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Sample records for spanish gasoline market

  1. Competition, regulation, and pricing behavior in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    OpenAIRE

    Contín Pilart, Ignacio; Correljé, Aad F.; Palacios, María Blanca

    2006-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990 the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that "liberalization" was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. This paper examines the pricing behavior of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results...

  2. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio; Correlje, Aad F.; Blanca Palacios, M.

    2009-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power

  3. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  4. Dynamic pricing in the spanish gasoline market. A tacit collusion equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdiguero Garcia, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    During the last twenty years, the Spanish petrol market has undergone an intensive restructuration process; it has changed from being a state-owned monopoly to total liberalization and privatization. This liberalization process was accompanied by measures that facilitated the creation of a 'national champion', the Repsol Group, which is a huge, vertically integrated company with a high market share in all the industry's segments. Using a dynamic model, this paper analyses whether the prices established by companies in the Spanish gasoline market, after the restructuration process, fits with a tacit collusion equilibrium. The empirical results show that a strategic behaviour of companies occurs and is compatible with a tacit collusion price strategy. So, the restructuration process does not seem to have introduced effective competition into the Spanish gasoline market. (author)

  5. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, I.; Correlje, A.; Huerta, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  6. Gasoline marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline

  7. Gasoline marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of two reports. One, issued in April 1990, addresses gasoline octane mislabeling, and the other, issued in February 1991, addresses possible consumer overbuying of premium gasoline. Consumers can purchase several grades of unleaded gasoline with different octane ratings regular (87 octane), mid-grade (89 octane), and premium (91 octane or above). A major concern of consumer buying gasoline is that they purchase gasoline with an octane rating that meets their vehicles' octane requirements. In summary, it was found that consumers may unknowingly be purchasing gasoline with lower octane than needed because octane ratings are mislabeled on gasoline pumps. At the same time, other consumers, believing they may get better performance, may be knowingly buying higher priced premium gasoline when regular gasoline would meet their vehicles' needs. These practices could be coasting consumers hundred of millions of dollars each year

  8. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  9. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level

  10. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  11. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding

  12. Report on the Chatham gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A request to investigate was made by an independent gasoline retailer in Chatham, Ontario, alleging predatory pricing practices and abuse of dominant position by certain oil companies (Sunoco and Pioneer) during the spring of 1999. The Competition Bureau investigated the complaint and concluded that the conditions required to engage in the sort of anti-competitive conduct that was alleged, did not exist. No evidence of joint price determination at the wholesale or retail level between the two companies was found. The findings of the Competition Bureau detailed in this report disclosed that in the product and geographical market, namely retail gasoline sales in Chatham, Ontario,, there was no dominance by a single firm or group of firms at either the retail or wholesale level as required by Section 79 of the Competition Act, hence no grounds to proceed with an application to the Tribunal under Section 79

  13. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  14. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they're rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears

  15. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  16. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  17. Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.; Lintner, A.M.; Stengos, T.; Wandschneider, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour using average changes in crude prices as well as various lags for the change in crude as possible thresholds. We are unable to find any evidence to support this view. 23 refs

  18. Testing the Alchian-Allen Theorem: A Study of Consumer Behavior in the Gasoline Market

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lawson; Lauren Raymer

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a data set of daily sales at a single gasoline station over a seven year period to determine if consumers respond to relative price changes among the three grades of gasoline. Based on the reasoning of Alchian and Allen (1964) and Barzel (1976), market shares of higher quality gasoline should increase at the expense of regular grade gasoline when overall gasoline prices increase. The empirical results do not conform to this expectation. We find instead that the consumers in th...

  19. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  20. Market structure and price adjustment in the U.S. wholesale gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun

    2008-01-01

    The issue of sticky prices in U.S. wholesale gasoline market is re-examined allowing for the effect of market structure due to increased market concentration caused by mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures which started in the late 1990s in the U.S. oil industry. I investigate the effects of market structure on the pattern of price adjustment based on the notion that increased market concentration leads to downward price stickiness and asymmetric short run price adjustment in the transmission of crude price changes to wholesale gasoline price. I find that market concentration has an insignificant asymmetric effect on the speed of price adjustment but a significant asymmetric effect on short run price adjustments in the response of wholesale gasoline prices to crude price shocks in three U.S. wholesale markets. Furthermore, the signs on the coefficients of market concentration effects on price dynamics in the models support the assertion that increased market concentration leads to downward price stickiness in only one of the three markets examined. Overall, the results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment. (author)

  1. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stephanie A. van der; Varkevisser, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996-2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which the prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of the outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using these two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on the Dutch consumer costs is negligible. (Author)

  2. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  3. A Dynamic Model for Road Gasoline and Diesel Consumption: An Application for Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marina González Marrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors explaining the aggregate fuel consumption for road transport in Spain in a dynamic panel data framework. Three features on this study are the use of a balanced panel using regional data, the distinction between gasoline and diesel and the specification of a dynamic panel data (DPD model and estimate it by system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM. Our results show that most explanatory variables are significant in explaining the evolution of gasoline consumption, while diesel consumption is found to be independent of most of these factors. The differences between the markets of the gasoline (most for passenger transport use and the diesel (passenger and freight transport are important could explain the results for the diesel model. Moreover, the intensive dieselization process that has taken place in Spain over the last decade, which has resulted in diesel consumption being exposed to factors - i.e., regulatory - which are not of a strictly economic nature. This finding highlights the need to consider different explanatory variables and models for gasoline and diesel consumption, and to go further in the research. Finally, we find that traditional estimation procedures, such as fixed and random effect estimators, produce important differences with respect to system-GMM, which may even change policy recommendations.

  4. Analysis of the French gasoline market since the deregulation of prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, F.; Ioannidis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the behaviour of gasoline prices in France over the period 1980-1990. We have established that the price liberalization measures introduced in 1985 were successful in integrating the domestic market to the European one, but the process of integration is still in progress. The behaviour of the Tax Authorities did not inhibit price flexibility with final gasoline prices responding symmetrically to international gasoline price changes. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Regulatory changes and market volatility -- Continuing uncertainties in the reformulated gasoline program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the reformulated gasoline market. After several years of discussions, negotiations, and planning on the parts of the oil industry, EPA, and the New York Mercantile Exchange, the introduction of reformulated gasoline was executed without problems. Ample inventories were in place for distribution in December and January. Then 28 counties in Pennsylvania, 9 in New York, and 2 in Maine made requests to opt-out of the reformulated gasoline program. EPA, 10 days later, allowed this. The paper describes what this inadequate notice of the reversal of regulations had on the futures market and the uncertainties still in the market

  6. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Gamito, C.

    2000-01-01

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  7. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  8. Analysis of the competitive strategies in the Spanish market petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A.; Cavero, S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an in deep description and analysis of the main structural measures of the Spanish petroleum industry, with special attention paid on the segment of retail distribution of gasoline. Moreover, our interest is to develop a more detailed analysis of the competitive strategies of the main operators of the industry, focusing on determining the impact of differentiation strategies on the strength of competition of this industry. (Author)

  9. Price regulation and relative price convergence: Evidence from the retail gasoline market in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvankulov, Farrukh; Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Ogucu, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores price regulation and relative price convergence in the Canadian retail gasoline market. We use monthly data (2000–2010) on retail gasoline prices in 60 Canadian cities to investigate (i) whether the retail gasoline market in Canada has experienced a relative price convergence to the mean, which is expected, given the increased economic integration across Canadian provinces; and (ii) whether the introduction of price regulation mechanisms in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in July 2006 had any impact on the price convergence in these provinces. We use a nonlinear panel unit root test and find solid evidence that Canadian retail gasoline markets are well integrated across locales; however, the share of converging cities reveals a significant decline since July of 2006. The impact of price regulation on price convergence is mixed; our results indicate that since the enactment of the regulation in all New Brunswick cities (9) included in the dataset, gasoline prices converge to the national mean. Volatility of price is also significantly reduced. In contrast, in the wake of price regulation in Nova Scotia, all 6 cities of the province are non-convergent to the mean with increased volatility and overall price level. - Highlights: ► The paper examines price regulation and convergence of gasoline prices in Canada. ► Overall in 2000–2010 the Canadian retail gasoline market was well integrated. ► Price convergence across cities has significantly declined since July 2006. ► The impact of price regulation at province level on a price convergence is mixed. ► The paper relies on the most advanced nonlinear panel unit root test.

  10. The impact of ethanol production on US and regional gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of increasing ethanol production on wholesale/retail gasoline prices employing pooled regional time-series data from January 1995 to March 2008. We find that the growth in ethanol production kept wholesale gasoline prices $0.14/gallon lower than would otherwise have been the case. The negative impact of ethanol on retail gasoline prices is found to vary considerably across regions. The Midwest region has the biggest impact at $0.28/gallon, while the Rocky Mountain region had the smallest impact at $0.07/gallon. The results also indicate that the ethanol-induced reduction in gasoline prices comes at the expense of refiners' profits. We find a net welfare loss of $0.5 billion from the ethanol support policies in multiple markets.

  11. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  12. The development of market power in the Spanish power generation sector: Perspectives after market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Nasirov, Shahriyar; Silva, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the market power problem in the Spanish power generation sector and examines how and to which extent the market has developed in terms of market power concerns after the market liberalization reforms. The methodology applied in this study includes typical ex-post structural and behavioral measures employed to estimate potential for market power, namely: concentration ratios (CR) (for the largest and the three largest suppliers), the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI), Entropy, Pivotal Supply Index, the Residual Supply Index and Residual Demand Elasticity (RDE). The results are presented for the two largest Spanish generating companies (Endesa and Iberdrola) acting in the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL), and in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. The results show evidence that these companies have behaved much more competitively in recent periods than in the beginning of the market liberalization. In addition, the paper discusses important structural and regulatory changes through market liberalization processes in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. - Highlights: •Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. •The methodology applied in this study: ex-post structural and behavioral measures. •Key dominant companies behaved more competitively in recent periods. •Important structural and regulatory changes in the Spanish electricity market.

  13. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Where markets are insufficiently competitive, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate or by forcing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and forcing the divestiture of outlets of

  14. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-Based Pricing, and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Noel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  15. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  16. Higher education needs for the ICT Spanish market Higher education needs for the ICT Spanish market Higher education needs for the ICT Spanish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ras

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is to clarify the expectations held in the realm of business and by employers, in relation to the main educational parameters that respond to the employment needs of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT market in Spain, considering both technical and managerial knowledge. It also assesses whether the Spanish Technical University is providing its graduates with the knowledge currently demanded by the sector.Design/methodology/approach: The report is based on a survey completed by 43 companies, which constitutes more than 60% of the sector and is representative of the entire range of subsectors that constitute the vast ICT industry in Spain. According to the sample construction, post-stratification has been used for analyzing global results. Responses have been weighted according to the proportion that represents the employees’ population of the Spanish ICT sector.Findings: As a first conclusion of the current research it should be noted that in terms of technological knowledge, the gap between what the industry requires and the skills graduates can offer is, in general, much smaller than the gap relating to business management skills, where differences exceeding 25% have been demonstrated. This would suggest that the Spanish ICT sector needs to improve learning in the subjects related to business management.Originality/value: Finally, as an innovate factor since there are no previous bibliographic references on this topic, a surprising conclusion is that a significant segment of the Spanish ICT sector, specifically 51,2 % of the companies surveyed, did not distinguish between professional profiles, expressed indifference, and were equally likely to employ graduates as postgraduates. Although when the market was asked about the preferred profile for managerial positions, the results are quite different: 83.7% of respondents preferred a superior engineer qualification; 16.3%Purpose: The

  17. Breezing ahead: the Spanish wind energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, Felix; Cruz, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the rapid increase in Spain's wind generating capacity, and examines Spain's wind strategy, the assessment of wind power potential at regional level, and the guaranteeing of the market price for power generators using wind energy with yearly reviews of the price of electricity from wind power. Prices payable for electricity generated from renewable sources are listed, and the regional distribution of wind energy production is illustrated. Recent wind power installations in Spain, target levels for wind energy installations, wind farms larger than 1MW installed in 1999, and the impact of the growth of the wind energy market on the manufacturing industry and the manufacturers are discussed. Details of the wind energy capacity in the provinces of Navarra and Galicia are given, and plans for wind energy projects in the New National Plan for Scientific research, Development and Technological innovation (2000-2003) are considered

  18. Pestana Group : exploring the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Grácio, Elisabeth Monedero

    2013-01-01

    Pestana, the largest Portuguese hotel chain, celebrated in 2012 its fortieth anniversary. Its portfolio included forty-seven hotels under Pestana Hotels & Resorts brand in thirteen countries across Europe, Africa and America, besides the units it managed under Pousadas de Portugal. The company’s future plans for expansion focused especially on emerging destinations of South America and the traditional European markets. Pestana was present in several cities in South American countries and it h...

  19. Do regulatory mechanisms promote competition and mitigate market power? Evidence from Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Moreira, António C.; Mota, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between bidding quantities, marginal cost and market power measures in the Spanish wholesale electricity market for two different regulatory periods: 2002–2005 and 2006–2007. Using panel econometric techniques we find differences in the impacts on bidding strategies for both periods. Hence, the marginal cost and the market power measures affect bid and net quantities. The market power measures also suggest that the coefficient is consistently positive and highly significant for both periods. Moreover, the market power and marginal costs have mixed effects according to the models proposed for both periods. In addition, our results point to the effectiveness of the different effects of mitigating the market power in the Spanish electricity market. For the 2006–2007 period, the proposed causal relationships are partially validated by the cointegration results, which assumes there is a significant causality between the Lerner Index and the marginal cost. - Highlights: • Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. • Net supplier and net demander behavior in the spot market. • Panel cointegration methods used: FMOLS, PMG, MG, DFE and DOLS. • The price cap regulation is effective in mitigating market power. • Market power and marginal cost have positive effects on bidding strategies

  20. The price of energy efficiency in the Spanish housing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Amaia de; Galarraga, Ibon; Spadaro, Joseph V.

    2016-01-01

    The housing sector is a substantial consumer of energy, and therefore a focus for energy savings efforts. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), introduced in 2002 and revised in 2010, is a key instrument to increase the energy performance of buildings across the European Union. Following the implementation of the EPBD into Spanish law, all properties offered for sale or rented out in Spain are required to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). Given that the implementation of the EPC scheme for new, existing and advertised properties is still very low in Spain, unlike other European housing markets, the Spanish one lacks market data on energy efficiency (EE) labels and their impact on housing price. To overcome this gap, we determine the EE ratings of a sample of 1507 homes across Spain on the basis of information collected previously through household surveys. This allowed us to answer the question of whether or not, and to what extent, Spanish housing markets capitalise the value of EE. We apply the hedonic-price technique and observe that more energy efficient dwellings have a price-premium between 5.4% and 9.8% compared to those with the same characteristics but lower EE level. - Highlights: •The Spanish housing market lacks data on energy efficiency (EE) labels. •We determine the EE ratings of a sample of 1507 homes across Spain. •Homes labelled A, B and C account for less than 10% of the housing stock. •Energy efficient dwellings have a price-premium between 5.4% and 9.8%, ceteris paribus.

  1. Rockets and feathers revisited: an international comparison on European gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, Marzio; Lanza, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    This paper re-examines the issue of asymmetries in the transmission of shocks to crude oil prices onto the retail price of gasoline. The distinguishing features are: (i) use of updated and comparable data to carry out an international comparison of gasoline markets; (ii) two-stage modeling of the transmission mechanism, in order to assess possible asymmetries at either the refinery stage, the distribution stage or both; (iii) use of asymmetric error correction models to distinguish between short-run and long-run asymmetries; (iv) explicit, possibly asymmetric, role of the exchange rate; (v) bootstrapping of F-tests of asymmetries, in order to overcome the low-power problem of conventional testing procedures. In contrast to several previous findings, the results generally point to widespread differences in both adjustment speeds and short-run responses when input prices rise or fall. (Author)

  2. Historical review of European gasoline lead content regulations and their impact on German industrial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Environmental protection policies in the automobile market were not implemented until the motorisation of the masses in the 1960s caused an increasing environmental burden. The rising air pollution was considered a latent danger for humans, animals and plants. In the years up to 1985 the EU passed several regulations to limit the mass pollutants CO, CxHy and NOx. Germany was the first EU-member nation to also be concerned with lead in gasoline, passing reduction regulations as early as in 1971. In 1986, several EU-member nations implemented the supply of unleaded gasoline. This decision was predominantly based on information about widespread forest damage. The reduction of lead emissions due to these regulations could be verified in different environmental systems. An example of this was the decline of atmospheric lead concentrations and human blood lead levels in Germany. The German mineral oil and automobile markets were also affected. The price trend of unleaded fuel was heavily influenced by tax incentives which benefited not only the gasoline traders but also the consumers. With regard to the distribution system, the market positions particularly of the medium-sized traders and the independent importers were weakened. In the automobile market, favourable terms of competition were experienced by producers who had already gained experience with catalyst systems in the U.S.-market. The gasoline lead content regulations had no effects on further economic indicators, except for competition. (orig.) [German] Infolge der Massenmotorisierung in den 60er Jahren stieg die Umweltbelastung durch den Automobilverkehr stark an. Luftverschmutzung durch Kraftfahrzeuge wurde erstmalig als latente Gefahr fuer die Gesundheit von Mensch, Tier und Pflanze wahrgenommen. Dies charakterisierte den Beginn der Umweltpolitik im Automobilsektor. Bis 1985 verabschiedete die Europaeische Union (EU) mehrere Rahmenrichtlinien zur Reduktion der Luftschadstoffe CO, CxHy und NOx. 1971 war

  3. A marketing plan for Oqtopus in the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Catarina Alexandre Mota de

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This is an academic work developed in the context of the Master Degree in Management lectured by the Nova School of Business and Economics. One of the goals of this work project was to apply some of the business and marketing concepts acquired during the master’s academic year. Within the Market Technology Transfers’ Field Lab, this...

  4. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.; Versaevel, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, R. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales; Van Norden, S. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales]|[Centre for Interuniversity Research and Analysis on Organizations, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Versaevel, B.

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Shopper marketing: a new challenge for Spanish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Abril, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Changes that have occurred over the past few decades in retailing and in the health care sector--namely, a drastic reduction in drug profit-margins, and a more critical use of health services by patients--have created a scenario characterized by rising competitiveness. This new context is necessitating community pharmacies (hereafter, pharmacies) to improve their business model through new strategies. Shopper marketing has proven invaluable in other retail settings and therefore, could be a critical element for new practices in pharmacies. First, to analyze how shopping experiences in pharmacies based on new practices in shopper marketing affect shopping behavior. Second, to study the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between shopping experiences and shopping behavior. A self-reported questionnaire was developed to measure four concepts: hedonic experience (enjoyable), functional experience (goal-oriented), customer satisfaction and shopping behavior. Data were collected from 28 different pharmacies dispersed throughout Spain. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships in the theoretical model. First, the measurement model was estimated to assess model fit, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. Then, the parameters of the structural model were estimated and the mediation effects were subsequently tested. Functional experience and hedonic experience each significantly and positively correlate with consumer satisfaction and with customer shopping behavior (purchases and loyalty). Moreover, the effects of each type of experience on shopping behavior are partially mediated by customer satisfaction. The results suggest that even in Spanish pharmacies, which have traditionally been considered as strictly functional retailers, ensuring customer satisfaction and enhancing shopping behavior now demand more than just functional experiences. Moreover, a customer's experience at a pharmacy can itself trigger a

  7. National market of leaded gasoline. Technical aspects; Le marche national de l'essence plombee. Les aspects techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-18

    The French market of leaded gasoline which decreases annually since 1993 by about 10% still amounts at present (April 1999) about 4.5 million tons/yr, i.e., 31% of the whole gasoline market. By 1. of January 2000, the stock of private and service light vehicles constrained to use leaded gasoline will be of about 1.1 million; taking into account other additional uses, by that time the essential needs of leaded gasoline are expected to amount up to 1.5 million tons/yr. By 2003 the number of these vehicles are expected to decrease down to 300,000. Thus, it appears that since January 2000 up to probably 2003 the distribution pumps have to be provided with the fuel specific to the old vehicles. To prepare the cessation of leaded gasoline, already forbidden in certain countries since many years, the petroleum industry and additive manufacturers have carried out research to develop anti-detonation additives to replace the leaded additives. Potassium-based additives appears to be efficient for health of both engines and people and as such a proposal with validity starting since 1. 2000 was issued, complying with the EN228 Standard, for which the provisions of the Standard 98/70/CE are adapted to the French regulations. Thus, to comply with the European regulations concerning unleaded fuels the refineries will manufacture the SP 95 and SP 98, the latter being better adapted to be treated with unleaded additives. The document gives details concerning the logistics, supply and characteristics of the replacement fuels. Evolution of the super-fuel selling since January 1994 to January 1999 is plotted.

