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Sample records for spanish rafm steel

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a Spanish RAFM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Artimez, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the realization of the future fusion reactor is the development and qualification of structural materials for first wall and breeding blanket. The fusion reactor application requires materials resistant to radiation damage, with excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, good corrosion behaviour and reduced activation potential. Reduced Activation (RAFM) 9Cr Ferritic/Martenistic steels are the main candidates for first wall and blanket of fusion reactors, due to their resistance to swelling and excellent structural and thermal properties. These steels are based on the classical Cr-Mo steel grades but with a chemical composition modified in order to fulfil the low activation requirements, substituting the alloying elements with long decay times due to high activation by neutron irradiation. For this purpose the Mo is replaced by W, the Nb by Ta and Ni is removed. A summary of the activities related to the evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel fabricated at a semi-industrial scale in Spain will be presented in this paper. The steel chemical composition fulfils or is very close to the compositional specifications and metallurgical properties of the EUROFER steel. This activity corresponds to the ITMA and CIEMAT participation on Task 4 of the CONSOLIDER TECNO F US INGENIO 2010, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. (author)

  2. Weld characterization of RAFM steel. EBP structural materials milestone 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, A. [Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Saclay (France); Fontes, A. [Service de Techniques Avancees, CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Saclay (France); Schaefer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gauthier, A.; Tavassoli, A.A. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Saclay (France); Van Osch, E.V.; Van der Schaaf [ed.] [ECN Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In the long term part of the European Fusion technology programme welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM)steels takes a prominent place. The blanket structures are complex and welding is an important element in manufacturing procedures. In the 95-98 program several Structural Materials tasks of the European Blanket Project are devoted to welding of RAFM steels. In the milestone 3 defined for the program a review of the weld characterization was foreseen in 1998. The present report gives the status of tasks and the major conclusions and recommendations of the welding milestone meeting. The major conclusion is that defect free GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), EBW (Electron Beam Welding) and diffusion welds can be accomplished, but further work is needed to assure quantitatively the service boundary conditions. Also for irradiated steel additional work is recommended for the 99-02 period. Development of filler wire material for the European reference RAFM: EUROFER97 is necessary. Establishment of weldability tests must be settled in the next period also. 14 refs.

  3. Development of IN-RAFM steel and fabrication technologies for Indian TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • India specific RAFM steel IN-RAFM has been produced in commercial scale and physical property data for the same have been generated. • Mechanical properties of the commercial heats are comparable to that of the laboratory heats. • IN-RAFM steel filler wires has been produced indigenously. • Process parameters have been optimized so that toughness of the fusion zone of the EB and laser welds is comparable to that of the base metal even at sub-zero temperatures. • Fabrication of the mock ups of different components of Indian TBM has been initiated. - Abstract: India has indigenously developed its own Indian Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel (IN-RAFM steel) which, it is proposed to use for fabrication of Indian TBM to be installed in ITER. With an objective of qualifying this material for use in ITER, extensive testing of this material to generate the necessary data required to offer this material for Particular Material Appraisal of ITER has been undertaken. Accordingly, data generation on creep, fatigue and physical properties of this steel is in progress. Physical properties like thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for this steel at various temperatures have been measured and thermal conductivity estimated from the measured physical properties. Values obtained for these physical properties are comparable with those reported for other RAFM steels. Results of creep tests that are in progress also indicate that creep is comparable to that of other RAFM steels. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of this steel has been studied in air with total strain control in the strain amplitude range of ±0.25–1% and temperatures range of 300–873 K at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Results confirm that fatigue life of IN-RAFM steel is at par with that of the European Union grade Eurofer 97 RAFM steel. During production of IN-RAFM steel plates of different thicknesses, it is observed

  4. Thermoelastoviscoplastic modeling of RAFM steel JLF-1 using tensile and low cycle fatigue experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Msolli, S., E-mail: sabeur.msolli@univ-lorraine.fr

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a modeling of the elastoviscoplastic behavior of a Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel JLF-1 is presented. The modeling of this material was based on various Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and tensile tests performed in air and vacuum using different imposed strain rates and temperature ranges going from ambient temperature to 873 K. The coupled viscoplastic model is coded in FORTRAN program, implemented into the finite elements code ABAQUS and used to predict the thermomechanical behavior of a fatigue specimen made of RAFM steel JLF-1. Good agreements were found between numerical results and experimental data.

  5. Effect of W and Ta on creep–fatigue interaction behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Vani, E-mail: vani@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad 382428 (India); Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.; Kumar, E. Rajendra [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad 382428 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • SR correlated with deformation under CFI in RAFM steels. • Stress relaxation directly related to plastic strain accumulated, inversely to CFI life. • Optimum combination of W and Ta best for CFI life. • RAFM steels demonstrated compressive dwell sensitivity. • SR tends toward constant value at long hold. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to understand the effect of varying tungsten and tantalum contents on creep–fatigue interaction (CFI) behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels. Increase in W improved CFI life. Effect of changing Ta and W upon the resultant CFI life seems to be interrelated and an optimum combination of both W and Ta works out to be the best for CFI life. Stress relaxation obtained during application of hold can be a useful parameter to relate deformation and damage in the RAFM steels.

  6. Effect of W and Ta on creep–fatigue interaction behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Vani; Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SR correlated with deformation under CFI in RAFM steels. • Stress relaxation directly related to plastic strain accumulated, inversely to CFI life. • Optimum combination of W and Ta best for CFI life. • RAFM steels demonstrated compressive dwell sensitivity. • SR tends toward constant value at long hold. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to understand the effect of varying tungsten and tantalum contents on creep–fatigue interaction (CFI) behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels. Increase in W improved CFI life. Effect of changing Ta and W upon the resultant CFI life seems to be interrelated and an optimum combination of both W and Ta works out to be the best for CFI life. Stress relaxation obtained during application of hold can be a useful parameter to relate deformation and damage in the RAFM steels.

  7. Mechanical properties and TEM examination of RAFM steels irradiated up to 70 dpa in BOR-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaganidze, E., E-mail: Ermile.Gaganidze@kit.edu [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Angewandte Materialien, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Petersen, C.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dethloff, C.; Weiss, O.J.; Aktaa, J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Angewandte Materialien, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Povstyanko, A.; Fedoseev, A.; Makarov, O.; Prokhorov, V. [Joint Stock Company ' State Scientific Centre Research Institute of Atomic Reactors' , 433510 Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels were studied after irradiation in BOR-60 reactor to a neutron displacement damage of 70 dpa at 330-340 deg. C. Yield stress and Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition-Temperature of EUROFER97 indicate saturation of hardening and embrittlement. The phenomenological models for description of microstructure evolution and resulting irradiation hardening and embrittlement are discussed. The evolution of yield stress with dose is qualitatively understood within a Whapham and Makin model. Dislocation loops examined in TEM are considered a main source for low-temperature irradiation hardening. The analysis of the fatigue data in terms of the inelastic strain reveals comparable fatigue behaviour both for unirradiated and irradiated conditions, which can be described by a common Manson-Coffin relation. The study of helium effects in B-doped model steels indicated progressive material embrittlement with helium content. Post-irradiation annealing of RAFM steels yielded substantial recovery of mechanical properties.

  8. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethloff, Christian; Gaganidze, Ermile; Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different 10 B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  9. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethloff, Christian, E-mail: christian.dethloff@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gaganidze, Ermile [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy Str. 42, 432970 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different {sup 10}B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  10. Effect of tungsten on tensile properties and flow behaviour of RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Nandagopal, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2013-02-15

    Effect of tungsten in the range of 1–2 wt.% on tensile properties and flow behaviour of 9Cr–W–Ta–V Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been investigated. The tungsten in the investigated range was found to have only minor effect on the tensile properties of the steel over the temperature range of 300–873 K and at a strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. The tensile flow behaviour of the RAFM steels was adequately described by the Voce’s constitutive equation. The tensile strength of the steels were predicted well from the parameters of the Voce’s constitutive equation. The Voce’s strain hardening parameter ‘n{sub v}’ was found to be quite sensitive to the tungsten content and predicted the onset of dislocation climbing process at relatively higher testing temperature with the increase in tungsten content. The equivalence between tensile and creep deformations and the influence of tungsten have been discussed.

  11. Effect of tungsten on tensile properties and flow behaviour of RAFM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Nandagopal, M.; Sam, Shiju; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of tungsten in the range of 1–2 wt.% on tensile properties and flow behaviour of 9Cr–W–Ta–V Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been investigated. The tungsten in the investigated range was found to have only minor effect on the tensile properties of the steel over the temperature range of 300–873 K and at a strain rate of 3 × 10 −3 s −1 . The tensile flow behaviour of the RAFM steels was adequately described by the Voce’s constitutive equation. The tensile strength of the steels were predicted well from the parameters of the Voce’s constitutive equation. The Voce’s strain hardening parameter ‘n v ’ was found to be quite sensitive to the tungsten content and predicted the onset of dislocation climbing process at relatively higher testing temperature with the increase in tungsten content. The equivalence between tensile and creep deformations and the influence of tungsten have been discussed

  12. Fatigue crack growth behavior of RAFM steel in Paris and threshold regimes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a reduced activation ferritic martensitic (indigenous RAFM) steel has been evaluated at 300, 653 and 823 K in Paris and threshold regimes. The effect of temperature on threshold stress intensity factor range and associated crack closure mechanisms is highlighted. The FCG results were compared with those for EUROFER 97. Further, crack tip effective stress intensity factor ranges (ΔK{sub tip,eff}) have been evaluated by taking crack tip shielding into account in order to examine the effect of temperature on true intrinsic FCG behavior.

  13. Flow accelerated corrosion and erosion-corrosion of RAFM steel in liquid breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio

    2010-11-01

    Corrosion experiments for RAFM, JLF-1 steel (Fe-9Cr-2w-0.1C) in 3types of flowing liquid breeders (i.e. Li, Pb-17Li and Flinak) were performed at the same conditions, and the compatibility was compared with each other. The weight loss of the specimens in the fluids was evaluated by the corrosion model based on mass transfer. The model can be applied to different test systems with different quantity of liquid breeders and different surface area of the systems. The flow enhanced the dissolution of element of the steel in the fluids. The mechanism of an erosion-corrosion in the liquid breeders was the peeling off of the corroded steel surface by the flow. (author)

  14. Low cycle fatigue design data for India-specific reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani, E-mail: vani@igcar.gov.in; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Generation of first set of experimental data related to LCF performance of the commercial heat of IN-RAFM steel. • Analysis of cyclic behavior from the perspective of both design and material characteristics. • Various correction factors to account for various plastic strain accumulations, change in Poisson’s ratio and asymmetry of loadings. • Low cycle fatigue design parameters and correction factor values were comparable with P91 steel as reported in RCC-MR design code. - Abstract: The objective of the present paper is to provide first hand experimental data and analysis on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) performance of a commercial heat of Indian reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel. Since this material is not yet codified in RCC-MR, cyclic properties were generated for the design of the structural material of the Test Blanket Modules (TBM) made of RAFM steel. Hence, as a part of the material development program, LCF experiments were conducted on IN-RAFM steel obtained in the normalized and tempered condition. Total axial strain controlled experiments were performed in air by employing strain amplitudes ranging from ±0.25 to ±1.0% and at temperatures of 300, 673, 723, 823, and 873 K and a nominal strain rate, 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. In the present work, various cyclic parameters that are useful for the design oriented fatigue analysis are derived as per the systematic procedure given in the RCC-MR design code. The physical significance of each design parameter such as elasto-plastic corrections based on Neuber analysis has been explained and correlated with the material behavior such as the cyclic softening nature of the RAFM steel.

  15. Influence of surface roughness and melt superheat on HDA process to form a tritium permeation barrier on RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purushothaman, J. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in [TFCS, SND, MSG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendran, R. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); Gowrishankar, N. [IP Rings Ltd., Maraimalainagar, Chennai 603209 (India); Ramasubbu, V. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup [PMG, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface modified RAFMS samples were subjected to HDA and thermal oxidation. • Sample modified by SB process showed better coating and interface morphology. • Aluminized samples at 740 °C for 2 min showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 9}Si{sub 2} intermetallic phase. • Oxidized samples showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 8}Si, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3} intermetallic phases. • A uniform permeation barrier Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on the coating of oxidized HDA samples. - Abstract: The most optimal candidate material for fabrication of Test Blanket Module (TBM) in the installation of ITER and future fusion reactors is Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel, yet one of the major challenges that need to be addressed with RAFM is minimizing the loss of tritium in a reactor environment through the formation of tritium permeation barrier. One of the most promising methods for the tritium permeation barrier is through duplex coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe–Al which is well known to reduce tritium permeation rate by several orders of magnitude. The present work aims to form an alumina layer on RAFM steel by a two-step method, which consists of (i) Hot Dip Aluminizing (HDA) and (ii) conversion of Al into alumina by a subsequent oxidation process. In addition, the influence of surface roughness of the substrate, superheat condition of the Al alloy melt and its composition on microstructural properties of coating before and after oxidation were investigated using OM, SEM–EDS, XRD, indentation micro hardness and scratch test. The experimental results confirmed the formation of alumina layer on RAFM steel after the HDA and oxidation process. Moreover, the surface roughness of the substrate, melt superheat of Al alloy and its composition are found to have a significant influence on the microstructure, thickness, micro-hardness, nature of intermetallic compounds formed and adhesion strength of the coating.

  16. Development of India-specific RAFM steel through optimization of tungsten and tantalum contents for better combination of impact, tensile, low cycle fatigue and creep properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, K., E-mail: laha@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Saroja, S.; Moitra, A.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2013-08-15

    Effects of tungsten and tantalum contents on impact, tensile, low cycle fatigue and creep properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel were studied to develop India-specific RAFM steel. Four heats of the steel have been melted with tungsten and tantalum contents in the ranges 1–2 wt.% and 0.06–0.14 wt.% respectively. Increase in tungsten content increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), low cycle fatigue and creep strength of the steel, whereas the tensile strength was not changed significantly. Increase in tantalum content increased the DBTT and low cycle fatigue strength of the steel whereas the tensile and creep strength decreased. Detailed TEM investigations revealed enhanced microstructural stability of the steel against creep exposure on tungsten addition. The RAFM steel having 1.4 wt.% tungsten with 0.06 wt.% tantalum was found to possess optimum combination of impact, tensile, low cycle fatigue and creep properties and is considered for Indian-specific RAFM steel.

  17. High Temperature Elastic Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) Steel Using Impulse Excitation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Raju, Subramanian; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-03-01

    The polycrystalline elastic constants of an indigenous variant of 9Cr-1W-based reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel have been determined as a function of temperature from 298 K to 1323 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using impulse excitation technique (IET). The three elastic constants namely, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus B, exhibited significant softening with increasing temperature, in a pronounced non-linear fashion. In addition, clearly marked discontinuities in their temperature variations are noticed in the region, where ferrite + carbides → austenite phase transformation occurred upon heating. Further, the incidence of austenite → martensite transformation upon cooling has also been marked by a step-like jump in both elastic E and shear moduli G. The martensite start M s and M f finish temperatures estimated from this study are, M s = 652 K (379 °C) and M f =580 K (307 °C). Similarly, the measured ferrite + carbide → austenite transformation onset ( Ac 1) and completion ( Ac 3) temperatures are found to be 1126 K and 1143 K (853 °C and 870 °C), respectively. The Poisson ratio μ exhibited distinct discontinuities at phase transformation temperatures; but however, is found to vary in the range 0.27 to 0.29. The room temperature estimates of E, G, and μ for normalized and tempered microstructure are found to be 219 GPa, 86.65 GPa, and 0.27, respectively. For the metastable austenite phase, the corresponding values are: 197 GPa, 76.5 GPa, and 0.29, respectively. The measured elastic properties as well as their temperature dependencies are found to be in good accord with reported estimates for other 9Cr-based ferritic-martensitic steel grades. Estimates of θ D el , the elastic Debye temperature and γ G, the thermal Grüneisen parameter obtained from measured bulk elastic properties are found to be θ D el = 465 K (192 °C) and γ G = 1.57.

  18. Post irradiation examination of RAF/M steels after fast reactor irradiation up to 33 dpa and < 340 C (ARBOR1). RAFM steels. Metallurgical and mechanical characterisation. Final report for TW2-TTMS-001b, D9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). EURATOM, Inst. fuer Materialforschung, Programm Kernfusion

    2010-07-01

    In an energy generating fusion reactor structural materials will be exposed to very high dpa-levels of about 100 dpa. Due to this fact and because fast reactor irradiation facilities in Europe are not available anymore, a reactor irradiation at the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation with its Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (SSC RIAR), Dimitrovgrad, had been performed in the fast reactor BOR 60 with an instrumented test rig. This test rig contained tensile, impact and Low Cycle Fatigue type specimens used at FZK since many years. Samples of actual Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAF/M) -steels (e.g. EUROFER 97) had been irradiated in this reactor at a lower temperature (< 340 C) up to a damage of 33 dpa. This irradiation campaign was called ARBOR 1. Starting in 2003 one half of these irradiated samples were post irradiation examined (PIE) by tensile testing, low cycle fatigue testing and impact testing under the ISTC Partner Contract 2781p in the hot cells of SSC RIAR. In the post irradiation instrumented impact tests a significant increase in the Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature as an effect of irradiation has been detected. During tensile testing the strength values are increasing and the strain values reduced due to substantial irradiation hardening. The hardening rate is decreasing with increasing damage level, but it does not show saturation. The low cycle fatigue behaviour of all examined RAF/M - steels show at total strain amplitudes below 1 % an increase of number of cycles to failure, due to irradiation hardening. From these post irradiation experiments, like tensile, low cycle fatigue and impact tests, radiation induced design data, e.g. for verification of design codes, can be generated.

  19. Modeling the influence of high dose irradiation on the deformation and damage behavior of RAFM steels under low cycle fatigue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaa, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)], E-mail: aktaa@imf.fzk.de; Petersen, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Materials Research II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    A viscoplastic deformation damage model developed for RAFM steels in the reference un-irradiated state was modified taking into account the irradiation influence. The modification mainly consisted in adding an irradiation hardening variable with an appropriate evolution equation including irradiation dose driven terms as well as inelastic deformation and thermal recovery terms. With this approach, the majority of the material and temperature dependent model parameters are no longer dependent on the irradiation dose and only few parameters need to be determined by applying the model to RAFM steels in the irradiated state. The modified model was then applied to describe the behavior of EUROFER 97 observed in the post irradiation examinations of the irradiation programs ARBOR 1, ARBOR 2 and SPICE. The application results will be presented and discussed in addition.

  20. Effect of HIP temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and hardness of joints for ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Haiying; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Kimura, Akihiko; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM (oxide-dispersion-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic) steels and JLF-1 steel were fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1000 - 1100degC with a cooling rate of 5degC/min. After the HIP, it was always quenched martensite for JLF-1 steel. However, coarse precipitates were found in 9Cr-ODS. Additional annealing experiments to simulate HIP conditions were conducted for 9Cr-ODS with cooling rate ranged from 0.5 to 36degC/min at 800 - 1100degC. The results showed that, to form quenched martensite for 9Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature should be above 1000degC with cooling rate no less than 25dgeC/min. When the cooling rate is increased to 36degC/min, the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS is quenched martensite with precipitate size similar as that before HIP. If the limitation of precipitate size in 9Cr-ODS is 0.2 µm, HIP temperature above 1050degC with cooling rate no less than 30degC/min is needed. In this case, post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) with only tempering is necessary to recover the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS to tempered martensite. For 12Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature and cooling rate has no effect on hardness and precipitate size. PWHT is not necessary for the single-metal joint of 12Cr-ODS from the view point of precipitation control. However, for the dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel, the PWHT condition should be comprehensively determined by considering microstructural evolution of each part in the joints after HIP. (author)

  1. Evaluation of ITER design criteria applied to RAFM steels. Final report tasks - TW2-TTMS-005b, D2 and TW5-TTMS-005, D8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyk, R.; Aktaa, J.

    2006-08-01

    In the first line, the aim of the activity represented in this work is an application of two advanced material models to a simulation of the test blanket module (TBM) undergoing cyclic thermal and mechanical loadings. The first model is thereby the ABAQUS standard combined non-linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model whereas the second is a viscoplastic material model considering material damage and being newly implemented as an ABAQUS user material (UMAT). Material parameters for both models are adjusted using results of isothermal tensile and cyclic experiments performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (FZK) on EUROFER 97. As is generally known, EUROFER 97 is an important blanket material for the future fusion reactor and belongs to reduced activation ferriticmartensitic steels (RAFM), which soften under cyclic loading in contrast to austenitic steels exhibiting cyclic hardening. Moreover, the work is focused on the application of some existing design rules considered for austenitic steels and further evaluation of the rules by comparison of their predictions with results of cyclic simulations using the advanced material models mentioned above. Thereby, some important allowable stress limits are calculated under consideration of the cyclic softening of RAFM. Finally, new considerations concerning a mock-up experiment allowing to verify the advanced material models used in the present work and to assess a capability of the actual TBM design are represented here. (orig.) [de

  2. High Temperature Uniaxial Compression and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of India-Specific RAFM Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naimish S.; Sunil, Saurav; Sarkar, Apu

    2018-05-01

    India-specific reduced activity ferritic martensitic steel (INRAFM), a modified 9Cr-1Mo grade, has been developed by India as its own structural material for fabrication of the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER). The extensive study on mechanical and physical properties of this material has been currently going on for appraisal of this material before being put to use in the ITER. High temperature compression, stress-relaxation, and strain-rate change behavior of the INRAFM steel have been investigated. The optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic characterizations were carried out to observe the microstructural changes that occur during uniaxial compressive deformation test. Comparable true plastic stress values at 300 °C and 500 °C and a high drop in true plastic stress at 600 °C were observed during the compression test. Stress-relaxation behaviors were investigated at 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1. The creep properties of the steel at different temperatures were predicted from the stress-relaxation test. The Norton's stress exponent (n) was found to decrease with the increasing temperature. Using Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relationship, the temperature-compensated normalized strain rate vs stress was plotted. The stress exponent (n) value of 10.05 was obtained from the normalized plot. The increasing nature of the strain rate sensitivity (m) with the test temperature was found from strain-rate change test. The low plastic stability with m 0.06 was observed at 600 °C. The activation volume (V *) values were obtained in the range of 100 to 300 b3. By comparing the experimental values with the literature, the rate-controlling mechanisms at the thermally activated region of high temperature were found to be the nonconservative movement of jogged screw dislocations and thermal breaking of attractive junctions.

  3. Review of candidate welding processes of RAFM steels for ITER test blanket modules and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, P., E-mail: philippe.aubert@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tavassoli, F. [CEA, DEN, DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rieth, M. [FZK, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Diegele, E.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), C/Josep Pla 2 - Ed. B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    EUROFER weldability is investigated in support of the European TBM manufacturing. Electron beam, hybrid, laser and NGTIG processes have been carried out on the EUROFER-97 steel (thickness up to 40 mm), a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel. It is shown that the most promising processes are laser, electron beam and hybrid welding, depending on the section size and accessibility. They produce similar welding results with high joint coefficients and are well adapted for minimizing residual distortions. The FZ are typically composed of martensite laths, with small grain sizes. In the HAZ, martensite grains contain carbide precipitates. High hardness values are measured in all these zones that if not tempered would degrade toughness and creep resistance. A one step PWHT (750 deg. C/3 h) is successfully applied to joints restoring good material performance. Distortion levels, with and without PWHT, are controlled through adaptation of manufacturing steps and clamping devices, obtaining levels not exceeding 120 {mu}m (+/-60 {mu}m) on a full 'one cell mock-up'.

  4. Helium implanted RAFM steels studied by positron beam Doppler Broadening and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, I; Schut, H; Fedorov, A; Luzginova, N; Desgardin, P; Sietsma, J

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steels are being extensively studied because of their foreseen application in fusion and Generation IV fission reactors. To mimic neutron irradiation conditions, Eurofer97 samples were implanted with helium ions at energies of 500 keV and 2 MeV and doses of 5x10 15 -10 16 He /cm 2 , creating atomic displacements in the range 0.07–0.08 dpa. The implantation induced defects were characterized by positron beam Doppler Broadening (DB) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). The DB data could be fitted with one or two layers of material, depending on the He implantation energy. The S and W values obtained for the implanted regions suggest the presence of not only vacancy clusters but also positron traps of the type present in a sub-surface region found on the reference sample. The traps found in the implanted layers are expected to be He n V m clusters. For the 2 MeV, 10 16 He/cm 2 implanted sample, three temperature regions can be observed in the TDS data. Peaks below 450 K can be ascribed to He released from vacancies in the neighbourhood of the surface, the phase transition is found at 1180 K and the peak at 1350 K is likely caused by the migration of bubbles.

  5. The sink effect of the second-phase particle on the cavity swelling in RAFM steel under Ar-ion irradiation at 773 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.L.; Wang, Z.G.; Yao, C.F.; Sun, J.R.; Li, Y.F.; Wei, K.F.; Zhu, Y.B.; Pang, L.L.; Cui, M.H.; Wang, J.; Zhu, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures of the Chinese RAFM steel irradiated at 773 K with 792 MeV Ar-ions to fluences of 2.3 × 10 20 and 4.6 × 10 20 ions/m 2 , respectively, were investigated by using a transmission electron microscope with the cross-sectional specimen technique. Preferential nucleation and enhanced growth of the cavities at the interface between the second-phase particles and the matrix were observed in the irradiated specimen. The observation of the cavity-particle complex at lower dose indicated that the dose threshold for a cavity formation at the interface between MC particle and matrix was lower than that in matrix. With increasing irradiation dose, it was found that the second-phase particles changing their shape by attached cavities occurred. Furthermore, the role of the particle–matrix interface on nucleation and growth of the attached cavity with an increase of the dose were discussed in this work

  6. Preparation and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating by MOD method on CLF-1 RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang, J.J., E-mail: jjyang@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Feng, Y.J. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 614000 (China); Li, F.Z.; Liao, J.L.; Yang, Y.Y. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Feng, K.M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 614000 (China); Liu, N. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Metal organic decomposition (MOD) method was proposed to prepare Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} TPB coatings on CLF-1 RAFM steel. A comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, and XRD demonstrated the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings. The effect of the preparation parameters, including annealing temperature T{sub a}, withdrawal speed V{sub w} and immersion time t{sub i} on the microstructure and properties of the coatings was investigated. It showed that amorphous aluminum oxide coating began to transform to γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at temperature of T{sub a} = 600 °C. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with T{sub a} = 700 °C and T{sub b} = 500 °C performed the best crystallization feature. The hardness of the coatings gradually increased with increasing V{sub w}, while the corrosion resistance exhibited a reverse trend. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and corrosion resistance of the coating with t{sub i} = 300 s was improved as compared to the coating with t{sub i} = 0 s. Moreover, the effect of particle size and substrate oxidation on the mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the coatings was discussed. - Highlights: •MOD method was proposed to prepare Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} TPB on CLF-1 RAFM steel. •Effect of preparation parameters on the coating microstructure and properties was studied preliminary. •High quality MOD coating can be developed by multi-baking process.

