The parameters which govern the applied model have been obtained for the analysed profiles. > Analysed those parameters' values also reflects this unique tendency.

  11. Soil microbiology in land reclamation volume II - mycorrhizae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, D.H. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains three separate reports: RRTAC 84-4 (Greenhouse pot studies dealing with amendment of oil sand tailings: effects of peat, sewage sludge and fertilizer on plant growth, mycorrhizae and microbial activity); RRTAC 84-8 (Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) development of slender wheatgrass on amended oil sand tailings and subalpine coal mines spoil); RRTAC 84-7 (Ectomycorrhizae in amended oil sand tailings and subalpine coal mine spoil and in undisturbed Jack pine and spruce stands). In the first report mixtures of two peats were used to amend oil sand tailings and either mineral fertilizers or sewage sludge were added at different rates. The growth of slender wheat grass and jack pine grown in the greenhouse in these media were monitored. In the second report the VAM development of slender wheatgrass was monitored over a 4 year period; in the third the mycorrhizal status of jack pine and bear berry grown in oil sand tailings treated with various amendments and of white spruce and willow grown in subalpine coal mine spoil were monitored over the same period.

  12. [Hospital variation in anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery in the Spanish Association of Surgeons project: The contribution of hospital volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Héctor; Biondo, Sebastiano; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Enríquez-Navascués, José; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José Vicente

    2016-04-01

    This multicentre observational study aimed to determine the anastomotic leak rate in the hospitals included in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons and examine whether hospital volume may contribute to any variation between hospitals. Hospital variation was quantified using a multilevel approach on prospective data derived from the multicentre database of all adenocarcinomas of the rectum operated by an anterior resection at 84 surgical departments from 2006 to 2013. The following variables were included in the analysis; demographics, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, use of defunctioning stoma, tumour location and stage, administration of neoadjuvant treatment, and annual volume of elective surgical procedures. A total of 7231 consecutive patients were included. The rate of anastomotic leak was 10.0%. Stratified by annual surgical volume hospitals varied from 9.9 to 11.3%. In multilevel regression analysis, the risk of anastomotic leak increased in male patients, in patients with tumours located below 12 cm from the anal verge, and advanced tumour stages. However, a defunctioning stoma seemed to prevent this complication. Hospital surgical volume was not associated with anastomotic leak (OR: 0.852, [0.487-1.518]; P=.577). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant variation in anastomotic leak between all departments (MOR: 1.475; [1.321-1.681]; P<0.001). Anastomotic leak varies significantly among hospitals included in the project and this difference cannot be attributed to the annual surgical volume. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospital variability in postoperative mortality after rectal cancer surgery in the Spanish Association of Surgeons project: The impact of hospital volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Héctor; Biondo, Sebastiano; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This multicentre observational study examines variation between hospitals in postoperative mortality after elective surgery in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals. Hospital variation was quantified using a multilevel approach on prospective data derived from the multicentre database of all rectal adenocarcinomas operated by an anterior resection or an abdominoperineal excision at 84 surgical departments from 2006 to 2013. The following variables were included in the analysis; demographics, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, tumour location and stage, administration of neoadjuvant treatment, and annual volume of surgical procedures. A total of 9809 consecutive patients were included. The rate of 30-day postoperative mortality was 1.8% Stratified by annual surgical volume hospitals varied from 1.4 to 2.0 in 30-day mortality. In the multilevel regression analysis, male gender (OR 1.623 [1.143; 2.348]; P<.008), increased age (OR: 5.811 [3.479; 10.087]; P<.001), and ASA score (OR 10.046 [3.390; 43.185]; P<.001) were associated with 30-day mortality. However, annual surgical volume was not associated with mortality (OR 1.309 [0.483; 4.238]; P=.619). Besides, there was a statistically significant variation in mortality between all departments (MOR 1.588 [1.293; 2.015]; P<.001). Postoperative mortality varies significantly among hospitals included in the project and this difference cannot be attributed to the annual surgical volume. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  15. Sampling soils for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1981-10-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137 Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500-, and 12 500-cm 3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137 Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137 Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, where CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137 Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2 to 4 aliquots out of an many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137 Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137 Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor

  16. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-06-01

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction organic matter already occurred in the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial experience feedback of a geostatistical estimation of contaminated soil volumes - 59181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Claire; Jeannee, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Geo-statistics meets a growing interest for the remediation forecast of potentially contaminated sites, by providing adapted methods to perform both chemical and radiological pollution mapping, to estimate contaminated volumes, potentially integrating auxiliary information, and to set up adaptive sampling strategies. As part of demonstration studies carried out for GeoSiPol (Geo-statistics for Polluted Sites), geo-statistics has been applied for the detailed diagnosis of a former oil depot in France. The ability within the geo-statistical framework to generate pessimistic / probable / optimistic scenarios for the contaminated volumes allows a quantification of the risks associated to the remediation process: e.g. the financial risk to excavate clean soils, the sanitary risk to leave contaminated soils in place. After a first mapping, an iterative approach leads to collect additional samples in areas previously identified as highly uncertain. Estimated volumes are then updated and compared to the volumes actually excavated. This benchmarking therefore provides a practical feedback on the performance of the geo-statistical methodology. (authors)

  18. Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of TA-49 soil samples. Volume I: Report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at Daniel B. Stephens ampersand Associates, Inc. (DBS ampersand A) has completed laboratory tests on TA-49 soil samples as specified by Mr. Daniel A. James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 12 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through K. Appendix L lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Thermal properties were calculated using methods reviewed by Campbell and covered in more detail in Appendix K. Typically, soil thermal conductivities are determined using empirical fitting parameters (five in this case), Some assumptions are also made in the equations used to reduce the raw data. In addition to the requested thermal property measurements, calculated values are also presented as the best available internal check on data quality. For both thermal conductivities and specific heats, calculated and measured values are consistent and the functions often cross. Interestingly, measured thermal conductivities tend to be higher than calculated thermal conductivities around typically encountered in situ moisture contents (±5 percent). While we do not venture an explanation of the difference, sensitivity testing of any problem requiring nonisothermal modeling across this range is in order

  19. Evaluation of soil erosion risk using Analytic Network Process and GIS: a case study from Spanish mountain olive plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhay, Olexandr; Arriaza, Manuel; Boerboom, Luc

    2009-07-01

    The study presents an approach that combined objective information such as sampling or experimental data with subjective information such as expert opinions. This combined approach was based on the Analytic Network Process method. It was applied to evaluate soil erosion risk and overcomes one of the drawbacks of USLE/RUSLE soil erosion models, namely that they do not consider interactions among soil erosion factors. Another advantage of this method is that it can be used if there are insufficient experimental data. The lack of experimental data can be compensated for through the use of expert evaluations. As an example of the proposed approach, the risk of soil erosion was evaluated in olive groves in Southern Spain, showing the potential of the ANP method for modelling a complex physical process like soil erosion.

  20. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  1. An Assessment of the radiological vulnerability for Spanish soils; Estimacion de indices de vulnerabilidad radiologica para los suelos peninsulares espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schimid, T.; Lago, C.; Gutierrez, J. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A methodology is presented to assess the radiological vulnerability of soils, based exclusively on their pedagogical properties. The radiological vulnerability defined as the potential capacity of soils to fix or transfer deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium to plants, is represented in terms of vulnerability indexes. Two pathways are considered, the external irradiation and their transfer through the food chain, where the top horizon and a critical depth of 60 cm is taken into account, respectively, Partial vulnerability indexes are considered for each pathway, which allows a qualitative prediction of the behaviour of the contaminants in soils Global indexes have been obtained as the sum of the partial indexes. The methodology has been applied and validated using a data base consisting of more than 2000 soil profiles selected from all over Spain. This included a pedagogical characterisation and normalisation of the different soil profiles. Results have been obtained for individual soil profiles and with the aid of a GIS, the distribution of the partial and global indexes have been presented for the most representative soil types. (Author)

  2. Variations of radon volume activities in soil and indoor air and their correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzes, A.

    1998-01-01

    Some manual measurements of volume activity of 222 Rn ai soil air and in indoor air of building together with parallel measurements of some meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and pressure) of both atmospheric and indoor air were carried out. The measurements were performed in the building of Faculty and in its subsoil which consists of slope loams of the base of SW slopes of granitic Male Karpaty Mountains in the area of confluence of the Vidrica Creek with an arm of the Donau river. The monitoring measurements lasted form more than one and a half year, from January 1977 to August 1998, with the frequency of approximately once a week in each object. The soil air was taken from a permanently set up and sealed pipe from the depth of 0.8 m which was placed approximately 10 m from the building at the open air. All measurements of 222 Rn volume activities were performed with a portable fully automatic scintillation detector based on exchangeable Lucas cells. There were also performed the parallel measurements of some meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and pressure) of air in each object. The geological basement of building is a source of indoor radon. The volume activities of soil 222 Rn range from about 2 kBq/m 3 to about 20 kBq/m 3 with the average of 9.26 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation of 2.95 kBq/m 3 . The volume activities of indoor air in basement room were form 150 Bq/m 3 to 225 Bq/m 3 and on the third story they were from 125 Bq/m 3 to 175 Bq/m 3 (approximately). The results of monitoring measurements during 20 months period point out the intensity of interaction of geological substrate with building interior through the values of the volume activity of 222 Rn. Therefore a method of building foundation is one of the most important factors which determines the quantity of radon in indoor air. In the light of quality, the fluctuation of radon presence in the bottom part of the buildings is strongly determined by the variations of

  3. Estimation of soil properties and free product volume from baildown tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.; Parker, J.C.; Lundy, D.A.; Zimmerman, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Baildown tests, involving measurement of water and free product levels in a monitoring well after bailing, are often performed at spill sites to estimate the oil volume per unit area -- which the authors refer to as ''oil specific volume.'' Spill volume is estimated by integrating oil specific volume over the areal domain of the spill. Existing methods for interpreting baildown tests are based on grossly simplistic approximations of soil capillary properties that cannot accurately describe the transient well response. A model for vertical equilibrium oil distributions based on the van Genuchten capillary model has been documented and verified in the laboratory and in the field by various authors. The model enables oil specific volume and oil transmissivity to be determined as functions of well product thickness. This paper describes a method for estimating van Genuchten capillary parameters, as well as aquifer hydraulic conductivity, from baildown tests. The results yield the relationships of oil specific volume and oil transmissivity to apparent product thickness, which may be used, in turn, to compute spill volume and to model free product plume movement and free product recovery. The method couples a finite element model for radial flow of oil and water to a well with a nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm. Effects of the filter pack around the well in the fluid level response are considered explicitly by the model. The method, which is implemented in the program BAILTEST, is applied to field data from baildown tests. The results indicate that hydrographs of water and oil levels are accurately described by the model

  4. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  5. Analysis of the effect of volume on the bending strength of the Spanish scot and laricio pine timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the XX century it has been recognized that the bending strength of timber is affected by the size of the specimen. In the present work the influence of depth (h and thickness (t on the characteristic bending strength (fk of both Scot (Pinus sylvestris and Laricio (Pinus nigra pine Spanish grown timber is assessed. 1.733 pieces of both species ranging in size from 100x40x2500 mm to 200x70x4.500 mm and especially sampled for this work, have been tested for bending in accordance with UNE EN 408 standard. In both species, the influence of depth and thickness on the characteristic bending strength of timber is highly significative but different between them and lead to conclude that the effect of the species is also significative and thus that the proposition of general values should be done cautiously, avoiding extrapolations. It is also concluded that, for both species, the effect of thickness seems to be highly significative and thus shouldn’t be ignored by the European standards. Finally, the convenience of revising the present depth factor considered in UNE EN 384 and UNE ENV 1995-1-1 standards is also suggested.

    Desde principios del siglo XX se conoce que la resistencia a la flexión de un elemento estructural viene afectada por su volumen. En el presente trabajo se analiza la influencia de la altura (h y del espesor (t de la sección de la pieza en la resistencia característica a flexión (fk de la madera de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris y pino laricio (Pinus nigra de procedencia española. 1.733 vigas de tamaño variable entre 100x40x2500 mm y 200x70x4.500 mm, muestreadas especialmente para este trabajo, fueron ensayadas flexión de acuerdo con la norma UNE EN 408. La influencia de la altura de la sección y del espesor sobre la resistencia característica a flexión en ambas especies de madera resulta ser significativa aunque distinta entre ellas, lo que lleva a concluir que

  6. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  7. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Final report, Volume 2, Appendices A to E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-01-01

    This is a final report presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOC's and other organic chemicals. Although it may be applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by air flow

  8. Demonstration, testing, ampersand evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,close quotes Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120 degrees to 130 degrees C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow

  9. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Final report, Volume 2, Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This is a final report presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOC`s and other organic chemicals. Although it may be applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by air flow.

  10. Densidade global de solos medida com anel volumétrico e por cachimbagem de terra fina seca ao ar Bulk density of soil samples measured in the field and through volume measurement of sieved soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Van Raij

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Em laboratórios de rotina de fertilidade do solo, a medida de quantidade de terra para análise é feita em volume, mediante utensílios chamados "cachimbos", que permitem medir volumes de terra. Admite-se que essas medidas reflitam a quantidade de terra existente em volume de solo similar em condições de campo. Essa hipótese foi avaliada neste trabalho, por doze amostras dos horizontes A e B de seis perfis de solos. A densidade em condições de campo foi avaliada por anel volumétrico e, no laboratório, por meio de cachimbos de diversos tamanhos. A cachimbagem revelou-se bastante precisa. Os valores de densidade global calculada variaram de 0,63 a 1,46g/cm³ para medidas de campo e de 0,91 a 1,33g/cm³ para medidas com cachimbos. Portanto, a medida de laboratório subestimou valores altos de densidade e deu resultados mais elevados para valores de campo mais baixos.In soil testing laboratories, soil samples for chemical analysis are usually measured by volume, using appropriate measuring spoons. It is tacitly assumed that such measurements would reflect amounts of soil existing in the same volume under field conditions. This hypothesis was tested, using 12 soil samples of the A and B horizons of six soil profiles. Bulk density in the field was evaluated through a cylindrical metal sampler of 50cm³ and in the laboratory using spoons of different sizes. Measurements of soil volumes by spoons were quite precise. Values of bulk density varied between 0.63 and 1.46g/cm³ for field measurements and between 0.91 and 1.33g/cm³ for laboratory measurements with spoons. Thus, laboratory measurements overestimated lower values of bulk densities and underestimated the higher ones.

  11. Comparison of water soil erosion on Spanish Mediterannean abandoned land and agricultural fields under vine, almond, olives and citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands is considered as a global dynamic with on- and off-site consequences on the soil mostly ignored (Vanmaercke et al., 2011), which enhance land degradation processes by increasing water soil erosion (Cammeraat et al., 2010; Keesstra et al., 2012) and by decreasing biodiversity (Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of information at pedon scale about the assessment and quantification of which environmental elements activate or avoid water soil erosion after its respective abandonment. Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as useful tool for measuring interrelated soil erosion processes such as splash, initial rainfall-runoff processes, infiltration, sediment yield, water turbidity or nutrient suspensions (Cerdà, 1999; Iserloh et al., 2013; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). 105 experiments were conducted with a small portable rainfall simulator (rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1 in 30 minutes) in four different land uses and their respective abandoned land: i) citrus and olives (Valencia), almonds (Murcia) and vines (Málaga). We studied the main environmental factors that may determine water soil erosion during the performed experiments: slope, vegetation cover, rock fragment cover, soil properties (texture) and hydrological responses (time to runoff and infiltration generation). REFERENCES Brevik, E.C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., Van Oost, K., 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL 1, 117-129. doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015 Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrology 3, 421-430. doi:10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A., 1999. Simuladores de lluvia y su aplicación a la Geomorfología: Estado de la cuestión. Cuad. Investig. Geográfica 45-84. Iserloh, T., Ries, J.B., Arnáez, J., Boix-Fayos, C., Butzen, V., Cerdà, A., Echeverría, M.T., Fern

  12. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 17 Appendix P - Forecast Soil Moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-04-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  13. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 16 Appendix O - Historical Soil Moisture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  14. Crop and Soil Science. A Curriculum Guide for Idaho Vocational Agriculture Instructors. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledington, Richard L.