  8. Analysis of a wind farm's revenue in the British and Spanish markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita-Marquez, Jorge L.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.; Usaola-Garcia, Julio

    2007-01-01

    The composition of the revenue of a wind generation company (WGENCO) under two different European markets is estimated in this paper. The two markets under consideration (British and Spanish) have a very different structure; the Spanish market is a pool-based system while the British market encourages bilateral trading. These markets have also different ways to provide incentives to wind farms, and deal with the trading imbalances to which they are particularly susceptible given the variability of the resource. All these conditions are explained and accounted for in our study of a hypothetical WGENCO that can participate in the two markets. Real wind profiles, two wind-speed forecasting tools and market rules and conditions are used to estimate the WGENCO's revenue over a period of 3 months. Our results show that the net revenue would have been fairly similar under the two market structures; however, the composition of this revenue shows significant differences in terms of renewable incentives and generation revenue

  9. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  10. Is there chaos in the Spanish labour market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: We consider Spanish unemployment time series. We apply a number of nonlinearity tests and chaoticity measures. We establish the presence of nonlinearity and chaos, which disappears when the data are shuffled. Abstract: One could argue that there is a resurgence of the non-linear modelling in economics. Some instruments have been developed to measure the complexity or instability of the analysed systems. At the present work some of these developed techniques are applied to verify the non-linearity present in the time series of Spanish unemployment, as well as to quantify the degree of complexity of the system that has generated the series. Using these techniques we find evidence of chaos in Spanish unemployment time series.

  11. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2014-01-01

    To foster competition, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate, or by imposing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and imposing divestitures of such stations on the four major

  12. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  13. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  14. Food marketing to children on U.S. Spanish-language television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale; Mastro, Dana; Ortiz, Michelle; McKinley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Latino children in particular are at risk of childhood obesity. Because exposure to televised food marketing is a contributor to childhood obesity, it is important to examine the nutritional quality of foods advertised on Spanish-language children's programming. The authors analyzed a sample of 158 Spanish-language children's television programs for its advertising content and compared them with an equivalent sample of English-language advertising. The authors evaluated nutritional quality of each advertised product using a food rating system from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, the authors assessed compliance with industry self-regulatory pledges. The authors found that amount of food advertising on Spanish-language channels (M = 2.2 ads/hour) was lower than on English-language programs, but the nutritional quality of food products on Spanish-language channels was substantially poorer than on English channels. Industry self-regulation was less effective on Spanish-language channels. The study provides clear evidence of significant disparities. Food advertising targeted at Spanish-speaking children is more likely to promote nutritionally poor food products than advertising on English-language channels. Industry self-regulation is less effective on Spanish-language television channels. Given the disproportionately high rate of childhood obesity among Latinos, the study's findings hold important implications for public health policy.

  15. Rockets and feathers meet Joseph: Reinvestigating the oil-gasoline asymmetry on the international markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Luňáčková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Rockets and feathers * Asymmetry * Gasoline * Crude oil * Cointegration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452312.pdf

  16. Long- and short-run price asymmetries and hysteresis in the Italian gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnai, Alberto; Mongeau Ospina, Christian Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using monthly data from 1994 to 2013 we study the long-run relation of the pre-tax retail prices of gasoline with crude price and the nominal exchange rate. We find a strongly significant long-run relation. We then use the nonlinear ARDL (NARDL) model to assess the asymmetries on both the short- and long-run elasticities, as well as the presence of hysteresis in the pricing behaviour. The estimation results confirm the presence of asymmetry in the long-run elasticities, with significant differences between the crude price and the exchange rate, as well as the presence of hysteresis in the relation between the retail price of gasoline and crude oil price. - Highlights: • The pass-through of crude oil prices and exchange rate into gasoline prices is examined. •We use an extended NARDL model to test for asymmetric reactions and hysteresis. • Asymmetric pricing behaviour features only in the long run. • The sign of the asymmetry differs between exchange rate and crude price changes. • The results are robust to the inclusion of several variables usually related to asymmetry

  17. Empirical analysis of the constituent factors of internal marketing orientation at Spanish hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, José Luis Ruizalba; Arán, María Vallespín

    2014-01-01

    This study, which draws upon specialized literature and empirical evidence, aims to characterize the underlying structure of the construct ‘Internal Marketing Orientation’ (IMO). As a consequence six underlying factors are identified: exchange of values, segmentation of the internal market, internal communication, management concern, implementation of management concern and training. It also evaluates the degree of Spanish hotels’ IMO, classifying them into three different groups according to...

  18. Taxes, cost and demand shifters as determinants in the regional gasoline price formation process: Evidence from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Contín-Pilart, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pass-through of regional tax changes and spot price variations to regional gasoline prices in Spain. It also analyzes the impact of all major cost and demand shifters that contribute to regional gasoline price formation. To address these research issues, a reduced form price equation using monthly time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data from January 2004 through December 2008 is estimated. Strong and consistent evidence of full shifting of regional tax changes to regional gasoline prices is found. Gasoline spot price changes are more than proportionally passed through to retail prices. In addition, the empirical evidence shows, on the one hand, that regional gasoline price differences before taxes continue to be quite narrow and, on the other hand, that there is still a margin for larger gasoline price differences among regions. This suggest that “traditional practices” from the monopoly era (i.e. relatively uniform regional gasoline prices) persist after the market has been liberalized, which may have been facilitated by the strong and uniform presence of the major Spanish-based refining companies in the retail sector over the whole country. - Highlights: ► The paper analyzes the impact of all major demand and cost shifters that contribute to regional gasoline price formation. ► It shows that the relatively uniform regional gasoline prices persist after the Spanish gasoline market has been liberalized. ► It shows that regional tax changes are fully passed on to regional gasoline prices. ► It also shows that gasoline spot price changes are fully passed on to consumer prices.

  19. Simulation of demand side participation in Spanish short term electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Salazar, I.; Alvarez, C.; Escriva-Escriva, G.; Alcazar-Ortega, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benefits from customer active participation can be obtained with a proper generation of bids and offers. → Simulation of Spanish customers' participation is shown in daily, intra-daily and balancing markets. → Market efficiency and economics profits arise in balancing markets by using customer load reductions. → Real market prices and real customers' consumptions profiles are used in the simulations. -- Abstract: Demand response resources management is one of the most investigated solutions oriented to improve the efficiency in electricity markets. In this paper, the capability of customers to participate in short term markets is analyzed. An available methodology to analyze the daily and monthly energy consumptions of large customers is used to create energy offers and bids. This allows customers to participate in energy markets in order to buy, as first step, the usual electricity consumption and, additionally, to offer demand reductions in the short term electricity markets. Additionally, this paper shows the customer potential to participate in the Spanish electricity markets.

  20. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs

  1. Analysis of the competitive strategies in the Spanish market petroleum; Estructura estrategica y competitiva en el mercado espanol de carburantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, A.; Cavero, S.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an in deep description and analysis of the main structural measures of the Spanish petroleum industry, with special attention paid on the segment of retail distribution of gasoline. Moreover, our interest is to develop a more detailed analysis of the competitive strategies of the main operators of the industry, focusing on determining the impact of differentiation strategies on the strength of competition of this industry. (Author)

  2. Spanish and Portuguese electric market in the context of UE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinto, J. de; Villafruela, L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance to the Unique Act and other EU legislation related to the achievement of a single market for goods and services, the EU Commission has promoted a whole internal electricity and gas market. Due to the specific difficulties to reach this objective in the electricity and gas case, the EU strategy changed into a progressive step process, in which the final objective should be reached by the progressive integration of different neighbour national markets. Anyway, this is not easy because there are differences related to national interests and because the harmonization of different regulations is so complex. The creation of a supranational electricity market in the Iberian mainland (MIBEL) can be considered as a piece of this European strategy and a way to improve competition both in Spain and Portugal at least by an increase of the market geographical scale.MIBEL process started in November 2001, but finally is working since July 2006. But the process is not finish yet: it is still necessary to develop some relevant regulatory aspects. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Spanish USA, 1984: A Study of the Hispanic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; And Others

    This report summarizes results of a 1984 study of the lifestyles, values, buying behavior, and media habits of the Hispanic American market. First, a number of shifts in U.S. political, social, and economic life (since 1981, when the first study of this type was conducted) which are changing the orientation of Hispanics are discussed. These shifts…

  4. Amazon`s strategic analysis approaching the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Rúa de la Plaza, José

    2018-01-01

    Amazon.com has not stopped growing since its foundation in 1994, and has become the leading company in the world of e-commerce. Amazon emerged from a great idea of its founder Jeff Bezos, who has managed to turn an online books store into a company that is constantly thinking about its customers and trying to innovate, either improving existing products and services, developing new ones or entering new markets. Amazon takes advantage of economies of scale that derive from its excellent dis...

  5. Analysis of the imbalance price scheme in the Spanish electricity market: A wind power test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno-Lorenzo, Miriam; Moreno, M. Ángeles; Usaola, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the interaction between wind power and electricity markets. The paper is focused on balancing markets pricing policies. The proposal of a new imbalance price scheme is included and conveniently evaluated. This proposed scheme tries to minimise the use of ancillary services to compensate for deviations in searching for a more efficient market design. The effectiveness of imbalance prices as market signals is also examined, and policy recommendations regarding imbalance services are discussed. Two test cases are included that analyse the participation of a wind power producer in the Spanish electricity market using a stochastic optimisation strategy. For this purpose, the uncertainty of the variables is considered, i.e., wind power production and prediction, intraday and imbalance prices. Test cases were run with real data for 10 months, and realistic results are presented along with a hypothetical test case. The regulation of the imbalance prices may not be adequate for the Spanish electricity market because an error drop is not sufficiently encouraged. Therefore, we suggest the application of a new imbalance price scheme, which includes an additional constraint. The conclusions of this paper can be assumed to be general policy recommendations

  6. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  7. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  8. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  9. Market power versus regulatory power in the Spanish electricity system, 1973-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean

    2010-01-01

    This study not only establishes that the institutional changes (the change of political regime) and economic changes (the energy crisis) that occurred during the 70s and 80s had an important effect on business strategies within the Spanish electricity sector, but, above all, it shows how the resulting regulatory model was not the product of any clearly defined plan on the part of the Spanish authorities (as the majority of authors seem to implicitly or explicitly maintain), but rather it arose from the dialectical interaction between companies which resisted losing the power of the market, and institutions which, in order to define any medium term energy policy in the future European domestic electricity market, required an increase in their regulatory power. (author)

  10. The effects of recent volatility in international petroleum markets on Canadian wholesale and retail gasoline prices : a report prepared for the Competition Bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseman, F.

    2005-03-01

    This report addresses concern over high retail prices of gasoline and the low margins earned on gasoline sales in the Greater Toronto Area and in Ottawa, Ontario. The focus of this report was to understand reasons behind fluctuating prices, and to ascertain whether or not escalations in price were in fact anti-competitive acts that the Competition Bureau would have authority to take action over. Information requests were made by the author to all principal petroleum companies and to importers and marketers of gasoline. Detailed information on pricing was provided. Issues of supply and demand were responsible for spikes in prices. Information on petroleum refining and retailing of gasoline was reviewed, as well as information provided from dialogue and shareholder reports. Average refinery and retail margins in Ontario were discussed. It was concluded that fluctuating prices are the result of the petroleum industry's struggle to meet high demand. Any unscheduled maintenance or unanticipated increases in demand resulted in temporary shortfalls in supply, which led to higher prices. Exports were not a factor in increases in retail prices. In addition, domestic supply and the high cost of meeting environmental regulations with regard to sulphur levels in gasoline and diesel may have also played a role. It was also suggested that prices in Canada reflect overall pricing trends in the United States. tabs., figs

  11. Tecnatom, a Spanish engineering in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizaga, I.; Rejas, L.; Izquierdo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tecnatom has been successfully developing its activities for more than fifty years thanks to a fully committed working team, its working capacity and its orientation toward innovation. During the past years, a set of skills and expertise have been developed focussing upon the international market. Nowadays, Tecnatom is carrying on its activities in countries such as United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and United Arab Emirates to name but a few. The activities carried out here cover an ample range of tasks. Tecnatom is involved in the initial and continuous training of operational staff not only in facilities already in commercial operation but also in green field developments. Technical support during commissioning, emergency readiness plans drawing, development of innovative aids for operations and designing and developing main control rooms and full scope simulators are other mainstream projects on the way. (Author)

  12. Tecnatom, a Spanish engineering in a global market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizaga, I.; Rejas, L.; Izquierdo, R.

    2013-10-01

    Tecnatom has been successfully developing its activities for more than fifty years thanks to a fully committed working team, its working capacity and its orientation toward innovation. During the past years, a set of skills and expertise have been developed focussing upon the international market. Nowadays, Tecnatom is carrying on its activities in countries such as United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and United Arab Emirates to name but a few. The activities carried out here cover an ample range of tasks. Tecnatom is involved in the initial and continuous training of operational staff not only in facilities already in commercial operation but also in green field developments. Technical support during commissioning, emergency readiness plans drawing, development of innovative aids for operations and designing and developing main control rooms and full scope simulators are other mainstream projects on the way. (Author)

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J. [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Actuarial, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Los Naranjos, s/n, 46022 - Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  15. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  16. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Cavero, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations. (author)

  17. The crucial relationship among energy commodity prices: Evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Vieira, Joel; Carrizo Moreira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is twofold to analyze: (a) the long-term relation among the commodities prices and between spot electricity market price and commodity prices, and (b) the short-term dynamics among commodity prices and between electricity prices and commodity prices. Data between 2002 and 2005 from the Spanish electricity market was used. Econometric methods were used in the analysis of the commodity spot price, namely the vector autoregression model, the vector error correction model and the granger causality test. The co-integration approach was used to analyze the long-term relationship between the common stochastic trends of four fossil fuel prices. One of the findings in the long-term relation is that the prices of fuel and the prices of Brent are intertwined, though the prices of Brent ten to 'move' to reestablish the price equilibrium. Another finding is that the price of electricity is explained by the evolution of the natural gas series. - Highlights: → We model energy commodity prices in the Spanish electricity market. → We examine the short and long-term relationships among commodities prices. → We examine short and long-term relationships using co-integration techniques. → We found that in the long run the prices of fuel and Brent are intertwined. → The evolution of price of electricity is explained by the evolution of price of gas.

  18. Electricity market participation of wind farms: the success story of the Spanish pragmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivier Abbad, Juan, E-mail: jrivier@iberdrola.e [Iberdrola Renovables, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In the last 10 years, more than 15 GW of wind power (Asociacion Empresarial Eolica (Spanish Wind Energy Association), Nota de prensa (Press release) 17 de enero de 2008. (http://www.aeeolica.org/doc/NP_080117_Espana_supera_los_15000_MW_eolicos.pdf)) have been installed in Spain, of which more than 3.5 GW in 2007. Furthermore, plans are to reach 20 GW by 2010 and there are expectations of an installed capacity exceeding 40 GW by 2020. This article will present the innovative solutions for technical and economical integration that allow to reach such high level wind penetration objectives (the system peaks at around 44 GW and is almost isolated). It will be described how the regulation has evolved from a pure Feed-in-Tariff to a market+premium option, where technical and economic integration has been a priority. Today, approximately 97% of installed wind capacity accesses the Spanish wholesale electricity market. Market integration has been crucial, sending the correct signals to participants to look for the optimum technical solutions. Technical improvements have come from both wind power producers (fault-ride-through capabilities, visibility and controllability of wind power, power production forecasting, reactive power control) and the system operator (specific control centre dedicated to Renewable Energy Sources (RES), new security analysis tools, gaining technical confidence of wind capabilities).

  19. Electricity market participation of wind farms. The success story of the Spanish pragmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivier Abbad, Juan [Iberdrola Renovables, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In the last 10 years, more than 15 GW of wind power (Asociacion Empresarial Eolica (Spanish Wind Energy Association), Nota de prensa (Press release) 17 de enero de 2008. http://www.aeeolica.org/doc/NP{sub 0}80117{sub E}spana{sub s}upera{sub l}os{sub 1}5000{sub M}W{sub e}olicos.pdf) have been installed in Spain, of which more than 3.5 GW in 2007. Furthermore, plans are to reach 20 GW by 2010 and there are expectations of an installed capacity exceeding 40 GW by 2020. This article will present the innovative solutions for technical and economical integration that allow to reach such high level wind penetration objectives (the system peaks at around 44 GW and is almost isolated). It will be described how the regulation has evolved from a pure Feed-in-Tariff to a market+premium option, where technical and economic integration has been a priority. Today, approximately 97% of installed wind capacity accesses the Spanish wholesale electricity market. Market integration has been crucial, sending the correct signals to participants to look for the optimum technical solutions. Technical improvements have come from both wind power producers (fault-ride-through capabilities, visibility and controllability of wind power, power production forecasting, reactive power control) and the system operator (specific control centre dedicated to Renewable Energy Sources (RES), new security analysis tools, gaining technical confidence of wind capabilities). (author)

  20. Analyzing solvency with extreme value theory: an application to the Spanish motor liability insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez-Fructuoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of extreme claims is fundamental to assess solvency capital requirements (SCR established by Solvency II. Basing on the Extreme Value Theory (EVT, this paper performs a parametric estimation to fit the motor liability insurance historical datasets of two significant and representative companies operating within the Spanish market to a Generalized Pareto Distribution. We illustrate how EVT improves classical adjustments, as it considers outliers apart from mass risks, what leads to optimize the pricing decision-making and fix a risk transfer position.

  1. Expectations and forward risk premium in the Spanish deregulated power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Meneu, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation in energy markets has entailed important changes in the way agents conduct business. Price risk arises as a result of fluctuations in the future price of electricity and agents assume long or short positions in the forward and spot markets to hedge their exposure to price risk. The presence of forward risk premium in prices is evidence of the fact that agents act in the market according to risk considerations. This work aims to analyse the information content of the difference between the forward and spot prices (the so-called forward premium) regarding the agents' decisions. We find that the sign and magnitude of the ex post forward premium depend on the unexpected variation in demand and on the unexpected variation in the hydroelectric capacity, and that both the ex post and the ex ante forward premia are negatively related to the variance of spot price, as predict. We provide additional insights about relevant aspects of spot price pricing in the Spanish electricity market such as the positive relation between spot prices and CO 2 emission allowance prices or the impact on spot prices of the set of market matching rules introduced in March 2006.

  2. Evidence of asymmetric behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes for different fuel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo-Buenestado, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Using monthly data from the Spanish gasoline retail market we explore asymmetries in consumers’ behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes. In particular, we are interested in investigating whether an increase in gasoline taxes has a more negative impact on the demand than a –similar in magnitude– increase in the “pre-tax” price of gasoline for different fuel types. We estimate fuel consumers’ responses using a rich set of robust panel data models considering potential dynamic effects and endogeneity problems. We find evidence to confirm the existence of asymmetric responses for the demand of unleaded fuels and agricultural diesel fuel. However we cannot support this statement for the regular diesel case: for this fuel both the tax-exclusive price and the tax elasticities are roughly the same. This result agrees with the fact that “diesel drivers” tend to be better informed about changes in both fuel prices and taxes. Some implications in terms of fiscal policy and pollution and climate change policy are also discussed. - Highlights: •Provide evidence of asymmetric responses of gasoline demand due to changes in prices and taxes. •Identify differences in the elasticity of the demand of diesel fuel and unleaded gasoline. •Perform robustness checks considering dynamic effects and IV regression. •Provide some policy recommendations for future gasoline tax changes.