  7. Final report for the year 2001 on experimental and theoretical investigations of irradiation effects on physical and mechanical properties of iron and RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N

    2003-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on defect accumulation and physical and mechanical properties have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specimens of pure iron and RAFM (reduced activation ferritic-martensic) steels were irradiated to different dose levels and at different irradiation temperatures. The resulting microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. Mechanical properties were determined by uniaxial tensile testing. Dislocation-loop interaction, formation of rafts of loops, radiation hardening and formation of 'cleared channels' were studied using different computational techniques. Experiments have shown that nano-voids are formed both in pure iron and F82H steel already at 50 deg. C. In pure iron, the formation of nano-voids is detected already at a dose level of {approx}10{sup -3} dpa. Also in iron, self-interstitial atoms were found to accumulate in the form of glissile and sessile loops; at higher dose levels, these loops led to formation of rafts of loops. Irradiation led to an increase in the yield strength, a sudden drop in the yield stress, and, at higher doses, the initiation of plastic instability immediately beyond the upper yield point. Experimental as well as the results of computer simulations are found to be consistent with the cascade induced source hardening model.

  8. Final report for the year 2001 on experimental and theoretical investigations of irradiation effects on physical and mechanical properties of iron and RAFM steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.

    2003-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on defect accumulation and physical and mechanical properties have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specimens of pure iron and RAFM (reduced activation ferritic-martensic) steels were irradiated to different dose levels and at different irradiation temperatures. The resulting microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. Mechanical properties were determined by uniaxial tensile testing. Dislocation-loop interaction, formation of rafts of loops, radiation hardening and formation of 'cleared channels' were studied using different computational techniques. Experiments have shown that nano-voids are formed both in pure iron and F82H steel already at 50 deg. C. In pure iron, the formation of nano-voids is detected already at a dose level of ∼10 -3 dpa. Also in iron, self-interstitial atoms were found to accumulate in the form of glissile and sessile loops; at higher dose levels, these loops led to formation of rafts of loops. Irradiation led to an increase in the yield strength, a sudden drop in the yield stress, and, at higher doses, the initiation of plastic instability immediately beyond the upper yield point. Experimental as well as the results of computer simulations are found to be consistent with the cascade induced source hardening model

  9. Mechanical characterization of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel of spanish production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the first results concerning the characterization of two heats of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) made in Spain, called AF1B and AF2A. The results of this characterization are compared with their European counterparts, EUROFER97-2, which was chosen as reference material. All activities described were performed in the Structural Materials Unit of CIEMAT, within the national project TECNO-FUS CONSOLIDER INGENIO.The two Spanish heats have the same production process and heat treatment. Both heats have a similar tensile behaviour similar to EUROFER97-2, but on the other hand impact properties are lower. The microstructure of AF1B reveals large biphasic inclusions that affecting its mechanical properties, especially the impact properties. AF2A casting was free of these inclusions. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Aritra, E-mail: aritra@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayanand, V.D.; Shankar, Vani; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening.

  11. Mechanical characterization of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel of spanish production; Caracterizacion mecanica de un acero ferritico/martenitico de activacion reducida de produccion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper shows the first results concerning the characterization of two heats of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) made in Spain, called AF1B and AF2A. The results of this characterization are compared with their European counterparts, EUROFER97-2, which was chosen as reference material. All activities described were performed in the Structural Materials Unit of CIEMAT, within the national project TECNO-FUS CONSOLIDER INGENIO.The two Spanish heats have the same production process and heat treatment. Both heats have a similar tensile behaviour similar to EUROFER97-2, but on the other hand impact properties are lower. The microstructure of AF1B reveals large biphasic inclusions that affecting its mechanical properties, especially the impact properties. AF2A casting was free of these inclusions. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. It was the demonstration of industrial steel production capacity ferritic-martensitic Spanish ASTURFER scale demand ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto, R.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Artimez, J. A.; Belzunce, J.; Sedano, L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) structural steels are considered as candidate materials with notable possibilities to be incorporated to fusion reactor ITER, nowadays under construction, and future fusion reactor DEMO, involving a notable forecasting of supply materials, with a considerable limitation due to the few number of furnishes currently on the market. The manufacture at an industrial scale of the ASTURFER steel, developed at laboratory scale by ITMA Materials Technology and the Structural Materials Division of the Technology Division of CIEMAT would be a significant business opportunity for steelwork companies.

  13. Radiation embrittlement of Spanish nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.; Ballesteros, A.; Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants contain a series of pressure vessel steel surveillance capsules as the principal means of monitoring radiation effects on the pressure vessel. Changes in fracture toughness are more severe in surveillance capsules than in reactor vessel materials because of their proximity of the reactor core. Therefore, it is possible to predict changes in fracture toughness of the reactor vessel materials. This paper describes the status of the reactor vessel surveillance program relating to Spanish nuclear power plants. To date, twelve capsules have been removed and analyzed from seven of the nine Spanish reactors in operation. The results obtained from the analysis of these capsules are compared with the predictions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, by means of measured and expected increase of the nil-ductility transition reference temperature (RT NDT ). The comparison is made considering the different variables normally included in the studies of radiation response of reactor pressure vessel materials, such as copper content of steel, level of neutron fluence above 1 MeV, base metal or weld metal, and so forth. The surveillance data have been used for determining the adjusted reference temperatures and upper shelf energies at any time. The results have shown that the seven pressure vessels are in excellent condition to continue operating with safety against brittle fracture beyond the design life, without the need to recuperate the degraded properties of the materials by annealing of the vessel

  14. Technical issues of RAFMs for the fabrication of ITER Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hirose, Takanori; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems, as it has they have been developed based on massive industrial experience of ferritic/martensitic steel replacing Mo and Nb of high chromium heat resistant martensitic steels (such as modified 9Cr-1Mo) with W and Ta, respectively. F82H and JLF-1 are RAFMs, which have been developed and studied in Japan and the various effects of irradiation were reported. F82H is designed with emphasis on high temperature property and weldability, and was provided and evaluated in various countries as a part of the IEA fusion materials development collaboration. The JAEA/US collaboration program also has been conducted with the emphasis on irradiation effects of F82H. Now, among the existing database for RAFMs the most extensive one is that for F82H. The objective of this paper is to review the R and D status of F82H and to identify the key technical issues for the fabrication of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) suggested from the recent achievements in Japan. It is desirable to make the status of RAFMs equivalent to commercial steels to use RAFMs as the ITER-TBM structural material. This would require demonstrating the reproducibility and weldability as well as providing the database. The excellent reproducibility of F82H has been demonstrated with four 5-ton-heats, and two of them were provided as F82H-IEA heats. It has been also proved that F82H could be provided as plates (thickness of 1.5 to 55 mm), pipes and rectangular tubes. It is also important to have the excellent weldability as the TBM has about 300m length of weld line, and it was proved through TIG, EB and YAG weld test performed in air atmosphere. Various mechanical and microstructural data have been accumulated including long-term tests such as creep rupture tests and aging tests. Although F82H is a well-perceived RAFM as the ITER-TBM structural material, some issues are

  15. Mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar weldments of RAFMS and AISI 316L (N) SS prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, C.R. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India); Mastanaiah, P.; Patel, M. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, Rajendra [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Increase of W content in RAFM steel can result in retention of delta ferrite in the EB weld of the steel. • Presence of delta ferrite seems to affect the ductile brittle transition temperature of the weld metal. • There is improper mixing of the two base metals in the fusion zone dissimilar welds of RAFM steel and austenitic stainless steel made by EB welding. - Abstract: Effect of weld metal composition on microstructure and toughness of weld metal is studied in this paper. Weld joints of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel containing 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W were prepared using electron beam welding (EBW) process. Dissimilar weld joints between 1.0 wt.% W RAFM steel and AISI 316L (N) SS were also prepared using EBW process. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties was also studied. Microstructural observation reveals delta–ferrite in 1.4 wt.% W containing weld metal, which is absent in 1.0 wt.% W weld metal. In the case of the dissimilar weld metal, microstructure shows presence of lath martensite and retained austenite. Austenite was stable even after PWHT and its presence is attributed to high nickel (5–6 wt.%) content in the dissimilar weld metal. Hardness of RAFM steel weld metal was found to be 270–290 VHN after PWHT at 750 °C for 2 h. Impact toughness of both 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel is high (>250 J) at ambient temperature. However, after PWHT, variation of toughness with temperature is more drastic for 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel weld metal than the other. As a result, ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for the 1.4 wt.% steel weld metal is close to 0 °C while that of the 1.0 wt.% W steel is close to that of the base metal (∼−80 °C)

  16. Exploring the engineering limit of heat flux of a W/RAFM divertor target for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Fursdon, M.; Chang, X. B.; Zhang, J. W.; Liu, P.; Ellwood, G.; Qian, X. Y.; Qin, S. J.; Peng, X. B.; Barrett, T. R.; Liu, P.

    2018-06-01

    The design and development of a fusion reactor divertor plasma facing component (PFC) is one of the many challenging issues on the road to commercial use of fusion energy. The divertor PFC is expected to exhaust steady state heat loads in the region of 10 MW m‑2 while keeping temperatures and thermo-mechanical stresses in its structure within the allowable limits. For ITER (International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor) a water cooled W/CuCrZr divertor PFC concept has been developed. However, this concept is not necessarily assured for use in future fusion reactors mainly because the neutron radiation dose would be at least an order magnitude higher, resulting in limited thermo-mechanical performance and considerably more activated waste products. In the present study, a water cooled divertor PFC using reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the heat sink pipe has been designed with pressurised water reactor-like cooling conditions (pressure of 15.5 MPa, velocity of 10–20 m s‑1 and temperature of 300 °C). The PFC is made up of a number of rectangular tungsten tiles, each with an inner circular hole (so-called monoblocks), joined onto a RAFM steel pipe with copper interlayers. The thermo-mechanical performance of the PFC has been studied in detail. The heat transfer coefficient between the RAFM pipe inner surface and the water was calculated using published correlations. Geometric parameters and water velocity were optimized with finite element (FE) thermal analysis, to achieve acceptable temperatures in the structure given the target exhaust heat load of 10 MW m‑2. Under this heat load and the optimised thermal design parameters, the structure of the PFC was further assessed by mechanical analysis. We find that under these conditions the RAFM steel pipe experiences cyclic plasticity, and fails the common linear elastic ratchetting (3 Sm) rule. Nevertheless, the designed W/RAFM divertor PFU can withstand 10 MW m‑2 heat load, albeit

  17. Strengthening of the RAFMS RUSFER-EK181 through nano structuring surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, A.; Melnikova, E.A. [Tomsk State Univ., lnstitute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB, RAS (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leontieva-Smirnova, M.V. [A.A. Bochvar Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Surface nano-structuring increases yield point and strength of the reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (RAFMS ) RUSREF - EK181. Ultrasonic impact treatment was used to produce a nano-structure within the surface layers of the specimens. Using scanning tunnelling microscope reveals a new mechanism of mesoscale-level plastic deformation of nano-structured surface layers of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181 as doubled spirals of localised-plastic deformation meso-bands. A linear dependence of their sizes on thickness of strengthened layer was obtained. The effect of localised deformation meso-bands on macro-mechanical properties of a material was demonstrated. A certain combination of thermal and mechanical treatment as well as optimum proportion of nano-structured surface layer thickness to thickness of a whole specimen are necessary to achieve maximum strength values. Tests performed at high temperatures in the range from 20 to 700 deg. C shows efficiency of the surface hardening of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181. The effect of nano-structured surface layer on the character of plastic deformation and mechanical properties of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181 was considered in the framework of a multilevel model in which loss of shear stability and generation of structural defects occur self-consistently at various scale levels such as nano-, micro-, meso-, and macro-Chessboard like distribution of stresses and misfit deformations was theoretical and experimentally shown to appear at the 'nano-structured surface layer - bulk of material' interface. Zones of compressive normal stresses alternates with zones of tensile normal stresses as on a chessboard. Plastic shear can generate only within local zones of tensile normal stresses. Critical meso-volume of non-equilibrium states required for local structure-phase transformation can be formed within these zones. Whereas within the zones of compressive normal stresses acting from both

  18. It was the demonstration of industrial steel production capacity ferritic-martensitic Spanish ASTURFER scale demand ITER; Hacia la demostracion de capacidad de produccion industrial del acero ferritico-martensitico espanol ASTURFER a escala de demanda ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coto, R.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Artimez, J. A.; Belzunce, J.; Sedano, L.

    2013-07-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) structural steels are considered as candidate materials with notable possibilities to be incorporated to fusion reactor ITER, nowadays under construction, and future fusion reactor DEMO, involving a notable forecasting of supply materials, with a considerable limitation due to the few number of furnishes currently on the market. The manufacture at an industrial scale of the ASTURFER steel, developed at laboratory scale by ITMA Materials Technology and the Structural Materials Division of the Technology Division of CIEMAT would be a significant business opportunity for steelwork companies.

  19. Effects of Ti and Ta addition on microstructure stability and tensile properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Kyu; Lee, Ji Won; Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Chang Hoon; Hong, Hyun Uk

    2018-03-01

    The effects of Ti and Ta addition on microstructure stability and tensile properties of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel have been investigated. Ti addition of 0.06 wt% to conventional RAFM reference base steel (Fe-9.3Cr-0.93W-0.22V-0.094Ta-0.1C) was intended to promote the precipitation of nano-sized (Ti,W) carbides with a high resistance to coarsening. In addition, the Ti addition was substituted for 0.094 wt% Ta. The Ti-added RAFM steel (Ti-RAFM) exhibited a higher yield strength (ΔYS = 32 MPa) at 600 °C than the reference base steel due to additional precipitation hardening by (Ti,W)-rich MX with an average size of 6.1 nm and the area fraction of 2.39%. However, after thermal exposure at 600 °C for 1000 h, this Ti-RAFM was more susceptible to degradation than the reference base steel; the block width increased by 77.6% in Ti-RAFM after thermal exposure while the reference base steel showed only 9.1% increase. In order to suppress diffusion rate during thermal exposure, the large-sized Ta element with low activation was added to Ti-RAFM. The Ta-added Ti-RAFM steel exhibited good properties with outstanding microstructure stability. Quantitative comparison in microstructures was discussed with a consideration of Ti and Ta addition.

  20. TIG of Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensitic Steel for the Korean ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu Young; Yu, In Keun; Cho, Seun Gyon; Oh, Seung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be tested in ITER to verify the capability of tritium breeding and recovery and the extraction of thermal energy suitable for the production of electricity. A Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) TBM has been developed in Korea to accomplish these goals. Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been chosen as the primary candidate structural material for Korean TBM. Due to the complexity of the First wall (FW) and Side wall (SW), it is necessary to develop various joining technologies, such as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, for the successful fabrication of TBM. In this study, the mechanical properties of TIG welded RAFM steel were investigated. Various mechanical tests of TIG-welded RAFM steel were performed to obtain the optimized TIG welding process for RAFM steel

  1. TIG of Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensitic Steel for the Korean ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu Young; Yu, In Keun; Cho, Seun Gyon [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jin [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be tested in ITER to verify the capability of tritium breeding and recovery and the extraction of thermal energy suitable for the production of electricity. A Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) TBM has been developed in Korea to accomplish these goals. Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been chosen as the primary candidate structural material for Korean TBM. Due to the complexity of the First wall (FW) and Side wall (SW), it is necessary to develop various joining technologies, such as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, for the successful fabrication of TBM. In this study, the mechanical properties of TIG welded RAFM steel were investigated. Various mechanical tests of TIG-welded RAFM steel were performed to obtain the optimized TIG welding process for RAFM steel

  2. Development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steels in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Y. B.; Choi, B. K.; Han, C. H.; Lee, D. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, T. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1980s research programs for development of low activation materials began. This is based on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guidelines (10CFR part 61) that were developed to reduce longlived radioactive isotopes, which allows nuclear reactor waste to be disposed of by shallow land burial when removed from service. Development of low activation materials is also key issue in nuclear fusion systems, as the structural components can became radioactive due to nuclear transmutation caused by exposure to high dose neutron irradiation. Reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed in the leading countries in nuclear fusion technology, and are now being considered as candidate structural material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). South Korea joined the ITER program in 2003 and since then extensive effort has been made for developing the helium-cooled solid-breeder (HCSB) TBM which is scheduled to be tested in the ITER program. However, there has been no research activity to develop RAFM steels in South Korea, while all the participants in the ITER program have developed their own RAFM steels. It is recently that the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the Korean RAFM steel research program, aiming at an application for the HCSB-type TBM structure in ITER. In what follows, the current status of RAFM steels and the R and D program led by KAERI to develop Korean RAFM steels are summarized

  3. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of the reduced-activation-ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Schirra, M.

    2002-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are being considered for structural application in potential fusion energy systems. Based on the substantial experience with RAFM developmental steels of OPTIFER type, an industrial 3.5 tons batch of a 9CrWVTa-RAFM steel, called EUROFER 97 had been specified and ordered. A characterisation programme has been launched to determine the relevant mechanical and physical-metallurgical properties in order to qualify the steel for fusion application. The hardening, tempering and transformation behaviour of EUROFER is in good agreement with that of other RAFM-steels like OPTIFER and the Japanese industrial scale heat F82H mod. Tensile tests, performed between RT and 750 deg. C, show comparable strength and ductility values that are not strongly affected by different heat treatments and ageing at 580 and 600 deg. C up to 3300 h. Impact bending tests indicate a superior ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of EUROFER in the as-received condition compared with that of F82H mod. Creep tests between 450 and 650 deg. C up to test times of 15000 h reveal a creep strength similar to other RAFM steels like OPTIFER and F82H mod. EUROFER shows a good low-cycle fatigue behaviour with longer lifetimes than F82H mod. The deformation and softening behaviour is similar

  4. Oxide Evolution in ODS Steel Resulting From Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the SZ on both the AS and RS of 304L stainless steel , from [16]. ...........................................12  Figure 7.  Past research conditions...being done on void swelling and embrittlement effects. Reduced activation ferritic/ martensitic (RAFM) steels and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS...growth by grain boundary pinning at higher temperatures. Another type of ODS steel is 9-Cr martensitic steel , which is not considered in this research

  5. Recent progress of R and D activities on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q., E-mail: qunying.huang@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1135, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Baluc, N. [CRPP-EPFL, ODGA C110 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dai, Y. [LNM, PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Jitsukawa, S. [JAEA, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-Ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, A. [IAE, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Konys, J. [KIT, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kurtz, R.J. [PNNL, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lindau, R. [KIT, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Muroga, T. [NIFS, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Odette, G.R. [UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Raj, B. [IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Stoller, R.E.; Tan, L. [ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tanigawa, H. [JAEA, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [DMN/Dir, DEN, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Yamamoto, T. [UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Wan, F. [DMPC, USTB, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Y. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1135, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Several types of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel have been developed over the past 30 years in China, Europe, India, Japan, Russia and the USA for application in ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) and future fusion DEMO and power reactors. The progress has been particularly important during the past few years with evaluation of mechanical properties of these steels before and after irradiation and in contact with different cooling media. This paper presents recent RAFM steel results obtained in ITER partner countries in relation to different TBM and DEMO options.

  6. Current status and recent research achievements in ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Luzginova, N.; Tanigawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    When the austenitic stainless steel 316L(N) was selected for ITER, it was well known that it would not be suitable for DEMO and fusion reactors due to its irradiation swelling at high doses. A parallel programme to ITER collaboration already had been put in place, under an IEA fusion materials implementing agreement for the development of a low activation ferritic/martensitic steel, known for their excellent high dose irradiation swelling resistance. After extensive screening tests on different compositions of Fe-Cr alloys, the chromium range was narrowed to 7-9% and the first RAFM was industrially produced in Japan (F82H: Fe-8%Cr-2%W-TaV). All IEA partners tested this steel and contributed to its maturity. In parallel several other RAFM steels were produced in other countries. From those experiences and also for improving neutron efficiency and corrosion resistance, European Union opted for a higher chromium lower tungsten grade, Fe-9%Cr-1%W-TaV steel (Eurofer), and in 1997 ordered the first industrial heats. Other industrial heats have been produced since and characterised in different states, including irradiated up to 80 dpa. China, India, Russia, Korea and US have also produced their grades of RAFM steels, contributing to overall maturity of these steels. This paper reviews the work done on RAFM steels by the fusion materials community over the past 30 years, in particular on the Eurofer steel and its design code qualification for RCC-MRx.

  7. Current status and recent research achievements in ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F., E-mail: farhad.tavassoli@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/DANS/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diegele, E., E-mail: eberhard.diegele@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Lindau, R., E-mail: rainer.lindau@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Luzginova, N., E-mail: Natalia.Luzginova@gmail.com [NRG-Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Tanigawa, H., E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Authority (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    When the austenitic stainless steel 316L(N) was selected for ITER, it was well known that it would not be suitable for DEMO and fusion reactors due to its irradiation swelling at high doses. A parallel programme to ITER collaboration already had been put in place, under an IEA fusion materials implementing agreement for the development of a low activation ferritic/martensitic steel, known for their excellent high dose irradiation swelling resistance. After extensive screening tests on different compositions of Fe–Cr alloys, the chromium range was narrowed to 7–9% and the first RAFM was industrially produced in Japan (F82H: Fe–8%Cr–2%W–TaV). All IEA partners tested this steel and contributed to its maturity. In parallel several other RAFM steels were produced in other countries. From those experiences and also for improving neutron efficiency and corrosion resistance, European Union opted for a higher chromium lower tungsten grade, Fe–9%Cr–1%W–TaV steel (Eurofer), and in 1997 ordered the first industrial heats. Other industrial heats have been produced since and characterised in different states, including irradiated up to 80 dpa. China, India, Russia, Korea and US have also produced their grades of RAFM steels, contributing to overall maturity of these steels. This paper reviews the work done on RAFM steels by the fusion materials community over the past 30 years, in particular on the Eurofer steel and its design code qualification for RCC-MRx.

  8. Effect of tungsten and tantalum on the low cycle fatigue behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Vani, E-mail: vani@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mariappan, K.; Nagesha, A.; Prasad Reddy, G.V.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of tungsten and tantalum on low cycle fatigue behavior of RAFM steels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both alloying elements W and Ta improved fatigue life. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in Ta content improved fatigue life more than W. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of W content at 1.4 wt.%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Softening behavior closely related to W and Ta content. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are candidate materials for the test blanket modules of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Several degradation mechanisms such as thermal fatigue, low cycle fatigue, creep fatigue interaction, creep, irradiation hardening, swelling and phase instability associated irradiation embrittlement must be understood in order to estimate the component lifetime and issues concerning the structural integrity of components. The current work focuses on the effect of tungsten and tantalum on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of RAFM steels. Both alloying elements tungsten and tantalum improved the fatigue life. Influence of Ta on increasing fatigue life was an order of magnitude higher than the influence of W on improving the fatigue life. Based on the present study, the W content was optimized at 1.4 wt.%. Softening behavior of RAFM steels showed a strong dependence on W and Ta content in RAFM steels.

  9. Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of ferritic martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Y. B.; Han, C. H.; Choi, B. K.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, T. K.; Jeong, Y. H.; Cho, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1980s research programs for development of low activation materials began. This is based on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guidelines (10CFR part 61) that were developed to reduce long-lived radioactive isotopes, which allows nuclear reactor waste to be disposed of by shallow land burial when removed from service. Development of low activation materials is also key issue in nuclear fusion systems, as the structural components can became radioactive due to nuclear transmutation caused by exposure to high dose neutron irradiation. Reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed in the leading countries in nuclear fusion technology, and are now being considered as primary candidate material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). RAFM steels developed so far (e.g., EUROFER 97 and F82H) meet the requirement for structural application in the ITER. However, if such alloys are used in the DEMO or commercial fusion reactor is still unclear, as the reactors are designed to operate under much severe conditions (i.e., higher outlet coolant temperature and neutron fluences). Such harsh operating conditions lead to development of RAFM steels with better creep and irradiation resistances. Mechanical properties of RAFM steels are strongly affected by microstructural features including the distribution, size and type of precipitates, dislocation density and grain size. For a given composition, such microstructural characteristics are determined mainly by thermo-mechanical process employed to fabricate the final product, and accordingly a final heat treatment, i.e., tempering is the key step to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work, we investigated mechanical properties of the RAFM steels with a particular attention being paid to effects of tempering on impact and creep properties

  10. Tensile behavior of RAFM alloys after neutron irradiation of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna-Morris, E., E-mail: edeltraud.materna-morris@kit.edu; Schneider, H.-C., E-mail: hans-christian.schneider@kit.edu; Möslang, A., E-mail: anton.moeslang@kit.edu

    2014-12-15

    Tensile specimen of steel EUROFER97 and other alloys on the basis of RAFM steels such, as OPTIFER and F82H alloys, and Ga3X were irradiated and post-examined during a neutron irradiation program of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in the Netherlands. These tensile results were compared with former irradiation programs, with lower neutron doses of up to 0.8 and 2.4 dpa to quantify the difference in tensile strengthening. The average increase of tensile strength was in a range of 300 MPa between 0.8 and 16.3 dpa at temperatures of 250–300 °C. This behavior can be correlated with irradiation-induced changes in the microstructure. Most of the hardening can be attributed to dislocation loops, point defects or small precipitates as observed in boron-free alloys as F82H mod. and EUROFER97. Whereas the hardening in boron-containing alloys OPTIFER alloys and Ga3X can be correlated in addition with the combination of helium bubbles. At the highest irradiation and test temperature at 450 °C, all tensile data of all investigated materials were in the range of those of non-irradiated and irradiated material due to thermal aging effects.

  11. Tensile behavior of RAFM alloys after neutron irradiation of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna-Morris, E.; Schneider, H.-C.; Möslang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tensile specimen of steel EUROFER97 and other alloys on the basis of RAFM steels such, as OPTIFER and F82H alloys, and Ga3X were irradiated and post-examined during a neutron irradiation program of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in the Netherlands. These tensile results were compared with former irradiation programs, with lower neutron doses of up to 0.8 and 2.4 dpa to quantify the difference in tensile strengthening. The average increase of tensile strength was in a range of 300 MPa between 0.8 and 16.3 dpa at temperatures of 250–300 °C. This behavior can be correlated with irradiation-induced changes in the microstructure. Most of the hardening can be attributed to dislocation loops, point defects or small precipitates as observed in boron-free alloys as F82H mod. and EUROFER97. Whereas the hardening in boron-containing alloys OPTIFER alloys and Ga3X can be correlated in addition with the combination of helium bubbles. At the highest irradiation and test temperature at 450 °C, all tensile data of all investigated materials were in the range of those of non-irradiated and irradiated material due to thermal aging effects

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Taeho; Jang, Minho; Park, Mingu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite.