    The 24 units that comprise this crop and soil science curriculum guide are not geared to a particular age level and must be adapted to the students for whom they are used. Units 1 through 6 are general units covering topics common to soil science. Units 7 through 24 are units covering topics common to crop production. Each unit includes objectives…

  15. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  16. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  18. Reinforced soil structures. Volume II, Summary of research and systems information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Volume II was essentially prepared as an Appendix of supporting information for Volume I. This volume contains much of the supporting theory and a summary of the research used to verify the design approach contained in Volume I, as well as general in...

  19. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 8. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (Spanish concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo Berna, S.; Sanchez Delgado, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (Spanish concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  20. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  1. Soil weight (lbf/ft3) at Hanford waste storage locations (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford Reservation waste storage tanks are fabricated in accordance with approved construction specifications. After an underground tank has been constructed in the excavation prepared for it, soil is place around the tank and compacted by an approved compaction procedure. To ensure compliance with the construction specifications, measurements of the soil compaction are taken by QA inspectors using test methods based on American Society for the Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Soil compaction tests data taken for the 241AP, 241AN, and 241AW tank farms constructed between 1978 and 1986 are included. The individual data values have been numerically processed to obtain average soil density values for each of these tank farms

  2. Validation and refinement of chemical stabilization procedures for pavement subgrade soils in Oklahoma : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Additions of byproduct chemicals, such as fly ash or cement kiln dust, have been shown to increase the unconfined compression strength (UCS) of soils. To be considered effective, the soil must exhibit a strength increase of at least 50 psi. Many curr...

  3. On finite volume method implementation of poro-elasto-plasticity soil model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Hededal, Ole; Cardiff, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the interactions between the nonlinear soil skeleton and the pore fluid under loading plays a vital role in many geotechnical applications. It is therefore important to develop a numerical method that can effectively capture this nonlinear soil-pore fluid coupling effect. T...

  4. Toxic Chemicals in the Soil Environment. Volume 2. Interactions of Some Toxic Chemicals/Chemical Warfare Agents and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    K., S. Barik , and N. Sethunathan. 1981. Stability of commercial formulations of fenitrothion, methyl parathion, and parathion in anaero- bic soils. J ...34 D(Cl - C2 )L where; J - rate of flow or flWx, or the 4mount of solute (chemical) diffuisiguuit ti= across a unit crossý-ectional area, D difffuoion...surfaces (coatentrations C, aud C2) varies vith the concentration gradient, tlus’: 3 - -D(dC/dx) Where: J * the flux in grams or moles in cm%1s- acroeas a

  5. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  6. An English-Spanish Glossary of Terminology Used in Forestry, Range, Wildlife, Fishery, Soils, and Botany = Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de Terminologia Usada en Forestales, Pastizales, Fauna, Silvestre, Pesqueria, Suelos, y Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alvin Leroy

    This document presents English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms commonly used in the field of natural resource management. The glossary is composed of two sections. Section 1 contains the English to Spanish translations, while Section 2 provides the Spanish to English translations. Each section is…

  7. Development of soil-structure interaction analysis method (II) - Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. P.; Ko, H. M.; Park, H. K. and others

    1994-02-01

    This project includes following six items : free field analysis for the determination of site input motions, impedance analysis which simplifies the effects of soil-structure interaction by using lumped parameters, soil-structure interaction analysis including the material nonlinearity of soil depending on the level of strains, strong geometric nonlinearity due to the uplifting of the base, seismic analysis of underground structure such as varied pipes, seismic analysis of liquid storage tanks. Each item contains following contents respectively : state-of-the-art review on each item and data base construction on the past researches, theoretical review on the technology of soil-structure interaction analysis, proposing preferable technology and estimating the domestic applicability, proposing guidelines for evaluation of safety and analysis scheme

  8. Expectation and task for constructing the volume reduction system of removed soils. In search of the technical integrity from the intermediate storage to final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate storage volume of the removed soils and incineration ash in Fukushima is supposed about 22 million cubic meters. Within 30 years after starting the intermediate storage, the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture to these removed soils and incineration ash is determined by the law. Because these removed soils are the very-very low radio activity, the volume reduction method is most effective to reduce the burden of the final disposal. As the volume reduction technology is the stage of research and development, the possibility of the introduction of the volume reduction technology that has the consistency of the final disposal technology is evaluated from the point of view of cost. Since this business is accompanied by economic and technical risk to implement private companies, this project is considered appropriate to be implemented as a national project. (author)

  9. Combined use of GIS and environmental indicators for assessment of chemical, physical and biological soil degradation in a Spanish Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José-Miguel; Sánchez, Juan; Visconti, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    Soil is one of the main non-renewable natural resources in the world. In the Valencian Community (Mediterranean coast of Spain), it is especially important because agriculture and forest biomass exploitation are two of the main economic activities in the region. More than 44% of the total area is under agriculture and 52% is forested. The frequently arid or semi-arid climate with rainfall concentrated in few events, usually in the autumn and spring, scarcity of vegetation cover, and eroded and shallow soils in several areas lead to soil degradation processes. These processes, mainly water erosion and salinization, can be intense in many locations within the Valencian Community. Evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale is important because degradation is incompatible with sustainable development. Policy makers involved in land use planning require tools to evaluate soil degradation so they can go on to develop measures aimed at protecting and conserving soils. In this study, a methodology to evaluate physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in a GIS-based approach was developed for the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale. The information used in this study was obtained from two different sources: (i) a soil survey with more than 850 soil profiles sampled within the Valencian Community, and (ii) the environmental information implemented in the Geo-scientific map of the Valencian Community digitised on an Arc/Info GIS. Maps of physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale were obtained using the methodology devised. These maps can be used to make a cost-effective evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale. Around 29% of the area corresponding to the Valencian Community is affected by high to very high physical soil degradation, 36% by high to very high biological degradation, and 6% by high to very high chemical degradation. It is, therefore, necessary to draw up legislation and to

  10. In situ sampling of small volumes of soil solution using modified micro-suction cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jianbo; Hoffland, E.

    2007-01-01

    Two modified designs of micro-pore-water samplers were tested for their capacity to collect unbiased soil solution samples containing zinc and citrate. The samplers had either ceramic or polyethersulfone (PES) suction cups. Laboratory tests of the micro-samplers were conducted using (a) standard

  11. Volume estimate of radium-contaminated soil in a section of Barrows Field Park, Glen Ridge, New Jersey, November--December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, M.J.; Mosho, G.D.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this project was to estimate the in-place volume of radium-contaminated soil in an area of Barrows Field Park, Glen Ridge, New Jersey. The information was necessary to determine whether or not there was sufficient soil with the proper radium concentration to test a new method of soil decontamination. The steps used by Argonne National Laboratory personnel to obtain the required data for estimating the volume of contaminated soil was to measure the contamination-depth profile at 118 locations in a 60 ft times 150 ft area in the park, plot the contours of depths to the specified concentration, and measure the area of the closed depth contours. 6 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  13. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  14. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation)

  15. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2012 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Soil); Evaluación de la Intercomparación CSN/CIEMAT-2012 entre los Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Suelo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gascó, C.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2012) was soil, that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu and 238Pu) and contained natural radionuclides (234U, 238U, U-natural 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Ac, 234Th, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 208Tl and 40K) at environmental level of activity concentration. Two soil matrixes were prepared in order to separate 55Fe and 63Ni analysis. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories.

  16. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  17. Developments and trends in soil science: 100 volumes of Geoderma (1967-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; Cattle, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Between September 1967 and March 2001, Geoderma published 100 volumes containing 2079 papers covering 31,637 pages and filling 191 cm of shelf space. No doubt that is a lot of paper, but what is in it? This paper starts with a brief history of the journal and an overview of editors and a geographic

  18. An English-Spanish glossary of terminology used in forestry, range, wildlife, fishery, soils, and botany (Glosario en Ingles-Espanol de terminologia usada en forestales, pastizales, fauna, silvestre, pesqueria, suelos, y botanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin Leroy Medina

    1988-01-01

    The English-Spanish/Spanish-English equivalent translations of scientific and management terms (jargon) commonly used in the field of natural resource management are presented. The glossary is useful in improving communications and fostering understanding between Spanish- and English-speaking persons.

  19. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils; Aplicacion de la normativa espanola sobre suelos contaminados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-07-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  20. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Influence of irrigation on the occurrence of organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, water and sediments of a Spanish agrarian basin (Lerma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao, R.; Sarasa, J.; Causape, J.; Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the several possible environmental impacts caused by irrigation, the existence of a study area under transition from unirrigated to irrigated land is a great advantage. This work investigates the presence of 44 pesticides and metabolites, 11 organo chlorinated compounds, 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 13 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several metals and metalloids such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Se and Hg, in the soil, water and sediments of an agrarian basin in Northeast Spain. The study area was unirrigated until 2006, when irrigation began. The objective of this work was to verify if the first irrigation years influenced the concentrations of the substances and elements analyzed. The main contaminants detected were organo chlorinated compounds, Paths and metals in the soil; atrazine, desethyl atrazine, terbuthylazine, dicofol and pp'-DDT in the water; and PAHs, 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene and metals in the sediments. Until the conclusion of this study, no serious contamination issues existed related to the analyzed substances, and for the moment, irrigation has not significantly influenced the concentrations of such substances in the basin. Nevertheless, slightly elevated punctual values were observed for endrin in the soil, pp'-DDT in the water, and Ni and Zn in the sediments. (Author) 45 refs.

  3. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  4. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  5. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 4. volume reduction of removing soil treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The removed materials that were generated via decontamination work and contaminated with radioactive cesium are mainly soil, the total amount of which is estimated at about 16 million to 22 million m3 in Fukushima Prefecture. Since cesium 137 has a short half-life of 30 years, the amount that needs final disposal after 30 years is expected to be 6 million m3 plus. In order to rationally and safely promote the transport, storage, and disposal of removed contaminants, volume reduction as much as possible is important, which requires relevant techniques. The biggest challenge of the volume reduction is an appropriate use of a low concentration of or purified/reproduced soil that occurs in the process. Since the recycled soil is not completely consumed only by intermediate processing facilities, there is a possibility to be used at outside facilities. There are needs for the tests and securement of qualities and standards according to the application, as well as the empirical data of practicality and long-term safety. It includes not only technical problem-solving, technology dissemination, and standardization, but also the construction of social acceptability. To do this, it is important that researchers and engineers in many fields in addition to those of soil jointly own common agenda and perform cross-cutting initiatives. After this, the social acceptance of volume reduction technology and the treatment of decontaminated waste would make a progress. (A.O.)

  6. Analysis of the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interaction model using a flexible volume substructuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Nakamura, N.

    1995-01-01

    A 1/4-scale cylindrical reactor containment model was constructed in Hualien, Taiwan for foil-structure interaction (SSI) effect evaluation and SSI analysis procedure verification. Forced vibration tests were executed before backfill (FVT-1) and after backfill (FVT-2) to characterize soil-structure system characteristics under low excitations. A number of organizations participated in the pre-test blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses of the forced vibration test using various industry familiar methods. In the current study, correlation analyses were performed using a three-dimensional flexible volume substructuring method. The results are reported and soil property sensitivities are evaluated in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  7. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and “standard” aeration level was the optimum combination. PMID:27995970

  8. Proceedings of Conference on Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils (3rd) Held in Amherst, Massachusetts on September 1989 (Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Volume 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    degraders (105 to 106). After exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the microbial ecology of the soil adjusts so that the number of petroleum degraders...34 in R. M. Atlas , ed., Petroleum Microbiology (Macmillan Pub- lishing Co., Inc., 1984). 3. Bossert, I., and R. Bartha . "The Fate of Petroleum in Soil...and nature of the microbial population. I For instance, the soil class (i.e., dominant grain size or grade) may help the health assessor determine

  9. Beneficial Use of Scrap Tire Rubber in Low-volume Road and Bridge Construction with Expansive Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    Billions of dollars in damages are attributed to expansive soils in the United States (Jones and Jones 1987) and in many other countries each year. Geotechnical design and analyses in/on/with expansive soils may involve additional complications that ...

  10. Calculation of hydraulic conductivities and capillary rise in peat soils from bulk density and solid matter volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated how unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of soils can be calculated from granular composition and organic matter content (BLOEMEN, 1980a). This type of calculations has to be restricted to mineral soils because the capillary properties of organic soils will not be

  11. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Performance of Low-Volume Roads with Wearing Course Layer of Silty Sandy Soil Modified with Rice Husk Ash and Lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behak Katz, L.; Musso Laespiga, M.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) is a by-product of rice milling. Its use as soil stabilizer is a way to replace the final disposal with environmental benefit. However, RHA is not cementitious itself but when mixed with lime forms cements which improve the soil properties. A research of performance of a silty sandy soil modified with RHA and lime as wearing course layer of low-volume roads was conducted through two full-scale test sections with different pavements built in Artigas, northern Uruguay. The alkaline reactivity of RHA is low because the husk burning is not controlled. The soil-RHA-lime mix design was conducted according to the Thompson’s Method. The pavement test sections were monitored through deflection measures by Benkelman beam and observations of surface condition. The deflections decreased over time in both test sections due to the development of cementation of the study materials. After one year, the dust emission was reduced, the wet skid resistance of pavement surfaces improved and there was not rutting. The researched pavements have had a good performance under the existing traffic and environmental conditions, demonstrating that wearing course layer of silty sand modified with RHA and lime is an alternative to improve the condition of low-volume roads and to replace the final disposal of RHA, with environmental, social and economic benefits. (Author)

  13. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  14. Differences in the behaviour of HTO and H2O in soil after condensation from the atmosphere and conversion of HT to HTO and OBT in soil relative to moisture content and pore volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnenberg, C.; Feinhals, J.; Wiener, B.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and field and soil column experiments have identified the condensation of atmospheric water vapour as an additional process in the HTO contamination of soils. In contrast to wash-out, where tritium concentrations of the deposited water are the same as in the falling drops, the specific activity of the condensed water is increased compared with that of the atmospheric humidity, when the partial vapour pressure gradient of HTO between atmosphere and soil is higher than the H 2 O pressure gradient. With respect to HTO deposition, condensation may therefore be more effective per unit precipitation than wash-out. Experiments on the conversion rates of HT to HTO and OBT in soils have exhibited a pronounced dependence on moisture content and free pore volume. With rising moisture content, conversion increases due to enhanced bacterial action; while close to field capacity a decrease occurs as a result of restricted HT diffusion through the soil pores. In short-term experiments about 0.1% of the converted HT was found in the OBT form. (author)

  15. Kajian Model Estimasi Volume Limpasan Permukaan, Debit Puncak Aliran, dan Erosi Tanah dengan Model Soil Conservation Service (SCS, Rasional Dan Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE (Studi Kasus di DAS Keduang, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugro Hari Murtiono

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic modelling has been developing and it is usefull for basic data in managing water resources. The aim of the reseach is to estimate volume runoff, maximum discharge, and soil erosion with SCS, Rational, and MUSLE models on Keduang Watershed. Explain the data analysis, and flow to get the data. SCS parameters model use are: runoff, rainfall, deferent between rainfall runoff. The deferent rainfall between runoff relationship kurva Runoff Coefisient (Curve Nunmber/CN. This Coefisient connected with Soil Hydrology Group (antecedent moisture content/AMC, landuse, and cultivation method. Rational parameters model use are: runoff coefisient, soil type, slope, land cover, rainfall intensity, and watershed areas. MUSLE parameters model use are: rainfall erosifity (RM, soil erodibility (K, slope length (L, slope (S, land cover (C, and soil conservation practice (P. The result shows that the conservation service models be applied Keduang Watershed, Wonogiri is over estimed abaut 29.54 %, Rational model is over estimed abaut 49.96 %, and MUSLE model is over estimed abaut 48.47 %.

  16. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  17. NORM remediation project of Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC) oil fields in Der Ezzor area, Syrian Arab Republic: Determination of NORM contaminated soil volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Aba, A.; Hamwi, A.; Hassan, M.