  3. The nuclear fuel management in a new market: The Spanish Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.

    2001-01-01

    The modification of traditional policies in nuclear business of Spanish Electrical Utilities, to meet new regulations is presented in this paper. It would be remarkable the influence of a new environment of significant economical transformation, which show us utilities affected by reorganization processes to face market demands. We will pay special attention to those activities involved in nuclear fuel management. Focusing in the field of Enriched Uranium supply, ENUSA, a state owned company, according to legal framework, played the role of sole supplier. The liberalization of primary energy sources was the turning point that triggered a process of changes. Now, the utilities rule the overall strategy and, not surprisingly they do definitively it is not. The new regulations tend to create conditions for a truly free market. So, competitiveness has become the magic word for almost all electricity producers. But in our case, the first question to be answered should be if free market does really mean a threat for us, or if it is just and external reference that puts no real pressure in our future plans. Lets remember that nuclear fuel cost in Spain is much lower than any other fuel cost. The working model we have defined is oriented to get benefit from market opportunities, improve flexibility and avoiding uncertainties in planning fuel cost strategy. (Author)

  4. Has renewable energy induced competitive behavior in the Spanish electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Recent energy policy has favored a massive introduction of Renewable Energy Sources on electricity markets, which has greatly impacted their performance. First, the electricity price has decreased as a consequence of the so-called merit-order effect. Another relevant effect is associated to the intermittent nature of Renewable Energy, which has increased the cost of ancillary services. A third and important aspect, less addressed in the literature, is the induced change in the strategic behavior of the conventional electricity producers. In principle, the entry of new generators in a concentrated market would make it more competitive and change the strategic behavior of the incumbents. We test this hypothesis for the Spanish wholesale market. While we find no significant change in behavior for Nuclear, Hydropower and Coal, a change is observed in Combined Cycle bidding strategies after the entry of renewable generators. Our analysis shows that the massive entry of Renewable Energy Sources made other generators' behavior more competitive in the short run, but the effect was not persistent. - Highlights: • The indirect effects of RES affect prices in electricity markets. • RES induced little change in Nuclear, Coal and Hydropower generation. • Combined Cycle bidding strategies have evolved to adapt to the introduction of RES. • RES made Combined Cycle's behavior more competitive in the short run. • The competitive effect induced by RES is not persistent in the long run.

  5. Is green energy expensive? Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy promotion and its cost are at the heart of the energy policy debate in many countries. The question from an economic perspective is how expensive the promotion of renewable sources through price-based incentive schemes is. This paper addresses this issue empirically. We analyze the Spanish electricity market during the period 2008–2012, where renewable energy production rose by 57%. To determine how expensive it was, we first measure the savings due to the spot price reduction driven by the merit order effect and, second, we compute the amount paid as incentives to green energy by the electricity system; the difference between the two is the net cost of green energy to the electricity markets. We present aggregate results for renewable sources as a whole, as well as individual results for each technology. We show that at the initial stages, when renewable capacity was low, green energy promotion paid for itself (2008–2009); however, from 2010 on, when renewable production reached a relatively high level, it started to impose a positive net cost on the system. Finally, we found substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive. - Highlights: • The combination of feed-in tariffs and premiums has been an effective instrument in the promotion of renewable electricity in Spain. • Significant reduction of the daily market price due to RES-E. • Considering the subsidies to RES-E this energy might seem rather expensive for the Spanish electricity system since 2010. • Substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive

  6. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results; El Mercado de Generacion Electrica en Espana: Estructura, Funcionamiento y Resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  7. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Using Stakeholder Marketing and Social Responsibility for New Product Development in Higher Education: A Business Spanish Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huempfner, Lisa; Kopf, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education administrators are often faced with difficult choices in allocating limited resources for the creation of new programs. The purpose of this article is to explore the suitability of a new product, an integrated business Spanish major, by applying stakeholder marketing. In so doing, it provides a framework for the application of…

  9. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  10. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  11. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  12. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Serrano Iglesias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario. Materials and Methods: The nutrition facts declared on the labels of non-alcoholic beverages by manufacturers in Spain were compiled and studied. Results: The database included 211 beverages classified in 7 groups with energy/carbohydrate content per 100 mL ranging from 0–55 kcal/0–13 g for soft drinks; 2–60 kcal/0–14.5 g for energy drinks; 24–31 kcal/5.8–7.5 g for sports drinks; 1–32 kcal/0–7.3 g for drinks containing mineral salts in their composition; 14–69 kcal/2.6–17 g for fruit juice, nectar, and grape musts; 43–78 kcal/6.1–14.4 g for vegetable drinks; and 33–88 kcal/3.6–14 g for dairy drinks. Conclusion: The current non-alcoholic beverage market is a dynamic, growing, and highly innovative one, allowing consumers to choose according to their preferences, needs, or level of physical activity at any moment of the day.

  13. Spanish Professionals in Mexico City: Narratives on Work and Labour Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Mendoza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Using qualitative information, this paper studies the labour experiences of a group of skilled Spanish migrants in Mexico City. The paper identifies two types of migrants amongst the interviewed Spaniards: TNCs transferees and “migrants in the middle” (“those who are neither low-skilled migrants nor high-skilled migrants”; Conradson and Latham, 2005a. This somehow challenges assumptions about skilled workers, by showing the multiple work trajectories and experiences of highly qualified and educated workers. The article also stresses that the labour mobility of those in the middle is more horizontal and less conventional than the more typical career-path mobility of TNCs transferees. Furthermore, it is argued that labour mobility is not only related to educational background or performance in Mexico’s labour markets, but also to non-economic reasons (e.g. extensive use of social networks. Of special interest for this study are relations at the workplace as they represent a “contact zone” where “difference” is constantly encountered and negotiated (Yeoh and Willis, 2005b. For the interviewed Spaniards, workplace relations are substantially (and unexpectedly different from those in their home country. This causes tension and problems that may affect their intentions to remain in Mexico.

  14. Asian gasoline and diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Nancy D.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the economic slowdown in the late 1990s, gasoline and diesel demand in the Asia-Pacific region has increased significantly. Regional demand is the highest in the world and most new refinery projects worldwide during the 1990s have been here. Generalisations are difficult because the region contains countries at different stages of economic development and environmental quality standards. Gasoline and diesel demand for 1985-2005 for Australasia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia is shown in four histograms. The trend towards unleaded gasoline, average gasoline aromatics levels and the quality of gasoline in Australasia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia are examined. A further three histograms show the growth in Asia-Pacific unleaded gasoline market share 1991-2000, the rise in octane levels as lead levels fall (1991-2005) and the calculated aromatics content of gasoline in 11 Asia-Pacific countries

  15. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Pricing policies for gasoline by Canadian oil companies are discussed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that competition between oil companies is extremely keen, and markups are so small that to stay in business, retail outlets have to sell huge volumes and sell non-fuel products, as a means to increase revenues and margins. An explanation is provided for why gasoline prices move in unison, and why what appears to the public as collusion and gouging is, in fact, the result of retail dealers attempting to stay in business. The high prices are attributed mainly to taxes by municipalities, the provinces and the federal government; taxes are said to account for 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude makes up another 35 to 45 per cent, refining adds 10 to 15 per cent, with the remaining 5 to 10 per cent representing retail costs. (Taxes in the United States average 20 to 30 per cent). Over the longer term, gasoline prices consistently reflect the cost of crude oil, dominated by the OPEC countries which supply about 41 per cent of daily world production. Another factor is the rise of global and regional commodity markets for refined products such as gasoline. Commodity traders buy wholesale gasoline cheaply whenever it is in oversupply, and sell it for a profit into markets where the demand is greater. While this is claimed to ensure competitive prices in all markets, the practice can also trigger abrupt changes in regional markets

  16. THE ROLE OF THE RETAILERS IN CAUSE-RELATED MARKETING: A REFERENCE TO THE SPANISH CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Galán - Ladero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cause-Related Marketing (CRM is one of the most relevant Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiatives nowadays. Its most important characteristic is that corporate donation is conditioned by sales, that is, CRM ultimately depends on consumer behavior. In this paper, we focus on CRM programs and its application in a specific industry: distribution sector. Thus, our aim is to understand the fundamental features or the practice of these programs in the distribution sector in Spain, to study the role played by retailers and their possible influence on the consumer behavior, so that companies can better design these campaigns and achieve greater success. Hence, the paper is organized as follows. First, we review the CRM conceptual framework in which the theoretical development of this work is based. Secondly, and from a list of companies associated to the National Association of Large Distribution Companies (ANGED, the most representative retail association in Spain, we observe the Spanish situation and analyze the main campaigns carried out by these retailers during the last years. This information was completed consulting each retailer´s website, asking them for additional information by email, and with a general internet search. After that, we present and discuss the main results, and summarize the most relevant conclusions, as well as the theoretical contribution and managerial implications. One of the most important findings shows the retailer´s influence on consumer behavior and the key role of the retailers in the success of CRM programs. Finally, we also include possible limitations and further research.

  17. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  18. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  19. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  20. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azofra, D.; Jiménez, E.; Martínez, E.; Blanco, J.; Saenz-Díez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  1. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean; Lopez-Garcia, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  2. Taking the mystery out of gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline price variations in different markets of Canada are primarily driven by market forces, not necessarily by costs, according to a petroleum valuation consultant of the Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy. Market forces include wholesale prices, the number and efficiency of stations in an area, companies' marketing strategies and customer buying preferences. Prices can be affected by any one of these forces at any time. The prediction is that wholesale prices will continue to be volatile in the next few months as the market adjusts to the changes in crude oil prices determined by OPEC as well as the summer season for gasoline. Changes in crude oil prices are usually reflected in the price of gasoline at the pump, although they do not necessarily move together. Demand which is an important factor in price, is cyclical in both the US and Canada, being lowest in the first quarter of the year, picking up during the second and third quarters with increased driving during good weather, and usually declining again in the fourth quarter with the onset of colder weather. Taxes are also a very significant component of the retail price of gasoline; in July 1998 the combined federal and provincial taxes accounted for 54 per cent of the average retail price of regular unleaded gasoline in Canada. Refining and marketing costs, the distance gasoline has to be transported to market, also influence prices at the pump

  3. From Idea to Market: A Review of the Spanish Technology Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaño Marín, M.L.

    2016-07-01

    The European Commission and Member States have launched ifferent measures within the European Research Area in order to improve the well-being of the citizens and the competitiveness of Europe. The Spanish Technology Platforms have proven to be a successful instrument of public-private cooperation and play a role in key areas of innovation for economic development. Following the steps of the European Technology Platform, Spain supported the creation of an important network of National Technology Platforms. The Spanish Technology Platforms have adapted efficiently to the changes of the R&D&I system and nowadays they are a key instrument to build an economic model based on knowledge.

  4. Medium-Term Probabilistic Forecasting of Extremely Low Prices in Electricity Markets: Application to the Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant challenges that have arisen in electricity markets during the last few years is the emergence of extremely low prices. Trying to predict these events is crucial for market agents in a competitive environment. This paper proposes a novel methodology to simultaneously accomplish punctual and probabilistic hourly predictions about the appearance of extremely low electricity prices in a medium-term scope. The proposed approach for making real ex ante forecasts consists of a nested compounding of different forecasting techniques, which incorporate Monte Carlo simulation, combined with spatial interpolation techniques. The procedure is based on the statistical identification of the process key drivers. Logistic regression for rare events, decision trees, multilayer perceptrons and a hybrid approach, which combines a market equilibrium model with logistic regression, are used. Moreover, this paper assesses whether periodic models in which parameters switch according to the day of the week can be even more accurate. The proposed techniques are compared to a Markov regime switching model and several naive methods. The proposed methodology empirically demonstrates its effectiveness by achieving promising results on a real case study based on the Spanish electricity market. This approach can provide valuable information for market agents when they face decision making and risk-management processes. Our findings support the additional benefit of using a hybrid approach for deriving more accurate predictions.

  5. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. International franchise expansion of service chains: Insights from the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the effects of several variables on the international expansion pursued by Spanish service franchise chains. These include: management and franchising experience, brand awareness, the international franchise ratio, and a franchisor's size. Specifically, the study looks at 125 franchisors doing business in 44 foreign countries in late 2009. Findings allow us to conclude that management and franchising experience, together with brand awareness, the international ...

  7. Firm-specific impacts of CO_2 prices on the stock market value of the Spanish power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira da Silva, Patricia; Moreno, Blanca; Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    European Union carbon emissions allowances (EUA) price fluctuations can affect electricity companies' stock market values as these oscillations may change firms' profitability and thus investors' decisions. This outcome can differ not only contingent on the EU ETS Phase, but also on firms' generation mix. Moreover, stock markets may react differently to EUA increases in comparison to decreases, thus asymmetrically. By using daily data from January 2008 to July 2014, this article analyses long-run equilibrium relations and short-run interactions between the aggregated electricity industry stock market returns and EUA price changes. Moreover, we test if the relationship between EUA price variations and electricity stock returns is asymmetric and if the carbon price effect and the asymmetry are power firm-specific. Adding to earlier studies, we initially provide an inspection of the individual impact of EU ETS Phase II and on-going Phase III; followed by a comparative analysis between power firms which core activity relies on renewable energy sources and those whose sources are fundamentally non-renewable ones. A statistically significant positive long-run impact of EU ETS on the aggregated power sector stock market return is found concerning Phase II and works asymmetrically. Moreover, evidence is provided demonstrating that asymmetry and EUA effects are power firm-specific. - Highlights: •EU ETS impacts on stock market returns of Spanish power sector. •Long-run positive effect of EU ETS on market returns is found only in Phase II. •No short-run effects were found. •EUA price effect is company-specific.

  8. MVMA's 1991 summer gasoline survey and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous newsletter (September 1991 issue of this journal), the results of MVMA's 1990 Summer Gasoline Survey were discussed. It was noted that many gasolines containing high concentrations of olefins (over 15 percent volume) were being marketed in the northeast corridor between Washington, D.C. and Boston. Also noted was the finding that the composition of gasoline plays an important role in determining the emissions from vehicles on the road. In this newsletter, the potential effects on air quality of the more recently surveyed gasolines are discussed. Three grades of unleaded gasoline were covered in the survey (premium, intermediate, and regular). 1 tab

  9. Acrylamide in commercial potato crisps from Spanish market: Trends from 2004 to 2014 and assessment of the dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-07-01

    This research updates the acrylamide content of commercial potato crisps marketed in Spain with the aim to evaluate its trend since 2004. Two different batches of 40 potato crisps brands from 18 producers were analysed. Acrylamide content ranged from 108 to 2180 µg/kg, with an average value of 630 µg/kg and a median of 556 µg/kg. Data revealed a continuous decreased trend from 2004 to 2014. In 2014, potato crisps showed an average acrylamide content 14.6% lower than the previous report in 2009 and 57.6% lower than the first report in 2004. These data confirm the overall effectiveness in the mitigation strategies implemented by the Spanish industrial sector, although variations up to 80% were observed between a number of brands. However, 17.5% of the samples registered values higher than the indicative value recommended by European Commission for potato crisps. The dietary exposure of the Spanish population to this contaminant through potato crisps intake was estimated to be 0.035 µg/kg body weight/day. Although exposure has decreased over the last ten years, it is necessary to continue efforts to reduce acrylamide content in potato crisps since there is still margin for it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks; El Mercado Eolico Espanol. Balance y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  12. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  13. The Spanish Gas Market: Demand Trends Post Recession and Consequences for the Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In parallel with a flourishing economy, the natural gas industry in Spain was characterised by rapid consumption growth in the late 1990s and 2000s. Infrastructure and supplies were designed to meet the needs of a gas market growing at double digit rates each year. This high growth rate – for a European gas market – was expected to continue until at least the mid-2010s. By 2011, this outlook was replaced by a more pessimistic one. Firstly, the country’s economy was hit hard by the global rece...

  14. Internationalisation and international marketing: export behaviour, international marketing strategy and export performance in spanish small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Stoian, Maria-Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 11 de febrer de 2011 La presente investigación tiene por objetivo hacer una aportación a la literatura en los campos de negocios y marketing internacionales con el fin de arrojar luz sobre el comportamiento y rendimiento exportador de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME), enfocándose en el contexto geográfico Español, uno de los países Europeos caracterizados tanto por su alta densidad de PYMEs como por su alto número de empleados posicionados en estas empresas...

  15. University-Industry Collaboration from a Relationship Marketing Perspective: An Empirical Analysis in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquet, Marta; Calderon, Haydee; Cervera, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Building relationships between universities and industry bodies is of prime importance for creating value for universities' stakeholders. This paper focuses on relationships in relation to undergraduate internship programmes in the Social Sciences. Using the relationship marketing approach, we analyze this type of collaboration of firms with a…

  16. Gasoline sniffing multifocal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T M; Shneker, B F; Juel, V C

    2001-11-01

    The polyneuropathy caused by chronic gasoline inhalation is reported to be a gradually progressive, symmetric, sensorimotor polyneuropathy. We report unleaded gasoline sniffing by a female 14 years of age that precipitated peripheral neuropathy. In contrast with the previously reported presentation of peripheral neuropathy in gasoline inhalation, our patient developed multiple mononeuropathies superimposed on a background of sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The patient illustrates that gasoline sniffing neuropathy may present with acute multiple mononeuropathies resembling mononeuritis multiplex, possibly related to increased peripheral nerve susceptibility to pressure in the setting of neurotoxic components of gasoline. The presence of tetraethyl lead, which is no longer present in modern gasoline mixtures, is apparently not a necessary factor in the development of gasoline sniffer's neuropathy.

  17. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria; Campoy, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398-3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC.

  18. Launch prices for new pharmaceuticals in the heavily regulated and subsidized Spanish market, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  20. Markets and institutions: relations agents/regulators. The new power of Spanish Autonomous Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guayo Castiella, I. de

    2007-01-01

    The implementation in Spain of the 2003 European Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity implies a more precise determination of who are the regulatory authorities, as well as which powers enjoy each of them; in Spain, also, the implementation process, relating to the regulatory authorities issues, including the competence of the Autonomous Communities. The implementation process has taken place soon after new Statutes of a number of Autonomous Communities have been passed, where energy issues, at least apparently, are subject to a new treatment. (Author) 25 refs

  1. Renewable generation versus demand-side management. A comparison for the Spanish market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán Fernández, Juan Manuel; Burgos Payán, Manuel; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Trigo García, Ángel Luis

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally the required instantaneous balance generation-load is achieved by adjusting production to fit variable consumer demand. Nowadays, a significant and increasing segment of generation is renewable. But renewable production cannot be scheduled on request since its generation is dependent on nature (wind, sun, …). In this context, demand-side management (DSM) would help since it would be advisable for part of the flexibility to be provided by the demand. The integration of renewable production and demand-side management (DSM), are compared in this work for Spain throughout 2008–2014. First a qualitative model, based on the linearization of the wholesale market, is employed to explore some hypotheses. A set of scenarios are then examined to quantify the main effects on the market. The results show that DSM exhibits the best performance in terms of economic efficiency and environmental sustainability, as well as for the reduction of load peaks and losses in the system, what suggests the convenience of promoting plans for the replacement of equipment with other more efficient as well as the implementation of real-time tariffs. - Highlights: •The impact of the integration of renewable production versus DSM has been compared. •Merit-order effect related to energy efficiency and to load-shifting is identified. •Large industries achieve energy efficiency with less CAPEX than renewable generation. •Load-shifting cycle yields a reduction of the traded energy and the economic volume.