  13. Current status of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels R and D for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steels have been considered to be the prime candidate for the fusion blanket structural material. The irradiation data obtained up to now indicates rather high feasibility of the steels for application to fusion reactors because of their high resistance to degradation of material performance caused by both the irradiation-induced displacement damage and transmutation helium atoms. The martensitic structure of RAF/M steels consists of a large number of lattice defects before the irradiation, which strongly retards the formation of displacement damage through absorption and annihilation of the point defects generated by irradiation. Transmutation helium can be also trapped at those defects in the martensitic structure so that the growth of helium bubbles at grain boundaries is suppressed. The major properties of the steels are well within our knowledge, and processing technologies are mostly developed for fusion application. RAF/M steels are now certainly ready to proceed to the next stage, that is, the construction of International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor Test Blanket Modules (ITER-TBM). Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels have been developed for higher thermal efficiency of fusion power plants. Recent irradiation experiments indicated that the steels were quite highly resistant to neutron irradiation embrittlement, showing hardening accompanied by no loss of ductility. High-Cr ODS steels whose chromium concentration was in the range from 14 to 19 mass% showed high resistance to corrosion in supercritical pressurized water. It is shown that the 14Cr-ODS steel is susceptible to neither hydrogen nor helium embrittlement. A combined utilization of ODS steels with RAF/M steels will be effective to realize fusion power early at a reasonable thermal efficiency. (author)

  14. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  15. Technical issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fabrication of ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, H.; Hirose, T.; Shiba, K.; Kasada, R.; Wakai, E.; Serizawa, H.; Kawahito, Y.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, A.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Katayama, S.; Mori, H.; Nishimoto, K.; Klueh, R.L.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. The RAFM F82H was developed in Japan with emphasis on high-temperature properties and weldability. Extensive irradiation studies have conducted on F82H, and it has the most extensive available database of irradiated and unirradiated properties of all RAFMs. The objective of this paper is to review the R and D status of F82H and to identify the key technical issues for the fabrication of an ITER test blanket module (TBM) suggested from the recent research achievements in Japan. This work clarified that the primary issues with F82H involve welding techniques and the mechanical properties of weld joints. This is the result of the distinctive nature of the joint caused by the phase transformation that occurs in the weld joint during cooling, and its impact on the design of a TBM will be discussed

  16. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. → Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. → Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. → PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. → Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in

  17. Material science and manufacturing of heat-resistant reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioltukhovskiy, A.G.; Blokhin, A.I.; Budylkin, N.I.; Chernov, V.M.; Leont'eva-Smirnova, M.V.; Mironova, E.G.; Medvedeva, E.A.; Solonin, M.I.; Porollo, S.I.; Zavyalsky, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    A number of issues regarding the development and use of 10-12% Cr reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFMS) for fusion are considered. These include: (1) problems of manufacturing and modifying their composition and metallurgical condition; (2) the influence on properties of their composition, purity, δ-ferrite concentration and cooling rates in the final stages of manufacturing; and (3) the effects of neutron irradiation at 320-650 deg. C up to 108 dpa on their mechanical properties. In addition, neutron activation and nuclear accumulation of elements in RAFMS with different initial concentrations of alloying and impurity elements for typical fusion reactor (DEMO) irradiation regimes have been calculated

  18. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  19. Comparison of corrosion behavior of EUROFER and CLAM steels in flowing Pb–15.7Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konys, J., E-mail: juergen.konys@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Krauss, W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zhu, Z.; Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Ferritic martensitic steels are envisaged to be applied as structural materials in HCLL blanket systems. Their compatibility with the liquid breeder, which is in direct contact with the structural alloy, will be essential for reliable and safe operation of the designed blankets. Formerly performed corrosion tests of RAFM steels in PICOLO loop of KIT were mainly done at high flow velocities, e.g., 0.22 m/s and delivered severe attack with material loss rates above 400 μm/yr at 823 K. Meanwhile, flow velocities for corrosion testing have been reduced into the “cm range” to be near fusion relevant conditions. Among the international ITER-partners, many varieties of RAFM steels have been developed and manufactured within the last decade, e.g., the so-called Chinese Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM). In this paper, the long term corrosion behavior of EUROFER and CLAM steel in flowing Pb–15.7Li will be presented at a flow velocity of about 0.10 m/s and compared with earlier obtained results of RAFM steels exposed at other operation parameters of PICOLO loop. The observed corrosion attack is near 220 μm/yr and fits well to predictions made by MATLIM-modeling for low flow velocities in the turbulent flow regime.

  20. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G., E-mail: gsrini@igcar.gov.in [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India); Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. > Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. > Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. > PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. > Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld

  1. Development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steels and fabrication technologies for Indian test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2011-10-01

    For the development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel (RAFMS), for the Indian Test Blanket Module for ITER, a 3-phase programme has been adopted. The first phase consists of melting and detailed characterization of a laboratory scale heat conforming to Eurofer 97 composition, to demonstrate the capability of the Indian industry for producing fusion grade steel. In the second phase which is currently in progress, the chemical composition will be optimized with respect to tungsten and tantalum for better combination of mechanical properties. Characterization of the optimized commercial scale India-specific RAFM steel will be carried out in the third phase. The first phase of the programme has been successfully completed and the tensile, impact and creep properties are comparable with Eurofer 97. Laser and electron beam welding parameters have been optimized and welding consumables were developed for Narrow Gap - Gas Tungsten Arc welding and for laser-hybrid welding.

  2. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  3. Technical issues of fabrication technologies of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Hirose, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The key technical issues of RAFM steel fabrication are the control of Ta, and deoxidation of the steel with a limited amount of Al addition. • Addition of Ta with poor deoxidation might results in the agglomeration of inclusions at 1/2t position. • ESR was proved to be effective removing Ta oxide inclusions and avoiding agglomeration of inclusions at 1/2t position, and achieving low oxygen concentration. -- Abstract: The key issue for DEMO application is that Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels fabrication technologies has to be highly assured, especially with respect to high availability, reliability and reduced activation capability on the DEMO level fabrication, which requires not a few tons but thousand tons RAFM fabrication. One of the key technical issues of RAFM fabrication is the control of Ta, and deoxidation of the steel with a limited amount of Al addition. The series of F82H (Fe–8Cr–2W–V, Ta) melting revealed that Ta have tendency to form oxide on melting process, and this will have large impact on reliability of the steels. Al is also the key elements, as it is commonly used for deoxidation of steels, and achieving lower oxygen level is essential to obtain good mechanical properties, but the maximum concentration of Al is limited in view of reduced activation capability. These tendency and limitation resulted in the Ta oxide agglomeration in the middle of plate, but the remelting process, ESR (electro slag remelting), was found to be successful on removing those Ta oxides

  4. Chemical compatibility study of lithium titanate with Indian reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonak, Sagar; Jain, Uttam; Haldar, Rumu; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical compatibility between Li_2TiO_3 and Indian RAFM steel has been studied at ITER operating temperature. • The lithium titanate chemically reacted with ferritic martensitic steel to form a brittle and non-adherent oxide layer. • The layer grew in a parabolic manner as a function of heating time. • Diffusion of oxygen (from Li_2TiO_3) appears to be controlling the oxide layer. - Abstract: Chemical compatibility between lithium titanate and Indian reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (In-RAFMS) was studied for the first time under ITER operating temperature. Lithium titanate required for the study was synthesized in-house. Coupons of In-RAFMS were packed inside lithium titanate powder and heated at 550 °C up to 900 h under inert argon atmosphere. The lithium titanate chemically reacted with ferritic martensitic steel to form a brittle and non-adherent oxide layer. The layer grew in a parabolic manner as a function of heating time. Microstructural and phase evolution of this oxide layer was studied using XRD, SEM and EPMA. Iron and chromium enriched zones were found within the oxide layer. Diffusion of oxygen (from Li_2TiO_3) appears to be controlling the oxide layer.

  5. Evaluation of impacts of stress triaxiality on plastic deformability of RAFM steel using various types of tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Taichiro, E-mail: kato.taichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ohata, Mitsuru [Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Obuchi-omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. • Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. • Voids of interrupted R0.2 specimen were rounded shape than those of RB1. • The fracture surface of specimens were observed the elongated and the equiaxed dimples. • The decrease of plastic deformability of the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch. - Abstract: A case study on a fusion blanket design such as DEMO indicated that there could be some sections with high stress triaxiality, a parameter to evaluate the magnitude of plastic constraint, in the case of plasma disruption or coolant loss accident. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately understand the ductility loss limit of structural material in order to conduct the structural design assessment of the irradiated and embrittled fusion reactor blanket. Tensile tests were conducted by using three kinds of tensile specimen shapes to investigate of the plastic deformability of F82H. From the results, the fracture ductility is lower as the stress triaxiality is higher. Voids of the interrupted RB1 specimen were observed along grain boundaries and expanded parallel to the tensile axis. That of interrupted R0.2 specimen was rounded shape compared with those of RB1. The fracture surface of RB1 and R0.2 specimens were observed the elongated dimples and the equiaxed dimples without so much elongation, respectively. It is considered that the decrease of plastic deformability for the notched specimen was caused by the process of voids formation and crack growth due to the effect of plastic constraint of the notch.

  6. Development of an extensive database of mechanical properties for Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Ando, M.; Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Hirose, T.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Kohyama, A.; Kohno, Y.; Klueh, R.L.; Sokolov, M.; Stoller, R.; Zinklek, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems, as they have been developed based on massive industrial experience of ferritic/martensitic steel replacing Mo and Nb of high chromium heat resistant martensitic steels (such as modified 9Cr-1Mo) with W and Ta, respectively. F82H (8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.04Ta-0.1C) and JLF-1 (9Cr-2W-0.2V-0.08Ta-0.1C) are RAFMs, which have been developed and studied in Japan and the various effects of irradiation were reported. F82H is designed with emphasis on high temperature property and weldablility, and was provided and evaluated in various countries as a part of the IEA fusion materials development collaboration. The Japan/US collaboration program also has been conducted with the emphasis on heavy irradiation effects of F82H, JLF-1 and ORNL9Cr2WVTa over the past two decades using Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) of PNNL and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL, and the irradiation condition of the irradiation capsules of those reactors were precisely controlled by the well matured capsule designing and instrumentation. Now, among the existing database for RAFMs the most extensive one is that for F82H. The objective of this paper is to review the database status of RAFMs, mainly on F82H, to identify the key issues for the future development of database. Tensile, fracture toughness, creep and fatigue properties and microstructural studies before and after irradiation are summarized. (authors)

  7. Development of an extensive database of mechanical properties for Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Ando, M.; Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [0ak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Sokolov, M.; Stoller, R.; Zinklek, S. [0ak Ridge Noational Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States); Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. [UCSB, Dept. of Chemical Engineering UCSB, Santa-Barbara (United States); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacifie Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems, as they have been developed based on massive industrial experience of ferritic/martensitic steel replacing Mo and Nb of high chromium heat resistant martensitic steels (such as modified 9Cr-1Mo) with W and Ta, respectively. F82H (8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.04Ta-0.1C) and JLF-1 (9Cr-2W-0.2V-0.08Ta-0.1C) are RAFMs, which have been developed and studied in Japan and the various effects of irradiation were reported. F82H is designed with emphasis on high temperature property and weldablility, and was provided and evaluated in various countries as a part of the IEA fusion materials development collaboration. The Japan/US collaboration program also has been conducted with the emphasis on heavy irradiation effects of F82H, JLF-1 and ORNL9Cr2WVTa over the past two decades using Fast Flux Testing Facility (FFTF) of PNNL and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL, and the irradiation condition of the irradiation capsules of those reactors were precisely controlled by the well matured capsule designing and instrumentation. Now, among the existing database for RAFMs the most extensive one is that for F82H. The objective of this paper is to review the database status of RAFMs, mainly on F82H, to identify the key issues for the future development of database. Tensile, fracture toughness, creep and fatigue properties and microstructural studies before and after irradiation are summarized. (authors)

  8. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  9. Recent status and improvement of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, L., E-mail: tanl@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Tavassoli, A.-A.F.; Henry, J. [DMN/Dir, DEN, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, 76021 (Germany); Sakasegawa, H. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Rokkasho, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Tanigawa, H. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Rokkasho, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels, candidate structural materials for fusion reactors, have achieved technological maturity after about three decades of research and development. The recent status of a few developmental aspects of current RAFM steels, such as aging resistance, plate thickness effects, fracture toughness, and fatigue, is updated in this paper, together with ongoing efforts to develop next-generation RAFM steels for superior high-temperature performance. In addition to thermomechanical treatments, including nonstandard heat treatment, alloy chemistry refinements and modifications have demonstrated some improvements in high-temperature performance. Castable nanostructured alloys (CNAs) were developed by significantly increasing the amount of nanoscale MX (M = V/Ta/Ti, X = C/N) precipitates and reducing coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr). Preliminary results showed promising improvement in creep resistance and Charpy impact toughness. Limited low-dose neutron irradiation results for one of the CNAs and China low activation martensitic are presented and compared with data for F82H and Eurofer97 irradiated up to ∼70 displacements per atom at ∼300–325 °C.

  10. Application of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigation of reactor steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, S.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.; Veternikova, J.; Sabelova, V.; Egger, W.; Ravelli, L.

    2013-01-01

    Our work is focused on the study of radiation damage simulated by ion implantations and thermal treatment evaluation of RAFM steels in the form of binary Fe-Cr model alloys. In order to study the microstructure recovery after ion irradiation, we applied an approach for restoration of initial physical and mechanical characteristics of structural materials in the form of thermal annealing, with the goal to decrease the size and amount of accumulated defects. The experimental analysis of material damage at microstructural level was performed by the pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) [1] at the high intensity positron source NEPOMUC at the Munich research reactor FRM-II. (authors)

  11. Report of IEA workshop on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    IEA Workshop on Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steels under implementing agreement for program of research and development on fusion materials was held at Tokyo Yayoi Kaikan and JAERI headquarter on November 2-3, 2000. The objective of this workshop was a review of the fusion material development programs, the progress of the collaboration and the irradiation effects studies on RAF/M steels in the collaborating parties (Europe, Russia the United States, and Japan). Moreover, the development of plans for future collaboration was discussed. The present report contains viewgraphs presented at the workshop. (author)

  12. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  13. Progress of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, A.; Kohyama, A.; Ukai, S.; Sawai, T.; Wakai, E.; Shiba, K.; Miwa, Y.; Furuya, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent accomplishment by the Japanese activity for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAF/M) development has been reviewed. Some of the results obtained in EU and US by international collaborative activities are also introduced. Effect of irradiation on the shift of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated to a dose of 20dpa. Results suggest that RAF/M appears to satisfy the requirement on DBTT-shift for the blanket application in the dose range up to several tens of dpa. Also, enhancement effect of DBTT-shift by transmutation produced helium (He) atoms was revealed to be smaller than has been suggested previously. Preliminary studies about the effect of irradiation on fatigue mechanism, the susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking in water and flow stress-strain relation have been conducted for the specimens irradiated to several dpa, including the post irradiation tensile property examination of the joints by Hot-isostatic press (HIP) bonding method. The results also indicate that RAF/Ms exhibit suitable properties for ITER test blanket module. (author)

  14. Compatibility of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels with liquid breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroga, T.; Nagasaka, T.; Kondo, M.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.

    2008-10-01

    The compatibility of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel (RAFM) with liquid Li and molten-salt Flibe have been characterized and accessed. Static compatibility tests were carried out in which the specimens were immersed into liquid Li or Flibe in isothermal autoclaves. Also carried out were compatibility tests in flowing liquid Li by thermal convection loops. In the case of liquid Li, the corrosion rate increased with temperature significantly. The corrosion was almost one order larger for the loop tests than for the static tests. Chemical analysis showed that the corrosion was enhanced when the level of N in Li is increased. Transformation from martensitic to ferritic phase and the resulting softening were observed in near-surface area of Li-exposed specimens, which were shown to be induced by decarburization. In the case of Flibe, the corrosion loss was much larger in a Ni crucible than in a RAFM crucible. Both fluorides and oxides were observed on the surfaces. Thus, the key corrosion process of Flibe is the competing process of fluoridation and oxidation. Possible mechanism of the enhanced corrosion in Ni crucible is electrochemical circuit effect. It was suggested that the corrosion loss rate of RAFM by liquid Li and Flibe can be reduced by reducing the level of impurity N in Li and avoiding the use of dissimilar materials in Flibe, respectively. (author)

  15. A study on influence of heat input variation on microstructure of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weld metal produced by GTAW process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivazhagan, B.; Srinivasan, G.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel is a major structural material for test blanket module (TBM) to be incorporated in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme to study the breeding of tritium in fusion reactors. This material has been mainly developed to achieve significant reduction in the induced radioactivity from the structural material used. Fabrication of TBM involves extensive welding, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process is one of the welding processes being considered for this purpose. In the present work, the effect of heat input on microstructure of indigenously developed RAFM steel weld metal produced by GTAW process has been studied. Autogenous bead-on-plate welding, autogenous butt-welding, butt-welding with filler wire addition, and pulsed welding on RAFMS have been carried out using GTAW process respectively. The weld metal is found to contain δ-ferrite and its volume fraction increased with increase in heat input. This fact suggests that δ-ferrite content in the weld metal is influenced by the cooling rate during welding. It was also observed that the hardness of the weld metal decreased with increase in δ-ferrite content. This paper highlights the effect of heat input and PWHT duration on microstructure and hardness of welds.

  16. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja4@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-05-15

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  17. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-05-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  18. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr–1W–0.06Ta–0.22V–0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300–873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  19. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R., E-mail: chitta@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Mastanaiah, P. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition.

  20. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Sam, Shiju; Mastanaiah, P.; Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Murthy, C.V.S.; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition

  1. Effects of irradiation conditions and environment on the reflectivity of different steel mirrors for ITER diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Teresa; Martin, Piedad; Fernandez, Pilar; Hodgson, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work possible degradation of the reflectivity for mirrors made from various steels subjected to ionizing radiation, at moderate temperature and in different environments (vacuum, air, or nitrogen) up to a total dose of 9 MGy, has been examined. Mirrors were prepared from conventional austenitic stainless steel (316L) and also reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels (Eurofer, ODS-Eurofer, F82H), and the reflectivity studied from ultraviolet to near infrared, before and after different treatments. Under all conditions the austenitic steel mirrors only degrade slightly (<10%), however for the reduced activation steels important reflectivity degradation for wavelengths below 1000 nm are observed for the different conditions. Surface morphology and microstructure has been also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The production of near surface nitrides is considered to be the possible cause of the optical degradation.

  2. Effects of irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.W.; Tanigawa, H.; Hirose, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In materials life decision for a commercial blanket, thermal fatigue property of materials is a particularly important. The loading of structural materials in fusion reactor is, besides the plasma surface interactions, a combined effect of high heat fluxes and neutron irradiation. Depending on the pulse lengths, the operating conditions, and the thermal conductivity, these oscillating temperature gradients will cause elastic and elastic-plastic cyclic deformation giving rise to (creep-) fatigue in structural first wall and blanket components. Especially, investigation of the fatigue property in Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAF/M) steel and establishment of the evaluation technology are demanded in particular immediately for design/manufacturing of ITER-TBM. And also, fatigue testing after irradiation will be carried out in hot cells with remote control system. Considering limited ability of specimen manipulation in the cells, the specimen and the test method need to be simple for operation. The existing data bases of RAF/M steel provide baseline data set including post-irradiation fatigue data. However, to perform the accurate fatigue lifetime assessment for ITER-TBM and beyond utilizing the existing data base, the mechanical understanding of fatigue fracture is mandatory. It has been previously reported by co-authors that dislocation cell structure was developed on low cycle fatigued RAF/M steel, and led the fatigue crack to develop along prior austenitic grain boundary. In this work, the effects of nuclear irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties for RAF/M steels and its fracture mechanisms were examined based on the flow stress analysis and detailed microstructure analysis. Fracture surfaces and crack initiation site were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also applied to clarify the microstructural features of fatigue behavior. It is also important to

  3. Effects of irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.W. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In materials life decision for a commercial blanket, thermal fatigue property of materials is a particularly important. The loading of structural materials in fusion reactor is, besides the plasma surface interactions, a combined effect of high heat fluxes and neutron irradiation. Depending on the pulse lengths, the operating conditions, and the thermal conductivity, these oscillating temperature gradients will cause elastic and elastic-plastic cyclic deformation giving rise to (creep-) fatigue in structural first wall and blanket components. Especially, investigation of the fatigue property in Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAF/M) steel and establishment of the evaluation technology are demanded in particular immediately for design/manufacturing of ITER-TBM. And also, fatigue testing after irradiation will be carried out in hot cells with remote control system. Considering limited ability of specimen manipulation in the cells, the specimen and the test method need to be simple for operation. The existing data bases of RAF/M steel provide baseline data set including post-irradiation fatigue data. However, to perform the accurate fatigue lifetime assessment for ITER-TBM and beyond utilizing the existing data base, the mechanical understanding of fatigue fracture is mandatory. It has been previously reported by co-authors that dislocation cell structure was developed on low cycle fatigued RAF/M steel, and led the fatigue crack to develop along prior austenitic grain boundary. In this work, the effects of nuclear irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties for RAF/M steels and its fracture mechanisms were examined based on the flow stress analysis and detailed microstructure analysis. Fracture surfaces and crack initiation site were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also applied to clarify the microstructural features of fatigue behavior. It is also important to

  4. R and D status of China low activation martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunying; Li Chunjing; Li Yanfen; Liu Shaojun; Wu Yican; Li Jiangang; Shan Yiyin; Yu Jinnan; Zhu Shengyun; Zhang Pinyuan; Yang Jianfeng; Han Fusheng; Kong Mingguang; Li Heqin; Muroga, T.; Nagasaka, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel is considered as the primary candidate structural material for DEMO and the first fusion plant, and widely studied in the world. China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) is being developed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, under wide collaboration with many other domestic and foreign institutes and universities. This paper summarized the main R and D progress on CLAM, which covered composition optimization of the CLAM, smelting and processing techniques, physical and mechanical property test and evaluation before and after irradiation, compatibility with liquid LiPb, welding techniques etc. Finally, further research and development, and the prospects on its application were stated. (authors)

  5. Multiscale simulation of yield strength in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chen Chong; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ji Jun [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2017-04-15

    One of the important requirements for the application of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is to retain proper mechanical properties under irradiation and high-temperature conditions. To simulate the yield strength and stress-strain curve of steels during high-temperature and irradiation conditions, a multiscale simulation method consisting of both microstructure and strengthening simulations was established. The simulation results of microstructure parameters were added to a superposition strengthening model, which consisted of constitutive models of different strengthening methods. Based on the simulation results, the strength contribution for different strengthening methods at both room temperature and high-temperature conditions was analyzed. The simulation results of the yield strength in irradiation and high-temperature conditions were mainly consistent with the experimental results. The optimal application field of this multiscale model was 9Cr series (7–9 wt.%Cr) RAFM steels in a condition characterized by 0.1–5 dpa (or 0 dpa) and a temperature range of 25–500°C.

  6. Microstructural characterization of weld joints of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel fabricated by different joining methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Saroja, S.; Albert, S.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E., E-mail: vtp@igcar.gov.in

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed electron microscopy study on the microstructure of various regions of weldment fabricated by three welding methods namely tungsten inert gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding in an indigenously developed 9Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. Electron back scatter diffraction studies showed a random micro-texture in all the three welds. Microstructural changes during thermal exposures were studied and corroborated with hardness and optimized conditions for the post weld heat treatment have been identified for this steel. Hollomon–Jaffe parameter has been used to estimate the extent of tempering. The activation energy for the tempering process has been evaluated and found to be corresponding to interstitial diffusion of carbon in ferrite matrix. The type and microchemistry of secondary phases in different regions of the weldment have been identified by analytical transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Comparison of microstructural parameters in TIG, electron beam and laser welds of RAFM steel • EBSD studies to illustrate the absence of preferred orientation and identification of prior austenite grain size using phase identification map • Optimization of PWHT conditions for indigenous RAFM steel • Study of kinetics of tempering and estimation of apparent activation energy of the process.

  7. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  8. Martensitic transformation in Eurofer-97 and ODS-Eurofer steels: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilnyk, K.D.; Oliveira, V.B.; Sandim, H.R.Z.; Möslang, A.; Raabe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Martensitic transformation of RAFM steels promotes significant grain fragmentation. • Austenite grain growth occurs in Eurofer-97 steel but not in ODS-Eurofer steel. • Boundary misorientation distribution of the as-quenched steels show two maxima peaks. • The amount of retained austenite varies from one steel to another. - Abstract: Reduced-activation ferritic–martensitic Eurofer-97 and ODS-Eurofer steels are potential candidates for structural applications in advanced nuclear reactors. Samples of both steel grades in the as-tempered condition were austenitized in vacuum for 1 h from 900 °C to 1300 °C followed by air cooling to room temperature. The microstructure was characterized by dilatometry, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermodynamic calculations provided by Thermo-Calc software were used to determine their transformation temperatures. Even having similar chemical composition, important changes were observed after martensitic transformation in these steels. Significant austenitic grain growth was observed in Eurofer-97 steel leading to the development of coarser martensitic packets. Contrastingly, austenitic grain growth was prevented in ODS-Eurofer steel due to fine and stable dispersion of Y-based particles

  9. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He{sup +} beam and sequential He{sup +} and H{sup +} beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C.

  10. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenhui; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng; Ren, Yaoyao; Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He + beam and sequential He + and H + beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C

  11. Delta ferrite in the weld metal of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Shiju, E-mail: shiju@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India); Das, C.R.; Ramasubbu, V.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Formation of delta(δ)-ferrite in the weld metal, during autogenous bead-on-plate welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process, has been studied. Composition of the alloy is such that delta-ferrite is not expected in the alloy; but examination of the weld metal revealed presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal. Volume fraction of delta-ferrite is found to be higher in the weld interface than in the rest of the fusion zone. Decrease in the volume fraction of delta-ferrite, with an increase in preheat temperature or with an increase in heat input, is observed. Results indicate that the cooling rate experienced during welding affects the volume fraction of delta-ferrite retained in the weld metal and variation in the delta-ferrite content with cooling rate is explained with variation in the time that the weld metal spends in various temperature regimes in which delta-ferrite is stable for the alloy during its cooling from the liquid metal to the ambient temperature. This manuscript will discuss the effect of welding parameters on formation of delta-ferrite and its retention in the weld metal of RAFM steel.