    2002-04-01

    DEZP Company has used to collect product water, scale and sludge in artificial pits. Run-off channel had been created to allow water to run-off into the desert. A radioactive contamination by NORM in DEZP oil fields (JAFRA) has occurred and quite significant area of land has been affected. As a part of the remediation project the volume of contaminated soil with NORM according to the Syrian criteria for clean up and disposal has been determined. Surface and core soil samples were collected from the contaminated areas and analyzed for 226 Ra. The results have shown that contamination has reached a depth of more than one meter in the surface water pit. The estimated contaminated soil that needs disposal according to the Syrian criteria was calculated and found to be about 3161 m 3 . Most of the contaminated soil was found to be in the surface water pit. In addition, the contamination in the mud pit and the run-off channel was rather small and could be treated on site. However, the obtained results can be used for preparation of the remediation plan where size of the disposal pit and on site treatment is defined. The plan should be submitted to the Syrian Regulatory Office for review and approval to initiation of the remediation work (author)

  18. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  19. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  20. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  1. Review of current research into soil decontamination and volume reduction techniques for purposes of transportation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, a number of soil decontamination studies have been carried out by investigators in the US and Canada. These investigations have included the segregation of potentially hazardous chemicals from uranium mill tailings, the use of various leaching agents for the selective removal of radium, thorium, and uranium from mine and mill tailings, the study of neutralization, fixation, and conditioning processes for tailings, the separation and removal of transuranium elements from contaminated soil and sediment, and finally studies of the cost effectiveness of various decontamination approaches. Remedial action programs for which soil decontamination may be an attractive alternative are those which include the cleanup of large open land areas since thousands of cubic years of material are generally involved. The practice of decontaminating or otherwise segregating contaminated and uncontaminated soil fractions before shipment to a final disposal site can only be done if it is economical to do so. This paper considers several techniques which have been reported in unclassified literature and includes a comparison of the authors' conclusions regarding the effectiveness of their investigations. The manuscript will include a comprehensive bibliography of references to techniques which appear to be feasible alternatives in remedial action programs

  2. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  3. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  4. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  5. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 2. Special topics in soil/structure interaction analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into six chapters: definition of seismic input ground motion, review of state-of-the-art procedures, analysis guidelines, rock/structure interaction analysis example, comparison of two- and three-dimensional analyses, and comparison of analyses using FLUSH and TRI/SAC Codes

  6. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  7. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  8. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  9. Technology evaluation report: Biotrol Soil Washing System for treatment of a wood-preserving site. Volume 2, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.; Evans, J.; Kitaplioglu, O.; McPherson, J.

    1991-12-01

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The BSWS treatment train used in the study consists of three technologies: a soil washer; an aqueous treatment system; and a slurry bio-reactor. The demonstration was carried out at the MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund site in New Brighton, MN. The report analyzes the results from the SITE demonstration. It includes discussion of the operation of the three separate treatment technologies (SW, SBR, and BATS) evaluated in the test and provides flow diagrams, a summary of the sampling and analytical programs, an economic analysis, and a quality assurance/quality control evaluation of the data. Conclusions were reached concerning the technology's suitability for use in remediations involving both similar and different materials at other sites

  10. International Modal choice determinants in the Spanish Hotel Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ramón Rodríguez

    2001-01-01

    Hotel industry is a management intensive industry as well as a distinct real estate asset class. During the 80ís, a reduced number of hotel groups led the internationalization of the Spanish tourism industry. In the decade of the 90ís, the process of internationalization wraps to a growing and dynamic volume of hotel chains, acquiring an exponential growth. Spanish hotel firms have nearly one hundred thousand rooms outside their home nations in three hundred and forty six thousand properties ...

  11. Extracting Metrics for Three-dimensional Root Systems: Volume and Surface Analysis from In-soil X-ray Computed Tomography Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A; Adams, Lexor; Beck, Anthon N; McKinney, Adriana L; Varga, Tamas

    2016-04-26

    Plant roots play a critical role in plant-soil-microbe interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, as well as processes with important implications to climate change and crop management. Quantitative size information on roots in their native environment is invaluable for studying root growth and environmental processes involving plants. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for in situ root scanning and analysis. We aimed to develop a costless and efficient tool that approximates the surface and volume of the root regardless of its shape from three-dimensional (3D) tomography data. The root structure of a Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) specimen was imaged using XCT. The root was reconstructed, and the primary root structure was extracted from the data using a combination of licensed and open-source software. An isosurface polygonal mesh was then created for ease of analysis. We have developed the standalone application imeshJ, generated in MATLAB(1), to calculate root volume and surface area from the mesh. The outputs of imeshJ are surface area (in mm(2)) and the volume (in mm(3)). The process, utilizing a unique combination of tools from imaging to quantitative root analysis, is described. A combination of XCT and open-source software proved to be a powerful combination to noninvasively image plant root samples, segment root data, and extract quantitative information from the 3D data. This methodology of processing 3D data should be applicable to other material/sample systems where there is connectivity between components of similar X-ray attenuation and difficulties arise with segmentation.

  12. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  13. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  14. Quantification of soil and water losses in an extensive olive orchard catchment in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Taguas, Encarnación; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2018-01-01

    A sound understanding of erosive processes at different scales can contribute substantially to the design of suitable management strategies. The main aim of this work was to evaluate key factors at the pedon scale that cause soil erosion to occur. To achieve this goal, we quantified infiltration, permeability, soil losses and runoff volumes in a small Southern Spanish catchment cultivated with olive orchards. To assess which factor contributed most to speeding up soil erosion, a Spearman rank coefficient and principal components analysis were carried out. The results confirmed low infiltration values (11.8 mm h-1) in the surface soil layers and high permeability values (24.6 mm h-1) in the sub-surface soil layers, and produced an average soil loss of 19.7 g m-2 and average runoff coefficients of 26.1%. Statistical analyses showed that: i) the generation of runoff was closely correlated with soil loss; and, ii) an increase in the vegetation cover helped reduce soil erosion. In comparison to larger areas such as a catchment, the pedon scale produced lower or similar soil losses and runoff coefficients in rainfall simulation conditions, although the influence of vegetation cover as a control factor was also detected.

  15. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  16. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  17. The spanish nuclear choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Blazquez, C.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  18. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  19. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  20. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  1. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  2. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  3. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  4. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  5. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was

  6. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  7. The Spanish National Dose Registry and Spanish radiation passbooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Martin, A.; Villanueva, I.; Amor, I.; Butragueno, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Spanish National Dose Registry (BDN) is the Nuclear Safety Council's (CSN) national database of occupational exposure to radiation. Each month BDN receives records of individual external doses from approved dosimetry services. The dose records include information regarding the occupational activities of exposed workers. The dose information and the statistical analysis prepared by the BDN are a useful tool for effective operational protection of occupationally exposed workers and a support for the CSN in the development and application of the ALARA principle. The Spanish radiation passbook was introduced in 1990 and since then CSN, as regulatory authority, has required that all outside workers entering controlled areas should have radiation passbooks. Nowadays, CSN has implemented improvements in the Spanish radiation Passbooks, taking into account previous experience and Directive 96/29/EURATOM. (author)

  8. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  9. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  10. Semantic and Pragmatic Functions of the Spanish Diminutive in Spanish in Contact with Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    2001-01-01

    Presents data from the Spanish of Quechua-Spanish bilinguals that exemplify a contact situation that gives rise to a process called structural interference. Concentrates on the use of the diminutive in the Spanish of speakers of Spanish in the Andes. (Author/VWL)

  11. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  12. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  13. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  14. Ole for Spanish gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a new gas market in Europe. Relative to other EC countries, gas use is still low at 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) or around 6 percent of total primary energy demand (TPED) in 1992 against an EC average of almost 20 percent. The historic reasons for this are Spain's lack of major domestic gas fields and the ready existence of alternative energy sources in the form of coal and hydroelectric power. But gas use is now growing fast, having more than quadrupled since 1980 and with usage predicted to double again in volume terms, rising to 12 percent of TPED by 2000. Only the low population density, which adds to distribution costs, is likely to stop Spain reaching the EC average. (author)

  15. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  16. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  17. V Congress of Spanish Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings book present the lectures of V Spanish geochemistry Congress. The sessions were: 1.- Materials geochemistry and geologic process. 2.- Geochemistry prospection 3.- Environmental geochemistry 4.- Isotopic geochemistry 5.- Organic geochemistry 6.- Natural materials geochemistry for industry 7.- Hydrogeochemistry 8.- Mathematical models in geochemistry 9.- Analysis methods in geochemistry 10.-Training of geochemistry 11.-Cosmochemistry

  18. Agentivity Marking in Spanish Nominalisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to provide justification for the claim that variation between the prepositions por ‘by’ and de ‘of’ introducing the subject argument in Spanish nominalisations should not be explained as primarily paralleling sentence-level voice or aspectual distinctions...

  19. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  20. Identifying randomized clinical trials in Spanish-language dermatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, G; Pardo, H; Sánchez, S; Bonfill, X

    2015-06-01

    The necessary foundation for good clinical practice lies in knowledge derived from clinical research. Evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is the pillar on which decisions about therapy are based. To search exhaustively and rigorously to identify RCTs in dermatology journals published in Spanish. We located dermatology journals through the following search engines and indexes: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Periódica, Latindex, Índice Médico Español, C-17, IBECS, EMBASE, and IMBIOMED. We also sought information through dermatology associations and dermatologists in countries where Spanish was the usual language of publication, and we searched the Internet (Google). Afterwards we searched the journals electronically and manually to identify RCTs in all available volumes and issues, checking from the year publication started through 2012. Of 28 journals identified, we included 21 in the search. We found a total of 144 RCTs published since 1969; 78 (54%) were in Latin American journals and 66 (46%) were in Spanish journals. The most frequent disease contexts for RCTs in Spanish journals were psoriasis, mycoses, and acne vulgaris. In Latin American journals, the most frequent disease contexts were common warts, mycoses, acne vulgaris, and skin ulcers on the lower limbs. Manual searches identified more RCTs than electronic searches. Manual searches found a larger number of RCTs. Relatively fewer RCTs are published in Spanish and Latin American journals than in English-language journals. Internet facilitated access to full texts published by many journals; however, free open access to these texts is still unavailable and a large number of journal issues are still not posted online. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) water and leachate dynamics between urban and pristine barrier island maritime oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T.; Stubbins, A.; Reichard, J. S.; Wright, K.; Jenkins, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Epiphyte coverage on forest canopies can drastically alter the volume and chemical composition of rainwater reaching soils. Along subtropical and tropical coastlines Tillandisa usneoides L. (Spanish moss), in particular, can envelop urban and natural tree crowns. Several cities actively manage their 'moss' covered forest to enhance aesthetics in the most active tourist areas (e.g., Savannah GA, St. Augustine FL, Charleston SC). Since T. usneoides survives through atmospheric water and solute exchange from specialized trichomes (scales), we hypothesized that T. usneoides water storage dynamics and leachate chemistry may be altered by exposure to this active urban atmosphere. 30 samples of T. usneoides from managed forests around the tourist center of Savannah, Georgia, USA were collected to compare with 30 samples from the pristine maritime live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) forests of a nearby undeveloped barrier island (St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA). Maximum water storage capacities were determined via submersion (for all 60 samples) along with dissolved ion (DI) and organic matter (DOM) concentrations (for 15 samples each) after simulated throughfall generation using milliQ ultrapurified water. Further, DOM quality was evaluated (for 15 samples each) using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS). Results show significant alterations to water storage dynamics, DI, DOM, and DOM quality metrics under urban atmospheric conditions, suggesting modified C and water cycling in urban forest canopies that may, in turn, influence intrasystem nutrient cycles in urban catchment soils or streams via runoff.

  2. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  3. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  4. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  5. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  6. Romanian and Spanish Cultural Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Popa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Much more appreciated and known in his time than by posterity, V.A.Urechia was ahistorian, politician and learned man, formed together with great personalities of the generation of the40's, A.I.Cuza's collaborator (the first ruler of the United Principalities, and also our first hispanist.After finishing his studies in Paris, he married Francoise Josephine Dominique Plano, the daughter ofQueen Isabela's of Spain personal doctor, Urechia showed a constant interest and maintained strongconnections with the Spanish cultural space that he discovered to be the origin of the foundingemperor of Dacia Traiana. The subject-matter of the present paper is Urechia's "capital of Spanisheducation" (enhanced in time, the contacts with the great personalities of the Spanish culture of histime , that can be reconstituted due to his work, his memoires, his letters a intercultural dialogue andarticles published in the Spanish and Romanian press, as well as the influence of those contacts on thepersonality, method, and purpose of his cultural approaches. Moreover, we are to point out thecontribution that the personalities had in the intercultural dialogue in Europe, at the end of the 19thcentury.

  7. Phraseology and diatopic variation in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pamies Bertrán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phraseology and idioms have been scantly investigated in the field of dialectology, compared to the rich tradition of phonetic and lexicological studies that made available long ago accurate dialectal maps and atlases for all the languages of Europe. There is no lack of irony in this given the etymology of the word idiom itself(soil. On the other hand, speakers often accompany the use of idioms and proverbs with pragmatic markers like as we say in my village, as we say in my homeland, as my grandmother said, even for standard expressions. This seems to presuppose the existence of a relationship – within linguistic consciousness – between phraseology and non-standard diatopic (or diaphasic varieties, either as a rhetorical strategy or an intuitive hypercorrection. Spanish phraseology and paremiology allow us to observe certain cues in this respect.

  8. The "Spectacle de la Nature" in Eighteenth-Century Spain: From French Households to Spanish Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Spanish appropriation of one of the great French eighteenth-century best-sellers, the "Spectacle de la Nature" (1732-1750) by the "abbe" Antoine Noel Pluche. In eight volumes, the "abbe" discussed current issues in natural philosophy, such as Newtonianism, the origin of fossils, artisan…

  9. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  10. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  11. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  12. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  13. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  14. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  15. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2B: Analytical data packages, January--February 1992 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  16. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  19. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  1. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  2. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  3. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  4. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  5. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  6. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  7. Cultural notions in Spanish Dictionaries for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo-Núñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although later than in English, Linguistics applied to the teaching of Spanish language has produced several didactic dictionaries for foreigners in the last two decades. This dictionaries include grammatical information in order to facilitate pronunciation, and morphological or syntactical comprehension; cultural notions, however, are more difficult to include because they go beyond the scope of the lexicon. Through the analysis of some terms related to folk music and gastronomy, we analyse the inclusion of Spanish and Latin American cultural notions in the three main dictionaries of Spanish for foreigners: the dictionary for the teaching of the Spanish language published by Vox-Alcalá University (Diccionario para la enseñanza de la lengua española, the Salamanca Dictionary (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española and the Spanish dictionary for foreigners of SM publishing house (Diccionario de español para extranjeros.

  8. Acid-deposition research program. Volume 2. Effects of acid-forming emissions on soil microorganisms and microbially-mediated processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.; Parr, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    The interactions of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes are ultimately expressed in a soil's fertility and its capacity for plant production. Consequently, much of the research conducted to date regarding the impact of acid-forming pollutants on soil properties has been geared towards possible effects on plant productivity. This trend continues in this paper where the effects of acidic deposition on microbial communities are reviewed in relation to potential impact on plant growth. The objectives of the review are to discuss: (1) The effects of acid-forming emissions (primarily S-containing pollutants) on microbial community structure with emphasis on qualitative and quantitative aspects; (2) The effects of acidic deposition on microbially mediated processes (i.e., community functions); (3) Acidification effects of pollutants on symbiotic and disease-causing microorganisms. The symbionts discussed include ectomycorrhizal fungi, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria, particularly Rhizobium, while the disease-causing microorganisms will include those responsible for foliage, stem, and root diseases.

  9. EFFECT OF VEGETATIVE COVER AND SLOPE ON SOIL LOSS BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    and 9.7 % were 1.045, 1.070, 1.100, 2.266 and 3.121 kg, respectively. Vegetative cover soil with grasses reduced the runoff volume and soil loss. Runoff volume and soil loss increased as slope of the land increases. Keywords: erodibility, erosion, erosivity, rainfall simulator, soil loss,. INTRODUCTION. Erosion is a serious ...

  10. The role of soils in sustaining society and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 4 on The Role of Soils in Society and the Environment covers: - Soils and the

  11. Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…

  12. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  13. Soil Degradation Processes; Procesos de Degradacion del Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Crespi, S; Perez Martinez, M; Cuesta Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2007-12-28

    In the European communication entitled Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, eight main threats to soil were identified: contamination, erosion, loss of organic matter, compaction, salinization; hydro-geological risks, soil sealing, and decline in biodiversity. The main purpose of this report is to provide the current state of knowledge of the soil degradation processes both, in the European Community scale and, particularly, in the Spanish territory. Furthermore, the main research project information related to soil degradation processes is also included, identifying the main actors involved in soil scientific research and development. (Author) 66 refs.