  2. Diesel fuel takes over from gasoline as the rop seller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sales of diesel fuel in Finland continued to increase during 2000, and exceeded gasoline sales in terms of tonnes sold for the first time since the early 1960s. Sales of gasoline and the other main petroleum products fell slightly compared to 1999. Sales of natural gas increased. Otherwise, the year was a relatively uneventful one on the Finnish oil market

  3. Recovery of gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-02-27

    The abstract describes a process for recovering a maximum quantity of commercial gasoline from a composite hydrocarbon stream containing hydrocarbons within and below the gasoline boiling range, including olefins. The hydrocarbon stream is separated into low vapor pressure gasoline and a gas fraction consisting of hydrocarbons of the 4 carbon atom group and some of the 3 carbon atom group. The gas fraction is subjected to a polymerization operation, characterized by utilizing the products of the polymerization procedure - both liquid polymers and unconverted gases - to increase the yield of gasoline and to adjust the low vapor pressure gasoline to the vapor pressure of commercial gasoline. A fraction of the gaseous products of the polymerization procedure are used for this purpose. The remainder of the gaseous products are recycled through the polymerization operation.

  4. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-25

    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  5. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  6. The fate of Spanish furniture on the art market as reflection of its social valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruana Moyano, Sonsoles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Spain furniture did not begin to be dealt with as material for scholarly research —with notable exceptions— until the 1970s. Likewise at that time a new form of art sales appeared on the national scene in addition to antique and art dealers: auctions, invented in England 200 years earlier. Thus the scholarly and the commercial came together: rigorous publications, thorough studies and catalogues of furniture which encouraged the appearance of new pieces, in many instances via the channel of the art market- that in turn nourished serious studies. Consequently furniture began to be valued in the broadest sense of the term, leading to its conservation, its dissemination and fixing its monetary worth.

    El mueble no comenzó a ser tratado en España como objeto de estudio científico —salvo honrosas excepciones— hasta la década de 1970. En ese momento irrumpe además en el panorama nacional una nueva forma de venta de arte, al margen de anticuarios y marchantes: las subastas, nacidas dos siglos atrás en Inglaterra. Así, lo académico y lo comercial se aúnan: publicaciones rigurosas, estudios concienzudos y catálogos de mobiliario, favorecen la aparición de nuevas piezas en muchas ocasiones a través del canal del mercado del arte, que, a su vez, nutren dichos estudios. Se aprende a valorar, en el sentido más amplio del término, el mobiliario. Lo que lleva a su conservación, su divulgación y también, por qué no, a establecer su valor pecuniario.

  7. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  8. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  9. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  10. [Fixed drug combinations in hypertension: a budget impact analysis for the Spanish Health System on the marketing of a fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Ferro-Rey, M; Roca-Cusachs, Alex; Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Alvarez-Martín, Carlos; de Salas-Cansado, Marina

    2011-07-01

    To carry out a budget impact analysis (BIA) of olmesartan/amlodipine (20/5, 40/5 and 40/10mg) marketed as a fixed combination (FC) in its approved indication for the National Health System (NHS). We developed a decision tree model in order to estimate usual hypertension treatment algorithm in Spanish clinical practice. The BIA has been developed from the perspective of the NHS for a period of 3 years (years 2010-2012). Spanish hypertensive population ≥ 35 years old. Introduction into the market of a fixed combination (FC) olmesartan/amlodipine in Spain. Expected costs to be assumed by the Spanish NHS (RRP-VAT) for hypertensive population able to be treated with the FC versus currently assumed costs by the NHS with free combination olmesartan and amlodipine. Estimated pharmaceutical costs in hypertensive population treated with olmesartan and amlodipine (2 pills) would be €25.2M (1(st) year), €26.4M (2011), €27.6M (2012), with a total 3-year period of €79.2M. According to patient tree model, the population able to be treated with FC would be 71,283 patients (2010), with a growth rate of 4.8% in the successive years, which supposes an annual cost of €21.2M (2010), €21.8M (2011) and €22.4M (2012), with a total 3-year period of €65.4M. The BIA shows savings of €13.8M in a total 3-year period. The BIA of FC olmesartan/amlodipine could generate net savings of €13.8M for the NHS in the period ranging from years 2010 to 2012. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Size distribution, chemical composition and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yueqi; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhuyue; Guan, Chun; Xia, Chen; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-gasoline blended fuels have been widely applied in markets recently, as ethanol reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and improves anti-knock performance. However, its effects on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine still need further investigation. In this study, the effects of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels on particle size distributions, number concentrations, chemical composition and soot oxidation activity of GDI engine were investigated. It was found that ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the particle number concentration in low-load operating conditions. In higher load conditions, the ethanol-gasoline was effective for reducing the particle number concentration, indicating that the chemical benefits of ethanol become dominant, which could reduce soot precursors such as large n-alkanes and aromatics in gasoline. The volatile organic mass fraction in ethanol-gasoline particulates matter was higher than that in gasoline particulate matter because ethanol reduced the amount of soot precursors during combustion and thereby reduced the elemental carbon proportions in PM. Ethanol addition also increased the proportion of small particles, which confirmed the effects of ethanol on organic composition. Ethanol-gasoline reduced the concentrations of most PAH species, except those with small aromatic rings, e.g., naphthalene. Soot from ethanol-gasoline has lower activation energy of oxidation than that from gasoline. The results in this study indicate that ethanol-gasoline has positive effects on PM emissions control, as the soot oxidation activity is improved and the particle number concentrations are reduced at moderate and high engine loads. - Highlights: • Ethanol-gasoline reduces elemental carbon in PM. • Ethanol-gasoline increases volatile organic fraction in PM. • Soot generated from ethanol-gasoline has higher oxidation activity.

  12. The taxation effect on gasoline price asymmetry nexus: Evidence from both sides of the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.; Fotis, Panagiotis N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the degree of competition in various gasoline markets and infers possible causes of price asymmetry across the globe. For this purpose we use the Dynamic Ordinary Least Square method in order to estimate price asymmetry in twelve European countries and the United States for a sample of weekly observations which spans the period from June 1996 to August 2011. The results indicate the common perception that less competitive gasoline markets exhibit price asymmetry, while highly competitive gasoline markets follow a symmetric price adjustment path. Finally, the inclusion of taxes (VAT and excise tax) into retail gasoline prices, supports the existence of price asymmetry in many European countries. - Highlights: • We examine the possible causes of gasoline price asymmetry across the globe. • We investigate the effect of taxation on the retail gasoline price adjustments. • There is a symmetric gasoline price response in the EU wholesale level. • Less competitive gasoline markets exhibit price asymmetry. • The oligopolistic structure of the gasoline markets inflates price asymmetry

  13. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  14. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  15. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Badra, Jihad; Kalghatgi, Gautam; Sarathy, Mani; Curran, Henry; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components

  16. Closing the gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a representative of the Oil Companies' European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection (CONCAWE), argues the advantages of closing the gasoline system. Because this decouples the product from the environment, health risks and environmental damage are reduced. It is also more effective than changing the composition of gasoline because it offers better cost effectiveness, energy efficiency and the minimization of carbon dioxide release into the environment. However it will take time and political will to change until all European vehicles are fitted with three way catalysts and carbon canisters: control systems to monitor such systems will also need to be set up. However CONCAWE still recommends its adoption. (UK)

  17. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  18. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  19. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A; Garcia de Mateos, A; Ortin Sune, N; Val Cob, M del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Tiered gasoline pricing: A personal carbon trading perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yao; Fan, Jin; Zhao, Dingtao; Wu, Yanrui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proffers a tiered gasoline pricing method from a personal carbon trading perspective. An optimization model of personal carbon trading is proposed, and then, an equilibrium carbon price is derived according to the market clearing condition. Based on the derived equilibrium carbon price, this paper proposes a calculation method of tiered gasoline pricing. Then, sensitivity analyses and consumers' surplus analyses are conducted. It can be shown that a rise in gasoline price or a more generous allowance allocation would incur a decrease in the equilibrium carbon price, making the first tiered price higher, but the second tiered price lower. It is further verified that the proposed tiered pricing method is progressive because it would relieve the pressure of the low-income groups who consume less gasoline while imposing a greater burden on the high-income groups who consume more gasoline. Based on these results, implications, limitations and suggestions for future studies are provided. - Highlights: • Tiered gasoline pricing is calculated from the perspective of PCT. • Consumers would be burdened with different actual gasoline costs. • A specific example is provided to illustrate the calculation of TGP. • The tiered pricing mechanism is a progressive system.

  1. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-02

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  3. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  5. Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werber, Mathew; Fischer, Michael; Schwartz, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ∼150 km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high performance, high efficiency alternative that can presently suit the vast majority of consumers' needs.

  6. Reformulated gasoline: lessons from America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.

    1995-01-01

    Regulating fuel quality is one of the few politically feasible options for improving air quality in the short and medium term. This book explores and studies the reformulated gasoline programme currently underway in the USA. Despite the smoothness of the initial implementation of the programme, difficulties may arise in the future. It is concluded that reformulated gasoline prices are more independent of crude oil price changes than conventional unleaded gasoline. Finally, the study suggests that refiners will not reap great profit from investment in the supply of reformulated gasoline because of government restrictions. (UK)

  7. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  8. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  9. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  10. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  11. Oxygenates to hike gasoline price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cost of achieving required US gasoline formulations this winter in Environmental Protection Agency carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas could reach 3-5 cents/gal, an Energy Information Administration analysis has found. EIA says new winter demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol created by 190 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) will exceed US oxygenate production by 140,000-220,000 b/d. The shortfall must be made up from inventory or imports. EIA estimates the cost of providing incremental oxygenate to meet expected gasoline blending demand likely will result in a price premium of about 20 cents/gal of MTBE equivalent over traditional gasoline blend octane value. That cost likely will be added to the price of oxygenated gasoline

  12. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  13. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul

    2017-08-14

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components. For over two decades, ethanol has become a popular anti-knock blending agent with gasoline fuels due to its production from bio-derived resources. This work explores the oxidation behavior of two oxygenated certification gasoline fuels and the variation of fuel reactivity with molecular composition. Ignition delay times of Haltermann (RON = 91) and Coryton (RON = 97.5) gasolines have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine at three pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, at equivalence ratios of φ = 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8, and in the temperature range of 650–1250 K. The results indicate that the effects of fuel octane number and fuel composition on ignition characteristics are strongest in the intermediate temperature (negative temperature coefficient) region. To simulate the reactivity of these gasolines, three kinds of surrogates, consisting of three, four and eight components, are proposed and compared with the gasoline ignition delay times. It is shown that more complex surrogate mixtures are needed to emulate the reactivity of gasoline with higher octane sensitivity (S = RON–MON). Detailed kinetic analyses are performed to illustrate the dependence of gasoline ignition delay times on fuel composition and, in particular, on ethanol content.

  14. Analytical studies on the quality and environmental impact of commercial motor gasoline available in multan region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, G.; Ansari, T.M.; Naqvi, S.M.S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as specific gravity, reid vapour pressure, copper corrosion, distillation (I.B.P., F.B.P., Total recovery and residue) and hydrocarbon contents (saturates, aromatics and polars) of gasoline of different oil marketing companies collected from retail outlets in district Multan have been analysed using standard ASTM procedures. Results have been compared with the Pakistani, Indian and European specifications to assess the quality of Pakistani gasoline (petrol). The environmental impact of gasoline has also been assessed. (author)

  15. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2018-04-03

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  16. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Bakor, Radwan; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Almansour, Mohammed; Sim, Jaeheon; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Viollet, Yoann; Chang, Junseok

    2018-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  17. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  18. Evaluation of Motor Gasoline Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    CAMPINNE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL I LABORATOIRE MECANIQUE TRANSPORT 2565 PLYMOUTH ROAD AVENUE DE LA RENAISSANCE, 3D ANN ARBOR MI 48105 B-1040 BRUSSELS 5...CUARTEL GENERAL DEL EJERCITO ATTN: MR K LAURINSEN ATTN: MAJ M ENGO NOGUES GADHOLTVEJ 11 DIVISION DE LOGISTICA (DIAM/LABCAMVE) DK-9900 FREDERIKSHAVN...Gum for Typical Civilian Gasolines Transported by CEPS and F-46 Gasolines Stored by CEPS ...................................... 47 B. Potential Gum

  19. Stabilization of gasoline from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, L

    1929-03-14

    A process is described of stabilizing gasoline from shale, consisting in treating by agitating the gasoline freshly distilled from shale oil with 1.5 percent of its weight of sulfuric acid diluted to more than 10 times its volume, after which separating the pyridine, then treating by agitating with sulfuric acid which treatment separates the unsaturated hydrocarbons and finally treating by agitating with 1.5 percent of its weight of saturated caustic soda solution and washing with water.

  20. A study of Canadian retail gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, A.L.

    1999-05-01

    Retail gasoline pricing in Canadian markets was examined to demonstrate why retail prices tend to follow one of two distinct patterns and that neither pattern is observable in the wholesale price. In many cities, retail prices are more rigid than wholesale prices, while in other markets, retail prices follow a cyclic pattern not seen in wholesale prices. This study examined why constant prices are observed in some cities, while other cities have cyclic prices. Theoretical justification was given to the argument that prices will remain constant only in markets in which there are only few gasoline companies with a small number of stations, but a large per-station capacity. It was shown that when one firm operates significantly more stations than its rival, a constant cost equilibrium cannot be maintained. However, a cycle equilibrium can be constructed in this case, and also when the two companies are similarly sized. An initial examination of available price, cost and market structure data shows that there is a positive correlation between price stability and concentration. The response of retail prices to wholesale price movements in the presence of a retail price cycle was also examined through the use of a simple model based on the predictions of the above theory. Data for the city of Windsor, Ontario was used for the modelling approach. A new cycle is created by an increase in price whenever the distance between the previous retail price and the current wholesale prices is very small. Retail prices are more responsive to wholesale prices over the increasing portion of the cycle. It was shown that when the asymmetric error correction model of Borenstein, Cameron and Gilbert is estimated, it indicates a more rapid response to wholesale price increases than to decreases. 72 refs., 22 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  2. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro, E-mail: okamoto@nrips.go.jp [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Muneyuki [Yamanashi Prefectural Police H.Q., 312-4 Kubonakajima, Isawa-cho, Usui, Yamanashi 406-0036 (Japan); Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma [Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  3. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage.

  4. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Kate; Enz, Cathy A.; Canina, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  5. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kate; Enz, Cathy A.; Canina, Linda [Cornell Univ., School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  6. Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Henrique, E-mail: henrique.pacini@energy.kth.se; Silveira, Semida, E-mail: semida.silveira@energy.kth.se

    2011-11-15

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline. - Research Highlights: > Brazil and Sweden both have infrastructure for high fuel ethanol blends. > Flex-fuel vehicles enable competition between ethanol and gasoline in fuel markets. > Data suggests that consumers make their fuel choice based mainly on prices. > Consumers in Sweden appear to be more price-sensitive than their Brazilian counterparts. > In the absence of international markets, high ethanol prices may drive consumers back to gasoline.

  7. Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, Henrique; Silveira, Semida

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline. - Research highlights: → Brazil and Sweden both have infrastructure for high fuel ethanol blends. → Flex-fuel vehicles enable competition between ethanol and gasoline in fuel markets. → Data suggests that consumers make their fuel choice based mainly on prices. → Consumers in Sweden appear to be more price-sensitive than their Brazilian counterparts. → In the absence of international markets, high ethanol prices may drive consumers back to gasoline.

  8. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  9. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  10. Environment and Energy. Phase out of gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaudda, G.

    2000-01-01

    The european recommendation 98/07/EEC gives the technical specification of automotive fuels quality, gasoline and diesel fuel and forbid for member countries the commercialization of lead gasoline from 01/01/2001 [it

  11. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  12. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available fuels for the...

  14. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  15. Short-term inhalation toxicity of methanol, gasoline, and methanol/gasoline in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Bjarnason, S; Vincent, R; Potvin, M; Miller, R B; Valli, V E

    1995-01-01

    Four- to five-week-old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to vapors of methanol (2500 ppm), gasoline (3200 ppm), and methanol/gasoline (2500/3200 ppm, 570/3200 ppm) six hours per day, five days per week for four weeks. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air only. Depression in body weight gain and reduced food consumption were observed in male rats, and increased relative liver weight was detected in rats of both sexes exposed to gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures. Rats of both sexes exposed to methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased relative kidney weight and females exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased kidney weight. Decreased serum glucose and cholesterol were detected in male rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Decreased hemoglobin was observed in females inhaling vapors of gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. Urine from rats inhaling gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures had up to a fourfold increase in hippuric acid, a biomarker of exposure to the toluene constituent of gasoline, and up to a sixfold elevation in ascorbic acid, a noninvasive biomarker of hepatic response. Hepatic mixed-function oxidase (aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) activities and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity were elevated in rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Histopathological changes were confined to very mild changes in the nasal passages and in the uterus, where decreased incidence or absence of mucosal and myometrial eosinophilia was observed in females inhaling gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. It was concluded that gasoline was largely responsible for the adverse effects, the most significant of which included depression in weight gain in the males, increased liver weight and hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in both sexes, and suppression of uterine eosinophilia. No apparent interactive effects

  16. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  18. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gasoline taxes and revenue volatility: An application to California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madowitz, M.; Novan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how applying different combinations of excise and sales taxes on motor fuels impact the volatility of retail fuel prices and tax revenues. Two features of gasoline and diesel markets make the choice of tax mechanism a unique problem. First, prices are very volatile. Second, demand for motor fuels is extremely inelastic. As a result, fuel expenditures vary substantially over time. Tying state revenues to these expenditures, as is the case with a sales tax, results in a volatile stream of revenue which imposes real costs on agents in an economy. On July 1, 2010, California enacted Assembly Bill x8-6, the “Gas Tax Swap”, increasing the excise tax and decreasing the sales tax on gasoline purchases. While the initial motivation behind the revenue neutral swap was to provide the state with greater flexibility within its budget, we highlight that this change has two potentially overlooked benefits; it reduces retail fuel price volatility and tax revenue volatility. Simulating the monthly fuel prices and tax revenues under alternative tax policies, we quantify the potential reductions in revenue volatility. The results reveal that greater benefits can be achieved by going beyond the tax swap and eliminating the gasoline sales tax entirely. - Highlights: • We examine how gasoline taxes affect government revenue volatility. • We simulate the impact of California's Gasoline Tax Swap policy. • Sales taxes are shown to magnify price volatility and government revenue volatility. • A pure excise tax policy results in less volatile fuel prices and state revenues. • We argue that reductions in both forms of volatility are welfare enhancing

  20. Compression ignition of low-octane gasoline: Life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Liu, Feiqi; Liu, Zongwei; Zhao, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established. • The impacts of using low-octane gasoline on compression ignition engines are examined. • Life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions reductions are 24.6% and 21.6%. • Significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. - Abstract: The use of low-octane gasoline on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines is considered as a competitive alternative to the conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. In this study, a process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established to estimate the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the conventional gasoline-Spark Ignition (SI) and low-octane gasoline-GCI pathways. It is found that compared with the conventional pathway, the low-octane gasoline-GCI pathway leads to a 24.6% reduction in energy consumption and a 22.8% reduction in GHG emissions. The removal of the isomerization and catalytic reforming units in the refinery and the higher energy efficiency in the vehicle use phase are the substantial drivers behind the reductions. The results indicate that by promoting the use of low-octane gasoline coupled with the deployment of GCI vehicles, considerable reductions of energy consumption and GHG emissions in the transport sector can be achieved. However, significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. The inherent problems of NO_x and PM exhaust emissions associated with GCI engines need to be further addressed with advanced combustion techniques. Besides, the yield of low-octane gasoline needs to be improved through adjusting the refinery configurations.