  12. Influence of He ions irradiation on the deuterium permeation and retention behavior in the CLF-1 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Lu, Tao; Li, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hao-Dong; Wang, Jing; An, Zhong-Qing; Ding, Fang; Hong, Suk-Ho; Zhou, Hai-Shan; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of He ions irradiation on the deuterium permeation and retention behavior in RAFM steels, samples made of the CLF-1 steel was irradiated with 3.5 MeV He ions. Gas driven permeation experiments were performed, and the permeability of virgin sample and pre-irradiated sample were obtained and compared. In order to characterize the effect of He ions irradiation on the deuterium retention behavior, deuterium gas exposure was carried out at 623 K, followed by thermal desorption spectra experiments. The total deuterium retention of the CLF-1 steel increased owing to He ions implantation, which could be attributed to the increase in trapping site for deuterium by the He pre-irradiation.

  13. TEM characterization on new 9% Cr advanced steels thermomechanical treated after tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P.; Hoffmann, J.; Rieth, M.; Roldán, M.; Gómez-Herrero, A.

    2018-03-01

    Phase transformation on new six reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) was investigated to provide the basis for the design and development of advanced steels to maintain adequate strength and creep resistance above 500 °C. The new alloys are designed to increase the amount of fine MX precipitates and reduce coarse M23C6 carbides through alloy composition refinement and the application of thermomechanical treatments. The microstructural investigations by TEM have shown M23C6, M2X, and MX precipitation after tempering at 700 °C/2h with low dislocation recovery, while at 825 °C/2h the martensite developed to subgrain formation and growth. At this stage, only M23C6 and MX were detected. Preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce fine MX strengthened particles dispersed in the matrix with further optimization of tempering treatments.

  14. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  15. Microstructural evolutions of friction stir welded F82H steel for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tani Gawa, Hiro Yasu [JAEA, Rokasho (Japan); Fujii, Hideto Shi [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kim Ura, Aki Hiko [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    A blanket is the most important component functionalized as plasma confining, tritium breeding, heat exchanging, and irradiation shielding from severe thermo neutron loads in a fusion reactor. Its structure consists of first walls, side walls, a back board, and coolant channels mainly made of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, which is the most promising candidate as a structural material for fusion reactors. To fabricate this blanket structure, some welding and joining methods have being carefully applied. However, when fusion welding, such as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, electron beam, and laser welding was performed between F82H and itself, the strength of welds significantly deteriorated due to the development of {delta} ferrite and precipitate dissolution. Post welding heat treatment (PWHT) should be followed to restore the initial microstructure. Nevertheless, microstructural discontinuity inevitably occurs between the weld metal, heat affected zone and base metal and this seriously degrades the entire structural stability under pulsed operation at high temperature in test blanket module (TBM). A phase transformation can also be an issue to be solved, which leads to a difficult replacement of the blanket module. Therefore, a reliable and field applicable joining technique should be developed not to accompany with PWHT after the joining process. Friction stir welding (FSW) is one of the solid state processes that does not create a molten zone at the joining area, so the degradation of the featured microstructures may be avoided or minimized. In this study, FSW was employed to join F82H steels to develop a potential joining technique for RAFM steel. The microstructural features on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of the FSW.

  16. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  17. Abnormal grain growth in Eurofer-97 steel in the ferrite phase field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B. [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Lorena, SP, 12602-810 (Brazil); Sandim, H.R.Z., E-mail: hsandim@demar.eel.usp.br [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Lorena, SP, 12602-810 (Brazil); Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, D-40237 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) Eurofer-97 steel is a candidate material for structural applications in future fusion reactors. Depending on the amount of prior cold rolling strain and annealing temperature, important solid-state softening reactions such as recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth occur. Eurofer-97 steel was cold rolled up to 70, 80 and 90% reductions in thickness and annealed in the ferrite phase field (below ≈ 800 °C). Changes in microstructure, micro-, and mesotexture were followed by orientation mappings provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Eurofer-97 steel undergoes abnormal grain growth above 650 °C and this solid-state reaction seems to be closely related to the high mobility of a few special grain boundaries that overcome pinning effects caused by fine particles. This solid-state reaction promotes important changes in the microstructure and microtexture of this steel. Abnormal grain growth kinetics for each condition was determined by means of quantitative metallography. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (AGG) occurs in Eurofer-97 steel deformed to several strains. • Kinetics of abnormal grain growth has been determined at 750 and 800 °C. • Significant changes in crystallographic texture take place during AGG. • Grain boundaries with misorientations above 45° may explain abnormal grain growth. • Local microstructural instabilities (coarsening of M23C6 carbides) also explain AGG.

  18. Influence of Prior Fatigue Cycling on Creep Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aritra; Vijayanand, V. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2014-06-01

    Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) and 210 MPa on Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel which was subjected to different extents of prior fatigue exposure at 823 K at a strain amplitude of ±0.6 pct to assess the effect of prior fatigue exposure on creep behavior. Extensive cyclic softening that characterized the fatigue damage was found to be immensely deleterious for creep strength of the tempered martensitic steel. Creep rupture life was reduced to 60 pct of that of the virgin steel when the steel was exposed to as low as 1 pct of fatigue life. However, creep life saturated after fatigue exposure of 40 pct. Increase in minimum creep rate and decrease in creep rupture ductility with a saturating trend were observed with prior fatigue exposures. To substantiate these findings, detailed transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on the steel. With fatigue exposures, extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure was distinctly observed which supported the cyclic softening behavior that was introduced due to prior fatigue. Consequently, prior fatigue exposures were considered responsible for decrease in creep ductility and associated reduction in the creep rupture strength.

  19. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  20. Interfacial properties of HIP joint between beryllium and reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Ogiwara, H.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: ITER test blanket module is the most important components to validate energy production and fuel breeding process for future demonstration reactor. Reduced activation ferritic / martensitic steel is recognized as a promising structural material for breeding blanket systems. And Beryllium must be used as plasma facing materials for ITER in vessel components. In this work, interfacial properties of beryllium/reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAF/Ms) joint were investigated for a first wall of ITER test blanket module (TBM). The starting materials were ITER grade Beryllium, S65C and a Japanese RAF/M, F82H. The joint was produced by solid state hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Chromium layer with the thickness of 1 μm and 10 μm were formed by plasma vapor deposition on the beryllium surface as a diffusion barrier. The HIP was carried out at 1023 K and 1233 K which are determined by standard normalizing and tempering temperature of F82H. The joint made at 1233 K was followed by tempering at 1033 K. The bonding interface was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The bonding strength was also investigated by isometric four point bending tests at ambient temperature. EPMA showed chromium layer effectively worked as a diffusion barrier at 1023 K. However, the beryllium rich layer was formed in F82H after HIP at 1233 K followed by tempering. Bending tests revealed that thin chromium layer and low temperature HIP is preferable. The high temperature HIP introduce brittle BeFe inter metallic compounds along bonding interface. On the other hand, joint with thick chromium layer suffer from brittleness of chromium itself. (authors)

  1. Interfacial properties of HIP joint between beryllium and reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogiwara, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, J.A.E.R.I., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: ITER test blanket module is the most important components to validate energy production and fuel breeding process for future demonstration reactor. Reduced activation ferritic / martensitic steel is recognized as a promising structural material for breeding blanket systems. And Beryllium must be used as plasma facing materials for ITER in vessel components. In this work, interfacial properties of beryllium/reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAF/Ms) joint were investigated for a first wall of ITER test blanket module (TBM). The starting materials were ITER grade Beryllium, S65C and a Japanese RAF/M, F82H. The joint was produced by solid state hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Chromium layer with the thickness of 1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m were formed by plasma vapor deposition on the beryllium surface as a diffusion barrier. The HIP was carried out at 1023 K and 1233 K which are determined by standard normalizing and tempering temperature of F82H. The joint made at 1233 K was followed by tempering at 1033 K. The bonding interface was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The bonding strength was also investigated by isometric four point bending tests at ambient temperature. EPMA showed chromium layer effectively worked as a diffusion barrier at 1023 K. However, the beryllium rich layer was formed in F82H after HIP at 1233 K followed by tempering. Bending tests revealed that thin chromium layer and low temperature HIP is preferable. The high temperature HIP introduce brittle BeFe inter metallic compounds along bonding interface. On the other hand, joint with thick chromium layer suffer from brittleness of chromium itself. (authors)

  2. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  3. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Irradiation effects on tensile ductility and dynamic toughness of ferritic-martensitic 7-12 Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2006-01-01

    The superimposed effect of irradiation-induced hardening by small defects (clusters, dislocation loops) and chromium-rich - precipitate formations on tensile ductility and Charpy-impact behaviour of various ferritic-martensitic (7-13)CrWVTa(Ti)-RAFM steels have been examined by micro-mechanical deformation and ductile/dynamic fracture models. Analytical relations have been deduced describing irradiation-induced changes of uniform ductility and fracture strain as well as ductile-to-brittle transition temperature DBTT and ductile upper shelf energy USE observed from impact tests. The models apply work-hardening with competitive action of relevant dislocation multiplication and annihilation reactions. The impact model takes into account stress intensity with local plasticity and fracture within the damage zone of main crack. Especially, the influences of radiation-induced changes in ductile and dynamic fracture stresses have been considered together with effects from strain rate sensitivity of strength, precipitate morphology as mean size dp and volume fraction fv as well as deformation temperature and strain rate. For these, particularly the correlation between tensile ductility and impact properties have been examined. Strengthening by clusters and loops generally reduces uniform ductility, and more stronger fracture strain as well as ductile upper shelf energy USE and additionally increases DBTT for constant fracture stresses. A superimposed precipitation hardening by formation of 3-6 nm, f v 6 nm, which clear above the sharable limit of coherent precipitates increases with increasing fraction fv and but strongly reduces with increasing matrix strength due to full martensitic structure, higher C, N alloying contents and pronounced hardening by irradiation-induced cluster and loop formations. A combined increase of fracture stresses due to irradiation-induced changes of the grain boundary structure diminishes the strength-induced increase in DBTT and more stronger

  5. Investigation on microstructure and properties of narrow-gap laser welding on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel CLF-1 with a thickness of 35 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shikai; Zhang, Jianchao; Yang, Jiaoxi; Lu, Junxia; Liao, Hongbin; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-05-01

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel is chosen as a structural material for test blanket modules (TBMs) to be constructed in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Chinese specific RAFM steel named with CLF-1 has been developed for CFETR. In this paper, a narrow-gap groove laser multi-pass welding of CLF-1 steel with thickness of 35 mm is conduced by YLS-15000 fiber laser. Further, the microstructures of different regions in the weld joint were characterized, and tensile impact and micro-hardness tests were carried out for evaluating the mecharical properties. The results show that the butt weld joint of CLF-1 steel with a thickness of 35 mm was well-formed using the optimal narrow-gap laser filler wire welding and no obvious defects was found such as incomplete fusion cracks and pores. The microstructures of backing layer is dominated by lath martensites and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) was mainly filled with two-phase hybrid structures of secondary-tempering sorbites and martensites. The filler layer is similar to the backing layer in microstructures. In tensile tests, the tensile samples from different parts of the joint all fractured at base metal (BM). The micro-hardness of weld metal (WM) was found to be higher than that of BM and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) exhibited no obvious softening. After post weld heat treatment (PWHT), it can be observed that the fusion zone of the autogenous welding bead and the upper filling beads mainly consist of lath martensites which caused the lower impact absorbing energy. The HAZ mainly included two-phase hybrid structures of secondary-tempering sorbites and martensites and exhibited favorable impact toughness.

  6. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  7. Irradiation and inhomogeneity effects on ductility and toughness of (ODS)-7 -13Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The superimposed effect of irradiation defect and structural inhomogeneity formation on tensile ductility and dynamic toughness of ferritic-martensitic 7-13CrW(Mo)VTa(Nb) and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS)-7-13CrWVTa(Ti)- RAFM steels has been examined by work hardening and local stress/strain-induced ductile fracture models. Structural inhomogeneities which strongly promoting plastic instability and localized flow might be formed by the applied fabrication process, high dose irradiation and additionally further during deformation by enhanced local dislocation generation around fine particles or due to slip band formation with localized heating at high impact strain rates ε'. The work hardening model takes into account superimposed dislocation multiplication from stored dislocations, dispersions and also grain boundaries as well as annihilation by cross-slip. Analytical relations have been deduced from the model describing uniform ductility and ductile upper shelf energy (USE) observed from Charpy-impact testes. Especially, the influence of different irradiation defects like atomic clusters, dislocation loops and coherent chromium-rich α'- precipitates have been considered together with effects from strain rate as well as irradiation (TI) and test temperature TT. Strengthening by clusters and more pronounced by dislocation loops formed at higher TI>250 deg. C reduces uniform ductility and also distinctly stronger dynamic toughness USE. A superimposed hardening by the α'- formation in higher Cr containing 9-13Cr steels strongly reduces toughness assisted by a combined grain-boundary embrittlement with reduction of the ductile fracture stress. But that improves work hardening and uniform ductility as observed particularly due to nano-scale Y 2 O 3 - dispersions in ODS-RAFM steels. For ODS- steels additionally the strength-induced reduction of toughness is diminished by a combined microstructural-induced increase of the ductile

  8. Tensile behavior of EUROFER ODS steel after neutron irradiation up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna-Morris, Edeltraud; Lindau, Rainer; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Möslang, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first 9%CrWVTa steel (0.5% Y_2O_3), EUROFER ODS HIP, have been neutron irradiated up to 16.3 dpa, between 250 and 450 °C, in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). • After post-irradiation tensile tests, there was not any increase of the upper yield strength or strain localization after irradiation which is typical of RAFM steels. • Initially higher yield strength, R_p_0_._2, and distinctive tensile strength, R_m, of EUROFER ODS HIP compared to EUROFER97 steel. • These values increased due to the neutron irradiation at lower irradiation temperatures. - Abstract: During the development of structural material for future fusion reactors, a 50 kg heat of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic 9%CrWVTa steel with nanoscaled Y_2O_3-particles, EUROFER97 ODS HIP, was produced using powder metallurgy fabrication technology. This first batch of EUROFER97 ODS HIP and, for comparison, the steel EUROFER97 were prepared for a post-irradiation tensile test program. During neutron irradiation in the HFR (High Flux Reactor, The Netherlands), an accumulated dose of up to 16.3 dpa was reached for 771 days at full power, with the irradiation temperature ranging between 250 and 450 °C. During the post-examinations, all specimens showed the highest tensile strength at lower irradiation temperatures between 250 and 350 °C. However, ODS-alloy and steel were found to clearly differ in the mechanical behavior, which could be documented by fully instrumented tensile tests. In the un-irradiated state, tensile strength of the ODS-alloy already was increased considerably by about 60% compared to the steel. Strengthening was further increased by another 20% after neutron irradiation, but with a much better ductility than observed in the steel. The typical irradiation-induced strain localization of EUROFER97 or RAFM steels could not be observed in the EUROFER97 ODS HIP alloy.

  9. Hardening and embrittlement mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated at 573 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Hashimoto, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Materials Science and Engineering Div., Graduate School of Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: It has been reported that reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H, ORNL9Cr-2WVTa, and JLF-1, showed a variety of changes in ductile-brittle transition temperature and yield stress after irradiation at 573 K up to 5 dpa, and those differences could not be interpreted solely by the difference of dislocation microstructure induced by irradiation. To investigate the impact of other microstructural feature, i.e. precipitates, the precipitation behavior of F82H, ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa, and JLF-1 was examined. It was revealed that irradiation-induced precipitation and amorphization of precipitates partly occurred and caused the different precipitation on block, packet and prior austenitic grain boundaries. In addition to these phenomena, irradiation-induced nano-size precipitates were also observed in the matrix. It was also revealed that the chemical compositions of precipitates approached the calculated thermal equilibrium state of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} at an irradiation temperature of 573 K. The calculation also suggests the presence of Laves phase at 573 K, which is usually not observed at this temperature, but the ion irradiation on aged F82H with Laves phase suggests that Laves phase becomes amorphous and could not be stable under irradiation at 573 K. This observation indicates the possibility that the irradiation-induced nano-size precipitation could be the consequence of the conflict between precipitation and amorphization of Laves phase. Over all, these observations suggests that the variety of embrittlement and hardening of RAFMs observed at 573 K irradiation up to 5 dpa might be the consequence of the transition phenomena that occur as the microstructure approaches thermal equilibrium during irradiation at 573 K. (authors)

  10. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  11. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  12. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H.C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M.F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc,; Spaetig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  13. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  14. Effect of microstructural evolution by isothermal aging on the mechanical properties of 9Cr-1WVTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Gu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hoon, E-mail: lee1626@kims.re.kr [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joonoh; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Namhyun [Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chan Kim, Hyoung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The influence of microstructural changes caused by aging condition on tensile and Charpy impact properties was investigated for reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) 9Cr-1WVTa steels having single martensite and a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite. For the mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite, the Charpy impact properties deteriorated in both as-normalized and tempered conditions due to the ferrite and the accompanying M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the ferrite grain boundaries which act as path and initiation sites for cleavage cracks, respectively. However, aging at 550 °C for 20–100 h recovered gradually the Charpy impact toughness without any distinct drop in strength, as a result of the spheroidization of the coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the ferrite grain boundaries, which makes crack initiation more difficult.

  15. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  16. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  17. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  18. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  19. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  20. Phase transformation and impact properties in the experimentally simulated weld heat-affected zone of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joonoh, E-mail: mjo99@kims.re.kr [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsangu, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Ho [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsangu, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Min-Ho [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsangu, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min-Gu [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsangu, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heung Nam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, the phase transformation and impact properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel are investigated. The HAZs were experimentally simulated using a Gleeble simulator. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite through normalizing at 1000 °C and tempering at 750 °C, while the HAZs consisted of martensite, δ-ferrite and a small volume of autotempered martensite. The impact properties using a Charpy V-notch impact test revealed that the HAZs showed poor impact properties due to the formation of martensite and δ-ferrite as compared with the base steel. In addition, the impact properties of the HAZs further deteriorated with an increase in the δ-ferrite fraction caused by increasing the peak temperature. The impact properties of the HAZs could be improved through the formation of tempered martensite after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), but they remained lower than that of the base steel because the δ-ferrite remained in the tempered HAZs.

  1. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  2. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  3. An overview of the welding technologies of CLAM steels for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xizhang, E-mail: kernel.chen@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Huang Yuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Madigan, Bruce [Montana Tech. of University of Montana, Butte, MT 59701 (United States); Zhou Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, ZhenJiang, Jiangsu 221013 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welding technologies of China Low Activation Martensitic steel is overviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most welding technologies in use are discussed and suggestions are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper welding technologies could ensure weld properties but more detailed work are necessary. - Abstract: China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAMs), a kind of RAFM steel with Chinese intellectual property rights, is considered as the primary structural material for the China-designed ITER test blanket module (TBM). As one of the key issues in the fabrication of the fusion reactor, the welding technologies of CLAMs are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the weldability of CLAMs by different welding methods, and on the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints. Recent highlights in research and development for the welding of CLAMs show that proper welding procedure could provide welds with adequate tensile strength but the welds exhibit lower impact toughness compared with the base metal. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and the application of ultrasonic energy during TIG welding could dramatically improve impact toughness. Research also shows that welds in CLAMs have sufficient resistance to swelling under irradiation as well as suitable compatibility with liquid LiPb. The microstructure, mechanical and other physical properties of welds are significantly different from those of the base metal due to the complicated welding thermal cycle. The weld joint is the area most likely to fail one or more of the design requirements within the fusion reactor. Therefore significant additional research is necessary to ensure safe application of welded CLAM steel for fusion reactor construction.

  4. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  5. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  6. The spanish nuclear choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Blazquez, C.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  7. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  8. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  9. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  10. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  11. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  12. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  13. Effect of Microstructures and Tempering Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of 9Cr-2W Reduced-Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min-Gu; Kang, Nam Hyun; Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Tae-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Chan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microstructures (martensite, ferrite, or mixed ferrite and martensite) on the mechanical properties. Of particular interest was the Charpy impact results for 9Cr-2W reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels. Under normalized conditions, steel with martensitic microstructure showed superior tensile strength and Charpy impact results. This may result from auto-tempering during the transformation of martensite. On the other hand, both ferrite, and ferrite mixed with martensite, showed unusually poor Charpy impact results. This is because the ferrite phases, and coarse M_23C_6 carbides at the ferrite-grain boundaries acted as cleavage crack propagation paths, and as preferential initiation sites for cleavage cracks, respectively. After the tempering heat treatment, although tensile strength decreased, the energy absorbed during the Charpy impact test drastically increased for martensite, and ferrite mixed with martensite. This was due to the tempered martensite. On the other hand, there were no distinctive differences in tensile and Charpy impact properties of steel with ferrite microstructure, when comparing normalized and tempered conditions.

  14. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was

  15. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishii, Masaomi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 502-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe{sub 3}Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed

  16. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  17. The Spanish National Dose Registry and Spanish radiation passbooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Martin, A.; Villanueva, I.; Amor, I.; Butragueno, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Spanish National Dose Registry (BDN) is the Nuclear Safety Council's (CSN) national database of occupational exposure to radiation. Each month BDN receives records of individual external doses from approved dosimetry services. The dose records include information regarding the occupational activities of exposed workers. The dose information and the statistical analysis prepared by the BDN are a useful tool for effective operational protection of occupationally exposed workers and a support for the CSN in the development and application of the ALARA principle. The Spanish radiation passbook was introduced in 1990 and since then CSN, as regulatory authority, has required that all outside workers entering controlled areas should have radiation passbooks. Nowadays, CSN has implemented improvements in the Spanish radiation Passbooks, taking into account previous experience and Directive 96/29/EURATOM. (author)

  18. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  19. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  20. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  1. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  2. Semantic and Pragmatic Functions of the Spanish Diminutive in Spanish in Contact with Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    2001-01-01

    Presents data from the Spanish of Quechua-Spanish bilinguals that exemplify a contact situation that gives rise to a process called structural interference. Concentrates on the use of the diminutive in the Spanish of speakers of Spanish in the Andes. (Author/VWL)

  3. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  4. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  5. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  6. V Congress of Spanish Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings book present the lectures of V Spanish geochemistry Congress. The sessions were: 1.- Materials geochemistry and geologic process. 2.- Geochemistry prospection 3.- Environmental geochemistry 4.- Isotopic geochemistry 5.- Organic geochemistry 6.- Natural materials geochemistry for industry 7.- Hydrogeochemistry 8.- Mathematical models in geochemistry 9.- Analysis methods in geochemistry 10.-Training of geochemistry 11.-Cosmochemistry

  7. Agentivity Marking in Spanish Nominalisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to provide justification for the claim that variation between the prepositions por ‘by’ and de ‘of’ introducing the subject argument in Spanish nominalisations should not be explained as primarily paralleling sentence-level voice or aspectual distinctions...

  8. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  9. Results of investigations regarding the physical and mechanical properties of the martensitic 9% Cr steel EUROFER '97; Ergebnisse von Charakterisierungsuntersuchungen zu physikalischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften des martensitischen 9% Cr-Stahles EUROFER '97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirra, M.; Falkenstein, A.; Graf, P.; Heger, S.; Kempe, H.; Lindau, R.; Zimmermann, H.

    2002-04-01

    Following the history of the development activities from conventional martensitic 12% Cr steel, MANET and OPTIFER up to low-activated EUROFER (RAFM steel), the results obtained from experiments on rods of 100 mm diameter and plates of 14 mm shall be presented for a basic characterization. The physical and mechanical properties shall be compared with those of OPTIFER-1W and the F82H-mod 2% W steel. To determine the conversion behavior, a continuous cct diagram was plotted. Hardening experiments in the temperature range of 850 - 1120 C illustrated the range of maximum hardness as well as grain size development. The notch impact behavior was described for various heat treatments and sample types at test temperatures ranging from +60 to -100 C. Tensile strengths were determined for various heat treatments at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 C. Aging due to a long-term heat treatment was investigated by means of stabilization annealing experiments. Creep rupture strength and creeping were investigated in the temperature range of 450 - 650 C. So far, a duration of up to about 15 000 h has been covered by the experiments. (orig.)

  10. Methods of forging steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pečoler, Primož

    2014-01-01

    The following work presents processes of steel forming, challenges when forging steel, forming machines suitable for forging and which choice of machine is most suitable for forging. We can separate steel forming to free forging and drop forging. Free forging can be divided to hand forging and machine forging. The correct choice of furnaces is also very important. We must reach correct temperature in the furnace for raw steel to melt with less scalings. In diploma I mentioned some machine...

  11. Prospects of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of world steel production is considered as well as the development strategy of metallurgy industry in the Russian Federation through to 2020. The main factors determining the conservation of steel as perspective material for industry are given: energy expenses on production, the well-proven recirculation technology, the capability of changing steel properties in wide range, temperature range of operation. The conclusion is made that in the immediate future steel will not lose its importance [ru

  12. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  13. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  14. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  15. Romanian and Spanish Cultural Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Popa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Much more appreciated and known in his time than by posterity, V.A.Urechia was ahistorian, politician and learned man, formed together with great personalities of the generation of the40's, A.I.Cuza's collaborator (the first ruler of the United Principalities, and also our first hispanist.After finishing his studies in Paris, he married Francoise Josephine Dominique Plano, the daughter ofQueen Isabela's of Spain personal doctor, Urechia showed a constant interest and maintained strongconnections with the Spanish cultural space that he discovered to be the origin of the foundingemperor of Dacia Traiana. The subject-matter of the present paper is Urechia's "capital of Spanisheducation" (enhanced in time, the contacts with the great personalities of the Spanish culture of histime , that can be reconstituted due to his work, his memoires, his letters a intercultural dialogue andarticles published in the Spanish and Romanian press, as well as the influence of those contacts on thepersonality, method, and purpose of his cultural approaches. Moreover, we are to point out thecontribution that the personalities had in the intercultural dialogue in Europe, at the end of the 19thcentury.

  16. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  17. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  18. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  19. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving workshops. Josef and Anni Albers traveled to see the exhibition and then went to meet Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, who spent over a month on holiday in the Côte Basque. Albers captured their trip in photo collages, Kandinsky registered his impressions in snapshots, while Klee wrote abundant correspondence and produced drawings. Focusing on the itineraries the Bauhäusler followed, along with the means by which they expressed their travel impressions, this article reveals the effect of travel in their later design attitudes and work. Significant cultural transfers between Germany and Spain took place in a critical moment of European history, suggesting that further developments of these learning experiences might have materialized later on both sides of the border, possibly even reaching across the Atlantic.

  20. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  1. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  2. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  3. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  4. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  5. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  6. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  7. Cultural notions in Spanish Dictionaries for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo-Núñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although later than in English, Linguistics applied to the teaching of Spanish language has produced several didactic dictionaries for foreigners in the last two decades. This dictionaries include grammatical information in order to facilitate pronunciation, and morphological or syntactical comprehension; cultural notions, however, are more difficult to include because they go beyond the scope of the lexicon. Through the analysis of some terms related to folk music and gastronomy, we analyse the inclusion of Spanish and Latin American cultural notions in the three main dictionaries of Spanish for foreigners: the dictionary for the teaching of the Spanish language published by Vox-Alcalá University (Diccionario para la enseñanza de la lengua española, the Salamanca Dictionary (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española and the Spanish dictionary for foreigners of SM publishing house (Diccionario de español para extranjeros.