  14. Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates.

  15. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bosque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  16. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  17. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  18. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  19. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  20. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the...

  1. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  2. Linking sediment fingerprinting and modeling outputs for a Spanish Pyrenean river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, Williams H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Indirect techniques to study fine sediment redistribution in river catchments could provide unique and diverse information, which, when combined become a powerful tool to address catchment management problems. Such combinations could solve limitations of individual techniques and provide different lines of information to address a particular problem. The Barasona reservoir has suffered from siltation since its construction, with the loss of over one third of its storage volume in around 30 study years (period 1972-1996). Information on sediment production from tributary catchments for the reservoir is required to develop management plans for maintaining reservoir sustainability. Large spatial variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment and the major sediment sources identified included badlands developed in the middle part of the catchment and the agricultural fields in its lower part. From the diverse range of indirect techniques, fingerprinting sediment sources and computer models could be linked to obtain a more holistic view of the processes related to sediment redistribution in the Barasona river catchment (1509 km2, Central Spanish Pyrenees), which comprises agricultural and forest land uses. In the present study, the results from a fingerprinting procedure and the SWAT model were compared and combined to improve the knowledge of land use sediment source contributions to the reservoir. Samples from the study catchment were used to define soil parameters for the model and for fingerprinting the land use sources. The fingerprinting approach provided information about relative contributions from land use sources to the superficial sediment samples taken from the reservoir infill. The calibration and validation of the model provided valuable information, for example on the timescale of sediment production from the different land uses within the catchment. Linking results from both techniques enabled us to achieve a

  3. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  4. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  5. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  7. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  8. Lexicalisation Patterns in Danish and Spanish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldersgaard, Casper A. G

    In this dissertation, I investigate the theoretical framework by Leonard Talmy (2000b) on lexicalisation patterns in Motion events. I examine his characterisations of Co-event languages (e.g., Danish) and Path-event languages (e.g., Spanish), and I relate his work to a Danish language setting....... Furthermore, my objective is to determine whether the predictions set forth by Talmy apply to Danish and Spanish from an empirical perspective, i.e., in a Danish monolingual reference corpus, Korpus-DK, and a Spanish monolingual reference corpus, CORPES. I present different methods for testing Talmy’s theory....... As a consequence, to identify Motion events and discard false positives is an extremely time-consuming process. I suggest that a context-free grammar is a way to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of linguistic data that contain Motion events. Thus, I implement a context-free grammar for Spanish. More...

  9. Cancer Currents Now Available in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our effort to more effectively reach patients, health care providers, and researchers with timely, authoritative, and scientifically accurate cancer information, we are now offering selected Cancer Currents blog posts in Spanish.

  10. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  11. The Spanish participation in the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  12. Internationalisation of Spanish fashion brand Zara

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, C; Fan, Y

    2008-01-01

    Zara is one of the world’s most successful fashion retailers operating in 59 countries. However, there is little research about the firm in English as the majority of publications have been written in Spanish. This paper seeks to address this gap in the literature by examining the internationalisation process of Zara. This study adopts an in-depth case approach based on extensive secondary research. Literature published in both English and Spanish has been reviewed, including c...

  13. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H A; Amy, Gary L.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2010-01-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate

  14. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spanish open oak woodlands have had multiple land uses such as firewood extraction and grazing through centuries. Consequently, 20% of the Spanish forest is coppice forest. This particular agrosilvopastoral system is well widespread in the southern and western part of the Iberian Peninsula. As a result of the implementation of Natura 2000 in Spain, many of these habitats have been included in this network listed as "Dehesas" with evergreen Quercus spp. (Sclerophyllous grazed forests -dehesas-). The main goal of Natura 2000 is assuring "favourable conservation status" of natural habitats and species within these areas (Habitats Directive 92/43/ECC). This is the case of the study area, "Dehesa Boyal" (Ávila), which management plan has been carried out in a public forest land. The current situation is a degraded coppice forest, Quercus pyrenaica and Q.ilex, with a shrub encroachment due to previous firewood extraction. Besides, problems such as soil compaction and lack of sexual have been observed presumably related with livestock (180 horses, 1100 goats, 900 sheeps and 190 cows distributed in different seasons). Livestock feed on the acorns and hedge young sprouts making them sprouting again. The shrub encroachment is far from "conservation status" required in Natura 2000. Furthermore, the livestock cannot be removed because it is an important part of this agrosilvopastoral system not only for the landscape but also for its economic importance to local owners. Management plans should consider all of these circumstances and propose an integrated approach. To achieve this goal, the area was accurately classified in age classes by "stands" (oak shrubland, low pole stages, coppice tall shrub and sapling) in each habitat, using Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S), remote sensing techniques and detailed field work. Then, the "conservation status" of each stand is classified in A (Favourable), B (Inconvenient) and C (Unfavourable conservation status) considering some

  15. Spanish Nuclear Industry in Lungmen Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomar, F.

    1998-01-01

    Spain's Advanced Nuclear Reactors Programs, under DTN's leadership, has meant an active participation the American Design of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, in both General Electric and Westinghouse Programs. This collaboration has given to the Companies, which directly involved, an in-depth knowledge of both Development Programs, as well as it has allowed to establish relationships with Nuclear Island DTN's coordination. These Companies included a broad sample of Spanish Companies most interest in the Nuclear Field: DTN representing Spanish Utilities with Nuclear Assets; Empresarios Agrupados and INITEC as a Joint Venture, representing Spanish A/E; Equipos Nucleares, S.A., representing Nuclear Components Manufacturers; Tecnatom, representing Nuclear Services and Engineering and CIEMAT as National Laboratory. Taiwan Electric Power has awarded its two 1300 MWe Lungmen Units to General Electric. Knowledge acquired by these Spanish Companies along FOAKE First of kind then Engineering has allowed them to bid for some authorities in Lungmen NPP and in some cases to get important awards. Furthermore, the good working relationship which has been established has made way for other Spanish Companies to bid for other Project Packages. On a case by case basis the response of Spanish manufacturer has been irregular . In some instances manufactures have stopped manufacturing nuclear components, and in other instances a distinct lack of interest has been detected. (Author)

  16. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  17. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  18. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  19. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  20. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  1. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  2. Rethinking Spanish: Understanding Spanish Speakers Motivations and Reasons to Opt for Either an English Only or a Dual English-Spanish Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adrienne C.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish-speaking parents choose to enroll their children in either an English only or English-Spanish dual immersion program when presented with both choices. This ethnographic study explored parent's perceptions of the purpose, advantages, and disadvantages of learning in school in English only or in a dual English-Spanish. Through focus group…

  3. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Salcedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  2. Working with Spanish-Speaking Latin American Students in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Marcela S.

    1978-01-01

    The problems affecting the reception, adjustment, and placement of Spanish-speaking students into the Toronto school system are discussed, and include immigration patterns, Spanish values, and the Latin American school. (Author/HP)

  3. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  4. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  5. Language Planning in the Spanish-Speaking World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Aquilino; Duenas, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Reviews diffusion and promotion of the Spanish language from the first Spanish colonizers in the Americas to the present. Describes the situation of Spanish within Spain as a form of internal colonialization and reviews language policies. Analyzes present-day institutional efforts at maintaining language co-existence within different autonomous…

  6. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  7. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  8. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  9. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  10. Evidential Uses in the Spanish of Quechua Speakers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of recordings of spontaneous speech of native speakers of Quechua speaking Spanish as a second language reveals that, using verbal morphological resources of Spanish, they have grammaticalized an epistemic marking system resembling that of Quechua. Sources of this process in both Quechua and Spanish are analyzed. (MSE)

  11. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  12. Profiles of an Acquisition Generation: Nontraditional Heritage Speakers of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2018-01-01

    Though definitions vary, the literature on heritage speakers of Spanish identifies two primary attributes: a linguistic and cultural connection to the language. This article profiles four Anglo college students who grew up in bilingual or Spanish-dominant communities in the Southwest who self-identified as Spanish heritage speakers, citing…

  13. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  14. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  16. Library Service to the Spanish Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anita R.

    This manual was developed to formalize Inglewood Public Library's existing policies and programs regarding library services to the Spanish speaking, and to define future program goals. The introduction discusses why such services have been initiated, why the manual was developed, and the potential benefits the manual has for library…

  17. Children's Literature Studytour of Spanish America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachter, Jacqueline

    1975-01-01

    Describes a tour of several Spanish American countries to study the children's literature and culture. Discussion focuses on the children's literature found in theatrical performances, government-sponsored magazines, schools, and libraries. Also discussed are the writers and illustrators who create for children. (JMB)

  18. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  19. The spanish radiotherapy park: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel J.

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as objective to provide a general overview on the spanish radiotherapy park, presenting how was its start and evolution until the current state. Considering only the units of teletherapy and the accelerators. Actually in Spain there is 28 units of Cobalt therapy, in functioning during the last two decades, being advised a rapid substitution to accelerators

  20. Temporal Analysis of English and Spanish Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Johnson, Teresa H.; O'Connell, Daniel C.

    In order to ascertain the effect of different demands on cognitive processes as reflected in speech rate, pause and hesitation phenomena, 90 young men, 45 native speakers of English (U.S.A.) and 45 native speakers of Spanish (Mexico), were asked to retell a story presented in one of three ways: (1) film plus narration; (2) film only; (3) narration…

  1. Prosodic Perception Problems in Spanish Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Fernando; Martínez-García, Cristina; Suárez-Coalla, Paz

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prosody abilities on top of phonological and visual abilities in children with dyslexia in Spanish that can be considered a syllable-timed language. The performances on prosodic tasks (prosodic perception, rise-time perception), phonological tasks (phonological awareness, rapid naming, verbal working…

  2. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  3. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  4. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  5. Teaching iSTART to Understand Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…

  6. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  7. The external dimension of the Spanish transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Powell

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.

  8. Spanish is Numero Uno for "Project Bright."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larew, Leonor A.

    1978-01-01

    In New York State, the 24 brightest fifth and sixth graders from Avon, Caledonia, and York participated in a project funded by Title IV minigrants, distributed through BOCES. The children were bussed to a central point and permitted to study whatever they wished; Spanish was the first subject selected. (EJS)

  9. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  10. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  11. Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius ) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea inferred from AFLP data. ... Considering the high hydrological connectivity of this region and the species pelagic life history, retention of larvae, different migration route and different spawning season may ...

  12. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  13. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  15. Measuring Soil Moisture in Skeletal Soils Using a COSMOS Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.; Neely, H.; Desilets, D.; Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of coarse fragments directly influences the volumetric water content of the soil. Current surface soil moisture sensors often do not account for the presence of coarse fragments, and little research has been done to calibrate these sensors under such conditions. The cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system (COSMOS) rover is a passive, non-invasive surface soil moisture sensor with a footprint greater than 100 m. Despite its potential, the COSMOS rover has yet to be validated in skeletal soils. The goal of this study was to validate measurements of surface soil moisture as taken by a COSMOS rover on a Texas skeletal soil. Data was collected for two soils, a Marfla clay loam and Chinati-Boracho-Berrend association, in West Texas. Three levels of data were collected: 1) COSMOS surveys at three different soil moistures, 2) electrical conductivity surveys within those COSMOS surveys, and 3) ground-truth measurements. Surveys with the COSMOS rover covered an 8000-h area and were taken both after large rain events (>2") and a long dry period. Within the COSMOS surveys, the EM38-MK2 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of coarse fragments in the soil around two COSMOS points. Ground truth measurements included coarse fragment mass and volume, bulk density, and water content at 3 locations within each EM38 survey. Ground-truth measurements were weighted using EM38 data, and COSMOS measurements were validated by their distance from the samples. There was a decrease in water content as the percent volume of coarse fragment increased. COSMOS estimations responded to both changes in coarse fragment percent volume and the ground-truth volumetric water content. Further research will focus on creating digital soil maps using landform data and water content estimations from the COSMOS rover.

  16. Becoming "Spanish Learners": Identity and Interaction among Multilingual Children in a Spanish-English Dual Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the interactional co-construction of identities among two first-grade students learning Spanish as a third language in a Spanish-English dual language classroom. Drawing on ethnographic and interactional data, the article focuses on a single interaction between these two "Spanish learners" and two of their…

  17. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  18. Soil radiological characterisation and remediation at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Cristina; Garcia Tapias, Esther; Leganes, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Located in Madrid, CIEMAT is the Spanish Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research. It used to have more than 60 facilities in operation that allowed a wide range of activities in the nuclear field and in the application of ionising radiations. At present, the centre includes several facilities; some of them are now obsolete, shut down and in dismantling phases. In 2000 CIEMAT started the 'Integrated plan for the improvement of CIEMAT facilities (PIMIC)', which includes activities for the decontamination, dismantling, rehabilitation of obsolete installations and soil remediation activities. A small contaminated area named with the Spanish word 'Lenteja' (Lentil), has had to be remediate and restored. In the 70's, an incidental leakage of radioactive liquid occurred during a transference operation from the Reprocessing Plant to the Liquid Treatment Installation, and contaminated about 1000 m 3 of soil. Remediation activities in this area started with an exhaustive radiological characterisation of the soil, including surface samples and up to 16 meters boreholes, and the development of a comprehensive radiological characterization methodology for pre-classification of materials. Once the framework was defined the following tasks were being carried out: preparation of the area, soil extraction activities and final radiological characterisation for release purposes. Next step will be the refilling of the resulting hole from the removal soil activities. This paper will describe the soil radiological characterization and remediation activities at the Lentil Zone in Ciemat Research Centre. (authors)

  19. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. University of New Mexico Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Teresa M., Ed.; Schwenter, Scott A., Ed.

    This volume contains working papers on a variety of topics in linguistics. They include: "A View of Phonology from a Cognitive and Functional Perspective" (Joan Bybee); "The Geography of Language Shift: Distance from the Mexican Border and Spanish Language Claiming in the Southwestern United States" (Garland D. Bills, Eduardo…

  1. The medical exposures in UNSCEAR 2000 and the data of Spanish Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.

    2001-01-01

    Last year 2000, UNSCEAR published the document Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation which is composed of two volumes. Within Volume I: Sources, the Annex D is about medical radiation exposures. The present article summarises the more relevant data presented in this Annex, pointing out the changes that have taken places since the previous UNSCEAR report of 1993. Besides, the actions and results obtained by the Spanish UNSCEAR Working Group are presented. Some of the more relevant data presented in the last UNSCEAR report are: most of the medical applications are performed in developed countries (25% of the world-wide population); the mean effective dose (in developed countries) is approximately 1 mSv/year; the mean world-wide dose is around 0.4 mSv/year and more than 90% of this dose derives from medical diagnosis. In June 1999, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption (Ministerio de Sanidad y consumo) created the UNSCEAR Working Group in which the author of the present article acts as technical coordinator. The objective of the group was to systematically compile the necessary information to edit a periodic report on the estimation of doses to the population due to medical exposures, which additionally could be used by the Health Administration as a complementary element for planning the installations and in the radiation protection programmes of the patients. The final report of the Spanish group, published in February 2000, was elaborated with the data provided by nine Autonomic Communities ( the total number of Autonomic Communities is seventeen) including 44% of the Spanish population (17.4 millions of inhabitants from the nine Autonomic Communities in relation to a total population of 39.9 millions; population data in 01.01.98). The final values in the Spanish report are rather reasonable, although in few cases deviations can appear due to the scarce information available The data provided are validated in origin due to the direct participation of

  2. Soil Protection measures based on the analysis if sediment sources in a commercial farm at the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Enrique; Brígido, Consuelo; Herrera, Pascual; Migallón, Jose Ignacio; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2016-04-01

    High soil losses are associated with agricultural areas dedicated to traditional crops in Spain (olive, grapevine, almond and sunflower, among others) and they caused by interacting drivers such as frequent intense events, steep/hilly slopes and unsuitable managements (De Santisteban et al., 2006). These crops are essential for the Spanish economy but at the same time, they constitute important areas of soil degradation. This work has been promoted by a farm owner interested in improving the sustainability of his farm as well as solving traffic problems derived from a gully. An analysis based on a modeling approach and field measurements was carried out in order to diagnose the main sediment sources of a farm with traditional Mediterranean crops (sunflower and olives) and to propose actions for optimizing soil conservation efforts. Firstly, an environmental study to characterize meteorological and topographical features, soil properties and managements was performed. The farm was divided in different areas belonging to the same hydrological catchment, land-use and management. Secondly, splash and inter-rill erosion were evaluated in each spatial unit through the RUSLE model. Rills and gullies in the catchment were also measured by using orthophotographies and a tape in the field to calculate their corresponding sediment volume. Finally, a plan of soil protection measures was designed and presented to the owner who will apply the proposed actions, mainly cover crop seeding and construction of check dams. REFERENCES: De Santisteban, L. M., J. Casalí, and J. J. López. 2006. Assessing soil erosion rates in cultivated areas of Navarre (Spain). Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31: 487-506.