  1. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  2. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    A gasoline subsidy distorts the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies and takes substantial revenues that arguably could be spent elsewhere with a better impact on economic growth. Governments with such subsidies are aware of their cost yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This thesis discusses in three essays the problem faced by the government in removing the gasoline subsidy and provides an alternative policy in reducing the subsidy cost applied to the case of Indonesia. In the first essay, we examine the decision-making process from the government's perspective that has an objective of generating savings to fund other programs while maintaining political power, and the influence that the general population has over the decision. Despite the immense literature on political power, there has yet to be any research that mathematically models the decision-making process of a government with influences from the general population. Under the benchmark scenario, the equilibrium strategy is to keep the subsidy intact. However, the results are found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the shift in political power as well as the preferences of both the government and the people. In the second essay, we estimate the cross-price elasticity of regular gasoline with respect to premium gasoline price. The importance of such knowledge is to accurately determine the impact of fuel pricing policy that tends to have different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the grade of gasoline. Using data on the Mexican gasoline market, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline is found to be -0.895, which confirms high substitutability among gasoline with different grades. In the third essay, we look at the unique case of Indonesia that

  3. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  4. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  5. Petroleum product market report, issue 74, November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Petroleum Product Market Report (PPMR) is prepared in the Petroleum Products Section of the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division of Energy, Mines and Resources. The data is compiled from 10 major cities in Canada. The trends in sales and prices are compared on four petroleum products; regular unleaded gasoline, middle gasoline, premium unleaded gasoline and automotive diesel and propane. 7 tabs. 11 figs

  6. Production of high anti-knock gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-09-20

    A process is described for producing gasoline of high antiknock value by separating from the gasoline of low antiknock value by treating the gasoline in the vapor phase under pressure equal to or slightly above atmospheric and at a temperature at which it does not form essentially hydrocarbons gaseous at the operating temperature and in contact with catalysts, the process being characterized by the utilization of catalysts of silicates or phosphates except pumice stone and fullers earth.

  7. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling...

  8. Asymmetry in retail gasoline and crude oil price movements in the United States. An application of hidden cointegration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarvar, Afshin

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that gasoline prices respond more quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases. Some economists and politicians believe that asymmetry in oil and gasoline price movements is the outcome of a non-competitive gasoline market requiring that governments take policy action to address 'unfair pricing'. There is no consensus as to the existence, or nature, of the asymmetric relationship between prices of gasoline and crude oil. Much of this literature specifies asymmetry in the speed of adjustment and short-run adjustment coefficients. In contrast, Granger and Yoon's [Granger, C.W. and Yoon, G. 'Hidden Cointegration', University of California, San Diego, Department of Economics Working Paper, (2002).] Crouching Error Correction Model (CECM) identifies asymmetry of the cointegrating vectors between components (cumulative positive and negative changes) of the series. Applying the CECM to retail gasoline and crude oil prices for the U.S., we find that there is only evidence of cointegration between positive components of crude oil prices and negative components of gasoline prices. In contrast to the literature which attributes asymmetric price movements to market power of refiners, these findings suggest that gasoline prices -in the long run- are more influenced by the technological changes on the demand side than crude oil price movements on the supply side. (author)

  9. Impact of US biofuel policy on US corn and gasoline price variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies that examine the influence of biofuels and biofuel policy on commodity prices, the impact of biofuel policy on commodity price variability is poorly understood. A good understanding of biofuel policy’s impact on price variability is important for mitigating food insecurity and assisting policy formation. We examine how U.S. ethanol policies such as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates and the blend wall affect the price variability of corn and gasoline. We first present an analytical and graphical framework to identify the effect and then use stochastic partial equilibrium simulation to measure the magnitude of the impacts. We show that RFS mandates and the blend wall both reduce the price elasticity of demand for corn and gasoline and therefore increase the price variability when supply shocks occur to the markets. This has important implications for policy actions with respect to maintaining or changing the current RFS mandates and/or blend wall in the US. -- Highlights: ► The RFS is found to lead to less elastic demand for corn and gasoline. ► Thus the RFS is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices when supply shocks occur. ► The ethanol blend wall is found to lead to less elastic corn and gasoline demand. ► Thus the blend wall is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices.

  10. Evaluation of Anti-Knock Quality of Dicyclopentadiene-Gasoline Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khodaier, Mohannad

    2017-03-28

    Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergistic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than that of ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD has the potential to be a high octane blending component in gasoline; one which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, and oxygenates.

  11. Evaluation of Anti-Knock Quality of Dicyclopentadiene-Gasoline Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khodaier, Mohannad; Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes. The synergistic blending nature of DCPD was apparent and appeared to be greater than that of ethanol. The data presented suggests that DCPD has the potential to be a high octane blending component in gasoline; one which can substitute alkylates, isomerates, reformates, and oxygenates.

  12. Analytical Studies on the Quality and Environmental Impact of Commercial Motor Gasoline Available in Multan Region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical characteristics such as specific gravity, reid vapour pressure, copper corrosion, distillation (I.B.P., F.B.P., Total recovery & residue and hydrocarbon contents (saturates, aromatics and polars of gasoline of different oil marketing companies collected from retail outlets in district Multan have been analysed using standard ASTM procedures. Results have been compared with the Pakistani, Indian and European specifications to assess the quality of Pakistani gasoline (petrol. The environmental impact of gasoline has also been assessed.

  13. Anticipation, Tax Avoidance, and the Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Coglianese, John; Davis, Lucas W; Kilian, Lutz; Stock, James H

    2015-01-01

    Traditional least squares estimates of the responsiveness of gasoline consumption to changes in gasoline prices are biased toward zero, given the endogeneity of gasoline prices. A seemingly natural solution to this problem is to instrument for gasoline prices using gasoline taxes, but this approach tends to yield implausibly large price elasticities. We demonstrate that anticipatory behavior provides an important explanation for this result. We provide evidence that gasoline buyers increase g...

  14. The final fifteen feet of hose : the Canadian gasoline industry in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, M.; Beckman, K.; Clavet, F.; Bernard, M.-C.; Bussiere, L.; Frank, J.; Lefebvre, M.

    2001-01-01

    An up-to-date profile of the Canadian gasoline industry was presented with an effort to address some of the preoccupations of industry stakeholders and the perceptions of Canadian motorists. This study provides new insights into the workings of the industry by providing a balanced perspective on the many contentious issues that affect the industry, particularly retail pricing. The Conference Board's empirical analysis makes use of a new approach which provides a better understanding of how retail prices react to changes in wholesale prices. Competition is the reason why a retail market outcome margin exists in each city based on local conditions. This margin is the basis for price changes in that market and reflects a margin at which most competitors are able to sustain themselves. When changes occur in the wholesale price of crude, the retail price is adjusted depending on whether the actual margin in place is higher or lower than the market outcome margin. Crude oil and taxes make up about 84 per cent of the average price of a litre of regulated unleaded gasoline. The main reason for rising Canadian gasoline prices is the rapid increase in world crude oil prices. The volatility in gasoline prices is a direct result of the competitive nature of the business at the street level and the uniformity of prices reflects the rapid response of individual dealers to the actions of their competitors. Each outlet has fixed costs to cover, therefore average sales volumes per outlet have an important impact on retail margins and prices. It was also emphasized that there is no empirical proof that gasoline prices increase before long weekends, nor is there any proof of asymmetry in price adjustment in the retail market. It was noted that the price of gasoline in Canada and the United States, excluding taxes, is very similar. 15 tabs., 59 figs

  15. Oxygenated gasolines according to European specifications for quality and ecological clean gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panovska, Vesna; Tomanovikj, Violeta

    1999-01-01

    With the phasing out of lead additives from gasoline, the interest for oxygenates as a gasoline components grows up. However, since these materials are not hydrocarbons their behaviour in terms of blending differs from the gasoline which consists of hydrocarbons only. Therefore, it is important to explain their role in blending gasolines according to European specification for motor fuels. It is important to emphasize the oxygenate contribution in production more clean gasoline. In this paper, the oxygenate types and there basic specification features followed by manufacture, laboratory testing and blending specifications with refinery components is presented. (Author)

  16. Bifurcaciones de codimensión 2 en un modelo dinámico del mercado potencial y actual: aplicación al mercado cervecero español = Bifurcations of Codimension 2 in a Dynamical Model of Current and Potential Market: An Application to the Spanish Beer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Morente, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, a partir de la continuación de las bifurcaciones de codimensión 1 en un modelo dinámico discreto aplicado al mercado actual y potencial de las organizaciones, se establecen las condiciones necesarias para la existencia de bifurcaciones de codimensión 2. Como caso práctico, se estudia el caso del mercado cervecero español, considerando como referencia la marca “San Miguel”, analizando su evolución e interpretación económica. = In this work we establish the necessary conditions for the existence of bifurcations of codimension 2 in a discrete dynamic model applied to the current and potential market of the organizations, starting from the continuation of the codimension 1 bifurcations. The case of the market Spanish brewer is studied and we analyse its evolution and interpret the economical results obtained.

  17. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the

  18. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  19. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  20. Bacterial contamination of motor gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom); Koenig, J.W.J. [Koerperschaft des Oeffentlichen Rechts, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Microbiological growth is found frequently in the bottom of jet fuel, distillate, heavy gasoil and crude oil tanks. Experience shows that traces of water - though theoretically enough for an outbreak of growth - rarely cause problems, because the tank is most probably drained frequently. However when a water table builds up and remains untouched for some time, the likelihood for growth, leading to later operational problems, rapidly increases. Normal paraffin hydrocarbons with c{sub 8}-c{sub 16} chain length appear to be especially vulnerable; in other words the kerosene/jet fuel boiling range is mainly at risk. Heavier hydrocarbon products (diesel, light heating oils and gasoils) however have increasingly seen problems over the last 15-20 years. Lighter products - mainly the gasoline boiling range appear to have been protected from microbial problems over many years. In a laboratory it was of course possible to degrade certain kinds of naphthas and finished gasolines, but those results did not mirror the findings in the field.

  1. Life cycle assessment of gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuholt, Edgar

    1995-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to compare production and use of three different fuel products: regular gasoline, gasoline with MTBE and diesel. The study quantifies energy consumption and emissions through the production chain and assesses the potential impacts to the environment. Some of the methodological problems performing the LCA are discussed. The study indicates that production of gasoline with MTBE has potentially larger environmental impacts than production of regular gasoline, caused by the extra facilities for production of MTBE. The study also shows that the results are highly sensitive to the actual product specifications and assumptions that are made. Different product specifications can therefore lead to other conclusions. The results also indicate that production of diesel leads to significantly lower potential impacts than the gasolines

  2. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-12-06

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  3. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir; Kalghatgi, Gautam T.

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  4. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  5. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  7. Online marketing improvement based on marketing psychology, case: Roomsevilla

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Roosa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study and find out the best cost-effective online marketing channels for a Spanish housing agency Roomsevilla in order to strengthen its online marketing. In addition, this thesis aims to find out how the case company can use marketing psychology in its online marketing. The theoretical part includes online marketing, marketing mix and marketing psycho- logy which were collected from various books, online journals and websites. Also Cialdini's 6 Principle...

  8. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleit, A.N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleit, A.N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs

  11. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  12. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Drunk-Driving Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Guangqing Chi; Xuan Zhou; Timothy McClure; Paul Gilbert; Arthur Cosby; Li Zhang; Angela Robertson; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changing gasoline prices and drunk-driving crashes. Specifically, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on drunk-driving crashes in Mississippi by age, gender, and race from 2004Ð2008, a period experiencing great fluctuation in gasoline prices. An exploratory visualization by graphs shows that higher gasoline prices are generally associated with fewer drunk-driving crashes. Higher gasoline prices depress drunk- driving crashes among younger...

  13. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc W.

    2007-01-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century, a variety of gasoline refueling methods supported early US gasoline vehicles and successfully alleviated consumer concerns over refueling availability. The refueling methods employed included cans, barrels, home refueling outfits, parking garage refueling facilities, mobile stations, hand carts and curb pumps. Only after robust markets for gasoline vehicles had been firmly established did the gasoline service station become the dominant refueling method. The present study reviews this history and draws analogies with current and future efforts to introduce hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles. These comparisons hold no predictive power; however, there is heuristic value in an historical review of the first successful and large-scale introduction of a vehicle fuel. From an energy policy perspective, these comparisons reinforce the importance of a long-term and portfolio approach to support for technology development and innovation

  14. Job Insecurity in the Younger Spanish Workforce: Causes and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose M.; Sora, Beatriz; Caballer, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish labor market is currently an example of a flexible labor market. However, it involves a set of detrimental conditions for its workforce, such as lower employability in the labor market and underemployment (i.e. over-qualification and underemployment in time). In this study, we assume that all these conditions promote higher job…

  15. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ... and comparison of the emissions from motor vehicles using different reformulated gasolines based on their ozone-forming potentials and to assess the concomitant impact of that approach on air-quality benefits...

  16. Cointegration and the demand for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskara Rao, B.; Rao, Gyaneshwar

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge in the price of energy and in particular of gasoline. Therefore, demand functions for energy and its components like gasoline have received much attention. However, since confidence in the estimated demand functions is important for use in policy and forecasting, following [Amarawickrama, H.A., Hunt, L.C., 2008. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis. Energy Economics 33, 724-739], this paper estimates the demand for gasoline is estimated with five alternative time series techniques with data from Fiji. Estimates with these alternative techniques are very close, and thus increase our confidence in them. We found that gasoline demand is both price and income inelastic.

  17. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  18. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  19. Cointegration and the demand for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskara Rao, B. [University of Western Sydney, Sydney1797 (Australia); Rao, Gyaneshwar [University of the South Pacific (Fiji)

    2009-10-15

    Since the early 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge in the price of energy and in particular of gasoline. Therefore, demand functions for energy and its components like gasoline have received much attention. However, since confidence in the estimated demand functions is important for use in policy and forecasting, following [Amarawickrama, H.A., Hunt, L.C., 2008. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis. Energy Economics 33, 724-739], this paper estimates the demand for gasoline is estimated with five alternative time series techniques with data from Fiji. Estimates with these alternative techniques are very close, and thus increase our confidence in them. We found that gasoline demand is both price and income inelastic. (author)

  20. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  1. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  2. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

  3. Successful outcome after intravenous gasoline injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Mitterhammer, Heike; Stauber, Rudolf; Kaufmann, Peter; Smolle, Karl Heinz

    2007-12-01

    Gasoline, ingested intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involve oral ingestion or inhalation. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes following hydrocarbon poisoning by intravenous injection. Following a suicide attempt by intravenous self-injection of 10 ml of gasoline, a 26-year-old medical student was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with hemoptysis, symptoms of acute respiratory failure, chest pain, and severe abdominal cramps. Gas exchange was severely impaired and a chest x-ray indicated chemical pneumonitis. Initial treatment consisted of mechanical ventilation, supportive hyperventilation, administration of nitrogen oxide (NO), and prednisone. Unfortunately, the patient developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) complicated by life-threatening severe vasoplegia within 24 hours after gasoline injection. High doses of vasopressors along with massive amounts of parenteral fluids were necessary. Despite fluid replacement, renal function worsened and required hemofiltration on 5 sequential days. After 12 days of intensive care management, the patient recovered completely and was discharged to a psychiatric care facility. Intravenous gasoline injection causes major injury to the lungs, the organ bearing the first capillary bed encountered. Treatment of gasoline poisoning is symptomatic because no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive supportive care may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae.

  4. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  5. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of aviation gasoline from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate that: the fuel is not in short supply; exemption will not have an adverse impact on supply of any other petroleum product subject to the Emergency Petroleum allocation Act of 1973; competition and market force are adequate; exemption will not result in inequitable prices; and exemption will not have adverse state or regional impacts or any other adverse impacts. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of aviation gasoline. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for aviation gasoline during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines aviation gasoline supply, demand, price, and market structure impacts of exempting aviation gasoline from controls. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that aviation gasoline should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  6. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  7. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  8. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  9. Trouble in your tank: What can be done about out-of-control gasoline prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, D.

    2000-01-01

    The recent increases in the price of automotive fuels, especially gasoline is discussed. The Canadian Automobile Association (CAA) makes several recommendation as to how the government might intervene to bring prices back down to a realistic level. First and foremost, the CAA recommends an outright gasoline tax cut, noting that tax on gasoline has increased from 1.5 cent to 10 cents a litre since 1885. The CAA also suggests that a minimum of 5 cents reduction in price would result if the GST were applied only on an ex-tax basis instead of being tacked on to the total pump price after federal and provincial taxes have been added, which in effect amounts to a tax on tax. The provinces could also help by cutting back on their gasoline taxes which range from a low of 9 cents in Alberta to a high of 16.5 cents in Newfoundland. It is noted that the Ottawa-based Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, which represents the major oil companies, does not support the CAA suggestions and dismisses concerns regarding the near-monopoly in the market held by a few major oil companies by saying that while there are admittedly fewer small independents in the market, competition from new larger entrants has actually increased. The Institute spokesman attributes the recent round of price increases as merely the results of world market forces (despite the fact that Canada is a net exporter of oil). At the same time, the Independent Retail Gasoline Merchant Association wants the government to conduct a fundamental review of the Competition Act, to harmonize Canadian laws with those of the United States, our largest trading partner. The Association believes that the Competition Bureau has evolved into a a quasi-judicial body, and is mired in red tape. The Association also suggests that in the meantime, the government should invoke the Energy Supplies Emergency Act to stop Big Oil's 'deceitful price gouging'

  10. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  11. Evaluation for leaded and unleaded Gasoline as Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Naga, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    With the phase out of alkyl lead compounds as necessary additives for gasoline in order to raise its octane number , the alternative is to reformulate gasoline to have nearly same octane number but with other chemical structures. Such reformulated gasoline (RFG) is found to contain higher aromatics, benzene, iso paraffins, in comparison to leaded gasoline. Additionally, this reformulated gasoline can also contain oxygenated additives. Accordingly, this paper is aiming at evaluation of emitted hazardous chemical compounds from car engines at fuel combustion. Role of chemical structures for reformulated gasoline in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and poisoning materials are considered

  12. Oil industry consolidation and refined product prices. Evidence from US wholesale gasoline terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendix, Michael; Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this paper is to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on refined product prices, controlling for other important factors that could also impact prices. Our empirical analysis focuses on the US petroleum refining industry using data on industry consolidation and wholesale gasoline prices collected over the interval 2000-2008. We match refinery units to wholesale city-terminal gasoline markets, and then estimate pooled cross-section time-series regressions to quantify the impact of petroleum industry consolidation on wholesale gasoline prices at city-specific terminals. The results of the empirical analysis of mergers are mixed, showing that some petroleum industry mergers resulted in statistically significant increases in refined product prices; others resulted in statistically significant declines and still others had no statistical impact at all. Our analysis of the effects of measures of market concentration - one at the level of city-specific wholesale terminals and another at the level of regional spot markets - found evidence that less concentrated markets are associated with lower price levels. (author)

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  14. Experimental investigation on SI engine using gasoline and a hybrid iso-butanol/gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • iso-Butanol–gasoline blends (iB) using up to 10 vol.% butanol were examined in SIE. • iB extensively decrease the greenhouse effect of SI engine. • iB without engine tuning led to a drop in engine performance at all speeds. • iB provide higher performance and lower CO and CO 2 emissions than n-butanol blends. • iB grant lower CO and UHC than gasoline at <2900 r/min, but overturn at >2900 r/min. - Abstract: Experimental investigation on pollutant emissions and performance of SI engine fueled with gasoline and iso-butanol–gasoline blends is carried out. Engine was operated at speed range of 2600–3400 r/min for each blend (3, 7 and 10 vol.% iso-butanol) and neat gasoline. Results declare that the CO and UHC emissions of neat gasoline are higher than those of the blended fuels for speeds less than or equal to 2900 r/min; however, for speeds higher than 2900 r/min, we have an opposite impact where the blended fuels produce higher level of CO and UHC emissions than the gasoline fuel. The CO 2 emission at using iso-butanol–gasoline blends is always lower than the neat gasoline at all speeds by up to 43%. The engine performance results demonstrate that using iso-butanol–gasoline blends in SI engine without any engine tuning lead to a drop in engine performance within all speed range. Without modifying the engine system, overall fuel combustion of iso-butanol–gasoline blends was quasi-complete. However, when engine system is optimized for blended fuels, iso-butanol has significant oxygen content and that can lead to a leaner combustion, which improves the completeness of combustion and therefore high performance and less emissions would be obtained. Finally, the performance and emissions of iso-butanol–gasoline blends are compared with those of n-butanol–gasoline blends at similar blended rates and engine working conditions. Such comparison is directed to evaluate the combustion dissimilarity of the two butanol isomers and also to

  15. Using gasoline in an advanced compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, R.F.; Ariztegui, J.; Dubois, T.; Hamje, H.D.C.; Pellegrini, L.; Rickeard, D.J.; Rose, K.D. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium); Heuser, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Schnorbus, T.; Kolbeck, A.F. [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Future vehicles will be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO{sub 2} emissions, and maintain acceptable driveability, safety, and noise. To achieve this overall performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. Fuel flexibility has already been demonstrated in previous studies on a compression ignition bench engine and a demonstration vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can also operate on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels. In this study, a compression ignition bench engine having a higher compression ratio, optimised valve timing, advanced engine management system, and flexible fuel injection could be operated on a European gasoline over full to medium part loads. The combustion was sensitive to EGR rates, however, and optimising all emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge at lower loads. (orig.)