  8. Thermal expansion characteristics of Fe–9Cr–0.12C–0.56Mn–0.24V–1.38W–0.06Ta (wt.%) reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Raju, E-mail: sraju@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rai, Arun Kumar; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja; Jayakumar, Tammana [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, Ellappan [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhi Nagar (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Lattice & bulk thermal expansion of RAFM steel characterized by HTXRD and dilatometry. • Mean thermal expansion of α-ferrite is 1.48 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −1}; that of γ-austenite, 2.4 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −1}. • Magnetism makes a small negative contribution to overall thermal expansion. - Abstract: The lattice and bulk thermal expansion behavior of an Indian version of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (INRAFM) steel has been quantified using high temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. The lattice parameter of tempered α-ferrite phase exhibited a smooth quadratic increase with temperature, while that of γ-austenite remained fairly linear up to 1273 K. The results suggest that α-ferrite + Carbides → γ-austenite transformation occurs upon continuous heating in the temperature range, 1146 ⩽ T ⩽ 1173 K. Further, this transformation is found to be accompanied by a reduction in average atomic volume. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficients of tempered α-ferrite and γ-austenite phases are estimated to be about 1.48 × 10{sup −5} and 2.4 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} respectively. The magnetic contribution to relative thermal dilatation (Δl/l{sub 298}){sub mag} is found to be small and negative, as compared to phonon contribution.

  9. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  10. Creep deformation and rupture behaviour of 9Cr–1W–0.2V–0.06Ta Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Mythili, R.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Saroja, S.; Mathew, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Creep tests on broad temperature and stress ranges were carried out. ► Microstructural instability on creep and thermal exposures were studied using TEM. ► Creep damage tolerance factor of the material was estimated. - Abstract: This paper presents the creep deformation and rupture behaviour of indigenously produced 9Cr–1W–0.2V–0.06Ta Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel for fusion reactor application. Creep studies were carried out at 773, 823 and 873 K over a stress range of 100–300 MPa. The creep deformation of the steel was found to proceed with relatively shorter primary regime followed by an extended tertiary regime with virtually no secondary regime. The variation of minimum creep rate of the material with applied stress followed a power law relation, ε m = Aσ n , with stress exponent value ‘n’ decreasing with increase in temperature. The product of minimum creep rate and creep rupture life was found to obey the modified Monkman–Grant relation. The time to onset of tertiary stage of deformation was directly proportional to rupture life. TEM studies revealed relatively large changes in martensitic sub-structure and coarsening of precipitates in the steel on creep exposure as compared to thermal exposure. Microstructural degradation was considered as the prime cause of extended tertiary stage of creep deformation, which was also reflected in the damage tolerance factor λ with a value more than 2.5. In view of the microstructural instability of the material on creep exposure, the variation of minimum creep rate with stress and temperature did not obey Dorn's equation modified by invoking Lagneborg and Bergman's concepts of back stress.

  11. Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

    2005-10-01

    Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates.

  12. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bosque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  13. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  14. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  15. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  16. Synergistic effects on dislocation loops in reduced-activation martensitic steel investigated by single and sequential hydrogen/helium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiping [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Luo, Fengfeng [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Yu, Yanxia; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Shen, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Single-beam and sequential-beam irradiations were performed to investigate the H/He synergistic effect on dislocation loops in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. The irradiations were carried out with 10 keV H{sup +}, 18 keV He{sup +} and 160 keV Ar{sup +}, alone and in combination at 723 K. He{sup +} single-beam irradiation induced much larger dislocation loops than that induced by both H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} single-beam irradiation. H{sup +} post-irradiation after He{sup +} irradiation further increased the size of dislocation loops, whilst He{sup +} post-irradiation or Ar{sup +} post-irradiation following H{sup +} irradiation only slightly increased the size of dislocation loops. The experiment results indicate that pre-implanted H{sup +} can drastically inhibit the growth while post-implanted H{sup +} can significantly enhance the growth of dislocation loops induced by He{sup +} irradiation. The mechanisms behind the complex synergistic phenomena between H and He and the different roles that H and He played in the growth of dislocation loops are discussed.

  17. Study of MHD Corrosion and Transport of Corrosion Products of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels in the Flowing PbLi and its Application to Fusion Blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Sheida

    Two important components of a liquid breeder blanket of a fusion power reactor are the liquid breeder/coolant and the steel structure that the liquid is enclosed in. One candidate combination for such components is Lead-Lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy and advanced Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel. The research performed here is aimed at: (1) better understanding of corrosion processes in the system including RAFM steel and flowing PbLi in the presence of a strong magnetic field and (2) prediction of corrosion losses in conditions of a Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) blanket, which is at present the key liquid metal blanket concept in the US. To do this, numerical and analytical tools have been developed and then applied to the analysis of corrosion processes. First, efforts were taken to develop a computational suite called TRANSMAG (Transport phenomena in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows) as an analysis tool for corrosion processes in the PbLi/RAFM system, including transport of corrosion products in MHD laminar and turbulent flows. The computational approach in TRANSMAG is based on simultaneous solution of flow, energy and mass transfer equations with or without a magnetic field, assuming mass transfer controlled corrosion and uniform dissolution of iron in the flowing PbLi. Then, the new computational tool was used to solve an inverse mass transfer problem where the saturation concentration of iron in PbLi was reconstructed from the experimental data resulting in the following correlation: CS = e 13.604--12975/T, where T is the temperature of PbLi in K and CS is in wppm. The new correlation for saturation concentration was then used in the analysis of corrosion processes in laminar flows in a rectangular duct in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. As shown in this study, the mass loss increases with the magnetic field such that the corrosion rate in the presence of a magnetic field can be a few times higher compared to purely

  18. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  19. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  20. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the...

  1. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  2. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  3. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  4. Lexicalisation Patterns in Danish and Spanish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldersgaard, Casper A. G

    In this dissertation, I investigate the theoretical framework by Leonard Talmy (2000b) on lexicalisation patterns in Motion events. I examine his characterisations of Co-event languages (e.g., Danish) and Path-event languages (e.g., Spanish), and I relate his work to a Danish language setting....... Furthermore, my objective is to determine whether the predictions set forth by Talmy apply to Danish and Spanish from an empirical perspective, i.e., in a Danish monolingual reference corpus, Korpus-DK, and a Spanish monolingual reference corpus, CORPES. I present different methods for testing Talmy’s theory....... As a consequence, to identify Motion events and discard false positives is an extremely time-consuming process. I suggest that a context-free grammar is a way to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of linguistic data that contain Motion events. Thus, I implement a context-free grammar for Spanish. More...

  5. Cancer Currents Now Available in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our effort to more effectively reach patients, health care providers, and researchers with timely, authoritative, and scientifically accurate cancer information, we are now offering selected Cancer Currents blog posts in Spanish.

  6. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  7. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  8. The Spanish participation in the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  9. Internationalisation of Spanish fashion brand Zara

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, C; Fan, Y

    2008-01-01

    Zara is one of the world’s most successful fashion retailers operating in 59 countries. However, there is little research about the firm in English as the majority of publications have been written in Spanish. This paper seeks to address this gap in the literature by examining the internationalisation process of Zara. This study adopts an in-depth case approach based on extensive secondary research. Literature published in both English and Spanish has been reviewed, including c...

  10. Spanish Nuclear Industry in Lungmen Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomar, F.

    1998-01-01

    Spain's Advanced Nuclear Reactors Programs, under DTN's leadership, has meant an active participation the American Design of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, in both General Electric and Westinghouse Programs. This collaboration has given to the Companies, which directly involved, an in-depth knowledge of both Development Programs, as well as it has allowed to establish relationships with Nuclear Island DTN's coordination. These Companies included a broad sample of Spanish Companies most interest in the Nuclear Field: DTN representing Spanish Utilities with Nuclear Assets; Empresarios Agrupados and INITEC as a Joint Venture, representing Spanish A/E; Equipos Nucleares, S.A., representing Nuclear Components Manufacturers; Tecnatom, representing Nuclear Services and Engineering and CIEMAT as National Laboratory. Taiwan Electric Power has awarded its two 1300 MWe Lungmen Units to General Electric. Knowledge acquired by these Spanish Companies along FOAKE First of kind then Engineering has allowed them to bid for some authorities in Lungmen NPP and in some cases to get important awards. Furthermore, the good working relationship which has been established has made way for other Spanish Companies to bid for other Project Packages. On a case by case basis the response of Spanish manufacturer has been irregular . In some instances manufactures have stopped manufacturing nuclear components, and in other instances a distinct lack of interest has been detected. (Author)

  11. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  12. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  13. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    system components to be built. Figure la shows the machine design . PSC-2012 Page 94 Glue Application Sheet Transfer Feed Elevator Figure la...Department of Defense such as cleats, ejection chutes , control arms, muzzle brakes, mortar components, clevises, tow bar clamps, ammo conveyor elements...Foundry and the members of Steel Founders’ Society of America. Abstract Weapon system designers and builders need advanced steel casting technology

  14. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  15. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  16. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  17. Rethinking Spanish: Understanding Spanish Speakers Motivations and Reasons to Opt for Either an English Only or a Dual English-Spanish Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adrienne C.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish-speaking parents choose to enroll their children in either an English only or English-Spanish dual immersion program when presented with both choices. This ethnographic study explored parent's perceptions of the purpose, advantages, and disadvantages of learning in school in English only or in a dual English-Spanish. Through focus group…

  18. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Salcedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  2. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  3. Marginalia. The Literary Independence of Spanish America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Gómez García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the characteristic problems and issues of the so-called “literary independence” of Spanish America in the light of its political emancipation from Spain. This topic goes beyond the temporal framework or the periodization of the wars of independence; instead, it covers the entire nineteenth century and part of the twentieth, and appears discontinuously and non-simultaneously in the different nations. The path followed by Spanish American literature was filled with vicissitudes,manifestations, and regressions of diverse types. The paper specifically analyzes La biblioteca americana and El repertorio americano by the Venezuelan, Andrés Bello, and Juan García del Río, a native of Cartagena, as well as the role of the young Argentinean Domingo F. Sarmiento, author of Facundo, in the genesis and first outlines of an independent Spanish American “literary expression”.

  4. THE SPANISH SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS: A DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba G. Claudio-González

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present a broad description of Spanish scientific journals. The results were obtained from a survey distributed to 1,280 editors of Spanish scientific journals included in Dulcinea database (2012 edition. The response rate was 43,8%. As specific objectives, the study aimed to characterize scientific journals and to analyze the particularities of a set of parameters that make up the economic, strategic and operational dimensions of the journals in the period studied. The results show that the funding model of the Spanish scientific journals depends mainly on institutional support, that many journals lack a stable organizational structure and rely heavily on volunteer work, and that the debate on the limitations and difficulties affecting the development of open access remains open.

  5. Crucial times for Spanish physical oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Pelegrí

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical oceanography has undergone exponential growth in Spain during the last few decades. From a handful of self-taught researchers in the late 1960s there are now several hundred physical oceanographers distributed in some 20 Spanish institutions, and many more working overseas. The First Spanish Physical Oceanography Meeting (EOF1, held in Barcelona in October 2010, was a good example of the high quality and large variety of this research. The facilities and human resources are excellent but the alarming decrease in public investment in science due to the economic crisis must lead the Spanish physical oceanography community to define its current priorities. In this introductory paper to EOF1 we revise our history and where we are now, and suggest that progress in the near future will rely on our intelligence to sustain and enhance human capital, partnership and society-oriented research.

  6. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  7. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  8. Spanish program of advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Redon, R.

    1993-01-01

    The energy Spanish Plan is promoting some actions within the area of advanced reactors. Efforts are focussed onto the European Program of Advanced Reactors, the Program of Passive Plants (EPRI), European Fast Reactor Project and the APWR-1000 Program of INI. Electrical sector utilities and industrial partners supported by the Administration have organized an steering committee. The program of Passive Plants includes activities on Qualification, design and detailed engineering (Qualification project, SBWR project of G.E. and AP600 Project of Westinghouse. The european project on advanced plants has the following Spanish contribution: Analysis of alternative Dossier on European requisites (EUR) and Design of an European Reactor (EPR)

  9. Technology transfer in the Spanish nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Naredo, F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the process of technology transfer under the Spanish nuclear programme and its three generations of nuclear power plants during the last 20 years, with special reference to the nine new plants equipped with Westinghouse pressurized water reactors and the rising level of national involvement in these stations. It deals with the development of Westinghouse Nuclear's organization in Spain, referring to its staff and to the manufacturers who supply equipment for the programme, going into particular detail where problems of quality assurance are concerned. In conclusion, it summarizes the present capacity of Spanish industry in various areas connected with the design, manufacture and construction of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  11. Intrapreneurship in the Spanish context : a regional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turro Sol, A.; Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the influence of internal and external (environmental) factors on intrapreneurship in the Spanish context, considering differences among regions. Methodologically, the study applies logistic regression and uses data from the Spanish Global Entrepreneurship

  12. Remarks on the elaboration of an English–Spanish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spanish word-combination dictionary examined here, some concluding remarks are made with regard to the educational implications of this kind of dictionary primarily aimed at intermediate- to advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners.

  13. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  14. Working with Spanish-Speaking Latin American Students in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Marcela S.

    1978-01-01

    The problems affecting the reception, adjustment, and placement of Spanish-speaking students into the Toronto school system are discussed, and include immigration patterns, Spanish values, and the Latin American school. (Author/HP)

  15. National steel tries wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudak, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, National Steel felt the need to take the next step to make its Detroit-based division, Great Lakes Steel, more competitive in the world flat-rolled steel market. In 1988, Great Lakes Steel started flowing natural gas through the first fully litigated bypass (Competitive Sourcing Option) of a local distribution company. In 1989, the second connection with the new supply route for gas transportation, Panhandle Eastern had started flowing and the LDC, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. (MichCon) had pulled out their piping previously serving the plants. Since we had been able to structure a fully reliable supply route, storage and balancing program for gas in the face of such strong opposition by the LDC, the author felt it was time to attack the next singularly sourced major commodity, electricity. Electricity, at this major integrated steel plant, represented approximately 7% of plant cost yearly. Yet being monopolized, Great Lakes Division (GLD) could not multiple source this commodity like it does with its other 93% of costs, except for labor (25% of the 93%). Multiple sourcing is done to bring competitive pressure to suppliers and to diversify supplies and protect plant operation in the event of failure by one supplier. This paper describes National Steel's strategy to reduce the cost of power, at the minimum of capital costs, the most expedient way possible, that does not sacrifice any major long-term potential cost improvements. The results show that competitively priced power is available across the mid-west, at prices well below many state regulated electric utilities, for at least 5 to 15 years, but with major obstacles in obtaining transmission access

  16. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  17. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  18. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  19. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  20. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM) [de

  1. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  2. Language Planning in the Spanish-Speaking World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Aquilino; Duenas, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Reviews diffusion and promotion of the Spanish language from the first Spanish colonizers in the Americas to the present. Describes the situation of Spanish within Spain as a form of internal colonialization and reviews language policies. Analyzes present-day institutional efforts at maintaining language co-existence within different autonomous…

  3. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  4. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  5. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  6. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  7. Evidential Uses in the Spanish of Quechua Speakers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Anna Maria

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of recordings of spontaneous speech of native speakers of Quechua speaking Spanish as a second language reveals that, using verbal morphological resources of Spanish, they have grammaticalized an epistemic marking system resembling that of Quechua. Sources of this process in both Quechua and Spanish are analyzed. (MSE)

  8. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  9. Profiles of an Acquisition Generation: Nontraditional Heritage Speakers of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2018-01-01

    Though definitions vary, the literature on heritage speakers of Spanish identifies two primary attributes: a linguistic and cultural connection to the language. This article profiles four Anglo college students who grew up in bilingual or Spanish-dominant communities in the Southwest who self-identified as Spanish heritage speakers, citing…

  10. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  11. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  12. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  13. Library Service to the Spanish Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anita R.

    This manual was developed to formalize Inglewood Public Library's existing policies and programs regarding library services to the Spanish speaking, and to define future program goals. The introduction discusses why such services have been initiated, why the manual was developed, and the potential benefits the manual has for library…

  14. Children's Literature Studytour of Spanish America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachter, Jacqueline

    1975-01-01

    Describes a tour of several Spanish American countries to study the children's literature and culture. Discussion focuses on the children's literature found in theatrical performances, government-sponsored magazines, schools, and libraries. Also discussed are the writers and illustrators who create for children. (JMB)

  15. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  16. The spanish radiotherapy park: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel J.

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as objective to provide a general overview on the spanish radiotherapy park, presenting how was its start and evolution until the current state. Considering only the units of teletherapy and the accelerators. Actually in Spain there is 28 units of Cobalt therapy, in functioning during the last two decades, being advised a rapid substitution to accelerators

  17. Temporal Analysis of English and Spanish Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Johnson, Teresa H.; O'Connell, Daniel C.

    In order to ascertain the effect of different demands on cognitive processes as reflected in speech rate, pause and hesitation phenomena, 90 young men, 45 native speakers of English (U.S.A.) and 45 native speakers of Spanish (Mexico), were asked to retell a story presented in one of three ways: (1) film plus narration; (2) film only; (3) narration…

  18. Prosodic Perception Problems in Spanish Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Fernando; Martínez-García, Cristina; Suárez-Coalla, Paz

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prosody abilities on top of phonological and visual abilities in children with dyslexia in Spanish that can be considered a syllable-timed language. The performances on prosodic tasks (prosodic perception, rise-time perception), phonological tasks (phonological awareness, rapid naming, verbal working…

  19. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  20. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  1. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  2. Teaching iSTART to Understand Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…

  3. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  4. The external dimension of the Spanish transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Powell

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.

  5. Spanish is Numero Uno for "Project Bright."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larew, Leonor A.

    1978-01-01

    In New York State, the 24 brightest fifth and sixth graders from Avon, Caledonia, and York participated in a project funded by Title IV minigrants, distributed through BOCES. The children were bussed to a central point and permitted to study whatever they wished; Spanish was the first subject selected. (EJS)

  6. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  7. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  8. Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic structure of Japanese Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius ) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea inferred from AFLP data. ... Considering the high hydrological connectivity of this region and the species pelagic life history, retention of larvae, different migration route and different spawning season may ...

  9. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  10. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  11. Migration of radiostrontium in Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olondo, C.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the strontium migration occurs in the main Spanish soils and has obtained a tool that is able to reproduce. This would have established the depth distribution profiles of the activity of that isotope presents the soil, thereby obtaining a graphical representation of the current radiological situation of the ground.

  12. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  14. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  15. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  16. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  17. Becoming "Spanish Learners": Identity and Interaction among Multilingual Children in a Spanish-English Dual Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the interactional co-construction of identities among two first-grade students learning Spanish as a third language in a Spanish-English dual language classroom. Drawing on ethnographic and interactional data, the article focuses on a single interaction between these two "Spanish learners" and two of their…

  18. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  19. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  1. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  2. Application of leak-before-break to primary loop piping to eliminate pipe whip restraints in a Spanish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Esteban, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Spanish plant described in this study is a 982 MWe PWR with a three-loop primary circuit of piping made from centrifugally-cast stainless steel SA351 CF8A. The licensee requested from Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) an exemption from the general design criterion, GDC-4, so as to avoid the need to postulate a guillotine rupture of the primary loop piping. The request was based on the generic work performed for a US PWR plant group in order to have such an exemption. As the piping material in the Spanish plant is different from that in the plants included in the generic work, CSN performed a review of the applicability of the generic results to the Spanish plant. Also, aspects such as fatigue evaluation, net section collapse, crack growth and leak detection, specifically analyzed for the Spanish plant, were reviewed. CSN found that fracture toughness test results from generic work are applicable to the Spanish plant; sufficient margin exists against unstable crack extension, and adequate leak detection capability exists with the leakage detection systems available in the plant. Exemption from GDC-4 was approved and CSN authorized the licensee to remove protection devices against dynamic loads from guillotine breaks in the primary coolant loops. (author)

  3. Steel for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A steel contains, in percent by weight, the following constituents: carbon from 0.13 to 0.18, silicon from 0.17 to 0.37, manganese from 0.30 to 0.60, chromium from 1.7 to 2.4, nickel from 1.0 to 1.5, molybdenum from 0.5 to 0.7, vanadium from 0.05 to 0.12, aluminium from 0.01 to 0.035, nitrogen from 0.05 to 0.012, copper from 0.11 to 0.20, arsenic from 0.0035 to 0.0055, iron and impurities, the balance. This steel is preferable for use in the manufacture of nuclear reactors. 1 table

  4. Advances in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Saibaba, Saroja; Sivaprasad, P.V.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a broad spectrum of topics spanning the entire life cycle of stainless steel-from alloy design and characterization to engineering design, fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, quality assurance of components, in-service performance assessment, life prediction and finally failure analysis of materials and components. The contents provide useful feedback for further developments aimed at effective utilization of this class of materials. The book comprises articles that bring out contemporary developments in stainless steels and is thematically classified into the following sections. 1. Component design, modelling and structural integrity, 2. Manufacturing technology, 3. Property evaluation, 4. Alloy development and applications, 5. NDE methods, 6. Corrosion and surface modification. The book commences with articles on component design and structural integrity, thus opening up the areas of challenge for researchers and academia. The articles in the book relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  6. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  7. Experiences on modernization of steel production plants in countries which metallurgy industry is in reconversion process; Experiencias en la modernizacion de acerias en paises en reconversion de su industria siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Jose M. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Munoz, Jon

    1986-12-31

    The Spanish experience on modernization of its metal industry, mainly steel production sector, under a strong structural exchange, face the Europe Common Market and the metal industry crisis are discussed. Economical and technological aspects of those exchanges, the measures applied, development of new technologies, innovations presented on the sector of electric arc furnace, increase of productivity, main steps present on modern steel production sector, are also analysed. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 7 refs

  8. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  9. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  10. Steele Richardson Olszewski syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree S Gokhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease and its plus syndromes are an important cause of morbidity in the geriatric age group. Its plus syndromes show a myriad of clinical features characterized by progressive symptoms. Here we present a 65-year-old woman with progressive "Parkinsonian-like features," i.e., mask-like face, slowness of all movements and tendency to fall, and difficulty in eye movements, leading to the diagnosis of Steele Richardson Olszewski Syndrome or progressive supranuclear palsy.

  11. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  12. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  13. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  14. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  15. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  16. The influence of inclusions on the low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H.; Kima, S.W. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels, such as F82H, are the primary near-term candidate for the blanket structural material of nuclear fusion reactors. During operation, blanket structural materials will be subjected to cyclic loading caused by start-up and shut-down procedure or plasma disruption. Therefore, investigation of fatigue property is essential to reactor design. It is considered that fatigue properties depend on the material factor such as the inclusion distribution, surface morphology and so on. Especially, many experimental results show that inclusions become the fracture origin in a given volume of material subjected to cyclic stress, and fracture failure is most likely to initiate at the largest inclusion in the volume. Therefore, the prediction of the size of maximum inclusion and its impact on fatigue properties would be essential to the fusion reactor materials development and application. This paper examines the possible relation between fatigue life and inclusion parameters such as size, shape, distribution and composition. The low cycle fatigue behavior of F82H steel at room temperature in air condition under fully reversed push-pull triangular wave was studied using miniaturized hourglass-type specimens with 1.25 mm in diameter. Total strain range is selected from 0.8% to 2.4%, and the strain rate was 0.04%/s. To examine the size and composition of the inclusions, fracture surfaces and crack initiation region were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The inclusions such as TaO{sub x}, TaO{sub x}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the size below 10 {mu}m are observed on specimen surface. The surface observation of the specimen which discontinued testing at 20 and 500 cycle tested at the strain range of 1.4% revealed that fatigue loading induced separation of inclusions from the matrix in initial stage, then micro-crack induced around the inclusions

  17. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, R.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  18. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1995 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  19. Interrelations between grammaticalization and phraseology in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Ruiz Gurillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the relationships between phraseology and grammaticalization in Spanish. According to a functional view of grammaticalization (see E. C. Traugott, we analyse some phraseological units: discourse markers, such as desde luego, conversational routines such as estaría bueno and idioms, such as cubrirse de gloria. Subjectification, intersubjectification or Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change can explain diachronic and phraseological evolution of these units. Corpus is from CORDE and CREA (http://www.rae.es.

  20. Spanish urological schools (1880-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Albacete, M

    2018-05-11

    We researched the start of urological specialisation in Spain, from the end of the 19th century to the institution of the education system (resident medical intern) to learn about the centres and individuals who created the urological teaching units and training schools in which the first Spanish urologists specialised their training. We extracted the references from books on the history of urology, from periodic urological publications and from the posters on history submitted to the congresses of the Spanish Urological Association and filled in the data and dates with the Historical Dictionary of Spanish Urologists. There are 30 urological specialization centres, 8 with official accreditation recognised by the corresponding ministry but whose official status is unknown. These centres are in the urology departments of large Spanish hospitals, university clinic hospitals and in private schools directed by notable urologists. There are 14 main centres, corresponding chronologically to the following cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Las Palmas of Gran Canaria, Cadiz, Santander, Valencia, Granada, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Oviedo, Zaragoza and Salamanca. Urological training in Spain from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century was well-established, both in officially accredited centres and in the urology departments of the main hospitals, in university clinic hospitals and in private schools and clinics. The training was directed by experienced urologists who ensured proper teaching and training, a method that persisted until the institution of the resident medical intern system in 1970. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial impact of malocclusion in Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Montiel Company, José María; Almerich Silla, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion, determine its relationship with the severity of malocclusion, and assess the influence of gender and social class on this relationship in adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 627 Spanish adolescents aged 12 - 15 years underwent intraoral examinations by 3 calibrated examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa > 0.85) at their schools. Psychosocial impact was measured through a self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aes...

  2. Performance of spanish wind turbines. Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1996 going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author) 4 refs

  3. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Dapica, M P; Gómez-Reino, J J

    1986-06-01

    We have found in our clinic a 28.1% prevalence of familial chondrocalcinosis among 149 family members of 32 patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. The clinical and radiological characteristics of these familial chondrocalcinosis patients were similar to those of the Chiloes with familial chondrocalcinosis previously reported. No significant clinical or radiological differences were detected between our sporadic and familial chondrocalcinosis patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that the Chiloes familial chondrocalcinosis was carried to Chile by Spanish immigrants.