  3. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Sahraoui and M. Hachicha

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... [22] Guitian F, Carballas T. Técnicas de Análisis de Suelos. (In Spanish)., Ed. Pico Sacro,. Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 1976. [23] US Salinity Laboratory Staff. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. USDA Handbook 60. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, USA., 1954, 1– ...

  4. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  5. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  6. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  7. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  8. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  9. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, R.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  10. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1995 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  11. Interrelations between grammaticalization and phraseology in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Ruiz Gurillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the relationships between phraseology and grammaticalization in Spanish. According to a functional view of grammaticalization (see E. C. Traugott, we analyse some phraseological units: discourse markers, such as desde luego, conversational routines such as estaría bueno and idioms, such as cubrirse de gloria. Subjectification, intersubjectification or Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change can explain diachronic and phraseological evolution of these units. Corpus is from CORDE and CREA (http://www.rae.es.

  12. Spanish urological schools (1880-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Albacete, M

    2018-05-11

    We researched the start of urological specialisation in Spain, from the end of the 19th century to the institution of the education system (resident medical intern) to learn about the centres and individuals who created the urological teaching units and training schools in which the first Spanish urologists specialised their training. We extracted the references from books on the history of urology, from periodic urological publications and from the posters on history submitted to the congresses of the Spanish Urological Association and filled in the data and dates with the Historical Dictionary of Spanish Urologists. There are 30 urological specialization centres, 8 with official accreditation recognised by the corresponding ministry but whose official status is unknown. These centres are in the urology departments of large Spanish hospitals, university clinic hospitals and in private schools directed by notable urologists. There are 14 main centres, corresponding chronologically to the following cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Las Palmas of Gran Canaria, Cadiz, Santander, Valencia, Granada, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Oviedo, Zaragoza and Salamanca. Urological training in Spain from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century was well-established, both in officially accredited centres and in the urology departments of the main hospitals, in university clinic hospitals and in private schools and clinics. The training was directed by experienced urologists who ensured proper teaching and training, a method that persisted until the institution of the resident medical intern system in 1970. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial impact of malocclusion in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Almerich Silla, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion, determine its relationship with the severity of malocclusion, and assess the influence of gender and social class on this relationship in adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 627 Spanish adolescents aged 12 - 15 years underwent intraoral examinations by 3 calibrated examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa > 0.85) at their schools. Psychosocial impact was measured through a self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aes...

  14. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1996 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Dapica, M P; Gómez-Reino, J J

    1986-06-01

    We have found in our clinic a 28.1% prevalence of familial chondrocalcinosis among 149 family members of 32 patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. The clinical and radiological characteristics of these familial chondrocalcinosis patients were similar to those of the Chiloes with familial chondrocalcinosis previously reported. No significant clinical or radiological differences were detected between our sporadic and familial chondrocalcinosis patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that the Chiloes familial chondrocalcinosis was carried to Chile by Spanish immigrants.

  16. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  17. Spanish Identity: Nation, Myth, and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Torrecilla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two centuries, conservatives and liberals have offered two mutually exclusive visions of Spanish history, each with distinct myths, symbols, and heroes. The conservative image, formed in the Middle Ages, was based on the myth of the Reconquest and the need to restore (or keep the homogeneity of a country characterized by its Christian religion and Latin culture. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, faced with Napoleon’s invasion, Spanish liberals understood the danger of associating their modern ideas with France and invented a progressive and democratic Spanish tradition. According to their interpretation, the most authentic Spain was not the one identified with the Reconquest and the Empire, but the Spain of all those who had been excluded from the nation-building process because of their religion or ideas: the tolerant al-Andalus Muslims, the freedom-fighter comuneros and the defenders of the democratic medieval fueros . The great success of the transition to democracy and the Constitution of 1978 resided in the ability of all different tendencies and parties to overcome this division, to build bridges and create a common national project. For the first time in history, Spaniards managed to build a successful society based on consensus, pluralism and democracy. However, as a reality based on agreements, its nature is fragile. What is at stake now in Spain is to strengthen the viability of this model.

  18. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+

  19. Spanish Occupation of Roussillon in 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ramisa Verdaguer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the invasion of the French Pyrénées- Orientales department by Spanish troops under the orders of General Castaños in late August 1815, shortly after the Waterloo defeat and the occupation of France by the Seventh Coalition allies. The article also presents the situation before the Waterloo battle in the province of Catalonia, the preparation of the previously mentioned invasion and its consequences, all framed in the foreign policy of the Ferdinand VII government. The sources used in this work are the case files of the National Historical Archive (Madrid that relate to this episode, and specialized literature. The objective of this study was to relate a lesser-known event, occurred shortly after the end of the War of Independence, to highlight the scarce and indecisive Spanish foreign policy during the Congress of Vienna period. The Napoleonic invasion accentuated the Spanish internal crisis and the international decline of the country. This is reflected in the occupation of the Roussillon and rapid withdrawal ordered by General Castaños.

  20. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiological characterization of two Spanish uranium mine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos Poncela, L.S.; Fernandez, P.I.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Bordonoba, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade our Department of Applied and Medical Physics has been involved in the development of a Radiation Protection Programme to monitor and control the environmental radiation conditions existing in the only two Spanish uranium mill facilities located at La Haba (Badajoz) and Salacious (Salamanca). Both mines are located in the west of the country, geographical area with high natural radiation levels. In the framework of this Programme, measurements of radon, radon progeny and external gamma radiation indoors and outdoors, as well as of radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide concentrations in tailings and soils, have been systematically carried out. In particular, two ore body areas in these uranium mill sites have been specially studied to determine the natural radiation background to be used as a reference value to design reliable criteria for the closure of both facilities, which is planned for the next year. This paper summarizes the main results obtained from the measurements of external gamma radiation, radon concentrations, radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide activity concentrations made in the above mentioned facilities with special emphasis on the results achieved from the ore body areas. Correlations between experimental results and a short description of the devices and methods used in the measurements are also shown. (author)

  2. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  3. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  4. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  5. Validation of the Walking Impairment Questionnaire for Spanish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Francisco S; March, José R; González-Porras, José R; Carrasco, Eduardo; Lobos, José M; Areitio-Aurtena, Alix

    2013-09-01

    The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) is a short, easy to complete, disease-specific questionnaire to assess intermittent claudication. A Spanish version of the WIQ for Hispanic Americans has recently been validated in Texas, but it needs to be validated for European Spanish people. After translation and cultural adaptation of the WIQ, 920 patients with intermittent claudication (ankle brachial index Spanish version of the WIQ and European Quality of Life 5 Dimension [EQ-5D]). The validity of the WIQ was determined by correlating WIQ and EQ-5D. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The three domains of the WIQ were moderately correlated with the EQ-5D health outcome (r = 0.54 to 0.60; p Spanish version of the WIQ for European Spanish patients was valid and reproducible, suggesting that it could be used in Spanish patients with intermittent claudication.

  6. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  7. [Spanish-Italian medical relations during the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagüe de Ros, G

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers a general review about the Spanish-Italian medical relations during the Renaissance. Spanish physicians travelled very often to Italy during this time, in order to get a better knowledge of the news advances in medicine. Many of them later occupied academic positions in Spanish universities and wide-spread the new ideas learned in Italy. The role played by printed books and manuscripts in their mutual relationships is here reported.

  8. Video games and mobile learning: A Spanish developers approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Carlos; Martí Parreño, José

    2016-01-01

    This research presents a work in progress aiming to map Spanish video games developers’ production in the area of mobile educational video games. A sample of 30 Spanish video games developers was analyzed in order to explore the weight that educational video games for mobile devices represents in their product portfolio. Primary findings suggest that Spanish video games developers’ production of educational video games for mobile devices is very scarce. While 23,3% of the analyzed video games...

  9. [Barriers for the implementation of cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Castrillon, Carla Cristina; Faus, María José

    2007-09-01

    To identify and assess barriers for dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of different cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study through semi-structured interviews followed by a descriptive analysis. Two groups of experts related to Spanish community pharmacy were chosen. One with 15 community pharmacists with a relevant professional activity, while the other group (n=18) was related to pharmacy strategists. The lack of university clinical oriented learning, lack of pharmacists' attitude towards change and some uncertainty over their professional future were identified as barriers at the pharmacists' level. In relation to pharmacy as an organization the lack of clear messages by their leaders and the small volume of Spanish pharmacies were identified as barriers. In the category of pharmacy profession, the current reimbursement system, the lack of university clinical education, and the lack of leadership by current representative organizations were the barriers found. The lack of real involvement by health authorities, the lack of knowledge about the objectives of pharmacy cognitive services, and the lack of demand of these services by patients where also identified as barriers. Finally, 12 barriers were identified and grouped into 6 categories. These barriers fit in with the barriers identified in other countries.

  10. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the role of soil fauna in providing soil functions - a meta study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Birgit; Russell, David J.; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wollschläger, Ute

    2017-04-01

    Fertile soils are fundamental for the production of biomass and therefore for the provision of goods such as food or fuel. However, soils are threatened by e.g. land degradation, but once lost their functionality cannot simply be replaced as soils are complex systems developed over long time periods. Thus, to develop strategies for sustainable soil use and management, we need a comprehensive functional understanding of soil systems. To this end, the interdisciplinary research program "Soil as a Natural Resource for the Bio-Economy - BonaRes" was launched by the German Federal Government in 2015. One part of this program is the development of a Knowledge Centre for soil functions and services. As part of the Knowledge Centre, we focus on the identification and quantification of biological drivers of soil functions. Based on a systematic review of existing literature, we assess the importance of different soil faunal groups for the soil functions and processes most relevant to agricultural production (i.e. decomposition, mineralization, soil structuring. Additionally, we investigate direct impacts of soil fauna on soil properties (e.g. aggregation, pore volume). As site specific conditions such as climate, soil type or management practices affect soil fauna and their performance, these responses must also be taken into account. In the end, our findings will be used in the development of modeling tools aiming to predict the impacts of different management measures on soil ecosystem services and functions.

  12. Monitor Soil Degradation or Triage for Soil Security? An Australian Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Australian National Soil Research, Development and Extension Strategy identifies soil security as a foundation for the current and future productivity and profitability of Australian agriculture. Current agricultural production is attenuated by soil degradation. Future production is highly dependent on the condition of Australian soils. Soil degradation in Australia is dominated in its areal extent by soil erosion. We reiterate the use of soil erosion as a reliable indicator of soil condition/quality and a practical measure of soil degradation. We describe three key phases of soil degradation since European settlement, and show a clear link between inappropriate agricultural practices and the resultant soil degradation. We demonstrate that modern agricultural practices have had a marked effect on reducing erosion. Current advances in agricultural soil management could lead to further stabilization and slowing of soil degradation in addition to improving productivity. However, policy complacency towards soil degradation, combined with future climate projections of increased rainfall intensity but decreased volumes, warmer temperatures and increased time in drought may once again accelerate soil degradation and susceptibility to erosion and thus limit the ability of agriculture to advance without further improving soil management practices. Monitoring soil degradation may indicate land degradation, but we contend that monitoring will not lead to soil security. We propose the adoption of a triaging approach to soil degradation using the soil security framework, to prioritise treatment plans that engage science and agriculture to develop practices that simultaneously increase productivity and improve soil condition. This will provide a public policy platform for efficient allocation of public and private resources to secure Australia’s soil resource.

  13. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  14. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  15. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  16. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recatala, L.; Sanchez, J.; Arbelo, C.; Sacristan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC 50 ) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  17. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recatala, L., E-mail: luis.recatala@uv.es [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Sanchez, J. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Arbelo, C. [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife), Islas Canarias (Spain); Sacristan, D. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC{sub 50}) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  18. Notable Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults from Spanish-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of books recently published in Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Peru for Spanish-speaking children and young adults. The books are grouped by the following levels: (1) preschool and primary grades; (2) grades 3 to 6; (3) junior high and up; and (4) young adult. (SED)

  19. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  20. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spanish mining in the 2008-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espi, J. A.; Sanz Contreras, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 and early 2009 has been for the Spanish mining a period of enormous significance. The world in crisis has an impact, however, differently in sub-sectors where the mineral industry is divided. Thus, those most directly linked to the construction industry (aggregates, dimension stone and industrial minerals) have collapsed the demand for their products. However, despite moments of uncertainty ending last year, solid fossil fuels and metal ores in general are between hope and lack of knowledge in the coming months. In this way, now we should be pleased to have four metal mines, at least some of them with real interest. (Author)

  2. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  3. 300 Spanish in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whither Nigeria? Purity Ada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    the position of Spanish as a global language alongside the efforts of successive Spanish ... Spanish has become the second language of international communication and the ...... ideológico de un proceso expansivo. Madrid: Biblioteca. Nueva ...

  4. An experimental investigation to characterise soil macroporosity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5 ... quality monitoring and groundwater pollution assessment due to preferential leaching of solutes and pesticides,study of soil structural properties and infiltration behaviour of soils,investigation of flash floods in rivers, and hydrological ...

  5. The Webquests in the spanish university area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Martín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the WebQuest's (WQ use, dissemination and perception experienced by Spanish universities -a methodology for which the interest has been renewed since the establishment of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA and its competency-based teaching system.The article summarizes the theoretical aspects and the key findings about the impact of the WQ implementation in different areas of knowledge in higher education. The study considers data collected within an international research as well as in the Spanish context.The theoretical review is complemented with a summary of the results from two surveys. The first one examines the role of university organisms with competences in university teacher training in the methodological integration of ICT in its practice and, particularly, in the dissemination of WQ. The second survey reflects the opinion of an expert group in order to know, among other things, their views on the advantages and disadvantages of the method, its acceptance by the students and the appropriateness of its use in connection with the implementation of the EHEA

  6. The Spanish reforms on domestic work regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Desdentado Daroca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the latest Spanish reforms regarding domestic work. The Spanish legislator, doubtlessly influenced by the ILO Domestic Work Convention nº 189 – which, however, was not later ratified in Spain- made a deep reform on domestic work in 2011. This legal reform implied a striking change that affected both working conditions and social security of employees in the family home. The aim of this reform has been to bring the regulation in domestic work closer to the general regulation for other workers, although maintaining certain specialties. Regarding working conditions, their setting as “particular employment relationship” has been held. However, the differences between this relationship and the common ones have been reduced. As for social security, domestic employees have been incorporated into the General Social Security System, but with important specialties, thus erasing the Special Domestic Employees System. The paper also examines the legal changes that have taken place in this field after the new Government arose.

  7. [Medication errors in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. ‘Shift’ ‘n ‘control’: The computer as a third interactant in Spanish-language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Ryan; Vickers, Caroline H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the computer in medical consultations in which English- Spanish-bilingual medical providers interact with Spanish-monolingual patients. Following previous studies that have revealed that the presence of the computer in consultations detracts from direct provider– patient communication, we pay specific attention to how the use of the computer in Spanish-language medical consultations can complement or adversely affect the co-construction of the patient’s health narrative. The data for the present study consist of 36 Spanish-language medical consultations in Southern California. Applying a conversation analytical approach to the health narratives in the corpus, we argue that the computer is essentially a third interactant to which medical providers orient through lowered volume, minimal responses, bureaucratic side talk, and, most importantly, code-switching to English – all of which strip the patients of control over the co-construction of their health narrative with their medical provider. Because the patient does not have access to the computational task and the language, we posit that this exacerbates the already existing adverse effects that the computer has on provider–patient interaction.