  16. 75 FR 74044 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...; Gasoline Volatility AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance... entities: Entities potentially affected by this action are those who produce or import gasoline containing... Additives: Gasoline Volatility, Reporting Requirements for Parties Which Produce of Import Gasoline...

  17. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poyer, David A. [Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  18. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  19. Gasoline prices and the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The concerns that have been raised about gasoline prices in Newfoundland were addressed and the reasons why they differ significantly from one part of Newfoundland to another were examined. A research and investigation program was established to identify the factors contributing to the price of, and price variation in gasoline sold in the province. Companies directly involved in the gasoline retail business in the province were invited to answer an extensive questionnaire which asked detailed, confidential information concerning the company's operations. This report contains the results of the analysis of the responses, and provides a comprehensive picture of the operation of the petroleum industry. It also contains a series of recommendations for the government with respect to monitoring price fluctuations, gathering data about the industry, and constructing an independently owned and operated terminal storage facility. The report recommends against direct regulation. tabs., figs

  20. High load performance and combustion analysis of a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine running in the two-stroke cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Nora, M; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation or fuel economy standards in Europe and many countries, significant effort is being made to improve spark ignition gasoline engines because of their dominant market share in passenger cars and potential for better fuel economy. Amongst several approaches, the engine downsizing technology has been adopted by the automotive companies as one of the most effective methods to reduce fuel consumption of gasoline engines. However, aggressive engine ...

  1. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Paul J.; Nishitateno, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for 132 countries for the period 1995–2008 to investigate the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport. To address the potential for simultaneity bias, we use both a country's oil reserves and the international crude oil price as instruments for a country's average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price elasticity of gasoline demand of between − 0.2 and − 0.5. Using newly available data for a sub-sample of 43 countries, we also find that higher gasoline prices induce consumers to substitute to vehicles that are more fuel-efficient, with an estimated elasticity of + 0.2. Despite the small size of our elasticity estimates, there is considerable scope for low-price countries to achieve gasoline savings and vehicle fuel economy improvements via reducing gasoline subsidies and/or increasing gasoline taxes. - Highlights: ► We estimate the determinants of gasoline demand and new-vehicle fuel economy. ► Estimates are for a large sample of countries for the period 1995–2008. ► We instrument for gasoline prices using oil reserves and the world crude oil price. ► Gasoline demand and fuel economy are inelastic with respect to the gasoline price. ► Large energy efficiency gains are possible via higher gasoline prices

  2. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  3. Do gasoline prices exhibit asymmetry? Not usually

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found evidence of asymmetric price adjustment in U.S. retail gasoline prices in that gasoline prices rise more rapidly in response to a cost increase than fall in response to a cost decrease. By estimating a threshold cointegration model that allows for multiple regimes, I am able to test how sensitive this result is to outlying observations. In contrast to previous studies, I find little evidence of asymmetry for the vast majority of observations and that the asymmetry is being driven by a small number of outlying observations. (author)

  4. Gasoline demand in Europe. New insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pock, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a panel data set from 14 European countries over the period 1990-2004 to estimate a dynamic model specification for gasoline demand. Previous studies estimating gasoline consumption per total passenger cars ignore the recent increase in the number of diesel cars in most European countries leading to biased elasticity estimates. We apply several common dynamic panel estimators to our small sample. Results show that specifications neglecting the share of diesel cars overestimate short-run income, price and car ownership elasticities. It appears that the results of standard pooled estimators are more reliable than common IV/GMM estimators applied to our small data set. (author)

  5. Gasoline demand in Europe. New insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pock, Markus [Department of Economics and Finance, HealthEcon IHS - Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna Stumpergasse 56, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    This study utilizes a panel data set from 14 European countries over the period 1990-2004 to estimate a dynamic model specification for gasoline demand. Previous studies estimating gasoline consumption per total passenger cars ignore the recent increase in the number of diesel cars in most European countries leading to biased elasticity estimates. We apply several common dynamic panel estimators to our small sample. Results show that specifications neglecting the share of diesel cars overestimate short-run income, price and car ownership elasticities. It appears that the results of standard pooled estimators are more reliable than common IV/GMM estimators applied to our small data set. (author)

  6. The Cushing OK Crude Oil Futures Price Pass - Through to New York Harbor Reformulated RBOB Regular Gasoline Futures Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to investigate the nature of crude oil futures price pass-through since 2006. The empirical results reveal a very high but incomplete short-run pass-through rate from the crude oil futures price to the gasoline futures price of 0.849298 with a corresponding negative long-run pass-through rate of -0.2440894. These empirical findings suggest that traders in the U.S. oil and gasoline futures markets overreact to fluctuations in the crude oil futures price as evidenced by subsequent corrections made over the sample period. The result of the bounds test for a long-term relationship between these two futures prices is inconclusive. The empirical findings further suggest that U.S. futures market traders considered futures prices of gasoline three weeks earlier in determining the current trading price while taking only one week to respond completely to the shock in the crude oil futures price.  The empirical findings of this investigation may address the core elements of the price dynamics of the crude oil and gasoline futures markets and advance inquiry into assessment tools that could manage a very complex market challenge, especially for policy makers in countries with transitional economies in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.

  7. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  8. Contract portfolio optimization for a gasoline supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan

    Major oil companies sell gasoline through three channels of trade: branded (associated with long-term contracts), unbranded (associated with short-term contracts), and spot market. The branded channel provides them with a long-term secured and sustainable demand source, but requires an inflexible long-term commitment with demand and price risks. The unbranded channel provides a medium level of allocation flexibility. The spot market provides them with the greatest allocation flexibility to the changing market conditions, but the spot market's illiquidity mitigates this benefit. In order to sell the product in a profitable and sustainable way, they need an optimal contract portfolio. This dissertation addresses the contract portfolio optimization problem from different perspectives (retrospective view and forward-looking view) at different levels (strategic level, tactical level and operational level). The objective of the retrospective operational model is to develop a financial case to estimate the business value of having a dynamic optimization model and quantify the opportunity values missed in the past. This model proves the financial significance of the problem and provides top management valuable insights into the business. BP has applied the insights and principles gained from this work and implemented the model to the entire Midwest gasoline supply chain to retrospectively review optimization opportunities. The strategic model is the most parsimonious model that captures the essential economic tradeoffs among different contract types, to demonstrate the need for a contract portfolio and what drives the portfolio. We examine the properties of the optimal contract portfolio and provide a comparative statics analysis by changing the model parameters. As the strategic model encapsulates the business problem at the macroscopic level, the tactical model resolves lower level issues. It considers the time dynamics, the information flow and contracting flow. Using

  9. Recent Trends and Patterns of Gasoline Consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses recent trends and spatial patterns of gasoline consumption in Nigeria. In particular, it shows that the volume of gasoline consumption in the country fluctuates with changes in economic growth. The pattern of distribution of gasoline consumption indicates that the largest consumption centres are in the ...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section 56.50-70... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material.... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited. Valved openings in the bottom...

  11. 46 CFR 58.50-5 - Gasoline fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel tanks. 58.50-5 Section 58.50-5 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-5 Gasoline fuel tanks. (a) Construction—(1) Shape...) Installation. (1) Gasoline fuel tanks used for propulsion shall be located in water-tight compartments separate...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section 48.4081-6... Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for determining the applicability of reduced rates of tax on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to...

  14. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part are...

  15. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  17. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b) Each...

  18. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby...

  19. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  20. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

  1. Gasoline prices in Canada : report of Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastewka, W.

    2003-11-01

    The House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology has reviewed the data on retail, rack and crude gasoline prices in Canada in response to soaring prices. Prices were compared to those in the United States and elsewhere. The Committee looked at all possible explanations for the most recent increase in gasoline prices and has concluded that the recent increase in the price of gasoline was the result of industry's competitive reactions to a series of international crises and abnormally cold weather in North America. No evidence indicated anticompetitive conduct on the part of the industry, nor was there evidence of abusive behaviour on the part of vertically integrated suppliers in the form of squeezing retail margins to eliminate or discipline independent retailers. The Committee relied on data collected and published by the industry. It would have preferred an independent source, but none was available. The Committee recommended that the Government of Canada create and fund a Petroleum Monitoring Agency to collect and disseminate price data on crude oil, refined petroleum products, and retail gasoline for all relevant North American markets. The agency will report to Parliament on an annual basis for 3 years. The report will include information on the competitive aspects of the petroleum sector in Canada. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Production of clean gasoline from the condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddin Bentahar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The locally available Algerian bentonite is explored to prepare catalysts for the isomerization of the light fractions of Algerian condensate to produce high quality gasoline of high octane number. Satisfying results are obtained which render these catalysts applicable for a large scale production.

  3. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Reiter, G.A.; Challenger, G.

    2000-01-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  4. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  6. Development of synthetic gasoline production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T; Fujita, H; Yamada, K; Suzuki, T; Tsuchida, Y

    1986-01-01

    As oil deposits are limited, it is very important to develop techniques for manufacturing petroleum alternatives as substitute energy sources to brighten the outlook for the future. The Research Association for Petroleum Alternatives Development (RAPAD) in Japan is engaged in the research and development of production techniques for light hydrocarbon oils such as gasoline, kerosene, and light oil from synthesis gas (CO, H/sub 2/) obtained from the raw materials of natural gas, coal, etc. Regarding the MTG process of synthesizing gasoline via methanol from synthesis gas and the STG process of directly synthesizing gasoline from synthesis gas, Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., members of RAPAD, have sought jointly to develop catalysts and processes. As a result of this co-operation, the authors have recently succeeded in developing a new catalyst with a long life span capable of providing a high yield and high selectivity. Additionally, the authors are currently on the verge of putting into effect a unique two-step STG process of synthesizing high octane gasoline via dimethyl ether, referred to as the AMSTG process.

  7. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... Gasoline Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington D.C. Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as...

  8. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region

  9. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  10. The Cushing OK Crude Oil Futures Price Pass - Through to New York Harbor Reformulated RBOB Regular Gasoline Futures Price

    OpenAIRE

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to investigate the nature of crude oil futures price pass-through since 2006. The empirical results reveal a very high but incomplete short-run pass-through rate from the crude oil futures price to the gasoline futures price of 0.849298 with a corresponding negative long-run pass-through rate of -0.2440894. These empirical findings suggest that traders in the U.S. oil and gasoline futures markets overreact to fluctuations in the crud...

  11. Fuels: market, quality, emissions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, A.

    1997-01-01

    Here is a study about the automobile fuels market. From the market trends, we find the evolution of fuels quality; but in front of the concurrence and with the imbalance between diesel fuels and gasoline fuels, the improvement in fuels quality that requires investments does not increase as well as the air quality should necessitate. (N.C.)

  12. Survey of benzene and aromatics in Canadian Gasoline - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive database of the benzene and aromatics levels of gasoline produced in or imported into Canada during 1994, was presented. Environment Canada conducted a survey that requested refineries and importers to report quarterly on benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline. Benzene, which has been declared toxic by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, is found in gasoline and is formed during the combustion of the aromatic components of gasoline. It was shown that benzene and aromatics levels differ regionally and seasonally. There are also variations in benzene levels between batches of gasoline produced at any one refinery. This report listed the responses to the benzene/aromatics survey. It also described the analytical procedures used to measure benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline, and provided guidelines for reporting gasoline benzene and total aromatics data. 7 tabs., 21 figs

  13. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  14. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  15. The electric power market in Spain characteristics, evolution and results from January 1998 to February 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the organized spanish Electricity production market. The main characteristics of the Day-ahead and Intra day spo to markets, and the evolution and results achieved along the more than 11 years of operations are presented. The relations between the Spanish market and the rest of the European electricity markets, with especial emphasis on those markets interconnected with the Spanish system, are also described. (Author)

  16. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Volatile organic compounds emissions from gasoline and diesel powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vega, E; Sanchez, G; Reyes, E; Arriaga, J. L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chow, J; Watson, J; Egami, R [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this research, volatile organic compound emissions were characterized from gasoline and diesel vehicles. Sampling campaigns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were designed and carried out in tunnels, crossroads, and truck and bus terminals. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography getting more than 250 different compounds, being more or less 60 of them the 80% of all the emissions. The most abundant are the two carbon compounds, as a result of the combustion, and compounds related to fuels compositions, like isopentane, xylenes, toluene among others. The profiles obtained in tunnels and crossroads were very similar with the exception of the 3 and 4 carbon compounds, which were found in bigger proportion in the profiles at crossroads. This may probably be due to the blend with the ambient air. The profiles corresponding to trucks and buses have a smaller content of two carbon compounds and a bigger content of xylenes, toluene and ethylbenzene. The variations in the proportions of the compounds allow differentiating the profiles of vehicles using gasoline and diesel. [Spanish] En este trabajo se caracterizaron las emisiones de compuestos organicos volatiles provenientes de vehiculos a gasolina y a diesel. Para ello, se disenaron diversas campanas de muestreo en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico, en tuneles, cruceros y estaciones de camiones de carga y autobuses. Las muestras se analizaron con cromatografia, de gases obteniendose mas de 250 compuestos distintos, de los cuales aproximadamente 60 corresponden a mas del 80% de las emisiones. Los compuestos mas abundantes son los de dos carbonos, resultado de la combustion, y 4 carbonos que se encontraron en mayor proporcion en los perfiles de cruceros, lo cual se debe probablemente a la mezcla con el aire ambiente. Los perfiles correspondientes a camiones de carga y autobuses tienen un menor contenido de compuestos de dos carbonos y un mayor contenido de xilenos, tolueno y etilbenceno. Estas

  18. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    . Initially, gasoline compression ignition engines technology has to work with current market fuels but, in the longer term, new and simpler fuels need to be supplied to make the transport sector more sustainable.

  19. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first

  20. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase-out of leaded gasoline: a prescription for Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisho, Z.; El-Fadel, M.; Ayoub, G.; Baaj, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 800 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitutes more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas. Concentrations of lead in air and blood are strongly correlated with gasoline lead content and traffic volume. As a result of the increasing awareness about the dangers of lead to human health and the measures to manage urban air pollution, the use of leaded gasoline has been decreasing worldwide. In Lebanon, in the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline is the predominant grade. The objective of this research work is to analyze the current status of gasoline, and to assess the feasibility and prospect of such action. For this purpose, background information are presented, data about gasoline usage and specifications have been collected, field measurements have been performed and a public survey has been conducted. The comparison of the expected cost savings from phasing out leaded gasoline with the potential costs indicates that such action is economically highly justified. If effective regulatory measures are undertaken, leaded gasoline can be phased-out immediately without a significant cost

  2. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettendorf, L. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Geest, S. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuper, G. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days.

  3. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  5. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  6. Why did the consumption of Gasoline fall?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2002-01-01

    In the last three years, the Colombians stopped to consume 56.000 daily barrels of gasoline on the average. The economic crisis and the increase of the smuggling were the main reasons. They also influenced other facts as the entrance of Transmilenio in Bogota, the pick and badge and the increment of the prices. The demand of fuels fell 34,5% between 1998 and 2001

  7. Draft regulatory analysis: notice of proposed rulemaking motor gasoline allocation revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Draft Regulatory Analysis is prepared for those proposed regulations which either may have a major impact on the general economy, individual industries, or geographic regions and levels of government, or may be significant in that they affect important DOE policy concerns and are the object of public interest. The problems and proposed solutions for the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Hearings on the Motor Gasoline Allocation Program are examined. The ERA's mandate for this program is set out in the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Under this Act, the President is empowered to enforce, at his discretion, price and allocation controls on petroleum and petroleum products, including gasoline, through September 30, 1981. The Act sets the following allocation goals: protect public health; maintain public services and agricultural operations; foster competition in the petroleum industry; distribute petroleum among industry sectors and US regions equitably; and minimize economic disruption and unnecessary interference wth market mechanisms.

  8. Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals DOE FY17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Advanced automotive gasoline engines that leverage a combination of reduced heat transfer, throttling, and mechanical losses; shorter combustion durations; and higher compression and mixture specific heat ratios are needed to meet aggressive DOE VTP fuel economy and pollutant emission targets. Central challenges include poor combustion stability at low-power conditions when large amounts of charge dilution are introduced and high sensitivity of conventional inductive coil ignition systems to elevated charge motion and density for boosted high-load operation. For conventional spark ignited operation, novel low-temperature plasma (LTP) or pre-chamber based ignition systems can improve dilution tolerances while maintaining good performance characteristics at elevated charge densities. Moreover, these igniters can improve the control of advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies for gasoline at low to moderate loads. The overarching research objective of the Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals project is to investigate phenomenological aspects related to enhanced ignition. The objective is accomplished through targeted experiments performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible research engine or an in-house developed optically accessible spark calorimeter (OASC). In situ optical diagnostics and ex situ gas sampling measurements are performed to elucidate important details of ignition and combustion processes. Measurements are further used to develop and validate complementary high-fidelity ignition simulations. The primary project audience is automotive manufacturers, Tier 1 suppliers, and technology startups—close cooperation has resulted in the development and execution of project objectives that address crucial mid- to long-range research challenges.

  9. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  12. High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.

    1980-07-08

    A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

  13. Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, S.H.

    2001-01-15

    Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

  14. Labor transitions of Spanish workers: a flexicurity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Alonso Domínguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from the Continuous Sample of Working Lives (MCVL to assess whether flexicurity can contribute to solving endemic problems in the Spanish labor market. Two different periods are considered: 2005–2007, in which the unprecedented expansion of the Spanish economy came to an end, and 2008–2010, which clearly shows how the economic crisis has affected the employment rate. The results obtained bear out the preliminary hypotheses. More specifically, a labor market transitions have come to a halt, and b contractual arrangements which may act as gateways to more stable employment are being misused.

  15. Unleaded gasoline with reduction in benzene and aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.

    2003-01-01

    The trend today is towards making gasoline more environment and human friendly or in other words making gasoline a really clean fuel. This paper covers the ill effects of benzene and aromatics and the driving force behind their reduction in gasoline worldwide. It addresses health concerns specifically, and the theme is unleaded gasoline without simultaneously addressing reduction in benzene and aromatics is more harmful. The paper cites worldwide case studies, and also the World Bank (WB), Government of Pakistan (GoP), and United Nations (UN) efforts in this area in Pakistan. (author)

  16. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Neurotoxicity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    O?Callaghan, James P.; Daughtrey, Wayne C.; Clark, Charles R.; Schreiner, Ceinwen A.; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Sprague?Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from ?baseline gasoline? (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrati...