  4. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  5. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  6. Spanish Identity: Nation, Myth, and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Torrecilla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two centuries, conservatives and liberals have offered two mutually exclusive visions of Spanish history, each with distinct myths, symbols, and heroes. The conservative image, formed in the Middle Ages, was based on the myth of the Reconquest and the need to restore (or keep the homogeneity of a country characterized by its Christian religion and Latin culture. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, faced with Napoleon’s invasion, Spanish liberals understood the danger of associating their modern ideas with France and invented a progressive and democratic Spanish tradition. According to their interpretation, the most authentic Spain was not the one identified with the Reconquest and the Empire, but the Spain of all those who had been excluded from the nation-building process because of their religion or ideas: the tolerant al-Andalus Muslims, the freedom-fighter comuneros and the defenders of the democratic medieval fueros . The great success of the transition to democracy and the Constitution of 1978 resided in the ability of all different tendencies and parties to overcome this division, to build bridges and create a common national project. For the first time in history, Spaniards managed to build a successful society based on consensus, pluralism and democracy. However, as a reality based on agreements, its nature is fragile. What is at stake now in Spain is to strengthen the viability of this model.

  7. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+

  8. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  9. Spanish Occupation of Roussillon in 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ramisa Verdaguer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the invasion of the French Pyrénées- Orientales department by Spanish troops under the orders of General Castaños in late August 1815, shortly after the Waterloo defeat and the occupation of France by the Seventh Coalition allies. The article also presents the situation before the Waterloo battle in the province of Catalonia, the preparation of the previously mentioned invasion and its consequences, all framed in the foreign policy of the Ferdinand VII government. The sources used in this work are the case files of the National Historical Archive (Madrid that relate to this episode, and specialized literature. The objective of this study was to relate a lesser-known event, occurred shortly after the end of the War of Independence, to highlight the scarce and indecisive Spanish foreign policy during the Congress of Vienna period. The Napoleonic invasion accentuated the Spanish internal crisis and the international decline of the country. This is reflected in the occupation of the Roussillon and rapid withdrawal ordered by General Castaños.

  10. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  11. Validation of the Walking Impairment Questionnaire for Spanish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Francisco S; March, José R; González-Porras, José R; Carrasco, Eduardo; Lobos, José M; Areitio-Aurtena, Alix

    2013-09-01

    The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) is a short, easy to complete, disease-specific questionnaire to assess intermittent claudication. A Spanish version of the WIQ for Hispanic Americans has recently been validated in Texas, but it needs to be validated for European Spanish people. After translation and cultural adaptation of the WIQ, 920 patients with intermittent claudication (ankle brachial index Spanish version of the WIQ and European Quality of Life 5 Dimension [EQ-5D]). The validity of the WIQ was determined by correlating WIQ and EQ-5D. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The three domains of the WIQ were moderately correlated with the EQ-5D health outcome (r = 0.54 to 0.60; p Spanish version of the WIQ for European Spanish patients was valid and reproducible, suggesting that it could be used in Spanish patients with intermittent claudication.

  12. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  13. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  14. [Spanish-Italian medical relations during the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagüe de Ros, G

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers a general review about the Spanish-Italian medical relations during the Renaissance. Spanish physicians travelled very often to Italy during this time, in order to get a better knowledge of the news advances in medicine. Many of them later occupied academic positions in Spanish universities and wide-spread the new ideas learned in Italy. The role played by printed books and manuscripts in their mutual relationships is here reported.

  15. Video games and mobile learning: A Spanish developers approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Carlos; Martí Parreño, José

    2016-01-01

    This research presents a work in progress aiming to map Spanish video games developers’ production in the area of mobile educational video games. A sample of 30 Spanish video games developers was analyzed in order to explore the weight that educational video games for mobile devices represents in their product portfolio. Primary findings suggest that Spanish video games developers’ production of educational video games for mobile devices is very scarce. While 23,3% of the analyzed video games...

  16. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  17. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  18. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, T.; Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Michel, H.; Lebrun, J.P.; Hertz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution (γ N ) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs

  19. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic ... carbon–manganese or silicon–manganese steels, but stops after a reduction at ... growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration;.

  20. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  1. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manufacture of steel in south India by a crucible process at ... indicates that the production of wootz steel was almost on an industrial scale in ... in an Age of Design marked by ... The Russian Anasoff also studied the process of manufacturing.

  2. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  3. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth

  4. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  5. Notable Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults from Spanish-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of books recently published in Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Peru for Spanish-speaking children and young adults. The books are grouped by the following levels: (1) preschool and primary grades; (2) grades 3 to 6; (3) junior high and up; and (4) young adult. (SED)

  6. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  7. Spanish mining in the 2008-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espi, J. A.; Sanz Contreras, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 and early 2009 has been for the Spanish mining a period of enormous significance. The world in crisis has an impact, however, differently in sub-sectors where the mineral industry is divided. Thus, those most directly linked to the construction industry (aggregates, dimension stone and industrial minerals) have collapsed the demand for their products. However, despite moments of uncertainty ending last year, solid fossil fuels and metal ores in general are between hope and lack of knowledge in the coming months. In this way, now we should be pleased to have four metal mines, at least some of them with real interest. (Author)

  8. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  9. 300 Spanish in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whither Nigeria? Purity Ada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    the position of Spanish as a global language alongside the efforts of successive Spanish ... Spanish has become the second language of international communication and the ...... ideológico de un proceso expansivo. Madrid: Biblioteca. Nueva ...

  10. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  11. Selection and evaluation of inner material candidates for Spanish high level radioactive waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Francesc; Dies, Javier; Sevilla, Manuel; Pablo, Joan de; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Miralles, Lourdes; Martinez-Esparza, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste canister for long term storage. The preliminary repository design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, corrosion allowing steel canisters and glass bead filling between the fuel assemblies and canister walls. This filling material will have the primary role of avoiding the possibility of a criticality event, which becomes an issue of major importance once the container is finally breached by corrosion and flooded by groundwater. In the first place, a complete set of requirements have been devised as evaluation criteria for candidate materials examination and selection; resulting in a compilation of demands significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other similar work found in literature, including over 20 requirements and some other general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Secondly, eight materials or material families (cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine) have been chosen and examined in detail, extracting some relevant conclusions. Either cast iron, borosilicate glass, spinel or depleted uranium are considered to look quite promising for the mentioned purpose. (authors)

  12. The Webquests in the spanish university area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Martín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the WebQuest's (WQ use, dissemination and perception experienced by Spanish universities -a methodology for which the interest has been renewed since the establishment of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA and its competency-based teaching system.The article summarizes the theoretical aspects and the key findings about the impact of the WQ implementation in different areas of knowledge in higher education. The study considers data collected within an international research as well as in the Spanish context.The theoretical review is complemented with a summary of the results from two surveys. The first one examines the role of university organisms with competences in university teacher training in the methodological integration of ICT in its practice and, particularly, in the dissemination of WQ. The second survey reflects the opinion of an expert group in order to know, among other things, their views on the advantages and disadvantages of the method, its acceptance by the students and the appropriateness of its use in connection with the implementation of the EHEA

  13. The Spanish reforms on domestic work regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Desdentado Daroca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the latest Spanish reforms regarding domestic work. The Spanish legislator, doubtlessly influenced by the ILO Domestic Work Convention nº 189 – which, however, was not later ratified in Spain- made a deep reform on domestic work in 2011. This legal reform implied a striking change that affected both working conditions and social security of employees in the family home. The aim of this reform has been to bring the regulation in domestic work closer to the general regulation for other workers, although maintaining certain specialties. Regarding working conditions, their setting as “particular employment relationship” has been held. However, the differences between this relationship and the common ones have been reduced. As for social security, domestic employees have been incorporated into the General Social Security System, but with important specialties, thus erasing the Special Domestic Employees System. The paper also examines the legal changes that have taken place in this field after the new Government arose.

  14. [Medication errors in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  16. Openings and Closings in Telephone Conversations between Native Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1998-01-01

    A study analyzed the opening and closing sequences of 11 dyads of native Spanish-speakers in natural telephone conversations conducted in Spanish. The objective was to determine how closely Hispanic cultural patterns of conduct for telephone conversations follow the sequences outlined in previous research. It is concluded that Spanish…

  17. Case, Inflection, and Subject Licensing in Child Catalan and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstead, John

    2000-01-01

    Development of specified tense and number morphology in child Catalan and Spanish was found to correlate with the onset of overt subject use in one monolingual child Spanish speaker and four monolingual child Catalan speakers who were studied longitudinally. (Author/VWL)

  18. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-01-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  19. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  20. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  1. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  2. Encountering Difference: Images of Otherness in Contemporary Spanish Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Meador; Campbell, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of films by female directors in Spanish language and culture classes, this work proposes the inclusion of two films, Chus Gutiérrez's "Retorno a Hansala" (2008) and Icíar Bollaín's "También la lluvia" (2010), in the curriculum of advanced or upper-level Spanish courses. Both films expand…

  3. The importance of oral Spanish teaching to multilingual students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores important aspects of teaching Spanish, both spoken and written, to multilingual students, with specific reference to United Sates International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. The beginner students of Spanish at the University speak at least 3 languages, one of which is ...

  4. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  5. From "Pinocho" to "Papa Noel": Recent Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Provides a list of recently published books in Spanish for children and adolescents. A tentative grade level is indicated for each book, but it is suggested that the individual child's Spanish-reading ability, interest, taste, and purpose should be the main criteria for determining the true level of each book. (Author/VWL)

  6. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages. PMID:24795664

  7. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  8. Historical Perspectives on Spanish-Quechua Language Contact in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)

  9. Spanish Literature and Spectrality : Notes on a Haunted Canon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, Pablo

    In Spanish Literature, Crisis and Spectrality: Notes on a Haunted Canon, Prof. Dr. Pablo Valdivia analyses the contradictions and complexities of the Spanish traditional canon from a transnational approach. Valdivia explores this particular canon as a 'haunted house' by focusing on the specific

  10. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  11. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  12. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  13. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  14. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  15. Tracing Mexican Spanish /s/: A Cross-Section of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines linguistic data from peripheral areas of Mexico and suggests that the contemporary resistance of the final /s/ in Spanish is characteristic only of urban regions. The study also hypothesizes that Spanish final /s/ was once more generally weakened throughout Mexico. An indirect Nahuatl contribution is also postulated. (62 references)…

  16. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  17. Espanol comercial para estudiantes posgraduados (Commercial Spanish for Postgraduate Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Jorge H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a commercial Spanish language program for postgraduate students of business administration that attempts to fulfill the immediate professional needs of all students. The content of intermediate and advanced courses is discussed, and a list of textbooks for Spanish commercial correspondence is included. (TR)

  18. Reading and Vocabulary Recommendations for Spanish for Native Speakers Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Laura Gutierrez

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the need for appropriate materials to address the needs of native speakers of Spanish who study Spanish in American universities and high schools. The most important factors influencing the selection of readings should include the practical nature of themes for reading and vocabulary development, level of difficulty, and variety in…

  19. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  20. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  1. Management of the Spanish Electric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus, V.

    2004-01-01

    After expressing his thanks for being invited to the meeting, Victoriano Casajus said that the hoped he would not be invited again because that would mean there had been another zero, even though it didn't happen in Spain. Casajus also congratulated the Spanish nuclear power plants for their excellent operation. Before beginning his presentation, the director claimed that all of us who are involved in the Spanish electric system can be proud of having a system that is possible one of the best in the world, because it has an excellent generation mix, a tremendously balanced transmission grid and a regulatory system that, although it has its faults, is very capable of responding to society's demands. In his presentation, Casajus took stock of the growing demand for energy and power and provided data that show that the Spanish system has experienced a 43% increase in electric energy demand between 1996 and 2003. The problem is with peak demand. It is paradoxical that, in 1998, reaching 34,000 MW was a dream and now going below that figure is almost impossible. Growth of peak demand during those years was 46%. The Spanish fleet was developed in the 70s for three fundamental reasons: phase-out of liquid fuels, massive inroad of coal, and significant expansion of Spanish nuclear power. Starting in the 90s, construction of generating plants practically came to a standstill, although with the excess installed power and more or less new plants (almost all of them were less than 20 years old) it was possible to maintain 48% growth in demand. However, the coverage rate dropped from a value of 1,45 in 1996 to barely 1.10 in2001 and to 1.05 in 2002. in spite of the inclusion of the so-called renewable or special energies. The problem is that not all sources of energy provide the same coverage, and unmanageable energies cannot be considered for managing a system, added Casajus. The general director of Red Electrica noted that Spain has had problems associated with energy

  2. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  3. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  4. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  5. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  6. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  7. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  8. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  9. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  10. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  11. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  12. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  13. [The Steel factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R

    1997-01-01

    Mice bearing mutations at either of two loci, dominant White spotting(W) or Steel(Sl), exhibit development defects in hematopoietic, melanocytic and germ cells. Genetics studies have shown that the SI locus encodes the Steel factor (SF), which is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, the product of the W locus. SF is synthesized in membrane-bound form and can be processed to produce a soluble form. Cell-cell interaction is important in the production of normal blood cells in vivo and in vitro and in the cellular expansion of leukemic cells. We discuss here how SF decreases the requirements in cell interaction for blast colony formation in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and the presence of membrane-bound SF possibly contributes to the density-dependent growth of the AML blasts. We explain that SF is mainly a survival factor for hematopoietic cells, of little proliferative effect, which maintains CD34+ hematopoietic cells in an undifferentiated state. These properties would potentially allow the maintenance of hematopoietic cells in culture for the purpose of marrow purging or gene therapy. The activation of the c-kit signal transduction pathway may play a significant role in the development of many types of non-hematological malignancies by disrupting normal cell-cell interactions and allowing the growth of cancer cell populations. In summary, the properties of the SF indicate it has a role for survival signals during the process of normal differentiation, AML proliferation and in the maintenance of many c-kit+ tumors.

  14. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  15. Spanish for You: Student-Centered and Languages for Specific Purposes Methods in Lower-Division Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a project that used student-centered teaching and languages for specific purposes to increase university students' motivation to study Spanish and willingness to communicate. After reflecting on their personal goals and interests, students were required to choose a purpose or context in which they might use Spanish in…

  16. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  17. How Native Do They Sound? An Acoustic Analysis of the Spanish Vowels of Elementary Spanish Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Mandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Language immersion students' lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic competencies are well documented, yet their phonological skill has remained relatively unexplored. This study investigates the Spanish vowel productions of a cross-sectional sample of 35 one-way Spanish immersion students. Learner productions were analyzed acoustically and compared to…

  18. Assessment of health literacy and numeracy among Spanish-Speaking parents of young children: validation of the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; White, Richard O; Finkle, Joanne P; Prendes, Stefania; Perrin, Eliana M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the health literacy and numeracy skills of Spanish-speaking parents of young children and to validate a new Spanish language health literacy assessment for parents, the Spanish Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT Spanish). Cross-sectional study of Spanish-speaking caregivers of young children (validated tests of health literacy (S-TOFHLA) and numeracy (WRAT-3 Arithmetic). Psychometric analysis was used to examine item characteristics of the PHLAT-10 Spanish, to assess its correlation with sociodemographics and performance on literacy/numeracy assessments, and to generate a shorter 8-item scale (PHLAT-8). Of 176 caregivers, 77% had adequate health literacy (S-TOFHLA), whereas only 0.6% had 9th grade or greater numeracy skills. Mean PHLAT-10 score was 41.6% (SD 21.1). Fewer than one-half (45.5%) were able to read a liquid antibiotic prescription label and demonstrate how much medication to administer within an oral syringe. Less than one-third (31.8%) were able to interpret a food label to determine whether it met WIC (Special supplemental nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children) guidelines. Greater PHLAT-10 score was associated with greater years of education (r = 0.49), S-TOFHLA (r = 0.53), and WRAT-3 (r = 0.55) scores (P Spanish-speaking parents have difficulty performing health-related literacy and numeracy tasks. The Spanish PHLAT demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and may be useful for identifying parents who would benefit from receiving low-literacy child health information. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigations on the creep-rupture behaviour of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirra, M.; Ritter, B.

    1988-12-01

    The report describes the creep-rupture tests carried out with a 17/13/2 CrNiMo-steel in the frame of the German-Spanish collaboration (KfK-CIEMAT). The material studied is the austenitic steel AISI 316(L) selected as potential first-wall material for NET (Next European Torus). The test programme on base material with a NET specified batch encompasses until now in the temperature range 500-750 0 C the rupture-time-range till 20 000 h. The results permit statements to the creep- and creep-rupture behaviour and ductility. Metallography examinations give information about fracture behaviour and demonstrate the complex precipitation happening. The results are compared with the literature and own test results from two batches of the Fast-Breeder-Program. (orig.) [de

  20. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  1. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  2. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  3. Posthumous Tales of One, Great, Free Nation: Spanishness in post-Franco Spanish Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Expósito, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An important form of transmission of knowledge about the Spanish nation is based on the continuous telling of stories in which the nation features as a suprahistorical, perennial entity. Myths of national origin, golden-age legends, and epics of national heroes are some of these stories. This mode of access to knowledge assumes a suspension of disbelief for the audience, and precludes other attempts to comprehend the nation through scientific research. Subjective national identities constructed upon such suspension of disbelief have a tendency to reify, personify or even deify the nation. In the struggle between mythic and objective knowledge, the question of authenticity becomes a hotly contested arena. This paper attempts to address questions of mythical national representation in Spanish films of 1975-2000.

  4. Austenitic stainless steel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Emmons, J.S.; Michaels, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical techniques applied to ultrasonic waveforms obtained from inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds are described. Experimental results obtained from a variety of geometric and defect reflectors are presented. Specifically, frequency analyses parameters, such as simple moments of the power spectrum, cross-correlation techniques, and adaptive learning network analysis, all represent improvements over conventional time domain analysis of ultrasonic waveforms. Results for each of these methods are presented, and the overall inspection difficulties of austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed

  5. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  6. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  7. Spanish Atlanteans’: Crisis of Empire and reconstruction of Spanish Monarchy (1672-1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Albaladejo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a internal crisis, the Spanish Monarchy underwent a process of redefinition between the end of the seventeenth century and the decade of the 1740s. By synthesizing traditional Spanish historiography with the insights of an incipient brand of European modernity, Spanish authors crafted a peculiar account of the “unknown past” of their body politic. The Spanish atlántidas rose to become creators of a great empire and protagonists in the founding of European culture. A new national imaginary emerged that legitimized the task of redefinition. With variations, this concern with origins dominated Spain’s introspection in the eighteenth century.Afectada por una profunda crisis interna, la Monarquía de España experimentó un proceso de redefinición identitaria entre el último tercio del siglo XVII y los años cuarenta del siglo XVIII. En una particular síntesis entre la tradición historiográfica propia y las propuestas que llegaban desde la incipiente modernidad europea, los autores de ese proceso configuraron un primer relato del “tiempo desconocido” de ese cuerpo político. Los atlántidas españoles irrumpieron como protagonistas de un renovado imaginario nacional, como un pueblo instituyente de la cultura europea y creador a la vez de un imperio grandioso que legitimaba la propia tarea de reconstrucción. Con variantes, esa preocupación por los orígenes dominaría la reflexión del siglo XVIII.

  8. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  9. Microstructural development in multi-pass TIG welded F82H steels under dual-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiwara, H.; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kishimoto, H.; Tomohiro, M.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are the first candidate materials for blanket structural component. On fabricating blanket components, various joining technologies will be required, and it could be anticipated that some parts of the weldments will suffer from high-dose 14 MeV neutron irradiation. For example, the current Japanese water cooled test blanket module design has the weldment of the first wall and side wall at 25 mm from the surface. This will not be the case for TIER-TBM, but could be the critical issue if the same design is applied for DEMO blanket system. In this study, the effects of displacement damage and helium production on mechanical properties and microstructures of the multi-pass tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated. The welded joint used in this study is a multi-pass TIG weldment on 15-mm thick plates of F82H-IEA. The post weld heat treatment was carried out at 720 deg. C for 1 h. To obtain systematic and accurate information of the microstructural response under fusion environment, dual-ion irradiation was performed. 15 mm x 20 mm pieces which cover the whole TIG weldment were irradiated at 470 deg. C up to 20 dpa using 6.4 MeV Fe{sup +3} and/or energy-degraded 1.0 MeV He{sup +}. The damage rate was 1.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s, and the helium injection rate was 15 x 10{sup -3} appm He/s. After the irradiations, thin film samples were made from various regions of the weldment by focused ion beam (FIB) processor, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and hardness tests were performed. Microstructure and Vickers hardness profiles across base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) were examined before irradiation experiments. The hardness measurements revealed that the maximum hardness was observed at the last pass region of FZ, and the softest region was in the middle of the FZ and HAZ region near the transformation line. In the microstructure study

  10. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  11. [The reform of Spanish abortion law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requero Ibáñez, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on the different factors and circumstances that have led to the reform of Spanish Abortion Law (1985). Judicial investigations of several abortion clinics have demonstrated that up until today there has been a widespread tendency of the clinics to practice beyond the limits established by the law. Nonetheless, the reaction of the government has not been to protect the life of the unborn. Its reaction has been, however, to cover the irregularities committed by the abortionists through the legalization of their abusive practices. Besides, the reform of the law has been inspired by elements of radical feminism. The author points out the major reasons that make this reform unconstitutional and offers alternative solutions for the protection of the mother and the unborn child.

  12. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  14. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  15. Development of the Spanish Language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument for Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jeanette; Sherwood, Gwen

    2017-12-01

    To address reported disparities in pain management among Hispanic patients, this article reports the psychometrics of the newly developed Spanish language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument (HPOI) with postoperative Hispanic patients. Findings from qualitative interviews conducted with 35 self-identified Hispanics in Phase 1 of the overall project were used to generate items for a new Spanish language instrument, Cuestionario de Houston Sobre el Dolor (HPOI). The second phase tested the psychometric properties with 95 self-identified Hispanic postoperative inpatients in three Texas hospitals. HPOI subscale reliabilities ranged from .63 to .91, with similar reliabilities for Spanish and English versions. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by moderate significant correlations with similar items on the Brief Pain Inventory. Participants reported moderate and severe worst pain in the last 24 hours; 38% were undertreated for pain according to the Pain Management Index; and 75% reported nonpharmacologic strategies including family support, prayer, and position change as highly effective in managing pain. The HPOI is a reliable instrument for addressing disparities in pain management for the rapidly growing Hispanic population in the United States. Subscales for interference with mood and physical function and patient-reported nonpharmacologic strategies facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of the pain experience.

  16. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  17. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  18. Teaching Spanish Pragmatics Through Colloquial Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albelda Marco, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the advantages of teaching and learning a foreign language with and through spoken discursive corpora, and especially colloquial and conversational ones. The benefits of developing oral competence and communicative skills in language learners using colloquial conversations will be exposed and discussed. In this paper, we characterise the colloquial conversation and the features that define this register and discursive genre. Being the most natural and original way to communicate among human beings, the colloquial conversation is the most common means to communicate, and therefore, this genre should have a greater presence in foreign-language classrooms. Secondly, we expound on the advantages of teaching using colloquial conversations corpora, particularly resulting from its contextualisation (the linguistic input is learnt in its real and authentic context and from its oral and conversational features (prosodic elements and interactional mechanisms. Thirdly, the paper provides a list of corpora of colloquial conversations that are available in Spanish, focusing on Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus (peninsular Spanish oral corpus, Briz et al., 2002; Cabedo & Pons online, www.valesco.es. Finally, a set of pragmatic applications of corpora in foreign-language classroom is offered, in particular using the Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus: functions of discourse markers and interjections (whose meanings change depending on the context, strategies of turn-takings, ways of introducing new topic in the dialogues, mechanisms of keeping or “stealing” the turn, devices to introduce direct speech, attitudes expressed by the falling and rising intonations, hedges and intensifiers, and so on. In general, this paper pretends to offer ideas, resources and materials to make the students more competent in communication using authentic discursive oral corpora.

  19. ICT INEQUALITIES IN THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  20. Vestimentary eponyms in contemporary Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Slivchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a consequence of the perpetual changes in the world of fashion, which can be explained by the introduction of new tendencies, materials and designers, the vocabulary that describes clothing enlarges by the internal means of the language and with the help of lexical borrowing. The article considers the characteristic usage of terms-eponyms for clothing description in Spanish language. Eponyms complicate the learning of languages and translation being a result of the worldview reflection of a determinate group of people in a determined period of time. As the study sets out to find out and explain the connotative meanings of vestimentary eponyms and suggest an approach for synonyms choice from their family for the discourse purposes, the toponyms are not taken into consideration, and the study concentrates on the anthroponyms, proper nouns which identify people, because they can adjust special connotative meanings to the terms within cultural linguistics context. The author shows the examples of etymology of originally Spanish and borrowed terms. Their comparison allows to make out the principles for the classification, authenticity and internationality amongst them. This classification divides all the vestimentary terms-eponyms into two main groups (neutral and with connotative meaning. Then it is possible to systematize and explain the meaning of the second group. According to the study international borrowed terms-eponyms look to neutrality, but among other synonyms acquire the meaning of elitism. Not international vestimentary terms-eponyms have a special connotative meaning, which is known amongst native speakers, that is why while teaching or translating more attention should be paid to them.

  1. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovski, Dragica; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2003-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  2. Economic anglicisms: adaptation to the Spanish linguistic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Zurita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous number of anglicisms used everyday in Spanish language generates lexical interference between both languages. This paper provides a semantic analysis of the changes in lexis this language contact brings about, through the different linguistic mechanisms of inter-language adaptation involved. When these anglicisms come from the current trend to include English words in Spanish discourse, we also add appropriate equivalents which could avoid the excess of redundant neologisms. A glossary of the most habitual terms derived from interference in English and Spanish in the economic field is included as a result of this study.

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  4. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  5. Spanish Readability Formulas for Elementary-Level Texts: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Weaver, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Uses two formulas developed for Spanish language text to analyze 9 stories that were read by 36 Spanish-speaking second graders with limited English proficiency. Finds that the Spanish readability formulas only weakly predicted student performance, indicating the need to pursue broader, qualitative indices of difficulty for Spanish text. (SG)

  6. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  7. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...

  8. Pragmatic Instruction May Not Be Necessary among Heritage Speakers of Spanish: A Study on Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros García, María J.; Bachelor, Jeremy W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pragmatic competence of U.S. heritage speakers of Spanish in an attempt to determine (a) the degree of pragmatic transfer from English to Spanish experienced by heritage speakers when producing different types of requests in Spanish; and (b) how to best teach pragmatics to students of Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL).…

  9. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  10. Tracing the Spanish Language/Determinando el Origen del Idioma Espanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Spanish language in America and notes the influence of Caribbean languages, Nahuatl, and English on Spanish. Describes the archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and grammar of the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Discusses Spanish language maintenance in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the United States. (SB)

  11. High temperature oxidation behavior of ODS steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, T.; Narita, T.; Ukai, S.; Matsuda, Y.

    2004-08-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developing for application as advanced fast reactor cladding and fusion blanket materials, in order to allow increased operation temperature. Oxidation testing of ODS steel was conducted under a controlled dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature oxidation behavior. This showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steels have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11 mass% Cr PNC-FMS and 17 mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel. This high temperature resistance is attributed to earlier formation of the protective α-Cr 2O 3 on the outer surface of ODS steels.