  9. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  10. Openings and Closings in Telephone Conversations between Native Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1998-01-01

    A study analyzed the opening and closing sequences of 11 dyads of native Spanish-speakers in natural telephone conversations conducted in Spanish. The objective was to determine how closely Hispanic cultural patterns of conduct for telephone conversations follow the sequences outlined in previous research. It is concluded that Spanish…

  11. Case, Inflection, and Subject Licensing in Child Catalan and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstead, John

    2000-01-01

    Development of specified tense and number morphology in child Catalan and Spanish was found to correlate with the onset of overt subject use in one monolingual child Spanish speaker and four monolingual child Catalan speakers who were studied longitudinally. (Author/VWL)

  12. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-01-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  13. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  14. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  15. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  16. Encountering Difference: Images of Otherness in Contemporary Spanish Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Meador; Campbell, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of films by female directors in Spanish language and culture classes, this work proposes the inclusion of two films, Chus Gutiérrez's "Retorno a Hansala" (2008) and Icíar Bollaín's "También la lluvia" (2010), in the curriculum of advanced or upper-level Spanish courses. Both films expand…

  17. The importance of oral Spanish teaching to multilingual students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores important aspects of teaching Spanish, both spoken and written, to multilingual students, with specific reference to United Sates International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. The beginner students of Spanish at the University speak at least 3 languages, one of which is ...

  18. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  19. From "Pinocho" to "Papa Noel": Recent Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Provides a list of recently published books in Spanish for children and adolescents. A tentative grade level is indicated for each book, but it is suggested that the individual child's Spanish-reading ability, interest, taste, and purpose should be the main criteria for determining the true level of each book. (Author/VWL)

  20. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages. PMID:24795664

  1. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  2. Historical Perspectives on Spanish-Quechua Language Contact in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)

  3. Spanish Literature and Spectrality : Notes on a Haunted Canon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, Pablo

    In Spanish Literature, Crisis and Spectrality: Notes on a Haunted Canon, Prof. Dr. Pablo Valdivia analyses the contradictions and complexities of the Spanish traditional canon from a transnational approach. Valdivia explores this particular canon as a 'haunted house' by focusing on the specific

  4. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  5. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  6. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  7. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  8. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  9. Tracing Mexican Spanish /s/: A Cross-Section of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines linguistic data from peripheral areas of Mexico and suggests that the contemporary resistance of the final /s/ in Spanish is characteristic only of urban regions. The study also hypothesizes that Spanish final /s/ was once more generally weakened throughout Mexico. An indirect Nahuatl contribution is also postulated. (62 references)…

  10. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  11. Espanol comercial para estudiantes posgraduados (Commercial Spanish for Postgraduate Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Jorge H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a commercial Spanish language program for postgraduate students of business administration that attempts to fulfill the immediate professional needs of all students. The content of intermediate and advanced courses is discussed, and a list of textbooks for Spanish commercial correspondence is included. (TR)

  12. Reading and Vocabulary Recommendations for Spanish for Native Speakers Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Laura Gutierrez

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the need for appropriate materials to address the needs of native speakers of Spanish who study Spanish in American universities and high schools. The most important factors influencing the selection of readings should include the practical nature of themes for reading and vocabulary development, level of difficulty, and variety in…

  13. Indoor radon in a Spanish region with different gamma exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Sainz, C.; Fuente, I.; Nicolas, J.; Quindos, L.; Arteche, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the beginning of 1990s within the framework of a national radon survey of more than 1500 points, radon measurements were performed in more than 100 houses located in Galicia region, in the Northwest area of Spain. The houses were randomly selected only bearing in mind general geological aspects of the region. Subsequently, a nationwide project called MARNA dealt with external gamma radiation measurements in order to draw a Spanish natural radiation map. The comparison in Galicia between these estimations and the indoor radon levels previously obtained showed good agreement. With the purpose of getting a confirmation of this relationship and also of creating a radon map of the zone, a new set of measurements were carried out in 2005. A total of 300 external gamma radiation measurements were carried out as well as 300 measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content in soil. Concerning radon, 300 1-m-depth radon measurements in soil were performed, and indoor radon concentration was determined in a total of 600 dwellings. Radon content in soil gave more accurate indoor radon predictions than external gamma radiation or 226 Ra concentration in soil

  14. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  15. Management of the Spanish Electric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus, V.

    2004-01-01

    After expressing his thanks for being invited to the meeting, Victoriano Casajus said that the hoped he would not be invited again because that would mean there had been another zero, even though it didn't happen in Spain. Casajus also congratulated the Spanish nuclear power plants for their excellent operation. Before beginning his presentation, the director claimed that all of us who are involved in the Spanish electric system can be proud of having a system that is possible one of the best in the world, because it has an excellent generation mix, a tremendously balanced transmission grid and a regulatory system that, although it has its faults, is very capable of responding to society's demands. In his presentation, Casajus took stock of the growing demand for energy and power and provided data that show that the Spanish system has experienced a 43% increase in electric energy demand between 1996 and 2003. The problem is with peak demand. It is paradoxical that, in 1998, reaching 34,000 MW was a dream and now going below that figure is almost impossible. Growth of peak demand during those years was 46%. The Spanish fleet was developed in the 70s for three fundamental reasons: phase-out of liquid fuels, massive inroad of coal, and significant expansion of Spanish nuclear power. Starting in the 90s, construction of generating plants practically came to a standstill, although with the excess installed power and more or less new plants (almost all of them were less than 20 years old) it was possible to maintain 48% growth in demand. However, the coverage rate dropped from a value of 1,45 in 1996 to barely 1.10 in2001 and to 1.05 in 2002. in spite of the inclusion of the so-called renewable or special energies. The problem is that not all sources of energy provide the same coverage, and unmanageable energies cannot be considered for managing a system, added Casajus. The general director of Red Electrica noted that Spain has had problems associated with energy

  16. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  17. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km 2 , central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  20. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  1. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  2. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  3. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  4. Allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in healthy Spanish foals with different body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, S; Muñoz, A; Rodilla, V

    2009-04-01

    Scaling in biology is usually allometric, and therefore, the size of the heart may be expressed as a power function of body weight (BW). The present research analyses the echocardiographic measurements in 68 healthy Spanish foals weighed between 70 and 347kg in order to determine the correct scaling exponent for the allometric equation. The echocardiographic parameters measured were: left ventricular internal dimensions (LVID), free wall thickness (LVFWT), interventricular septum thickness (IVST) at systole (s) and diastole (d), EPSS (distance between the point E of the mitral valve and the interventricular septum), and aorta diameters at the level of the aortic valve (AOD), base of valve leaflets (ABS), sinus of Valsalva (ASV) and sino-tubular junction (AJT). Indices of left ventricular performance were calculated. It was found that LVIDd, IVSTs, AOD, and ASV have a relationship to BW raised to 0.300-0.368 power, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume scaled to BW raised to 0.731-0.712 power. With these data, appropriate values can be calculated for normal Spanish foals.

  5. Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Verruijt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the analysis of stresses, deformations, and stability. The most important methods of determining soil parameters, in the laboratory and in situ, are also described. Some basic principles of applied mecha...

  6. Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giadrossich

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the root system's characteristics of Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L., a species whose capacity for adaptating and resisting to drought is worth investigating. In particular, the aims of the study were 1 to investigate the plant's bio-mechanical aspects and 2 to verify whether root reinforcement and the field rooting ability of stem cuttings enhance its potential for use in slope stabilization and soil bio-engineering techniques, particularly in the Mediterranean areas. Single root specimens were sampled and tested for tensile strength, obtaining classic tensile strength-diameter relationships. Analysis were performed on the root systems in order to assess root density distribution. The Root Area Ratio (RAR was analyzed by taking both direct and indirect measurements, the latter relying on image processing. The data obtained were used to analyze the stability of an artificial slope (landfill and the root reinforcement. The measurement and calculation of mean root number, mean root diameter, RAR, root cohesion and Factor of safety are presented in order to distinguish the effect of plant origin and propagation. Furthermore, tests were performed to assess the possibility of agamic propagation (survival rate of root-ball endowed plants, rooting from stem cuttings. These tests confirmed that agamic propagation is difficult, even though roots were produced from some buried stems, and for practical purposes it has been ruled out. Our results show that Spanish Broom has good bio-mechanical characteristics with regard to slope stabilization, even in critical pedoclimatic conditions and where inclinations are quite steep, and it is effective on soil depths up to about 50 cm, in agreement with other studies on Mediterranean species. It is effective in slope stabilization, but less suitable for soil bio-engineering or for triggering natural plant succession.

  7. Spanish for You: Student-Centered and Languages for Specific Purposes Methods in Lower-Division Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a project that used student-centered teaching and languages for specific purposes to increase university students' motivation to study Spanish and willingness to communicate. After reflecting on their personal goals and interests, students were required to choose a purpose or context in which they might use Spanish in…

  8. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  9. How Native Do They Sound? An Acoustic Analysis of the Spanish Vowels of Elementary Spanish Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Mandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Language immersion students' lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic competencies are well documented, yet their phonological skill has remained relatively unexplored. This study investigates the Spanish vowel productions of a cross-sectional sample of 35 one-way Spanish immersion students. Learner productions were analyzed acoustically and compared to…

  10. Assessment of health literacy and numeracy among Spanish-Speaking parents of young children: validation of the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; White, Richard O; Finkle, Joanne P; Prendes, Stefania; Perrin, Eliana M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the health literacy and numeracy skills of Spanish-speaking parents of young children and to validate a new Spanish language health literacy assessment for parents, the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish). Cross-sectional study of Spanish-speaking caregivers of young children (validated tests of health literacy (S-TOFHLA) and numeracy (WRAT-3 Arithmetic). Psychometric analysis was used to examine item characteristics of the PHLAT-10 Spanish, to assess its correlation with sociodemographics and performance on literacy/numeracy assessments, and to generate a shorter 8-item scale (PHLAT-8). Of 176 caregivers, 77% had adequate health literacy (S-TOFHLA), whereas only 0.6% had 9th grade or greater numeracy skills. Mean PHLAT-10 score was 41.6% (SD 21.1). Fewer than one-half (45.5%) were able to read a liquid antibiotic prescription label and demonstrate how much medication to administer within an oral syringe. Less than one-third (31.8%) were able to interpret a food label to determine whether it met WIC (Special supplemental nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children) guidelines. Greater PHLAT-10 score was associated with greater years of education (r = 0.49), S-TOFHLA (r = 0.53), and WRAT-3 (r = 0.55) scores (P Spanish-speaking parents have difficulty performing health-related literacy and numeracy tasks. The Spanish PHLAT demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and may be useful for identifying parents who would benefit from receiving low-literacy child health information. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Encuentro de Linguistica en el Noroeste (2nd, Hermosillo, Mexico, November 18-20, 1992). Memorias Tomos 1 y 2 (Conference on Linguistics in the Northwest [2nd, Hermosillo, Mexico, November 18-20, 1992]. Papers Volumes 1 and 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonora Univ. (Mexico), Dept. of Letters and Linguistics.

    Papers in these volumes were presented at a Mexican conference on linguistics. Most papers are in Spanish; the English translations of the titles include the following: "Directions in Contemporary Semantics" (L. Lara); "Regular Accentuation in Spanish" (C. Braithwaite); "Syntactic Order in Sonoran" (D. Brown); "Speech Datives or Interest/Not of…

  12. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  13. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  14. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  15. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  16. Posthumous Tales of One, Great, Free Nation: Spanishness in post-Franco Spanish Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Expósito, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An important form of transmission of knowledge about the Spanish nation is based on the continuous telling of stories in which the nation features as a suprahistorical, perennial entity. Myths of national origin, golden-age legends, and epics of national heroes are some of these stories. This mode of access to knowledge assumes a suspension of disbelief for the audience, and precludes other attempts to comprehend the nation through scientific research. Subjective national identities constructed upon such suspension of disbelief have a tendency to reify, personify or even deify the nation. In the struggle between mythic and objective knowledge, the question of authenticity becomes a hotly contested arena. This paper attempts to address questions of mythical national representation in Spanish films of 1975-2000.

  17. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clay Dispersibility and Soil Friability-Testing the Soil Clay-to-Carbon Saturation Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC...... as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled 3 yr in a field varying in clay content (∼100 to ∼220 g kg−1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay dispersibility was measured after end-over-end shaking of field-moist soil and 1- to 2-mm sized aggregates either air......-dried or rewetted to −100 hPa matric potential. Tensile strength of 1- to 2-, 2- to 4-, 4- to 8-, and 8- to 16-mm air-dried aggregates was calculated from their compressive strength, and soil friability estimated from the strength–volume relation. Crop rotation characteristics gave only minor effects on clay...

  19. Flotation separation of uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.; Mehta, R.; Garcia, H.; Chai, C.D.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of low-level contaminated soil at the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapon Sites are in the order of several million tons. Most of the contaminants are uranium, plutonium, other heavy metals and organic compounds. Selected physical separation processes have shown demonstrated potential in concentrating the radionuclides in a small fraction of the soil. Depending upon the size, nature of bonding and distributions of radionuclides, more than 90% of the radionuclide activity can be concentrated in a small volume of fraction of the soil. The physico-chemical separation processes such as flotation in a mechanical and microbubble tall column cell have shown promising applications in cleaning up the high volume contaminated soil

  20. Spanish Atlanteans’: Crisis of Empire and reconstruction of Spanish Monarchy (1672-1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Albaladejo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a internal crisis, the Spanish Monarchy underwent a process of redefinition between the end of the seventeenth century and the decade of the 1740s. By synthesizing traditional Spanish historiography with the insights of an incipient brand of European modernity, Spanish authors crafted a peculiar account of the “unknown past” of their body politic. The Spanish atlántidas rose to become creators of a great empire and protagonists in the founding of European culture. A new national imaginary emerged that legitimized the task of redefinition. With variations, this concern with origins dominated Spain’s introspection in the eighteenth century.Afectada por una profunda crisis interna, la Monarquía de España experimentó un proceso de redefinición identitaria entre el último tercio del siglo XVII y los años cuarenta del siglo XVIII. En una particular síntesis entre la tradición historiográfica propia y las propuestas que llegaban desde la incipiente modernidad europea, los autores de ese proceso configuraron un primer relato del “tiempo desconocido” de ese cuerpo político. Los atlántidas españoles irrumpieron como protagonistas de un renovado imaginario nacional, como un pueblo instituyente de la cultura europea y creador a la vez de un imperio grandioso que legitimaba la propia tarea de reconstrucción. Con variantes, esa preocupación por los orígenes dominaría la reflexión del siglo XVIII.

  1. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  2. [The reform of Spanish abortion law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requero Ibáñez, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on the different factors and circumstances that have led to the reform of Spanish Abortion Law (1985). Judicial investigations of several abortion clinics have demonstrated that up until today there has been a widespread tendency of the clinics to practice beyond the limits established by the law. Nonetheless, the reaction of the government has not been to protect the life of the unborn. Its reaction has been, however, to cover the irregularities committed by the abortionists through the legalization of their abusive practices. Besides, the reform of the law has been inspired by elements of radical feminism. The author points out the major reasons that make this reform unconstitutional and offers alternative solutions for the protection of the mother and the unborn child.

  3. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  5. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  6. Development of the Spanish Language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument for Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jeanette; Sherwood, Gwen

    2017-12-01

    To address reported disparities in pain management among Hispanic patients, this article reports the psychometrics of the newly developed Spanish language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument (HPOI) with postoperative Hispanic patients. Findings from qualitative interviews conducted with 35 self-identified Hispanics in Phase 1 of the overall project were used to generate items for a new Spanish language instrument, Cuestionario de Houston Sobre el Dolor (HPOI). The second phase tested the psychometric properties with 95 self-identified Hispanic postoperative inpatients in three Texas hospitals. HPOI subscale reliabilities ranged from .63 to .91, with similar reliabilities for Spanish and English versions. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by moderate significant correlations with similar items on the Brief Pain Inventory. Participants reported moderate and severe worst pain in the last 24 hours; 38% were undertreated for pain according to the Pain Management Index; and 75% reported nonpharmacologic strategies including family support, prayer, and position change as highly effective in managing pain. The HPOI is a reliable instrument for addressing disparities in pain management for the rapidly growing Hispanic population in the United States. Subscales for interference with mood and physical function and patient-reported nonpharmacologic strategies facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of the pain experience.