  17. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  18. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions § 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by EPA...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... § 63.11088 What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

  20. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  1. 78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... information collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR No.2228.04.... Abstract: EPA would like to continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

  2. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochen Wang; Zhenbin Chen; Jimin Ni; Saiwu Liu; Haijie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W), ethanol gasoline (E10) and pure gasoline (E0). The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the op...

  3. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  4. The Needs of the Spanish Speaking Mujer [Woman] in Woman-Manpower Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Gomez, Anna

    Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  6. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  7. The Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation: A Story of Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.

    2013-01-01

    The SNGC (Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation) is an alliance founded in 2006 for commercial cooperation between Spanish nuclear companies in order to joint efforts for the commercial promotion in the chinese market. This alliance was originally formed by ENUSA Industrial Avanzadas S. A. (ENUSA). Tecnatom S. A. and Equipos Nucleares, S. A. (ENSA). In 2008 Ringo Valvulas S. L. Joined the alliance, and July 2008 the Nuclear Group for China AIE was incorporated with each of the four companies holding a 25% share. Subsequently, as explained below, the legal name was changed to Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation AIE and the trade name of Spanish Nuclear Group/China was maintained as a brand for activities in this country. (Author)

  8. Laminar burning velocities at elevated pressures for gasoline and gasoline surrogates associated with RON

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2015-06-01

    The development and validation of a new gasoline surrogate using laminar flame speed as a target parameter is presented. Laminar burning velocities were measured using a constant-volume spherical vessel with ignition at the center of the vessel. Tested fuels included iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, various mixtures of primary reference fuels (PRFs) and toluene reference fuels (TRFs) and three gasoline fuels of 70, 85 and 95 RON (FACE J, C and F) at the initial temperature of 358K and pressures up to 0.6MPa in the equivalence ratio ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Normalized laminar burning velocity data were mapped into a tri-component mixture space at different experimental conditions to allocate different gasoline surrogates for different gasoline fuels, having RON of 70, 85 and 95. The surrogates of TRF-70-4 (17.94% iso-C8H18 +42.06% n-C7H16 +40% C7H8), TRF-85-1 (77.4% iso-C8H18 +17.6% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8), and TRF-95-1 (88.47% iso-C8H18 +6.53% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8) of RON 70, 85 and 95, respectively, are shown to successfully emulate the burning rate characteristics of the gasoline fuels associated with these RONs under the various experimental conditions investigated. An empirical correlation was derived to obtain laminar burning velocities at pressures that are experimentally unattainable as high as 3.0MPa. Laminar burning velocities were comparable to the simulated values for lean and stoichiometric flames but they were relatively higher than the simulated values for rich flames. A flame instability assessment was conducted by determining Markstein length, critical Pecklet number, and critical Karlovitz number at the onset of flame instability.

  9. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  10. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  12. 40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63... loading rack provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (c) of this section, each owner or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification...

  13. Effect Of Ginger Extract On Gasoline Associated Immunitoxicities In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ginger extracts on gasoline associated immunotoxicities in wistar rats was studied. Fifteen wistar rats were randomly assigned into three study groups. Group 1 was the control, while groups 2 and 3 received daily treatment by inhalation of gasoline vapour. The animals in group3 were also treated with 100mg ...

  14. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    exposure to inhalation gasoline, which generally saturate the ambient air of their workplaces. In this study, we challenged male and female albino rats with gasoline vapour and monitored the endocrine disruptive effects as part of a comprehensive study of the health risks faced by refinery workers in Nigeria. The ultimate.

  15. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  16. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  17. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following are... conventional gasoline and of RFG produced. Agree the volumes from the tank activity records to the batch volume...

  18. 40 CFR 80.553 - Under what conditions may the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline produced by the refinery must meet the gasoline sulfur standards under subpart H of this Part as... all succeeding compliance periods and all gasoline produced by the refinery must meet the gasoline... applicable). Upon such effective date, all gasoline produced by the refiner must meet the gasoline sulfur...

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Investigation of fatalities due to acute gasoline poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a simple, rapid, reliable, and validated method suited for forensic examination of gasoline in biological samples. The proposed methodology has been applied to the investigation of four fatal cases due to gasoline poisoning that occurred in Spain in 2003 and 2004. Case histories and pathological and toxicological findings are described in order to illustrate the danger of gasoline exposure under several circumstances. Gasoline's tissular distribution, its quantitative toxicological significance, and the possible mechanisms leading to death are also discussed. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection, and confirmation was performed using GC-mass spectrometry in total ion chromatogram mode. m,p-Xylene peak was selected to estimate gasoline in all biological samples. Gasoline analytical methodology was validated at five concentration levels from 1 to 100 mg/L. The method provided extraction recoveries between 77.6% and 98.3%. The limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, and the limit of quantitation was 1.0 mg/L. The linearity of the blood calibration curves was excellent with r2 values of > 0.997. Intraday and interday precisions had a coefficient of variation inhalation of gasoline vapor inside a small enclosed space. Case 3 is a death by recreational gasoline inhalation in a male adolescent. Heart blood concentrations were 28.4, 18.0, and 38.3 mg/L, respectively; liver concentrations were 41.4, 52.9, and 124.2 mg/kg, respectively; and lung concentrations were 5.6, 8.4, and 39.3 mg/kg, respectively. Case 4 was an accidental death due to gasoline ingestion of a woman with senile dementia. Peripheral blood concentration was 122.4 mg/L, the highest in our experience. Because pathological findings were consistent with other reports of gasoline intoxication and constituents of gasoline were found in the body, cause of death was attributed to acute gasoline

  1. Effects of maternal inhalation of gasoline evaporative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess potential health effects resulting from exposure to ethanol-gasoline blend vapors, we previously conducted neurophysiological assessment of sensory function following gestational exposure to 100% ethanol vapor (Herr et al., Toxicologist, 2012). For comparison purposes, the current study investigated the same measures after gestational exposure to 100% gasoline evaporative condensates (GVC). Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 3K, 6K, or 9K ppm GVC vapors for 6.5 h/day over GD9 – GD20. Sensory evaluations of male offspring began around PND106. Peripheral nerve function (compound action potentials, NCV), somatosensory (cortical and cerebellar evoked potentials), auditory (brainstem auditory evoked responses), and visual evoked responses were assessed. Visual function assessment included pattern elicited visual evoked potentials (VEP), VEP contrast sensitivity, and electroretinograms (ERG) recorded from dark-adapted (scotopic) and light-adapted (photopic) flashes, and UV and green flicker. Although some minor statistical differences were indicated for auditory and somatosensory responses, these changes were not consistently dose- or stimulus intensity-related. Scotopic ERGs had a statistically significant dose-related decrease in the b-wave implicit time. All other parameters of ERGs and VEPs were unaffected by treatment. All physiological responses showed changes related to stimulus intensity, and provided an estimate of detectable le

  2. NGL recovery increase through natural gasoline recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas M., M.; Bracho, J.L.; Murray, J. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela). Western Div.

    1997-12-31

    Given that the gas being processed in the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3) of Lagoven, S.A., an operating affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. has become learner through time, current production of natural gas liquids (NGL) and plant efficiency are significantly lower, compared to design and first obtained values. In this sense and aimed at increasing propane production, an optimization study on condensate stream recirculation and absorber installation was carried out to affect the process equilibrium constants thereby obtaining deeper extraction. Recirculation streams options were recirculation of natural gasoline obtained from the downstream fractionation process and recirculation of a conditioned, unfractionated, deethanized condensate stream. From the study, the natural gasoline recirculation scheme was determined to be the most efficient NGL recovery process. Accordingly, Lagoven, S.A. has undertaken a project to carry out this optimization scheme in PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3. Construction stages are currently underway with completion scheduled at the end of 1997.

  3. The elasticity of demand for gasoline in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Zeng, Jieyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline in China. Our estimates of the intermediate-run price elasticity of gasoline demand range between −0.497 and −0.196, and our estimates of the intermediate-run income elasticity of gasoline demand range between 1.01 and 1.05. We also extend previous studies to estimate the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) elasticity and obtain a range from −0.882 to −0.579. - highlights: • The price elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between −0.497 and −0.196. • The income elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between 1.01 and 1.05. • The price elasticity of demand for VMT in China is between −0.882 and −0.579

  4. Projected reformulated gasoline and AFV use in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemis, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring to summer of 1996, California will switch from conventional and oxygenated gasolines to reformulated gasoline. This gasoline will be a designer fuel, and generally not available from sources outside California, since California's fuel specifications then will be unique. Thus, it will be important for California refiners to be able to meet the California reformulated gasoline (Cal-RFG) demand. California refiners are investing over $4 billion to upgrade their facilities for Cal-RFG. This represents approximately 40% of the total cost of making Cal-RFG, and is expected to cost 5--15 cents/gallon more than conventional gasoline to produce. Starting in the year 2000, EPA will require use of a similar fuel in seven geographical areas outside of California. The discussion below focuses on the supply, demand and price projections for Cal-RFG

  5. The butane as a component for the gasoline blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubica

    2002-01-01

    In OKTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje the production of butane as a pure component is based on a liquid phase and it is used for both TNG (propane-butane gas) and motor gasoline production with a quality that satisfy the standard. By using the butane as a gasoline component the quality of the MB-98 and BMB has been improved. The butane itself ensures octane improvement of the pool, by what the content of the lead additives or the octane of the main component - reformat decreases. Also, the butane addition decreases the density of the final products by what the financial effects have been improved. It is also interesting to explain the usage of butane for gasoline production concerning the new proposed standard. The paper presents the practical results, through tables and diagrams, of the butane usage as a component for gasoline production, as well as the butane influence to the quality of the produced gasoline. (Original)

  6. Regulatory reform in the Spanish electricity industry: a missed opportunity for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Regibeau, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the reform of the Spanish electricity industry, and argues that the reform is a lost opportunity for the rapid introduction of competition. The evolution of the Spanish electrical power industry is traced, and the basic characteristics of the Spanish electricity market, the regulatory regime before liberalisation, and the liberalisation process and its shortcomings are discussed. Some policy suggestions are raised including the facilitating of competitive entry in generation, the liberalisation of supply activities, the regulation of distribution, and increasing the power, independence and transparency of the regulator. The capacity, generation, and distribution shares of Spanish electric companies as of 1996 are tabulated. (UK)

  7. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2017-07-24

    Low-octane gasolines (RON ∼ 50–70 range) are prospective fuels for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) internal combustion engines. GCI technology utilizing low-octane fuels has the potential to significantly improve well-to-wheel efficiency and reduce the transportation sector\\'s environmental footprint by offsetting diesel fuel usage in compression ignition engines. In this study, ignition delay times of two low-octane FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE I and FACE J, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2, of ∼ 70 and sensitivity, S = RON–MON, of ∼ 3. However, the molecular compositions of the two gasolines are notably different. Experimental ignition delay time results showed that the two gasolines exhibited similar reactivity over a wide range of test conditions. Furthermore, ignition delay times of a primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate (n-heptane/iso-octane blend), having the same AKI as the FACE gasolines, captured the ignition behavior of these gasolines with some minor discrepancies at low temperatures (T < 700 K). Multi-component surrogates, formulated by matching the octane ratings and compositions of the two gasolines, emulated the autoignition behavior of gasolines from high to low temperatures. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine simulations were used to show that the PRF and multi-component surrogates exhibited similar combustion phasing over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  8. The market and consumer welfare effects of mid-level ethanol blends in the US fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.; Sleper, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prospect that a consumer-driven market could eventually replace the myriad regulations and demand quotas in the US ethanol and gasoline fuel market. Given efficient households that minimize the cost of operating automobiles, recent vehicle technology that improves blended fuel substitution, and typical market conditions of the last five years, blended fuels with 20% ethanol concentration could occupy a volume of 82.2 billion gallons in a 138.3 billion gallon gasoline market. The consumer welfare gain associated with blended fuel is $15.9 billion annually for US consumers, or about $1000 over the life of a vehicle. The ethanol demand associated with a voluntary blended fuel market is 16.4 BGY, slightly more than the conventional component of the Renewable Fuels Standard. It is time to replace the corn RFS with a free market. But an active competition policy in the fuel marketing system may also be required. Intervention for the impending Biomass Ethanol Industry, such as a subsidy or an exemption a carbon tax, may also be in order. - Highlights: • Competiveness of 20% ethanol blends replacing gasoline is examined. • Households can reduce costs by $1000 over vehicle life with ethanol blend. • Blended fuel could gain a 60% share in a voluntary US gasoline market. • US ethanol supply in a voluntary market would match current mandated output.

  9. Managing Depth and Breadth in the Business Spanish Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Tony

    2015-01-01

    A business Spanish curriculum that presents the full spectrum of general and specialized areas--including management, banking, finance, marketing and advertising--might seem ambitious for a single course. A course that aims to present the full picture would seem to impose an undue burden on memory and retention of the content. By emphasizing…

  10. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  11. The Spanish Wind Energy Situation and Comparison with Portugal and The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Gonzalez, R. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    This report review the institutional and legal framework of wind energy in Spain as well as the current market situation, considering the geographical distribution of power, its past evaluation, what are the spanish foreseen wind power. A review of main actor within the wind market: suppliers promoters, administrative bodies, is also performed. The second part of the report carries out a comparison of the Spanish wind energy situation with the current conditions in Portugal and The Netherlands. These two countries present different approaches to wind energy integration. Finally, the report states some differences and weak points comparing their wind energy situation with the Spanish one. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. The Spanish distribution system for oil products: an obstacle to competition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, I. [Universidad Publica de Navarra (Spain). Dpto. Gestion de Empresas; University of Njimegen (Netherlands). International Political Economy Centre; Correlje, A. [University of Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of General Economy; Huerta, E. [Universidad Publica de Navarra (Spain). Dpto. Gestion de Empresas

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the formal liberalization of the Spanish market for automotive fuels did not introduce competition in the sector. Against the background of the transformation of the country's oil industry, it is shown how the Spanish distribution system emerged as the essential facility within the formally liberalized oil products market. 'Light-handed' regulation, in combination with the prevailing ownership structure turned the system into an impediment to newcomers' activities and to competition. This suggests that an evaluation of regulatory options for distribution systems in specific markets should take into due account crucial market characteristics like concentration and specific ownership/control relationships. (author)

  13. Migration of Spanish nurses 2009-2014. Underemployment and surplus production of Spanish nurses and mobility among Spanish registered nurses: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Nelson, Sioban

    2016-11-01

    After the financial crisis of 2008, increasing numbers of nurses from Spain are going abroad to work. To examine the health and workforce policy trends in Spain between 2009 and 2014 and to analyze their correlation with the migration of nurses. Single embedded case study. We examined data published by: Health Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996 to 2013); Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2006 to 2013); Ministry of Employment and Social Security (2009 to 2014); Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (1997 to 2014); and National Institute of Statistics (1976 to 2014). In addition to reviewing the scholarly literature on the topic in Spanish and English, we also examined Spanish mobility laws and European directives. We used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development definition of "professionally active nurses" which defines practising nurses and other nurses as those for whom their education is a prerequisite for employment as a nurse. Moreover, we used the term "nursing graduate" as defined by Spanish Ministry of Education to describe those who have obtained a recognized qualification in nursing in a given year, the term "registered nurses" is defined by Spanish law as nurses registered in the Nurses Associations and "unemployed nurses" are those without work and registered as seeking employment. A transformation of the Spanish health system has reduced the number of employed nurses per capita since 2010. Moreover, reductions in public spending, labour market reforms and widespread unemployment have affected nurses in two ways: first by increasing the number of applicants per vacancy between 2009 and 2013, and second, by an increase in casual positions. However, despite the poor job market and decreasing job security, the number of registered nurses and nursing graduates in Spain per year has continued to grow, increasing the pressure on the labour market. Spain is transforming from a stable

  14. Maize synfuel for E. German market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-31

    Bijenkorf Starch Company (ZBB) in the Netherlands plans to produce 30 million litre/year of alcohol gasoline additive for the East German market. Start up is scheduled for 1983 with costs around $33 million. Production costs are estimated at 95 Dutch cents/litre.

  15. Degradation of tetraethyllead in leaded gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L.; Jing, W.; Thomas, J.; Mulroy, P.

    1995-01-01

    For over 50 years, since its introduction in 1923 by General Motors, tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major antiknock agent used in leaded gasoline. Since the middle of 1970, use of leaded gasoline in automobiles was gradually phased out. The main objective of this study is to determine the degradation rates and metabolites of TEL in gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils. TEL in uncontaminated soils disappeared rapidly. Ionic triethyllead (TREL) was the major organolead metabolite in these soils, with ionic diethyllead (DEL) being the minor product. Nonsterile soils, but not autoclaved soils, had limited capacity to mineralize 14 C-TEL to 14 CO 2 , H 2 0, and Pb 2+ . Unlike TEL in uncontaminated soils, petroleum hydrocarbons protected TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils from being degraded. Both disappearance and mineralization rates of TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils decreased with the increase in gasoline concentration. It appears that TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils is relatively stable until the level of petroleum hydrocarbons falls below a critical value. TEL is then rapidly degraded. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms may be involved, to some extent, in the degradation of TEL

  16. The crisis of gasoline consumption in the Iran's transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri Jafari, H.; Baratimalayeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels have the greatest share in supplying the world's energy demands. Regarding the limited natural resources, fuel consumption management and energy planning in the end-user sectors are two great matters of importance. Among the fossil fuels, gasoline is the principal fuel for light-duty vehicles. In Iran, fuel consumption, especially that of gasoline, has increased sharply with the growth rate of 10.2% for the year 2006 in comparison with that in 2005, turning into a big crisis in the recent years. On the other hand, enormous subsidies for importing 40% of domestic demands, which have reached more than 10 billion US$, are too much to be supplied. In this study, we have assessed the gasoline consumption, production, import and prices; reviewed main causes of the tremendous growth rate of consumption, current conservation policies and their advantages or disadvantages (SWOT analysis); proposed short- to long-term solutions and strategies for efficient gasoline consumption management; and finally, current strategies and proposed solutions are analyzed and evaluated. A foregone conclusion strongly suggests that not only the low price of motor gasoline but also mass production of vehicles with the conventional technology, likewise, affects motor gasoline demand. A second conclusion is that gasoline crisis in Iran has no straight solution, and that fundamental strategies and policies are needed to solve the problem. (author)

  17. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  18. Causality Between Market Liquidity and Depth for Energy and Grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sari (Ramazan); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the roles of futures prices of crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, soybeans and sugar in the energy-grain nexus. It also investigates the own- and cross-market impacts for lagged grain trading volume and open interest in the energy and grain markets. According to the

  19. Benzene in Canadian gasoline : report on the effect of the benzene in gasoline regulations 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brunet, E. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The response of primary suppliers to Benzene in Gasoline Regulations was reviewed, and a summary of the effects of those regulations on the composition of gasoline in Canada in 2002 was offered. These regulations, effective July 1, 1999, were designed to provide a new approach to control fuel composition. It allowed suppliers, as a basis for compliance, the option to elect to use a yearly pool average. The benzene emission number (BEN) of gasoline was regulated, and a limit imposed on a per-litre limit for benzene at point of sale. The results indicated that reported benzene levels were significantly reduced, while aromatic levels remained practically unchanged from 1994. Since 1998, rural ambient benzene concentrations decreased by more than 32 per cent, while in urban areas, they decreased by 47 per cent over the same period. The regulated requirements for benzene concentration were met by primary suppliers in Canada in 2002 (with one exception), as were BEN levels. A number of instances of non-compliance with laboratory procedures were discovered during independent audits required for those suppliers who elected to be on on a yearly pool average. Corrective action designed to address these issues was implemented. 41 tabs., 24 figs.