  12. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  13. The Índice Flesch-Szigriszt and Spanish Lexile Analyzer to evaluate Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Samih J; Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluate the reading difficulty of Spanish patient education materials using the validated Índice Flesch-Szigriszt (INFLESZ) and Spanish Lexile Analyzer, and to identify relationships between English and Spanish readability formulas. Cross-sectional analysis. All otolaryngology-related patient education articles written in Spanish from the health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked hospitals, top 10 Doximity-ranked otolaryngology residencies, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website, and the US National Library of Medicine online section on ears, nose and throat were collected. Reading difficulty was assessed using the INFLESZ and Spanish Lexile Analyzer. Additional readability assessments included the traditional English tools: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook score. A total of 497 articles were reviewed. The average INFLESZ score for all articles was 57.75, which is considered normal and requires the reading ability of a student who finished Escuela Secundaria Obligatoria or 10th grade equivalent in the United States. The average Spanish Lexile measure for all articles was 1062L, equivalent to a reading level between the 6th and 12th grade. English readability tools calculated a more difficult reading level compared to Spanish tools when performed on the same text. Current Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average Spanish-speaking reader to understand. Future improvements may be warranted to improve the readability of educational materials and increase health literacy. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E21-E26, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Notch aspects of RSP steel microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For a rather long time, basic research projects have been focused on examinations of mechanical properties for Rapid Solidification Powder (RSP steels. These state-of-art steels are commonly known as “powdered steels“. In fact, they combine distinctive attributes of conventional steel alloys with unusual resistance of construction material manufactured by so called “pseudo-powdered” metallurgy.Choice of suitable materials for experimental verification was carried out based on characteristic application of so called “modern steel”. First, groups of stainless and tool steel types (steel grades ČSN 17 and 19 were selected. These provided representative specimens for the actual comparison experiment. For stainless steel type, two steel types were chosen: hardenable X47Cr14 (ČSN 17 029 stainless steel and non-hardenable X2CrNiMo18-14-3 (ČSN 17 350 steel. They are suitable e.g. for surgical tools and replacements (respectively. For tooling materials, C80U (ČSN 19 152 carbon steel and American D2 highly-alloyed steel (ČSN “equivalent” being 19 572 steel were chosen for the project. Finally, the M390 Böhler steel was chosen as representative of powdered (atomized steels. The goal of this paper is to discuss structural aspects of modern stainless and tool steel types and to compare them against the steel made by the RSP method. Based on the paper's results, impact of powdered steel structural characteristics on the resistance to crack initiation shall be evaluated.

  15. Health Information in Spanish (español)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roads Media Hemorrhagic Fevers Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know - español (Spanish) PDF ...

  16. The spanish nuclear sector. History, economic impact and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has meant an important asset for the spanish economy both from an energy point of view and from an industrial and technological one. In the first case nuclear energy, which had gotten to be close to 40 percent of electricity in the 90s, supplies electricity at a very competitive cost and utilities benefit from its cash flow to finance and expand in alternative energy sources. It also helps to limit the rising costs for costumers. As for the industry it supported the modernisation of the spanish industrial capacities in the 80s and has been an added value activity since then with an important international activity. As a new thrust for nuclear energy is in the making, spanish nuclear energy capacities should help the spanish position under the european union Lisbon strategy. (Author)

  17. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Gamito, C.

    2000-01-01

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  18. The Spanish energy regulatory body: the national energy commission (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merono, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Energy Commission (CNE) is the Spanish Energy Regulatory body. This paper presents its scope and purpose, organisation, resources and financing, financial and performance control, functions, and legal provisions. (author)

  19. Experience with a Spanish-language laparoscopy website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Seoane-González, Jose B

    2006-02-01

    Although there are no clearly defined electronic tools for continuing medical education (CME), new information technologies offer a basic platform for presenting training content on the internet. Due to the shortage of websites about minimally invasive surgery in the Spanish language, we set up a topical website in Spanish. This study considers the experience with the website between April 2001 and January 2005. To study the activity of the website, the registry information was analyzed descriptively using the log files of the server. To study the characteristics of the users, we searched the database of registered users. We found a total of 107,941 visits to our website and a total of 624,895 page downloads. Most visits to the site were made from Spanish-speaking countries. The most frequent professional profile of the registered users was that of general surgeon. The development, implementation, and evaluation of Spanish-language CME initiatives over the internet is promising but presents challenges.

  20. The Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation: A Story of Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.

    2013-01-01

    The SNGC (Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation) is an alliance founded in 2006 for commercial cooperation between Spanish nuclear companies in order to joint efforts for the commercial promotion in the chinese market. This alliance was originally formed by ENUSA Industrial Avanzadas S. A. (ENUSA). Tecnatom S. A. and Equipos Nucleares, S. A. (ENSA). In 2008 Ringo Valvulas S. L. Joined the alliance, and July 2008 the Nuclear Group for China AIE was incorporated with each of the four companies holding a 25% share. Subsequently, as explained below, the legal name was changed to Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation AIE and the trade name of Spanish Nuclear Group/China was maintained as a brand for activities in this country. (Author)

  1. Community Colleges and Spanish Language Instruction: Peer Pedagogy in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Jenifer D.; Duval, José; Cyr, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Three authors describe a collaboration between a Massachusetts college and a nearby prison, which leveraged the volunteer efforts of a college professor by including incarcerated men who assisted in Spanish language teaching inside and outside the classroom.

  2. Challenging Spanish: ways for nurses to become bilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, W

    1999-01-01

    A desire to provide culturally competent care to an increasing population of non-English-speakers may lead some nurses to consider learning another language as a way to minimize cross-cultural communication barriers. Nurses wishing to learn a second language may be surprised at the variety of ways to acquire bilingual skills, particularly in Spanish, the most common foreign language encountered in the United States. Reasons to learn Spanish are discussed and ways to do so are reviewed. Learning Spanish or another language can enrich the nurse-patient relationship, enhance nurses' self-esteem, and advance nurses' employment opportunities. Bilingual proficiency in English and Spanish (or another language) should be regarded as an authentic clinical skill supporting nurses' cultural and clinical competencies.

  3. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  4. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  5. Corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, C.M.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative study has been made of those properties of Massiv and Standard cements which are considered to determine their ability to protect steel reinforcement from corroding. Saturated Massiv cement has a higher evaporabel water content, but a significantly finer pore structure than has saturated Standard cement. This fine structure resulted in an electrical resistivity ten times higher and chloride diffusivity ten times lower than those of Standard cement. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the passive current density of steel in Massiv mortar is higher than that of steel in Standard mortar, but the higher current should lead to a more rapid decrease in potential to a level at which neither chloride attack of hydrogen evolution will occur. Whereas steel in Standard mortar was found to be highly susceptible to crevice corrosion, no such attack has been observed in Massiv mortar. Moreover, the initiation of chloride induced corrosion and the subsequent rates of corrosion were both lower in Massiv mortar than in Standard mortar. Thus, it may be predicted that Massiv cement would provide greater protection for steel reinforcement in underground structures exposed to chloride containing ground water than would Standard cement. (author)

  6. Spanish language content on reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londra, Laura C; Tobler, Kyle J; Omurtag, Kenan R; Donohue, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the use of Spanish language translation on the websites of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) practices in the context of evidence of underuse of infertility services by minority populations. Cross-sectional survey of websites from REI practices. Not applicable. None. None. Assessment of the relationship between having a Spanish-translated website and REI practice characteristics. Variables included concurrent use of social media, size of the practice, Spanish-speaking practitioner in the practice, being a private or a university-based practice, being in a mandated insurance state, and being in an area with different levels of percentage of Hispanic population, adjusted for annual income levels of the population. Of the 376 REI practice websites analyzed, 101 (27%) offered at least some information in Spanish. We identified 97 Spanish-speaking practitioners at 71 REI practices. Having a Spanish-translated website was significantly associated with the practice's use of social media, having an international/out-of-town web page, and having a Spanish-speaking physician in the practice. The size of the practice, as measured in number of cycles reported per year, was not associated with having a translated website. In practices located in the top 60 metropolitan areas by Hispanic population, the odds of having a Spanish-translated website were only related to the percentage of Hispanic population after adjusting for state-mandated insurance and average annual income level of the Hispanic population. Sixty-six of the websites with Spanish-translated content had been automatically translated. An additional eight websites were partially translated automatically. REI practices in metropolitan areas with a higher percentage of Hispanics were more likely to reach out to this minority population by translating their website content into Spanish. These practices were also more likely to use social media. Future studies are needed to determine whether

  7. The Spanish Protocol for Collaboration on the Radiological Surveillance of Metallic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.M., E-mail: jmredondo@mityc.es [Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    In recent years the presence of radioactive material in scrap metal has been detected relatively often. This can cause the contamination of people or of the environment, as well as of the industrial facilities and of the product. The Spanish iron and steel industry is one of the most important industrial sectors in the country, and depends to a large extent on the importation of a significant proportion of the scrap used as raw material. Experience has shown that countries that import large quantities of scrap for their industries are more exposed to the existence of orphan radioactive sources and therefore, they have to adopt measures to reduce the risks arising from their presence. In 1999, the Spanish authorities, along with the business associations involved in the metal recovery and smelting industry, and the radioactive waste management agency, established a national system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap metal and the products resulting from its processing. Since then, the most relevant trade unions and others in the industrial sector have also joined the system. It is based on the existence of a legal framework and on a set of voluntary commitments taken on by the involved parties. It is known as the Protocol for Collaboration for the Radiological Surveillance of Metallic Materials and is implemented by the installation of specific radiological surveillance equipment, the development of radiological training and information plans for the staff involved in the metal recovery and smelting sectors, the definition of a fully operational system to safely manage the materials detected, and a general improvement of the national radiological emergency system. (author)

  8. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  9. Characteristics of Spanish adolescents’ and youngsters’ civic activity: e- citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fuentes Esparrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to illustrate and provide data on the access, use, equipment, habits and motivations of Spanish adolescents and young people towards ICT (computers, networks, internet, mobile phones.... We will focus mainly on social networks and mobile telephony as the main technologies currently in use. Thus, we can gain an insight into the main features of civic activity among Spanish adolescents and youngsters for proper e‐citizenship.

  10. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spanish Tourist Behaviour: A Specific Objective-base Segmantation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Pablo Rodríguez; Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This work uses data from the Spanish Tourism Demand Segments Survey (N=6900) conducted by the IESA-CSIC for Turismo Andaluz, SA. The objective of the paper is to develop a statistical segmentation or typology of Spanish tourists based on objective aspects of tourist behaviour measured in the survey including destinations visited, theme of the trip, lodging, transportation and travel group. Initial categorical data are reduced using multiple correspondence analysis and grouped through cluster ...

  12. Environmental criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, María-Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain g...

  13. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Mª Carmen González-Cruz; Cristina González-Gaya

    2017-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group ...

  14. Globalisation, Tradition And Cultural Identity In Spanish Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim O'Brien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers some reflections and observations on the complex relationship between the forces of Globalisation and Spanish football, posing the key question as to whether the impact of Globalisation has been a quintessentially corrosive dynamic, eroding the quasi - sacrosanct traditions of the Spanish game to fashion a distinctive post- modern pastiche of elitism and inequality based on an orgy of consumption and commodity.

  15. Analysis of patient satisfaction in Dutch and Spanish online reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Zafra, Salud M.; Martín Valdivia, María Teresa; Maks, Isa; Izquierdo Beviá, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment Analysis is a well-known task of Natural Language Processing that has been studied in different domains such as movies, phones or hotels. However, other areas like medical domain remain yet unexplored. In this paper we study different polarity classification techniques applied on health domain. We present a corpus of patient reviews composed by a Dutch part (COPOD: Corpus of Patient Opinions in Dutch) and a Spanish part (COPOS: Corpus of Patient Opinions in Spanish). Experiments hav...

  16. The Spanish Language in Californian Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Buzatu, Anamaría

    2013-01-01

    Spanish is considered the second familiar language in California due to its Californian history, our state’s proximity to Mexico and other Latin American countries, continuous Hispanic immigration, and the size of its Hispanic population, which surpasses that of all other states. This article analyzes the number of enrollment in Spanish courses during 2010–2011 academic year and then compared to the ones from other Romance languages (Portuguese, Italian, French, Romanian & Catalan) taught at ...

  17. [Work satisfaction among Spanish nurses working in English hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Madrigal-Torres, Manuel; Velandrino-Nicolás, Antonio; López-Iborra, Lidón

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate work satisfaction among Spanish nurses employed by English hospitals, as well as the influence of several social and work-related variables associated with satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional study. All Spanish nurses (n=360) with a contract with any English hospital in April 2003 were included in the study. The self-administered and validated Font Roja work satisfaction questionnaire was used. The response rate was 78.6%. Overall work satisfaction among Spanish nurses was medium. The dimensions with higher work satisfaction were relationships with colleagues and superiors. The dimensions showing lowest work satisfaction were job satisfaction and professional competence. Statistically significant and positive associations were obtained between level of English, professional grade, shift pattern, working in the intensive care unit or accident and emergency department, time worked in English hospitals and degree of work satisfaction. Employers of Spanish nurses should try to increase job satisfaction and professional competence among these workers. Incentivation and professional promotion systems might help achieve this aim. Employers could also try to improve Spanish nurses' English level before contracts are signed and pay special attention to their needs during the first working year. Spanish nurses job satisfaction would also increase if they were allowed to choose their working shift and the unit or ward where they are going to work.

  18. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  19. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-05-27

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  20. Lexical Anglicisms in Spanish and Slovak: a Contrastive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Ulašin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares two languages, Castillian Spanish and Slovak and contrasts the status and use of English loanwords in each language. It is a small part of a larger project comparing the lexical and semantic levels of both languages. The article classifies and gives examples of differences in the treatment of anglicisms between the two, starting with phonetic differences (introducing the most notable ones, orthographic, semantic and structural differences, then looking at synonyms and calques and ending with a discussion of the presence or absence of anglicisms in the cases of denotative mismatches. We also emphasize the importance of taking into account the cultural equivalent of the English loanwords in the extralinguistic reality of Spain and Slovakia. The phenomenon of so called pseudo-anglicisms in Spanish is mentioned, as well as the extremely numerous presence of false friends in Spanish (in comparison with Slovak. The article summarises the most typical differences between European Spanish and American Spanish varieties with regard to English loanwords. The article also discusses the case of acronyms, contrasting the use of English international acronyms in Slovak with the tendency to translate them in Spanish.

  1. Ductility of high chromium stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretyat'ko, V.N.; Kazantsev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aimed to optimize the hot working conditions for high chromium stainless steels the experiments were carried in the temperature range of 800-1300 deg C using hot torsion tests and cylindrical specimens of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels 08Kh13, 12Kh13, 20Kh13, 30Kh13 and 40Kh13. Testing results showed that steel plasticity varies in a wide range depending on carbon content. Steels of lesser carbon concentration (08Kh13 and 12Kh13) exhibit a sharp increase in plasticity with a temperature rise, especially in the interval of 1200-1250 deg C. Steels 20Kh13 and 30Kh13 display insignificant plasticity increasing, whereas plastic properties of steel 40Kh13 increase noticeably in the range of 1000-1300 deg C. It is shown that optimal hot working conditions for specific steel must be selected with account of steel phase composition at high temperatures

  2. Financial Management: Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...

  3. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  4. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Chemical decontamination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method for chemical decontamination of radioactive metal waste materials contaminated with radioactive materials on the surface, generated in radioactive materials-handling facilities. The invention is comprised of a method of chemical decontamination of stainless steel, characterized by comprising a first process of immersing a stainless steel-based metal waste material contaminated by radioactive materials on the surface in a sulfuric acid solution and second process of immersing in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and oxidizing metal salt, in which a portion of the surface of the stainless steel to be decontaminated is polished mechanically to expose a portion of the base material before the above first and second processes. 1 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, B.

    1988-09-01

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  7. Celebrations III and IV Centenary of Don Quixote in Spanish America through the Spanish press from 1905 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Chaparro Domínguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the coverage that the Spanish press provided to Spanish American celebrations for the Third and Fourth Centenary of the publication of the first part of Don Quixote, events that took place in 1905 and 2005, respectively. By the study of a total of twenty-one newspapers, which include El Imparcial, El Liberal and La Correspondencia de España, of the first period, and El País, El Mundo and La Vanguardia of the second, we will find out how they lived both centenaries in Spanish America, how important were these tributes in the press and, furthermore, we will know the concrete symbolic meaning that the popular Spanish nobleman acquired in either period.

  8. Teaching Culture and Improving Language Skills through a Cinematic Lens: A Course on Spanish Film in the Undergraduate Spanish Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the role of a course on Spanish cinema in an undergraduate, university-level curriculum in terms of its potential to acquaint students with significant cultural issues and to develop language skills. (Author/VWL)

  9. The Spanish indoor radon mapping strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz-Fernandez, C.; Fernandez-Villar, A.; Fuente-Merino, I.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L.; Casal-Ordas, S.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Garcia-Talavera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor radon mapping still represents a valuable tool for drawing the picture of the exposure of general public due to radon and radon progeny inhalation in a residential context. The information provided by means of a map is useful not only as awareness and strategic element for authorities and policy-makers, but also as a scientific start-up point in the design of epidemiological and other specific studies on exposure to natural radiation. The requirements for a good mapping are related to harmonisation criteria coming from European recommendations, as well as to national/local characteristics and necessities. Around 12 000 indoor radon measurements have been made since the Spanish national radon programme began at the end of the 1980's. A significant proportion of them resulted from the last campaign performed from 2009 to 12. This campaign completed the first version of a map based on a grid 10 x 10 km 2 . In this paper, the authors present the main results of a new map together with the criteria adopted to improve the number of measurements and the statistical significance of them. (authors)

  10. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  11. Phraseology and diatopic variation in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pamies Bertrán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phraseology and idioms have been scantly investigated in the field of dialectology, compared to the rich tradition of phonetic and lexicological studies that made available long ago accurate dialectal maps and atlases for all the languages of Europe. There is no lack of irony in this given the etymology of the word idiom itself(Spanish phraseology and paremiology allow us to observe certain cues in this respect.

  12. Spanish program on disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.; Ramos Salvador, L.; Martines Martinez, A.

    1977-01-01

    The Spanish Energetic Program assumes an installed nuclear electrical power of 23.000 MWe by the year 1985. Therefore, Spain is making an effort in the managment of radioactive wastes, that can be synthesized in the following points: 1.- Make-up and review of the regulation on the management of radioactive wastes. 2.- Development of the processes and equipment for the treatment of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from the CNEN ''Juan Vigon'', as well as those from the Nuclear Center of Soria. Solidification studies of RAA wastes arisen from the reprocessing. 3.- Evaluation of radioactive waste treatment systems of the new installed nuclear power plants. Assistance to the nuclear and radioactive facilities operators. 4.- Increase the storage capacity of the pilot repository for solid radioactive wastes of categories 1 and 2 IAEA, located in Sierra Albarrana. Studies of adequate geological formation for storage of solid wastes of IAEA categories 3 and 4. 5.- Studies about long term surface storage systems for solidified RAA wastes arisen from the reprocessing [es

  13. Analysis of scientific production in spanish implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Beatriz; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Tarazona-Alvarez, Pablo; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the scientific productivity of researchers, organizations, and regions in Spain that publish articles on implantology in dental journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports. A search was conducted among the core collection of Thomson Reuters' Web of Science database, on the basis of its broad thematic and geographic coverage of health sciences. The search identified original articles - the main vehicle for the dissemination of research results. The search was conducted in July 2016, applying the truncated search term 'implant*' to locate original articles on implantology and its derivative forms. The search was conducted within the topic field (title, keywords and abstract) and two inclusion criteria were applied: documents denominated as articles were included; and articles categorized as Web of Science Medicine Dentistry and Oral Surgery. Finally only articles for which one of the participating organizations was located in Spain were selected. The final search identified a total of 774 records. The period 1988 to 2015 saw an exponential growth in scientific production, especially during the last 10 years. Clinical Oral Implants Research and Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal (Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Surgery) were the most productive journals. Collaborative networks among authors and among institutions increased and this increase was related to the improving quality of the publications. Bibliometric analysis revealed a significant growth in the quantity and quality of Spanish implantology literature. Most key bibliometric indicators demonstrated upward trends. Key words: Bibliometric analysis, publication, keywords, implantology, implant.

  14. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  15. CERN welcomes the Spanish Vice-President

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming the Vice-President of the Government of Spain, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, for a visit of the Laboratory.   From left to right: Lluis Miralles (Head of the General Infrastructure Services department), Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría (Vice-President of the Government of Spain) and José Miguel Jiménez (Head of the Technology department).   The Vice-President was accompanied by Carmen Vela, Spanish Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation, Bernardo de Sicart Escoda, Ambassador of Spain to Switzerland, and Ana Menéndez Pérez, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva. Their tour started at LHC Point 1, where CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed them and gave them an introduction to CERN's activities. Jos&ea...

  16. Boron Steel: An Alternative for Costlier Nickel and Molybdenum Alloyed Steel for Transmission Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Case Carburized (CC low carbon steels containing Ni, Cr and Mo alloying elements are widely used for transmission gears in automobile, as it possesses desired mechanical properties. In order to cut cost and save scarce materials like Ni and Mo for strategic applications, steel alloyed with Boron has been developed, which gives properties comparable to Ni-Cr-Mo alloyed steel. In the process of steel development, care was taken to ensure precipitation of boron which results in precipitation hardening. The characterization of the developed boron steel had exhibited properties comparable to Ni-Cr-Mo alloyed steel and superior to conventional boron steel.

  17. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of laser clad stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damborenea, J.J. de; Weerasinghe, V.M.; West, D.R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is focussed in the study of the properties of a clad layer of stainless steel on a mild steel. By blowing powder of the alloy into a melt pool generated by a laser of 2 KW, an homogeneous layer of 316 stainless steel can be obtained. Structure, composition and corrosion behaviour are similar to those of a stainless steel in as-received condition. (Author)

  19. Modern steels for light automobiles (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. K.

    1994-10-01

    The article considers the directions of work at VAZ together with metallurgists of the CIS for creating highly efficient economically-alloyed and microalloyed steels; highly ductile forged steels with improved corrosion resistance coated with zinc and with good stamping, welding, and painting capacity. Steels are created for petrol tanks with aluminum-zinc coatings instead of lead, and new heat and corrosion-resistant steels are developed for automobile exhaust gas systems.

  20. Inclusion control in high-performance steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, L.E.K.; Helle, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress of clean steel production, fundamentals of oxide and sulphide inclusions as well as inclusion morphology in normal and calcium treated steels are described. Effects of cleanliness and inclusion control on steel properties are discussed. In many damaging constructional and engineering applications the nonmetallic inclusions have a quite decisive role in steel performance. An example of combination of good mechanical properties and superior machinability by applying inclusion control is presented. (author)

  1. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaraiz Franco, E.; Esteban Hernandez, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe 2 B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  2. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  3. Enticing Spanish-Speaking Adolescents: Recent Books in Spanish for Every Taste/Cautivar a los Adolescentes Hispanohablantes: Libros Recientes en Espanol Para Todos los Gustos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Argues that books in Spanish can engage Spanish-speaking students in the reading process, and that fostering the love of reading is a necessary first step to reading proficiency in any language. Offers brief descriptions of 16 recently published books in Spanish, and describes a large database of recommended books for children and adolescents in…

  4. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  5. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  6. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which

  7. performance of steel slag performance of steel slag as fine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Suitability of using steel slag (SS) as substitute for sand in concrete was ... The strength of SS concrete increased with increase in proporti. 10 mm. .... additives used. All other oxides ..... low lime coal fly ash in foamed concrete”, Fuel, Vol. 84,.

  8. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  9. Physical characterization of steel and stainless steel metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, A.O.; Lucchesi, C.G.; Sandin, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the physical characterization of steel powders (obtained by atomization) for later sintering and for the construction of porous sheets and filtrating tubes, capable of operating at temperatures between 600 deg C and 800 deg C in corrosive atmospheres. This methodology was based on the equipment and methods used for the physical characterization of uranium oxide powders. (Author) [es

  10. Some comments about the situation of the Steel Industry in the Arab Countries (Arab Steel Summit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Y.; Astier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arab Steel Summit, that convened in Abu Dhabi in April, gave us another opportunity to review the situation of the Arab Iron and Steel Industry, with regard to the present World economic context. We will address: - the World situation of steel production, focusing on the Arab Countries; - the related situation of steel consumption; - the steel trade, including imports, exports and prices; - the consequences for technology and economy. (authors)

  11. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramírez Heredia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., creampuff. We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003 and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015.