  7. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  8. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  9. Teaching Spanish Pragmatics Through Colloquial Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albelda Marco, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the advantages of teaching and learning a foreign language with and through spoken discursive corpora, and especially colloquial and conversational ones. The benefits of developing oral competence and communicative skills in language learners using colloquial conversations will be exposed and discussed. In this paper, we characterise the colloquial conversation and the features that define this register and discursive genre. Being the most natural and original way to communicate among human beings, the colloquial conversation is the most common means to communicate, and therefore, this genre should have a greater presence in foreign-language classrooms. Secondly, we expound on the advantages of teaching using colloquial conversations corpora, particularly resulting from its contextualisation (the linguistic input is learnt in its real and authentic context and from its oral and conversational features (prosodic elements and interactional mechanisms. Thirdly, the paper provides a list of corpora of colloquial conversations that are available in Spanish, focusing on Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus (peninsular Spanish oral corpus, Briz et al., 2002; Cabedo & Pons online, www.valesco.es. Finally, a set of pragmatic applications of corpora in foreign-language classroom is offered, in particular using the Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus: functions of discourse markers and interjections (whose meanings change depending on the context, strategies of turn-takings, ways of introducing new topic in the dialogues, mechanisms of keeping or “stealing” the turn, devices to introduce direct speech, attitudes expressed by the falling and rising intonations, hedges and intensifiers, and so on. In general, this paper pretends to offer ideas, resources and materials to make the students more competent in communication using authentic discursive oral corpora.

  10. ICT INEQUALITIES IN THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  11. Vestimentary eponyms in contemporary Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Slivchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a consequence of the perpetual changes in the world of fashion, which can be explained by the introduction of new tendencies, materials and designers, the vocabulary that describes clothing enlarges by the internal means of the language and with the help of lexical borrowing. The article considers the characteristic usage of terms-eponyms for clothing description in Spanish language. Eponyms complicate the learning of languages and translation being a result of the worldview reflection of a determinate group of people in a determined period of time. As the study sets out to find out and explain the connotative meanings of vestimentary eponyms and suggest an approach for synonyms choice from their family for the discourse purposes, the toponyms are not taken into consideration, and the study concentrates on the anthroponyms, proper nouns which identify people, because they can adjust special connotative meanings to the terms within cultural linguistics context. The author shows the examples of etymology of originally Spanish and borrowed terms. Their comparison allows to make out the principles for the classification, authenticity and internationality amongst them. This classification divides all the vestimentary terms-eponyms into two main groups (neutral and with connotative meaning. Then it is possible to systematize and explain the meaning of the second group. According to the study international borrowed terms-eponyms look to neutrality, but among other synonyms acquire the meaning of elitism. Not international vestimentary terms-eponyms have a special connotative meaning, which is known amongst native speakers, that is why while teaching or translating more attention should be paid to them.

  12. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  13. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  14. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  15. Ponderosa pine growth response to soil strength in the volcanic ash soils of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. Parker; D.A. Maguire; D.D. Marshall; P. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical harvesting and associated logging activities have the capacity to compact soil across large portions of harvest units. Two thinning treatments (felled only versus felled and skidded) in 70- to 80-year-old ponderosa pine stands were replicated at three sites with volcanic soils in central Oregon. Growth in diameter, height, and volume of residual trees were...

  16. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  17. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  18. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  19. What is Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil? 2 The Skin of the Earth 3 Soil Ingredients 4 Soil Recipes 5 CLORPT for Short >> What Is Soil? Soils Make Life Plants grow in and from

  20. Dynamic Study of Soil Erosion in Greater Khingan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Wenyi Fan; Xuegang Mao; Xiaojie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the amended model of RUSLE universal soil loss equation and GIS technology, combined with the natural geographical features of Great Khingan, it has conducted quantitative analysis of the factor in Soil loss equation. Uses 2000 and 2010 years TM images classification are land uses/cover type figure, we gets all factors values of space distribution in the RUSLE model, gets soil erosion volume estimates data and soil erosion strength distribution figure based on grid cell data and obta...

  1. Economic anglicisms: adaptation to the Spanish linguistic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Zurita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous number of anglicisms used everyday in Spanish language generates lexical interference between both languages. This paper provides a semantic analysis of the changes in lexis this language contact brings about, through the different linguistic mechanisms of inter-language adaptation involved. When these anglicisms come from the current trend to include English words in Spanish discourse, we also add appropriate equivalents which could avoid the excess of redundant neologisms. A glossary of the most habitual terms derived from interference in English and Spanish in the economic field is included as a result of this study.

  2. Effects of experimental repeated fires in the soil aggregation and its temporal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Gimeno, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente; Gonzalez, Oscar; Rubio, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are an important problem in the Mediterranean and change our forest topsoils with still unknown consequences for important ecosystem services, such as water availability, plant growth and carbon sequestration. The total area affected by forest fires in Mediterranean countries of the European Union has declined since 1980, and the number of fires in this region tends to stabilize. However, in countries like Spain and Portugal the number of fires tends to increase. This fact seems to support future predictions indicating a general tendency to increase the number of forest fires, related to the climate change. According to European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), 102349 ha of the Spanish forest surface were burned in the summer of 2012 (01/06- 11/08/), of which 54186 ha were registered in the Valencia region. In this sense, to assess post-fire soil recovery aggregate stability has been used as an indicator in the Experimental Station of La Concordia (Valencia, Spain), where experimental fires were carried out in1995 and 2003, in a set of nine plots (20x4m). The soil studied is a Rendzic Leptosol. The stability of macroaggregates (SMS, Ø >250 μm), soil organic matter (SOM) and calcium carbonate contents, aggregates size and water erosion processes, were analysed in relation to fire severity and its recurrence, in two environments (under canopy, UC, and bare soils, BS), and in the short- and medium-term of two fires. In 1995, different fire treatments were applied to obtain different fire severities: three plots were burned with high severity fire, other three plots with moderate one, and the remainder plots were left unburned (control). In 2003, the same plots were burned again with low severity fires. The study was performed until summer of 2007. In general, soil environment explained significant differences in the soil properties between under canopy and bare soils. Only in the short-term of repeated fires, CaCO3 content, macroaggregate mean

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  4. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  5. Spanish Readability Formulas for Elementary-Level Texts: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Weaver, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Uses two formulas developed for Spanish language text to analyze 9 stories that were read by 36 Spanish-speaking second graders with limited English proficiency. Finds that the Spanish readability formulas only weakly predicted student performance, indicating the need to pursue broader, qualitative indices of difficulty for Spanish text. (SG)

  6. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  7. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...

  8. Pragmatic Instruction May Not Be Necessary among Heritage Speakers of Spanish: A Study on Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros García, María J.; Bachelor, Jeremy W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pragmatic competence of U.S. heritage speakers of Spanish in an attempt to determine (a) the degree of pragmatic transfer from English to Spanish experienced by heritage speakers when producing different types of requests in Spanish; and (b) how to best teach pragmatics to students of Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL).…

  9. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  10. Tracing the Spanish Language/Determinando el Origen del Idioma Espanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Spanish language in America and notes the influence of Caribbean languages, Nahuatl, and English on Spanish. Describes the archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and grammar of the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Discusses Spanish language maintenance in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the United States. (SB)

  11. The Índice Flesch-Szigriszt and Spanish Lexile Analyzer to evaluate Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Samih J; Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluate the reading difficulty of Spanish patient education materials using the validated Índice Flesch-Szigriszt (INFLESZ) and Spanish Lexile Analyzer, and to identify relationships between English and Spanish readability formulas. Cross-sectional analysis. All otolaryngology-related patient education articles written in Spanish from the health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked hospitals, top 10 Doximity-ranked otolaryngology residencies, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website, and the US National Library of Medicine online section on ears, nose and throat were collected. Reading difficulty was assessed using the INFLESZ and Spanish Lexile Analyzer. Additional readability assessments included the traditional English tools: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook score. A total of 497 articles were reviewed. The average INFLESZ score for all articles was 57.75, which is considered normal and requires the reading ability of a student who finished Escuela Secundaria Obligatoria or 10th grade equivalent in the United States. The average Spanish Lexile measure for all articles was 1062L, equivalent to a reading level between the 6th and 12th grade. English readability tools calculated a more difficult reading level compared to Spanish tools when performed on the same text. Current Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average Spanish-speaking reader to understand. Future improvements may be warranted to improve the readability of educational materials and increase health literacy. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E21-E26, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Assessment of water use and its productivity in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Naroua, Iliassou; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    A study of the assessment of the irrigation water use has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" that has analyzed the water use efficiency and the water productivity indicators for the main crops during the first three years of operation (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013). A soil water balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil properties. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient and by considering the readily available soil water content (RAW) concept. Likewise, productivity was measured by the indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), annual relative water supply (ARWS), relative rainfall supply (RRS), the water productivity (WP), the evapotranspiration water productivity (ETWP), and the irrigation water productivity (IWP). The results show that the irrigation district applied deficit irrigation in most crops (ARIS<1), and also improved water productivity. This was higher in 2010/2011 which showed the highest effective precipitation Pe. The IWP (€/m3) index varied among crops with the highest values for onion (4.14), potato (2.79), carrot (1.37) and barley (1.21) for the first year and, onion (1.98), potato (1.69), carrot (1.70) and barley (1.16) in the second year. Thus, these crops would be a proper cropping pattern to maximize the gross income in the irrigation district.

  13. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinck J Alfred

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. Results On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. Conclusions The Maya soil classification (MSC is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  14. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Zinck, J Alfred

    2010-02-13

    Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. The Maya soil classification (MSC) is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  15. Health Information in Spanish (español)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roads Media Hemorrhagic Fevers Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - español (Spanish) PDF ...

  16. The spanish nuclear sector. History, economic impact and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has meant an important asset for the spanish economy both from an energy point of view and from an industrial and technological one. In the first case nuclear energy, which had gotten to be close to 40 percent of electricity in the 90s, supplies electricity at a very competitive cost and utilities benefit from its cash flow to finance and expand in alternative energy sources. It also helps to limit the rising costs for costumers. As for the industry it supported the modernisation of the spanish industrial capacities in the 80s and has been an added value activity since then with an important international activity. As a new thrust for nuclear energy is in the making, spanish nuclear energy capacities should help the spanish position under the european union Lisbon strategy. (Author)

  17. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Gamito, C.

    2000-01-01

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  18. The Spanish energy regulatory body: the national energy commission (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merono, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Energy Commission (CNE) is the Spanish Energy Regulatory body. This paper presents its scope and purpose, organisation, resources and financing, financial and performance control, functions, and legal provisions. (author)

  19. Experience with a Spanish-language laparoscopy website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Seoane-González, Jose B

    2006-02-01

    Although there are no clearly defined electronic tools for continuing medical education (CME), new information technologies offer a basic platform for presenting training content on the internet. Due to the shortage of websites about minimally invasive surgery in the Spanish language, we set up a topical website in Spanish. This study considers the experience with the website between April 2001 and January 2005. To study the activity of the website, the registry information was analyzed descriptively using the log files of the server. To study the characteristics of the users, we searched the database of registered users. We found a total of 107,941 visits to our website and a total of 624,895 page downloads. Most visits to the site were made from Spanish-speaking countries. The most frequent professional profile of the registered users was that of general surgeon. The development, implementation, and evaluation of Spanish-language CME initiatives over the internet is promising but presents challenges.

  20. The Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation: A Story of Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.

    2013-01-01

    The SNGC (Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation) is an alliance founded in 2006 for commercial cooperation between Spanish nuclear companies in order to joint efforts for the commercial promotion in the chinese market. This alliance was originally formed by ENUSA Industrial Avanzadas S. A. (ENUSA). Tecnatom S. A. and Equipos Nucleares, S. A. (ENSA). In 2008 Ringo Valvulas S. L. Joined the alliance, and July 2008 the Nuclear Group for China AIE was incorporated with each of the four companies holding a 25% share. Subsequently, as explained below, the legal name was changed to Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation AIE and the trade name of Spanish Nuclear Group/China was maintained as a brand for activities in this country. (Author)

  1. Community Colleges and Spanish Language Instruction: Peer Pedagogy in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Jenifer D.; Duval, José; Cyr, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Three authors describe a collaboration between a Massachusetts college and a nearby prison, which leveraged the volunteer efforts of a college professor by including incarcerated men who assisted in Spanish language teaching inside and outside the classroom.

  2. Challenging Spanish: ways for nurses to become bilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, W

    1999-01-01

    A desire to provide culturally competent care to an increasing population of non-English-speakers may lead some nurses to consider learning another language as a way to minimize cross-cultural communication barriers. Nurses wishing to learn a second language may be surprised at the variety of ways to acquire bilingual skills, particularly in Spanish, the most common foreign language encountered in the United States. Reasons to learn Spanish are discussed and ways to do so are reviewed. Learning Spanish or another language can enrich the nurse-patient relationship, enhance nurses' self-esteem, and advance nurses' employment opportunities. Bilingual proficiency in English and Spanish (or another language) should be regarded as an authentic clinical skill supporting nurses' cultural and clinical competencies.

  3. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  4. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  5. Spanish language content on reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londra, Laura C; Tobler, Kyle J; Omurtag, Kenan R; Donohue, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the use of Spanish language translation on the websites of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) practices in the context of evidence of underuse of infertility services by minority populations. Cross-sectional survey of websites from REI practices. Not applicable. None. None. Assessment of the relationship between having a Spanish-translated website and REI practice characteristics. Variables included concurrent use of social media, size of the practice, Spanish-speaking practitioner in the practice, being a private or a university-based practice, being in a mandated insurance state, and being in an area with different levels of percentage of Hispanic population, adjusted for annual income levels of the population. Of the 376 REI practice websites analyzed, 101 (27%) offered at least some information in Spanish. We identified 97 Spanish-speaking practitioners at 71 REI practices. Having a Spanish-translated website was significantly associated with the practice's use of social media, having an international/out-of-town web page, and having a Spanish-speaking physician in the practice. The size of the practice, as measured in number of cycles reported per year, was not associated with having a translated website. In practices located in the top 60 metropolitan areas by Hispanic population, the odds of having a Spanish-translated website were only related to the percentage of Hispanic population after adjusting for state-mandated insurance and average annual income level of the Hispanic population. Sixty-six of the websites with Spanish-translated content had been automatically translated. An additional eight websites were partially translated automatically. REI practices in metropolitan areas with a higher percentage of Hispanics were more likely to reach out to this minority population by translating their website content into Spanish. These practices were also more likely to use social media. Future studies are needed to determine whether

  6. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  7. Characteristics of Spanish adolescents’ and youngsters’ civic activity: e- citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fuentes Esparrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to illustrate and provide data on the access, use, equipment, habits and motivations of Spanish adolescents and young people towards ICT (computers, networks, internet, mobile phones.... We will focus mainly on social networks and mobile telephony as the main technologies currently in use. Thus, we can gain an insight into the main features of civic activity among Spanish adolescents and youngsters for proper e‐citizenship.

  8. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spanish Tourist Behaviour: A Specific Objective-base Segmantation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Pablo Rodríguez; Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This work uses data from the Spanish Tourism Demand Segments Survey (N=6900) conducted by the IESA-CSIC for Turismo Andaluz, SA. The objective of the paper is to develop a statistical segmentation or typology of Spanish tourists based on objective aspects of tourist behaviour measured in the survey including destinations visited, theme of the trip, lodging, transportation and travel group. Initial categorical data are reduced using multiple correspondence analysis and grouped through cluster ...

  10. Environmental criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, María-Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain g...

  11. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Mª Carmen González-Cruz; Cristina González-Gaya

    2017-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group ...

  12. Globalisation, Tradition And Cultural Identity In Spanish Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim O'Brien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers some reflections and observations on the complex relationship between the forces of Globalisation and Spanish football, posing the key question as to whether the impact of Globalisation has been a quintessentially corrosive dynamic, eroding the quasi - sacrosanct traditions of the Spanish game to fashion a distinctive post- modern pastiche of elitism and inequality based on an orgy of consumption and commodity.