  12. The Spanish system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and the products resulting from its processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, E.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the fact that the use of radiation technologies has always been subjected to strict controls in most countries, the presence of radioactive materials in scrap has been detected relatively often in recent years. This has led to the implementation of a series of international initiatives aimed at detecting and preventing illicit international trafficking with radioactive material, intentional or otherwise. The Spanish iron and steel industry is one of the most important industrial sectors in the country, and depends to a large extent on the importing of a significant proportion of the scrap its uses as raw material. Experience has shown that that countries that import large quantities of scrap should complement the aforementioned international initiatives with others of national scope, in order to reduce the risks arising from the presence of radioactive material in scrap. In this context, the Spanish radiological protection authorities, along with the business associations involved in the metal recovery and smelting industry, have established a national system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and of the products resulting from its processing. The system consists of a set of legal bases, the installation of specific radiological surveillance equipment and the enhancement of other general purpose equipment that existed prior to these initiatives, the development of radiological training and information plans for the professionals involved in the metal recovery and smelting sectors and improvement to the national radiological emergency response system. (author)

  13. [Malformation syndromes in the spanish literature: The first descriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, V; Zafra Anta, M; Bassat, Q; de Arana Amurrio, J I; Fernández Menéndez, J M; Fernández Teijeiro, J J; Gorrotxategi Gorrotxategi, P J; Ponte Hernando, F

    2013-12-01

    Malformation or dysmorphic syndromes are conditions that are defined by the combination of a set of major and minor malformations that generally have a genetic origin. We investigated the early Spanish descriptions of a large number of sydromes. We started the study from the definition in a classic treatise on the subject. Among the 60 selected syndromes studied, at least two articles of each syndrome among those published in Spain and for the first time were listed in the Spanish Medical Index. For years prior to 1970, it expanded The search was expanded to PubMed, for the years before 1970. We collected 64 articles that referred to 58 syndromes. Four articles were written during the first half of the twentieth century. Almost half of the works (n=30) appeared in the 1970's. The papers were published in ten Spanish pediatric, nine Spanish non-pediatric, three pediatric non-Spanish and two non-Spanish non-pediatric Journals. The Journals with the most articles published were Anales de Pediatría y Revista Española de Pediatría. The hospitals where the articles originate more often were Hospital La Paz, Madrid and Hospital Clinic, Barcelona. The rest of the works were written in 30 pediatric hospitals and two more in non-Spanish hospitals. The number of authors increased with the passage of time. Although there were potential limitations, we have identified what may be the first descriptions of 58 syndromes, among the 60 chosen initially. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental Screening Disparities for Languages Other than English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuti Rodrigues, Kristine; Hambidge, Simon J; Dickinson, Miriam; Richardson, Douglas B; Davidson, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a known barrier to preventive care. Children from families with LEP face socioeconomic circumstances associated with increased odds of developmental delays and decreased participation in early care and education programs. Little is known about developmental surveillance and screening for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. We sought to compare developmental surveillance and screening at well-child visits (WCVs) by preferred parental language. Using a retrospective cohort (n = 15,320) of children aged 8 to 40 months with ≥2 WCVs from January 1, 2006, to July 1, 2010, in a community health system, 450 children from 3 language groups (150 English, 150 Spanish, and 150 non-English, non-Spanish) were randomly selected. Chart review assessed 2 primary outcomes, developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs and screened with a standardized developmental screening tool, and also determined whether children were referred for diagnostic developmental evaluation. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Compared to the English-speaking group, the non-English, non-Spanish group had lower odds of receiving developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs (odds ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2, 0.5) and of being screened with a standardized developmental screening tool (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.1, 0.2). There were no differences between the English- and Spanish-speaking groups. Though underpowered, no differences were found for referral. Improved developmental surveillance and screening are needed for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. Lack of statistically significant differences between English- and Spanish-speaking groups suggests that improved translation and interpretation resources may decrease disparities. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spanish open oak woodlands have had multiple land uses such as firewood extraction and grazing through centuries. Consequently, 20% of the Spanish forest is coppice forest. This particular agrosilvopastoral system is well widespread in the southern and western part of the Iberian Peninsula. As a result of the implementation of Natura 2000 in Spain, many of these habitats have been included in this network listed as "Dehesas" with evergreen Quercus spp. (Sclerophyllous grazed forests -dehesas-). The main goal of Natura 2000 is assuring "favourable conservation status" of natural habitats and species within these areas (Habitats Directive 92/43/ECC). This is the case of the study area, "Dehesa Boyal" (Ávila), which management plan has been carried out in a public forest land. The current situation is a degraded coppice forest, Quercus pyrenaica and Q.ilex, with a shrub encroachment due to previous firewood extraction. Besides, problems such as soil compaction and lack of sexual have been observed presumably related with livestock (180 horses, 1100 goats, 900 sheeps and 190 cows distributed in different seasons). Livestock feed on the acorns and hedge young sprouts making them sprouting again. The shrub encroachment is far from "conservation status" required in Natura 2000. Furthermore, the livestock cannot be removed because it is an important part of this agrosilvopastoral system not only for the landscape but also for its economic importance to local owners. Management plans should consider all of these circumstances and propose an integrated approach. To achieve this goal, the area was accurately classified in age classes by "stands" (oak shrubland, low pole stages, coppice tall shrub and sapling) in each habitat, using Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S), remote sensing techniques and detailed field work. Then, the "conservation status" of each stand is classified in A (Favourable), B (Inconvenient) and C (Unfavourable conservation status) considering some

  16. Steel story founded on coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Paper reports on an iron and steel plant in New Zealand which uses non-coking subbituminuous coal to produce the sponge iron. The transport of the ironsand and the coal to the site and the operation of the kiln in which the ironsand is reduced by the coal is described.

  17. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metadynamic recrystallization has been investigated in three plain carbon steels (ENIA, EN2 and EN24) through the use of hot interrupted compression tests on a wedge plastometer. Holding time was 0.5 s between passes. Strain rates of 0.05 and 0.12/s and small strain increments of 3, 5 and 7% were employed.

  18. Corrosion of austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1977-01-01

    Types of corrosion observed in a heat exchanger pipe and on a support of still of molasses fermented wort, both in austenitic stainless steel, are focused. Not only are the causes which might have had any kind of influence on them examined, but also the measures adopted in order to avoid and lessen its occurence.

  19. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 18-22 ISSN 1392-1320 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FT/TA5/076 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue of weathering steel * corrosion pits * fatigue notch factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2012

  20. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  1. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ration (FeB + Fe2B) due to the high intensity stress states generally situated at the ... performed molten salt boriding of AISI D2 steel with borax (Na2B4O7) as the ... the borided layer thickness; silicon, chromium and aluminium have moderate.

  2. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  3. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  4. High - speed steel for precise cased tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwiarz, J.; Mazur, A.

    2001-01-01

    The test results of high-vanadium high - speed steel (SWV9) for precise casted tools are presented. The face -milling cutters of NFCa80A type have been tested in industrial operating conditions. An average life - time of SWV9 steel tools was 3-10 times longer compare to the conventional high - speed milling cutters. Metallography of SWB9 precise casted steel revealed beneficial for tool properties distribution of primary vanadium carbides in the steel matrix. Presented results should be a good argument for wide application of high - vanadium high - speed steel for precise casted tools. (author)

  5. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published his immortal work Don Quixote of La Mancha in a time of crisis and decadence in Spain that occurred during the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. In 2016 we commemorate the fourth centenary of the death of our distinguished man of letters, and thus in this article we analyse the status of Hispanic neuroscience, both in the Quixote itself and in other works by the most significant contemporary writers of that time. Despite the adverse historical circumstances, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque periods, in the Crown of Castile, was a flourishing period for literature (Spanish Golden Age) and other Hispanic arts (painting, sculpture, architecture and music), as well as bearing witness to a prodigious creativity in the field of neuroscience, including the field of natural philosophy. In his book Antoniana Margarita the physician Gomez Pereira laid the foundations for brain mechanism and the concept of conditioned reflexes several decades ahead of his time. The apothecary Miguel Sabuco also anticipated the concept of neurotransmission centuries ahead of his time in his New Philosophy. The physician Juan Huarte de San Juan was the founder of neuropsychology and experimental psychology, and his Examination of Men's Wits has been one of the most influential and widely translated scientific texts of all times. Its concepts are clearly reflected in Cervantes' Quixote. This analysis of Cervantes' work within the cultural setting of the book is intended as a homage to the immortal figure of our 'Prince of Wits' in the fourth centenary of his death.

  6. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  7. Study on cementitious properties of steel slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the present paper. The electronic microscope, energy spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the main mineral compositions in the converter slag. Converter slag of different components were grounded to obtain a powder with specific surface area over 400m2/kg, making them to take place some part of the cement in the concrete as the admixture and carry out the standard tests. The results indicate that the converter slag can be used as cementitious materials for construction. Furthermore, physical mechanic and durability tests on the concrete that certain amount of cement be substituted by converter steel slag powder from different steel plants are carried out, the results show that the concrete with partial substitution of steel slag powder has the advantages of higher later period strength, better frost resistance, good wear resistance and lower hydration heat, etc. This study can be used as the technical basis for “Steel Slag Powder Used For Cement And Concrete”, “Steel Slag Portland Cement”, “Low Heat Portland Steel Slag Cement”, “Steel Slag Road Cement” in China, as well as a driving force to the works of steel slag utilization with high-value addition, circular economy, energy conservation and discharge reduction in the iron and steel industry.

  8. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires.

  9. Migration of Spanish nurses 2009-2014. Underemployment and surplus production of Spanish nurses and mobility among Spanish registered nurses: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Nelson, Sioban

    2016-11-01

    After the financial crisis of 2008, increasing numbers of nurses from Spain are going abroad to work. To examine the health and workforce policy trends in Spain between 2009 and 2014 and to analyze their correlation with the migration of nurses. Single embedded case study. We examined data published by: Health Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996 to 2013); Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2006 to 2013); Ministry of Employment and Social Security (2009 to 2014); Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (1997 to 2014); and National Institute of Statistics (1976 to 2014). In addition to reviewing the scholarly literature on the topic in Spanish and English, we also examined Spanish mobility laws and European directives. We used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development definition of "professionally active nurses" which defines practising nurses and other nurses as those for whom their education is a prerequisite for employment as a nurse. Moreover, we used the term "nursing graduate" as defined by Spanish Ministry of Education to describe those who have obtained a recognized qualification in nursing in a given year, the term "registered nurses" is defined by Spanish law as nurses registered in the Nurses Associations and "unemployed nurses" are those without work and registered as seeking employment. A transformation of the Spanish health system has reduced the number of employed nurses per capita since 2010. Moreover, reductions in public spending, labour market reforms and widespread unemployment have affected nurses in two ways: first by increasing the number of applicants per vacancy between 2009 and 2013, and second, by an increase in casual positions. However, despite the poor job market and decreasing job security, the number of registered nurses and nursing graduates in Spain per year has continued to grow, increasing the pressure on the labour market. Spain is transforming from a stable

  10. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included

  11. Irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Vacek, M.

    1975-01-01

    A Standard Research Programme on Irradiation Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Steels was approved by the Coordinating Meeting on the 12th May 1972 at the Working Group on Engineering Aspects of Irradiation Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Steels. This Working Group was set up by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Seven countries with their research institutes agreed on doing irradiation experiments according to the approved programme on steel A533 B from the U.S. HSST Programme. The Czechoslovak contribution covering tensile and impact testing of non-irradiated steel and steel irradiated at 280degC to 1.3 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E above 1 MeV) is presented in this report. As an additional part the same set of experiments was carried out on two additional steels - A 542 and A 543, made in SKODA Works for comparison of their irradiation embrittlement and hardening with A533 B steel. (author)

  12. Mutual Word Borrowings between the English and the Spanish Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Rinatovna Ismagilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses growing popularity of foreign languages learning and their role in the modern society. The article is devoted to the problem of mutual borrowings from English and Spanish languages. The aim of the article is to investigate new tendencies in the English words borrowings, their establishment in the Spanish language and the other way round. The Spanish language is one of the most widespread languages in the world and it is a native language for different nationalities. On the other hand, English has borrowed quite a lot of Spanish words as well. The mutual enrichment of the languages makes the process of language teaching specific and it is important in the modern process of globalization where languages are the main resource of international cooperation. The article contains both theoretical and practical materials dedicated to the investigation of this problem. This article may be useful for a wide range of readers, students, scientists, linguists in the study of modern Spanish and English languages.

  13. Spanish scientific output on Helicobacter pylori. A study through Medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero-Marugán, M; Gisbert, J P; Pajares, J M

    2006-04-01

    to analyze scientific output from Spanish hospitals in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. papers collected from the Medline database between January 1988 and December 2003 were selected. Our search strategy was: "Helicobacter pylori" [MeSH] AND ((Spain [AD] OR Espana [AD] OR Spanien [AD] OR Espagne [AD] OR Espanha [AD]) OR (Spanish [LA]) OR Spain). The following was analyzed: geographic area, Spanish or foreign publication, topic, and year of publication. Output and impact bibliometric markers were evaluated. in all, 691 papers were identified, of which 241 were excluded. Number of papers went from 2 in 1988 to 47 in 2002 and 13 in 2003. There were more reports in Spanish versus foreign journals (58 vs. 42%). In the first 5 years the areas with greater output were associated with diagnosis and microbiology (33 and 20%), whereas therapy was the predominating subject during the last 5 years (27%). Original papers were most common among publications (69%). Hospitals with highest output included La Princesa (24%) and Ramón y Cajal (17.6%) in Madrid, and Parc Taulí in Barcelona (6.4%). Mean impact factor progressively increased from 1.826 in 1988 to 2.142 in 2002 and 2.493 in 2003. the production and impact of documents published by Spanish scientists regarding H. pylori infection considerably increased during the past two decades.

  14. The Spanish CEIDEN Technology Platform: Activities on Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, R.; Montero, A.; Ruiz, F.; Leon, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: CEIDEN is a Spanish organization for the coordination of the needs and efforts on nuclear fission research and development (R&D). It was created in 1999 and since 2007 has the status of technology platform. The main functions of CEIDEN are to define and develop joint R&D projects, and to present a common position for national and international commitments and proposals in the nuclear fission R&D field. With around one hundred of Spanish members and a significant number of foreign collaborative entities, CEIDEN groups all sectors involved in this field. In 2011 the CEIDEN F+ permanent group was created to cope with the E&T issues. The main objectives of F+ are to promote the coordination of E&T programmes in a national level and to support the Spanish participation in international networks, programmes and projects in this field. Knowledge management is more and more a paramount issue that conditions the future of the Spanish nuclear sector, especially all the related to the generational replacement. In response to this challenge, a nuclear knowledge management group has been created recently in CEIDEN with the target of start coordinated initiatives in the Spanish nuclear sector, in this field. (author

  15. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  16. Long-term atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, D. de la; Diaz, I.; Simancas, J.; Chico, B.; Morcillo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Atmospheric corrosion rate stabilises after the first 4-6 years of exposure. → Great compaction of the rust layers in rural and urban atmospheres. → Corrosion (in rural and urban) deviates from common behaviour of bilogarithmic law. → Typical structures of lepidocrocite, goethite and akaganeite are identified. → Formation of hematite (industrial atmosphere) and ferrihydrite (marine atmosphere). - Abstract: A great deal of information is available on the atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in the short, mid and even long term, but studies of the structure and morphology of corrosion layers are less abundant and generally deal with those formed in just a few years. The present study assesses the structure and morphology of corrosion product layers formed on mild steel after 13 years of exposure in five Spanish atmospheres of different types: rural, urban, industrial and marine (mild and severe). The corrosion layers have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Long-term corrosion is seen to be more severe in the industrial and marine atmospheres, and less so in the rural and urban atmospheres. In all cases the corrosion rate is seen to decrease with exposure time, stabilising after the first 4-6 years of exposure. The most relevant aspects to be noted are (a) the great compaction of the rust layers formed in the rural and urban atmospheres, (b) the formation of hematite and ferrihydrite phases (not commonly found) in the industrial and marine atmospheres, respectively and (c) identification of the typical morphological structures of lepidocrocite (sandy crystals and flowery plates), goethite (cotton balls structures) and akaganeite (cotton balls structures and cigar-shaped crystals).

  17. A Spanish language and culture initiative for a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTyle, W Kent; Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A; Hancock, Bruce

    2011-02-10

    To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates.

  18. Earthquake response of steel braces and braced steel frames

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Wenshui

    1996-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. Chapter 2 deals with the dynamic buckling behavior of steel braces under cyclic axial end displacement. Braces under such a loading condition belong to a class of "acceleration magnifying" structural components, in which a small motion at the loading points can cause large internal acceleration and inertia. This member-level inertia is frequently ignored in current studies of braces and braced structures. This chapter shows that, under certain conditions, ...

  19. Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el español mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1 diseño especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2 adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3 control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH. La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1 special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2 standard speaker adaptation, and (3 control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary

  20. Is there chaos in the Spanish labour market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: We consider Spanish unemployment time series. We apply a number of nonlinearity tests and chaoticity measures. We establish the presence of nonlinearity and chaos, which disappears when the data are shuffled. Abstract: One could argue that there is a resurgence of the non-linear modelling in economics. Some instruments have been developed to measure the complexity or instability of the analysed systems. At the present work some of these developed techniques are applied to verify the non-linearity present in the time series of Spanish unemployment, as well as to quantify the degree of complexity of the system that has generated the series. Using these techniques we find evidence of chaos in Spanish unemployment time series.

  1. The presence of English and Spanish dyslexia in the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rello, Luz; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    In this study we present a lower bound of the prevalence of dyslexia in the Web for English and Spanish. On the basis of analysis of corpora written by dyslexic people, we propose a classification of the different kinds of dyslexic errors. A representative data set of dyslexic words is used to calculate this lower bound in web pages containing English and Spanish dyslexic errors. We also present an analysis of dyslexic errors in major Internet domains, social media sites, and throughout English- and Spanish-speaking countries. To show the independence of our estimations from the presence of other kinds of errors, we compare them with the overall lexical quality of the Web and with the error rate of noncorrected corpora. The presence of dyslexic errors in the Web motivates work in web accessibility for dyslexic users.

  2. Seminar on present and future Spanish Legislation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Proceedings of the Seminar contain the papers presented and the conclusions of each Session. The topics cover Spanish nuclear legislation including the licensing of nuclear power plants and control, analysed in the context of legislation in other fields and the new requirements since Spain joined the European Communities. Other papers deal with the origin and evolution of Spanish nuclear law, the competent international organizations and the nuclear third party liability regime set in place by the international conventions in that field. Also discussed are the national regulations on radioactive waste management and the competent authorities. Finally, a revision of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Act is considered necessary in the light of developments since its inception [fr

  3. Importance of intellectual capital disclosure in Spanish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Ramírez Córcoles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increasing social concern about establishing procedures of accountability and ensuring information transparency in public universities prompted us to raise the need to disclose information on their intellectual capital.Design/methodology/approach: In this study we developed a questionnaire which was sent to members of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities, in order to identify which intangible elements university stakeholders demand most.Findings: The results of this research demonstrate how important it is for Spanish public universities to provide information on their intellectual capital in order to satisfy their stakedolders’ information needs.Practical implications: The results of this research lead us to recommend that universities include in their accounting statements the information on intellectual capital demanded by the different stakeholders.Originality/value: No previous research was conducted for Spanish universities. Our results represent a starting point for public universities to identify which is the most requested information about intellectual capital. 

  4. Spanish Minister of Science and Technology visits ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    H.E. Mr Josep Piqué i Camps, Minister for Science and Technology, Spain, came to CERN in November. He is seen here visiting the ATLAS assembly hall. Photo 01: The Minister (left) is greeted by Peter Jenni, spokesperson for the ATLAS collaboration. In the centre is Matteo Cavalli-Sforza, Spanish scientist at CERN. Photo 02: The Minister (left) in discussion with Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Peter Jenni shows the visitors one of eight vacuum vessels being built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA for the superconducting coils of the air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system: (left to right) Matteo Cavalli-Sforza of CERN; the Minister; M. Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish delegate to CERN Council; G. Léon; and Peter Jenni.

  5. 41st Annual Meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) is a non-profit association, made up of professionals and institutions, in order to promote awareness and dissemination of nuclear science and technology. The 41 Annual Meeting of the Spanish Nuclear Society was held in A Coruña from 23 to 25 September 2015. This Annual Meeting allows professionals and companies in the sector to analyze the current state of nuclear energy and its future challenges, covering different topics from engineering to R & D, nuclear safety, also impact on health and the environment, climate change, nuclear facilities, experience spanish companies in the management of knowledge in the nuclear sector. This congress has involved some 600 experts who have dealt with current issues and maximum interest.

  6. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  7. Good patriots. The nation according to the Spanish conservative party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    embedded a culture of dialogue and the conflicts became more accentuated at the end of their first term (Tusell, 2000: 239). The Spanish president, José María Aznar, interpreted the results as a big electoral support for his project and started a new orientation in some areas such as the relation...... national parties, PP and Partido Socialista (PSOE, social democrats) agreed to fight against terrorism and the nationalist environment together. In that context, Aznar undertook the definition of the nation maintaining this division and tried to find a way of formulating Spanish nationalism and getting...... some accept by the citizens. In this paper I will examine the discursive formation constituted by PP to redefine the Spanish nationalism using the idea of constitutional patriotism, which emanates from the academic debate, in competition with the social democrat party, that aspires also to apply...

  8. The Universality of Semantic Prototypes in Spanish Lexical Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Šifrar Kalan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the words with highest index of availability on the basis of semantic fluency tests. The conceptual stability of highly available words in various semantic categories enables them to be classified as semantic prototypes according to the theory of prototype. The aim of this article is to compare the semantic prototypes in nine semantic categories from different lexical availability studies: those carried out in Spanish as a mother tongue and Spanish as a foreign language (with Slovene, Finnish, Turkish, Chinese students and students of various other mother tongues who studied Spanish in Madrid and Salamanca. The informants who come from different countries and cultures and speak different first languages demonstrate that human beings share the same or similar categorization and universality of semantic prototypes.

  9. Perception of the Varieties of Spanish by Students of Spanish Language and Literature at the University of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Musulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 a survey was carried out among students of Spanish Language and Literature at the University of Zagreb. The survey consisted of two parts and in this work we present the data obtained by the questionnaire, in which the students’ sociolinguistic knowledge of the Spanish language and its varieties was ascertained. The questionnaire was completed anonymously and voluntarily by 154 participants. The results showed that the Zagreb students recognize, among all the varieties of Spanish, the one from Madrid as the representative and the most identifiable, which can be explained by the fact that Spain is a European country and, therefore, much more accessible for Croatian students but also because of the influence of the RAE and its lexicographical works that predominate in the teaching of Spanish. A certain percentage of the questioned students believe that there is a less correct variety of Peninsular Spanish – Andalusian. The results also show the influence not only of the linguistic knowledge obtained during studies but furthermore the attitudes towards certain varieties. It is noted that Croatian students acquire not only the language but also sometimes the attitudes and stereotypes that generally exist among Spaniards. That means that the attitudes towards certain varieties are not necessary the result of their own evaluation but the stereotypes reflected by the greater contact with Spain and Spaniards.

  10. [Evaluation of formal elements of Spanish pediatrics journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; González de Dios, J; Valderrama-Zurián, F J; Bolaños Pizarro, M; Valderrama-Zurián, J C

    2007-03-01

    Standardization of scientific journals is indispensable for accurate transmission of knowledge, since it guarantees the universality and reproducibility of research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the formal elements of Spanish pediatrics journals. In 2005, we studied the characteristics of Spanish biomedical journals with special emphasis on Spanish pediatrics journals. The form used for the selection of journals for inclusion in the database Indice Médico Español (IME) was employed to evaluate 65 distinct characteristics in each journal. The parameters were grouped in the following five categores: journal presentation, presentation of the articles, scientific and editorial committees, content characteristics, and dissemination parameters. The journals with the highest overall scores were Anales de Pediatría (63 points out of a maximum of 82), followed by Pediatría de Atención Primaria (53 points), Acta Pediátrica Española and Cirugía Pediátrica (55 points each), Pediatrika (53 points), and Revista Española de Pediatría (48 points). The score obtained by Anales de Pediatría places this journal in the top 10 Spanish journals included in IME. Spanish pediatrics journals meet most of the formal elements required of biomedical journals, although some aspects could be improved, such as deficiencies in the frequency and regularity of publication, mention of the dates of manuscript receipt and acceptance, the lack of a clear description of the editorial process of manuscript selection and peer review, the absence of committee members' institutional affiliations, and the absence of articles by non-Spanish authors.

  11. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Harald; Mattissen, Dorothea; Schaumann, Thomas Wilhelm [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Center of Materials Excellence, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Advanced high-strength steels offer a great potential for the further development of automobile bodies-in-white due to their combined mechanical properties of high formability and strength. They represent the first choice in material selection for strength and crash-relevant parts with challenging geometries. The intensive development of multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp Steel has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex-phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled dual phase (DP) and retained austenite (RA) or transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. New continuously annealed grades of steel are being developed with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for the high demands of structural automobile components. These steels make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP steels and RA / TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (orig.)

  12. On high temperature strength of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Manabu; Kanero, Takahiro; Ihara, Yoshihito

    1977-01-01

    In the steels for high temperature use, the oxidation resistance is regarded as important, but carbon steels show enough oxidation resistance to be used continuously at the temperature up to 500 deg. C if the strength is left out of consideration, and up to 450 deg. C even when the strength is taken into account. Moreover, the production is easy, the workability and weldability are good, and the price is cheap in carbon steels as compared with alloy steels. In the boilers for large thermal power stations, 0.15-0.30% C steels are used for reheater tubes, main feed water tubes, steam headers, wall water tubes, economizer tubes, bypass pipings and others, and they account for 70% of all steel materials used for the boilers of 350 MW class and 30% in 1000 MW class. The JIS standard for the carbon steels for high temperature use and the related standards in foreign countries are shown. The high temperature strength of carbon steels changes according to the trace elements, melting and heat treatment as well as the main compositions of C, Si and Mn. Al and N affect the high temperature strength largely. The characteristics of carbon steels after the heating for hours, the factors controlling the microstructure and high temperature strength, and the measures to improve the high temperature strength of carbon steels are explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Regional Spanish Tourism Competitiveness. A DEA-MONITUR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the regional tourist competitiveness performance in Spain. We use the seven pillars of tourism from a very detailed and complete database compiled by the Spanish Government –MoniTUR 2010 as primary data. Thus, we calculate a DEA-MONITUR regional tourist competitiveness index in order to compare and rank the total 17 Spanish Autonomous Communities using data envelopment analysis (DEA. Our results show how this performance is very different among regions, and the position of each of the laggard Autonomous Communities should be analysed by their respective destination management organizations (DMOs in order to envisage adequate corrective measures.

  14. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-01-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  15. The Spanish experience - future developments in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraleda, P.

    1996-01-01

    Spanish experience is presented concerned it may be useful at the time of setting up a natural gas industry. The Spanish natural gas industry is of recent creation. Developing infrastructure and securing gas supplies have been major challenges. Challenges which, are also common for majority of the countries. The presentation is split into two blocks: the first one is on our experience in the establishment and consolidation of the market for natural gas in Spain. The second block deals with future developments aiming to strengthen the security of supply; and with the opportunities and threats the gas industry will face

  16. International Modal choice determinants in the Spanish Hotel Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ramón Rodríguez

    2001-01-01

    Hotel industry is a management intensive industry as well as a distinct real estate asset class. During the 80ís, a reduced number of hotel groups led the internationalization of the Spanish tourism industry. In the decade of the 90ís, the process of internationalization wraps to a growing and dynamic volume of hotel chains, acquiring an exponential growth. Spanish hotel firms have nearly one hundred thousand rooms outside their home nations in three hundred and forty six thousand properties ...

  17. Sexuality in older Spanish women: voices and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas, Anna; Luque, Barbara; Reina, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Our research has been aimed at understanding the experience, practice, and sexual life in a group of Spanish women over 50 years of age. We studied a sample of 729 women between 50 and 80 years old. Our results provide qualitative and quantitative information and important insights about the sexual life of Spanish women and identify differences in the experience and reality of sexual life after the age of 70. The status of having or lacking a partner, and a personal interest in emotional relationships and sexual practices, are elements that determine the possibility of enjoying a satisfying postmenopausal sexuality.

  18. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  19. Labor transitions of Spanish workers: a flexicurity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Alonso Domínguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from the Continuous Sample of Working Lives (MCVL to assess whether flexicurity can contribute to solving endemic problems in the Spanish labor market. Two different periods are considered: 2005–2007, in which the unprecedented expansion of the Spanish economy came to an end, and 2008–2010, which clearly shows how the economic crisis has affected the employment rate. The results obtained bear out the preliminary hypotheses. More specifically, a labor market transitions have come to a halt, and b contractual arrangements which may act as gateways to more stable employment are being misused.

  20. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.