  13. Analysis of patient satisfaction in Dutch and Spanish online reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Zafra, Salud M.; Martín Valdivia, María Teresa; Maks, Isa; Izquierdo Beviá, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment Analysis is a well-known task of Natural Language Processing that has been studied in different domains such as movies, phones or hotels. However, other areas like medical domain remain yet unexplored. In this paper we study different polarity classification techniques applied on health domain. We present a corpus of patient reviews composed by a Dutch part (COPOD: Corpus of Patient Opinions in Dutch) and a Spanish part (COPOS: Corpus of Patient Opinions in Spanish). Experiments hav...

  14. The Spanish Language in Californian Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Buzatu, Anamaría

    2013-01-01

    Spanish is considered the second familiar language in California due to its Californian history, our state’s proximity to Mexico and other Latin American countries, continuous Hispanic immigration, and the size of its Hispanic population, which surpasses that of all other states. This article analyzes the number of enrollment in Spanish courses during 2010–2011 academic year and then compared to the ones from other Romance languages (Portuguese, Italian, French, Romanian & Catalan) taught at ...

  15. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  16. Spanish Jesuits in the Philippines: geophysical research and synergies between science, education and trade, 1865-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2014-10-01

    In 1865, Spanish Jesuits founded the Manila Observatory, the earliest of the Far East centres devoted to typhoon and earthquake studies. Also on Philippine soil and under the direction of the Jesuits, in 1884 the Madrid government inaugurated the first Meteorological Service in the Spanish Kingdom, and most probably in the Far East. Nevertheless, these achievements not only went practically unnoticed in the historiography of science, but neither does the process of geophysical dissemination that unfolded fit in with the two types of transmitter of knowledge identified by historians in the missionary diffusion of the exact sciences in colonial contexts. Rather than regarding science as merely a stimulus to their functionary and missionary tasks, Spanish Jesuits used their overseas posting to produce and publish original research--feature that would place them within the typology of the 'seeker' rather than the 'functionary' (in stark contrast to what the standard typology sustains). This paper also analyses examples of synergies between science, education and trade, which denotes, inter alia, the existence of a broad and solid educational structure in the Manila Mission that sustained the strength of research enterprise.

  17. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  18. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  19. [Work satisfaction among Spanish nurses working in English hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Madrigal-Torres, Manuel; Velandrino-Nicolás, Antonio; López-Iborra, Lidón

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate work satisfaction among Spanish nurses employed by English hospitals, as well as the influence of several social and work-related variables associated with satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional study. All Spanish nurses (n=360) with a contract with any English hospital in April 2003 were included in the study. The self-administered and validated Font Roja work satisfaction questionnaire was used. The response rate was 78.6%. Overall work satisfaction among Spanish nurses was medium. The dimensions with higher work satisfaction were relationships with colleagues and superiors. The dimensions showing lowest work satisfaction were job satisfaction and professional competence. Statistically significant and positive associations were obtained between level of English, professional grade, shift pattern, working in the intensive care unit or accident and emergency department, time worked in English hospitals and degree of work satisfaction. Employers of Spanish nurses should try to increase job satisfaction and professional competence among these workers. Incentivation and professional promotion systems might help achieve this aim. Employers could also try to improve Spanish nurses' English level before contracts are signed and pay special attention to their needs during the first working year. Spanish nurses job satisfaction would also increase if they were allowed to choose their working shift and the unit or ward where they are going to work.

  20. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  1. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-05-27

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  2. Lexical Anglicisms in Spanish and Slovak: a Contrastive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Ulašin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares two languages, Castillian Spanish and Slovak and contrasts the status and use of English loanwords in each language. It is a small part of a larger project comparing the lexical and semantic levels of both languages. The article classifies and gives examples of differences in the treatment of anglicisms between the two, starting with phonetic differences (introducing the most notable ones, orthographic, semantic and structural differences, then looking at synonyms and calques and ending with a discussion of the presence or absence of anglicisms in the cases of denotative mismatches. We also emphasize the importance of taking into account the cultural equivalent of the English loanwords in the extralinguistic reality of Spain and Slovakia. The phenomenon of so called pseudo-anglicisms in Spanish is mentioned, as well as the extremely numerous presence of false friends in Spanish (in comparison with Slovak. The article summarises the most typical differences between European Spanish and American Spanish varieties with regard to English loanwords. The article also discusses the case of acronyms, contrasting the use of English international acronyms in Slovak with the tendency to translate them in Spanish.

  3. Radioactive concentrations of the Livingston Island soils (Antarctica). Dosimetry considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Rio, M del; Paniagua, J M [Facultad de Veterinaria, Ctra. de Trujillo, Caceres (Spain); Navarro, E; Rodriguez, M J; Sanchez, F [Centro Mixto Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    1994-06-01

    The radioactive concentrations of natural and man-made ([sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs) emitters were studied in soil samples collected from an area of 2.3 km[sup 2] around the Spanish Antarctic Base on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands. The levels of radiation detected, for natural radioisotopes, as well as consequently the measured levels of effective dose equivalent rate, are of the order of half the values commonly assigned as world averages for these magnitudes. (Author).

  4. Mi Carrera. Volume IV: Effective Career Planning with Hispanic High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Denise, Ed.

    This curriculum guide, the fourth of a four-volume set that is intended to improve career and vocational guidance services to Spanish-speaking students in grades 9 through 12, is actually a collection of three different resources. The first section, "Group Activities: Intercambios," by Maria Garcia, is a model culturally based group counseling…

  5. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  6. Use of Biomass Ash as a stabilization agent for expansive marly soils (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Caro, J. M.; Irigaray, C.; Corpas, F.; Ramirez, A.; Rivas, F.; Salazar, L. M.; Mochón, I.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, several biomass power plants have been installed in Southeastern Spain to reuse olive oil industry residues. This energy production tries to reduce the high costs associated with fossil fuels, but without entering into direct competition to traditional food crops. The waste management in these biomass energy plants is still an issue since there are non-flammable materials which remains after incineration in the form of ashes. In Southeastern Spain there is also a great amount of clayey and marly soils whose volume is very sensitive to changes in climate conditions, making them unsuitable for civil engineering. We propose the use of biomass ash (both fly ash and bottom ash) as a stabilization agent for expansive soils in order to improve the efficiency of construction processes by using locally available materials. In this work biomass ashes from a biomass power plant in Southeastern Spain have been used to stabilize 6 samples of local marly soil. Those 6 samples of expansive soil were mixed with different dosages of biomass ash (2%, 4% and 7%) to create 18 specimens of treated soil, which were submitted to Proctor, Atterberg Limits, pH and Free Swell Index tests, following Spanish Standards UNE by AENOR. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests by powder method were also carried out, using a diffractometer Philips X'Pert-MPD. The results obtained for the original untreated marly soil were: PI = 34.6; Free Swell = 12.5; pH = 8. By adding biomass ash the value of the plasticity index (PI) became slightly lower although it was not low enough as to obtain a non-plastic soil (PI under 25). However, there were dramatical decreases of free swell index (FSI) after the stabilization treatment: FSI < 8.18 (2% biomass); FSI < 6.15 (4% biomass); FSI < 4.18 (7% biomass); These results suggest that treated soil is quite less susceptible than the original soil to moisture changes. The pH of the mixes after adding biomass ash rose from 8 to 11±1 leading to an alkaline

  7. An interdisciplinary approach towards improved understanding of soil deformation during compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, T.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Peth, S.

    2013-01-01

    and validation of new soil compaction models. The integration of concepts underlying dynamic processes that modify soil pore spaces and bulk properties will improve the understanding of how soil management affect vital soil mechanical, hydraulic and ecological functions supporting plant growth.......Soil compaction not only reduces available pore volume in which fluids are stored, but it alters the arrangement of soil constituents and pore geometry, thereby adversely impacting fluid transport and a range of soil ecological functions. Quantitative understanding of stress transmission...... and deformation processes in arable soils remains limited. Yet such knowledge is essential for better predictions of effects of soil management practices such as agricultural field traffic on soil functioning. Concepts and theory used in agricultural soil mechanics (soil compaction and soil tillage) are often...

  8. Celebrations III and IV Centenary of Don Quixote in Spanish America through the Spanish press from 1905 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Chaparro Domínguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the coverage that the Spanish press provided to Spanish American celebrations for the Third and Fourth Centenary of the publication of the first part of Don Quixote, events that took place in 1905 and 2005, respectively. By the study of a total of twenty-one newspapers, which include El Imparcial, El Liberal and La Correspondencia de España, of the first period, and El País, El Mundo and La Vanguardia of the second, we will find out how they lived both centenaries in Spanish America, how important were these tributes in the press and, furthermore, we will know the concrete symbolic meaning that the popular Spanish nobleman acquired in either period.

  9. Teaching Culture and Improving Language Skills through a Cinematic Lens: A Course on Spanish Film in the Undergraduate Spanish Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the role of a course on Spanish cinema in an undergraduate, university-level curriculum in terms of its potential to acquaint students with significant cultural issues and to develop language skills. (Author/VWL)

  10. The Spanish indoor radon mapping strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz-Fernandez, C.; Fernandez-Villar, A.; Fuente-Merino, I.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L.; Casal-Ordas, S.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Garcia-Talavera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor radon mapping still represents a valuable tool for drawing the picture of the exposure of general public due to radon and radon progeny inhalation in a residential context. The information provided by means of a map is useful not only as awareness and strategic element for authorities and policy-makers, but also as a scientific start-up point in the design of epidemiological and other specific studies on exposure to natural radiation. The requirements for a good mapping are related to harmonisation criteria coming from European recommendations, as well as to national/local characteristics and necessities. Around 12 000 indoor radon measurements have been made since the Spanish national radon programme began at the end of the 1980's. A significant proportion of them resulted from the last campaign performed from 2009 to 12. This campaign completed the first version of a map based on a grid 10 x 10 km 2 . In this paper, the authors present the main results of a new map together with the criteria adopted to improve the number of measurements and the statistical significance of them. (authors)

  11. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  12. Spanish program on disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Martines Martinez, A.

    1977-01-01

    The Spanish Energetic Program assumes an installed nuclear electrical power of 23.000 MWe by the year 1985. Therefore, Spain is making an effort in the managment of radioactive wastes, that can be synthesized in the following points: 1.- Make-up and review of the regulation on the management of radioactive wastes. 2.- Development of the processes and equipment for the treatment of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from the CNEN ''Juan Vigon'', as well as those from the Nuclear Center of Soria. Solidification studies of RAA wastes arisen from the reprocessing. 3.- Evaluation of radioactive waste treatment systems of the new installed nuclear power plants. Assistance to the nuclear and radioactive facilities operators. 4.- Increase the storage capacity of the pilot repository for solid radioactive wastes of categories 1 and 2 IAEA, located in Sierra Albarrana. Studies of adequate geological formation for storage of solid wastes of IAEA categories 3 and 4. 5.- Studies about long term surface storage systems for solidified RAA wastes arisen from the reprocessing [es

  13. Analysis of scientific production in spanish implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Beatriz; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Tarazona-Alvarez, Pablo; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the scientific productivity of researchers, organizations, and regions in Spain that publish articles on implantology in dental journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports. A search was conducted among the core collection of Thomson Reuters' Web of Science database, on the basis of its broad thematic and geographic coverage of health sciences. The search identified original articles - the main vehicle for the dissemination of research results. The search was conducted in July 2016, applying the truncated search term 'implant*' to locate original articles on implantology and its derivative forms. The search was conducted within the topic field (title, keywords and abstract) and two inclusion criteria were applied: documents denominated as articles were included; and articles categorized as Web of Science Medicine Dentistry and Oral Surgery. Finally only articles for which one of the participating organizations was located in Spain were selected. The final search identified a total of 774 records. The period 1988 to 2015 saw an exponential growth in scientific production, especially during the last 10 years. Clinical Oral Implants Research and Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal (Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Surgery) were the most productive journals. Collaborative networks among authors and among institutions increased and this increase was related to the improving quality of the publications. Bibliometric analysis revealed a significant growth in the quantity and quality of Spanish implantology literature. Most key bibliometric indicators demonstrated upward trends. Key words: Bibliometric analysis, publication, keywords, implantology, implant.

  14. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  15. CERN welcomes the Spanish Vice-President

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming the Vice-President of the Government of Spain, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, for a visit of the Laboratory.   From left to right: Lluis Miralles (Head of the General Infrastructure Services department), Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría (Vice-President of the Government of Spain) and José Miguel Jiménez (Head of the Technology department).   The Vice-President was accompanied by Carmen Vela, Spanish Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation, Bernardo de Sicart Escoda, Ambassador of Spain to Switzerland, and Ana Menéndez Pérez, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva. Their tour started at LHC Point 1, where CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed them and gave them an introduction to CERN's activities. Jos&ea...

  16. Feasibility Study on UAV-assisted Construction Surplus Soil Tracking Control and Management Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieh Haur, Chen; Kuo, Lin Sheng; Fu, Chen Ping; Li Hsu, Yeh; Da Heng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Construction surplus soil tracking management has been the key management issue in Taiwan since 1991. This is mainly due to the construction surplus soils were often regarded as disposable waste and were disposed openly without any supervision, leading to environmental pollution. Even though the surplus soils were gradually being viewed as reusable resources, some unscrupulous enterprises still dump them freely for their own convenience. In order to dispose these surplus soils, site offices are required to confirm with the soil treatment plant regarding the approximate soil volume for hauling vehicle dispatch. However, the excavated soil volume will transform from bank volume to loose volume upon excavation, which may differ by a certain speculative coefficient (1.3), depending on the excavation site and geological condition. For managing and tracking the construction surplus soils, local government authorities frequently performed on-site spot check, but the lack of rapid assessment tools for soil volume estimation increased the evaluation difficulty for on-site inspectors. This study adopted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in construction surplus soil tracking and rapidly acquired site photography and point cloud data, the excavated soil volume can be determined promptly after post-processing and interpretation, providing references to future surplus soil tracking management.

  17. ROMANIAN SOIL RESOURCES - “HEALTHY SOILS FOR A HEALTHY LIFE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea MIHALACHE

    2015-10-01

    , waterlogging, reduced organic matter content soil acidity, compaction, pollution, reduced edaphic volume etc.

  18. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Report by the Director General [Spanish Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents an assessment of the causes and consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which began on 11 March 2011. Caused by a huge tsunami that followed a massive earthquake, it was the worst accident at a nuclear power plant since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The report considers human, organizational and technical factors, and aims to provide an understanding of what happened, and why, so that the necessary lessons learned can be acted upon by governments, regulators and nuclear power plant operators throughout the world. Measures taken in response to the accident, both in Japan and internationally, are also examined. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is also available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and

  19. Distribution of rock fragments and their effects on hillslope soil erosion in purple soil, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    Purple soil is widely distributed in Sichuan Basin and Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Purple soil region is abundant in soil fertility and hydrothermal resources, playing an important role in the agricultural development of China. Soil erosion has long been recognized as a major environmental problem in the purple soil region where the population is large and slope farming is commonly practiced, and rainstorm is numerous. The existence of rock fragments is one of the most important characteristics of purple soil. Rock fragments at the soil surface or in the soil layer affect soil erosion processes by water in various direct and indirect ways, thus the erosion processes of soil containing rock fragments have unique features. Against the severe soil degradation by erosion of purple soil slope, carrying out the research about the characteristics of purple soil containing rock fragments and understanding the influence of rock fragments on soil erosion processes have important significance, which would promote the rational utilization of purple soil slope land resources and accurate prediction of purple soil loss. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of rock fragments in purple soil slope and the impact of rock fragment content on soil physical properties and soil erosion. First, field sampling methods were used to survey the spatial variability of rock fragments in soil profiles and along slope and the physical properties of soils containing rock fragments. Secondly, indoor simulated rainfall experiments were used to exam the effect of rock fragments in the soil layer on soil erosion processes and the relationships between rainfall infiltration, change of surface flow velocity, surface runoff volume and sediment on one hand, and rock fragment content (Rv, 0% 30%, which was determined according the results of field investigation for rock fragment distribution) on the other were investigated. Thirdly, systematic analysis about the

  20. Enticing Spanish-Speaking Adolescents: Recent Books in Spanish for Every Taste/Cautivar a los Adolescentes Hispanohablantes: Libros Recientes en Espanol Para Todos los Gustos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Argues that books in Spanish can engage Spanish-speaking students in the reading process, and that fostering the love of reading is a necessary first step to reading proficiency in any language. Offers brief descriptions of 16 recently published books in Spanish, and describes a large database of recommended books for children and adolescents in…