  20. A broad model for demand forecasting of gasoline and fuel alcohol; Um modelo abrangente para a projecao das demandas de gasolina e alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonfiglio, Antonio [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Dept. Industrial; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1992-12-31

    Formulating a broad, mixed: econometric/end-use, demand forecasting model for gasoline and fuel alcohol is the main objective of this work. In the model, the gasoline and hydrated alcohol demands are calculated as the corresponding products if their fleet by the average car mileage, divided by the average specific mileage. Several simulations with the proposed forecasting model are carried out, within the context of alternative scenarios for the development of these competing fuels in the Brazilian market. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  5. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  6. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  7. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  8. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers, excluding gasoline produced by small... must include in its corporate pool all of the gasoline produced at any refineries owned by the parent... includes in its corporate pool the gasoline produced by any refineries owned by the parent company, and...

  9. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxics requirements of this subpart apply separately for each of the following types of gasoline produced...) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this subpart apply to gasoline produced at a refinery... not apply to gasoline produced by a refinery approved under § 80.1334, pursuant to § 80.1334(c). (2...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1230 - What are the gasoline benzene requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in this paragraph (a). (5) Gasoline produced at foreign refineries that is subject to the gasoline... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline benzene... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline...

  11. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of gasoline produced by a small refiner's refinery up to the lesser of: (i) 105% of the baseline gasoline volume as determined under § 80.250(a)(1); or (ii) The volume of gasoline produced at that... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the small refiner gasoline...

  12. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline...

  13. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose of...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline B... in Gasoline Method 1—Standard Method Test for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 1. Scope. 1.1. This method covers the determination of the total lead content of gasoline. The procedure's...

  15. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock...

  16. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to gasoline...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of...

  19. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this...

  20. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  1. Prices and taxes for gasoline and diesel in industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, R.

    2008-01-01

    This report present a comparative study on the prices and taxes of automotive fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel) in various industrialized countries, members of the OECD organization. Statistics are taken from a publication of the IEA (International Energy Agency), and concern the following fuel categories: regular gasoline, unleaded premium gasoline (SP 95 and SP 98), professional diesel fuel and domestic diesel fuel. It is shown that fuel prices are generally equivalent from one country to another, while taxes make all the difference for the retail final price. Somme global comparisons are also made between US and EU prices

  2. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  3. New evidence on the asymmetry in gasoline price: volatility versus margin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abosedra, S.; Radchenko, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent evidence on the role that gasoline margins and volatility play in the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to changes in oil prices at different stages of distribution process. In a regression model with margins, we find that margins are statistically significant in explaining asymmetry between crude oil and spot gasoline prices, spot gasoline prices and wholesale gasoline prices, and wholesale gasoline prices and retail prices. In a regression model with input volatility, we find evidence that volatility is responsible for asymmetry between wholesale gasoline prices and retail gasoline prices. When both, gasoline margins and gasoline volatility are included in the regression, we find evidence supporting margins, the search theory, volatility, the oligopolistic coordination theory and an explanation of asymmetry. (author)

  4. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  5. The Spanish experience - future developments in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraleda, P.

    1996-01-01

    Spanish experience is presented concerned it may be useful at the time of setting up a natural gas industry. The Spanish natural gas industry is of recent creation. Developing infrastructure and securing gas supplies have been major challenges. Challenges which, are also common for majority of the countries. The presentation is split into two blocks: the first one is on our experience in the establishment and consolidation of the market for natural gas in Spain. The second block deals with future developments aiming to strengthen the security of supply; and with the opportunities and threats the gas industry will face

  6. Designing a Prototype LPG Injection Electronic Control Unit for a Carburetted Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERKUŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the originally carburetted gasoline engine was converted to gas-phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG injection engine by using an after market LPG conversion kit's components except the electronic control unit (ECU. Instead of after market LPG injection ECU, the ECU which was designed considering the effects of  electromagnetic interference (EMI, was used for controlling injection. The designed ECU was tested in terms of EMI while the engine was being run and it was detected that the EMI noises could be suppressed as possible by taken measures. Designed ECU was used in performance tests at different engine conditions and the results obtained with LPG injection were compared with the results obtained with LPG carburetion. According to the performance test results, LPG injection ECU designed in this study could help to achieve low exhaust emissions and high engine performance.  

  7. Asymmetric Price Responses of Gasoline Stations. Evidence for Heterogeneity of Retailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, R.P. [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    This paper studies asymmetric price responses of individual firms, via daily retail prices of almost all gasoline stations in the Netherlands and suggested prices of the five largest oil companies over more than two years. I find that 38% of the stations respond asymmetrically to changes in the spot market price. Hence, asymmetric pricing is not a feature of the market as a whole, but of individual firms. For asymmetrically pricing stations, the asymmetry is substantial directly after a change but disappears after one or two days. I study station-specific characteristics and conclude that asymmetric pricing seems to be a phenomenon that is randomly distributed across stations. I also find that none of the five largest oil companies adjust their suggested prices asymmetrically.

  8. Asymmetric Price Responses of Gasoline Stations. Evidence for Heterogeneity of Retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, R.P.

    2009-11-01

    This paper studies asymmetric price responses of individual firms, via daily retail prices of almost all gasoline stations in the Netherlands and suggested prices of the five largest oil companies over more than two years. I find that 38% of the stations respond asymmetrically to changes in the spot market price. Hence, asymmetric pricing is not a feature of the market as a whole, but of individual firms. For asymmetrically pricing stations, the asymmetry is substantial directly after a change but disappears after one or two days. I study station-specific characteristics and conclude that asymmetric pricing seems to be a phenomenon that is randomly distributed across stations. I also find that none of the five largest oil companies adjust their suggested prices asymmetrically.

  9. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission

  10. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-118 (1996) Describes health effects and current standards and guidelines relating to carbon monoxide, as well as recommendations for workers, employers, and manufacturers regarding small gasoline powered engine ...

  12. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE PRICE ON ECONOMIC SECTORS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ifeakachukwu Nwosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the long-run and short-run relationship between gasoline price and sectoral output in Nigeria for the period from 1980 to 2010. Six sectors (agriculture; manufacturing; building and construction; wholesale and retail; transportation and communication of the economy were examined. The long run regression estimate showed that gasoline price is a significant determinant output in all sectors examined with exception to the building and construction sector while the short run error correction estimate revealed that only output of the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors of the Nigerian economy is affect by gasoline price increase in the short run. The study recommended among others the need for the government to ensure adequate power supply in order to reduce the over reliance of economics sectors on gasoline as a prime source of power.

  13. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  14. Determination of (BTEX) of the gasoline's combustion in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Nelson; Insuasti, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    The contents of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were determined and quantified in the gasoline's combustion on an internal combustion engine. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector were used for chemical determinations

  15. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used

  16. Value of time: Speeding behavior and gasoline prices

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Do drivers reduce speeds when gasoline prices are high? Previous research investigating this energy conservation hypothesis produced mixed results. We take a fresh look at the data and estimate a significant negative relationship between speeding and gasoline prices. This presents a new methodology of deriving the 'Value of Time' (VOT) based on the intensive margin (previous VOT studies compare across the extensive margin) which has important advantages to circumvent potential omitted variabl...

  17. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  18. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  19. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  20. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  1. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-05

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin.

  2. Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment.

  3. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  4. Development of fuel economy 5W-20 gasoline engine oil; Teinenpi 5W-20 gasoline engine yu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, K; Ueda, F; Kurono, K; Kawai, H; Sugiyama, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A 5W-20 gasoline engine oil which improves vehicle fuel efficiency by more than 1.5% relative to a conventional 5W-30 gasoline engine oil was newly developed. Its high fuel economy performance lasts 10,000 km. The viscosity was optimized to satisfy both fuel economy and antiwear performances. Thiadiazole was used to retain the initial fuel economy performance provided by MoDTC. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Air pollution from lead added to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingeon, B; Collombel, C

    1973-01-01

    General hygienic and toxicological problems of lead added to gasoline are discussed. Lead emitted by motor vehicles pollutes the air especially in cities and along highways, and is accumulated by soil and plants. The lead levels found in the blood of subjects living in cities and near highways was significantly higher than in rural dwellers. Close correlation between the atmospheric lead concentration and the carbon monoxide concentration as well as the traffic density was established, indicating traffic as the source of atmospheric lead. The effect of traffic on the atmospheric lead concentration extended over a distance of up to 4 km. The lead, emitted by motor vehicles in the form of submicron particles, is retained in the organism at rates of 5-10 percent following ingestion, and at rates of 30-50 percent when inhaled. Lead is partially excreted by the liver, kidney, hair, and nails. Some 95 percent of the retained lead is found in the blood, and accumulation in the bones with potential mobilization due to increases in the corticosteroid level was observed. Exposure to lead can be diagnosed by basophil granulation test, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid test, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase test.

  6. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  7. MAHRES: Spanish hydrogen geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, C.R.; Moreno, E.; Brey, R.; Guerrero, F.M.; Carazo, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common to hear about the hydrogen potential as an energetic vector or the renewable character of fuel cells; thus, the conjunction between both of them as a way to produce electricity, decreasing pollutant emission, is often discussed. However, that renewable character is only guaranteed in the case that the hydrogen used comes from some renewable energy source. Because of that, and due to the Spanish great potential related to natural usable resources like water, sun, wind or biomass, for instance, it seems attractive to make a meticulous study (supported by the statistical Multicriteria Decision Making Method) in order to quantify that potential and place it in defined geographical areas. Moreover, the growth of the electricity demand is always significant, and in this way the energy consumption in Spain is estimated to grow up to 3'4 % above the average during the next ten years. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that the contribution of the oil production will not be enough in the future. The study being carried out will try to elaborate 'The Spanish Renewable Hydrogen Map', that would contemplate, not only the current situation but also predictable scenarios and their implementation. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? 80... gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? (a) Any refiner who produces...) The sulfur content and volume of each batch of gasoline produced is that of the butane the refiner...

  9. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  10. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Science.gov (United States)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  11. An Approach to Regulation on Financial Derivatives in the Spanish Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanz Bayón

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the major reforms implemented in the regulations governing the trading of financial derivatives in Spain. This new regulation is intended to harmonize the treatment of derivative products with the legal standards of international markets in the European area as well as improving their competitiveness by enhancing the trading of new products and business lines in the Spanish markets while reducing the systemic risk associated to the clearing and settlement of derivatives contracts. Including measures regarding the conversion of OTC derivatives into assets quoted on organized markets into Spanish law has made an important contribution to a better regulation, security and transparency of the financial system.

  12. Evaluation of the use of UCG gas to produce 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD of methanol with conversion to M-gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Donald

    1981-01-01

    This study involves an examination of the technical and economic feasibility of using raw gas from an underground coal gasification facility as feedstock for methanol synthesis, and producing M-gasoline from the methanol. It differs from previous studies in considering facilities smaller than those previously studied. Addressed also is the economic and technical feasibility of using equipment from existing ammonia plants for the production of methanol. Ammonia and methanol plants are very similar in type of equipment used and plant layout. Consequently, it is possible to convert an existing ammonia plant into a methanol facility. Existing ammonia and methanol plants which contain equipment that might be utilized with UCG all use natural gas for feedstock. The processing steps in these plants can be divided into unit operations which are described. The product price analysis shows that significant economies of scale exist for the larger of the two facility sizes considered in this study. The economies of scale are evident for both the methanol/M-gasoline and methanol-only facilities. Compared to current market prices, the calculated product prices for the 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD methanol-only facilities are within the range of competitiveness with the prices of conventionally produced methanol. The product prices calculated for the 12,000 BPD methanol/4910 BPD M-gasoline facility are, under the most optimistic assumptions, 50% higher than the current market price for unleaded gasoline.

  13. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  14. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  16. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  17. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  18. Environmental management through a gasoline tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, Paola; Contreras, Hugo [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Despite rapid progress in environmental administration in Mexico, results have not been enough. Air pollution levels in major cities are still hazardous. In particular, pollution levels in Mexico City surpass permitted levels frequency. For those reasons it is important to identify policy alternatives which will enable an improvement in environmental quality, at the least possible cost to society. [Spanish] A pesar del rapido progreso del control ambiental en Mexico, los resultados no han sido suficientes. Los niveles de contaminacion del aire en las principales ciudades son aun peligrosos. Particularmente los niveles de contaminacion en la Ciudad de Mexico sobrepasan la frecuencia de los niveles permitidos. Por esas razones es importante identificar las alternativas politicas que permitiran un mejoramiento de la calidad del ambiente, al menor costo posible para la sociedad.

  19. Gasoline Prices, Transport Costs, and the U.S. Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Yilmazkuday

    2014-01-01

    The e¡èects of gasoline prices on the U.S. business cycles are investigated. In order to distinguish between gasoline supply and gasoline demand shocks, the price of gasoline is endogenously determined through a transportation sector that uses gasoline as an input of production. The model is estimated for the U.S. economy using five macroeconomic time series, including data on transport costs and gasoline prices. The results show that although standard shocks in the literature (e.g., technolo...

  20. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  3. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  4. The spanish nuclear choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Blazquez, C.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  5. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  6. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  7. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Price and income elasticities of transport fuel demand have numerous applications. They help forecast increases in fuel consumption as countries get richer, they help develop appropriate tax policies to curtail consumption, help determine how the transport fuel mix might evolve, and show the price response to a fuel disruption. Given their usefulness, it is understandable why hundreds of studies have focused on measuring such elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. In this paper, I focus my attention on price and income elasticities in the existing studies to see what can be learned from them. I summarize the elasticities from these historical studies. I use statistical analysis to investigate whether income and price elasticities seem to be constant across countries with different incomes and prices. Although income and price elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel are not found to be the same at high and low incomes and at high and low prices, patterns emerge that allow me to develop suggested price and income elasticities for gasoline and diesel demand for over one hundred countries. I adjust these elasticities for recent fuel mix policies, and suggest an agenda of future research topics. - Research highlights: ► Surveyed econometric studies of transport fuel demand. ► Developed price elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Developed income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Suggested a research agenda for future work.

  8. Associations of cycling with urban sprawl and the gasoline price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Inas

    2009-01-01

    Determine the relationships between cycling and urban sprawl and between cycling and the gasoline price. Cross-sectional multivariate regression analyses using pooled data from two individual-level national surveys to analyze the effects of variations in levels of urban sprawl and the gasoline price on cycling as a form of physical activity. Metropolitan areas representative of the U.S. population, 1990 to 2001. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: 146,730 individuals at least 18-years-old in the United States; Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey: 73,903 individuals at least 18-years-old in the United States. Self-reported information on bicycling served as the dependent variable. Urban sprawl and the gasoline price served as key independent variables. Living in a metropolitan area with a lower degree of urban sprawl increased the probability of cycling in the past month by 3.4 to 4.4 percentage points and 1.6 to 2.1 percentage points from the means for men and women, respectively. Increasing the gasoline price by one dollar increased the probability of cycling by 4.3 to 4.7 percentage points and 2.9 to 3.5 percentage points for men and women, respectively. Results indicate that the prevalence of cycling is higher in less sprawling areas and areas with higher gasoline prices. More research is needed to refine results on how individuals respond to incentives and the roles that monetary and time costs play in improving public health.

  9. Suicide attempt by intravenous injection of gasoline: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Katrin; Kuehnemund, Alexander; Schwab, Tilmann; Geibel-Zehender, Annette; Bley, Thorsten; Bode, Christoph; Busch, Hans-Joerg

    2010-11-01

    There is much experience with intoxication by aspiration of volatile hydrocarbon products, whereas intravenous injection of these distillates is rare. There are only few reports that describe a wide variety of associated pathological changes, predominantly in the pulmonary system. We report the case of an intravenous self-injection of gasoline by a young man in a suicide attempt. Immediately after injecting gasoline, the 22-year-old man developed bradycardia, hypotension, and increasing dyspnea. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed signs consistent with diffuse alveolar-toxic damage to the lung. These symptoms and radiological findings are similar to those commonly observed after inhalation of this type of substance. This may have been due to diffusion of gasoline into the alveoli, where its presence leads to this characteristic damage. In this patient, gasoline entered the intramuscular tissue, and the patient developed a soft-tissue phlegmon at the forearm. At operation, gas emanation and superficial necrosis were noted. Nevertheless, the patient's outcome was good, with full recovery within 3 weeks. The major changes in this patient after intravenous injection of gasoline were in the pulmonary system, including hypoxemia and radiological findings that could be related to an exhalation of the volatile substance. In addition, gas in the musculature of the injection area caused a soft-tissue phlegmon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard gasoline and ACPM - First year of the measure of prices liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of 1999, amid a lingering period of low prices of petroleum and relative stability of exchange market, due at the high interest rate levels and it offers of foreign currencies, the national government through the of Mines and Energy Ministry, decided to start the prices liberation for the standard gasoline and ACPM. In that moment, the economic politics of the state pointed to the maintenance of the flow of revenues of the nation, the creation of incentives for the investment of the national and international private capital, the elimination of subsidies of the public sector, the best assignment in the public expense, the construction of an environment competitive and the protection of the real wage of the Colombians. Specifically of liberation measure of the internal prices of standard gasoline and ACPM modified two components of prices structure, entrance to the producer (EP) and margin retailer; to rationalize the finances of Ecopetrol, to achieve a better assignment of the public resources with the elimination from an outline of subsidies to high strata, to look for the specialization of the state company in the exploration, to eliminate the effect that the expectations of increment of prices of hydrocarbons generated on the prices to the consumer index (PCI), to foment the free competition along the production chain and distribution and to improve the quality and covering of the service, by means of the incentive to the investments

  11. Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Angel; Meneu, Vicente; Valor, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the Spanish electricity market in 1998 and the possible listing of electricity or weather derivative contracts have encouraged the study of the relationship between electricity demand and weather in Spain. In this paper, a transfer function intervention model is developed for forecasting daily electricity load from cooling and heating degree-days. The influence of weather and seasonality is proved, and is significant even when the autoregressive effects and the dynamic specification of the temperature are taken into account. The estimated general model shows a high predictive power. The results and information presented in this paper could be of interest for current users and potential traders in the deregulated Spanish electricity market

  12. Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Angel; Meneu, Vicente [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Matematica, Facultad de Economia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n., Edificio Departamental Oriental, Universidad de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Valor, Enric [Departamento de Termodinamica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the Spanish electricity market in 1998 and the possible listing of electricity or weather derivative contracts have encouraged the study of the relationship between electricity demand and weather in Spain. In this paper, a transfer function intervention model is developed for forecasting daily electricity load from cooling and heating degree-days. The influence of weather and seasonality is proved, and is significant even when the autoregressive effects and the dynamic specification of the temperature are taken into account. The estimated general model shows a high predictive power. The results and information presented in this paper could be of interest for current users and potential traders in the deregulated Spanish electricity market.

  13. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  14. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  15. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  16. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  17. THE ROLE OF QUALITY: SPANISH WOOL IN PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.

  18. The Impact of Multilingualism on Spanish Language Acquisition among Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Budría, Santiago; Swedberg, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This article uses micro-data from the Spanish National Immigrant Survey to analyze the acquisition of Spanish language skills for immigrants in Spain. The motivation of the paper is threefold. Language skills are important for an individual's labour market performance, Spain offers an important non-English speaking country instance and the main novelty of our paper is to explore the impact of speaking multiple foreign languages on host language learning for immigrants. The results reveal a st...

  19. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  20. Banking towards development: Evidence from the Spanish banking expansion plan

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Arqué-Castells; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal

    2013-01-01

    During the period 1965-1987 Spain was an emerging market in full transition from developing to developed status. During the same period the Spanish banking system underwent an unprecedented episode of expansion growing from 5,000 to over 30,000 bank branches. We examine whether the latter process partly caused the former by focusing on the relationship between branch expansion and entrepreneurship in the wholesale and retail trade industries. To address the non-random allocation of bank branc...

  1. Exploration of Team Integration in Spanish Multifamily Residential Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Sanz Benlloch, María Amalia; Esmaeili, B.; MOLENAAR, KEITH ROBERT

    2016-01-01

    Project delivery team integration generally involves early involvement of general contractors and key specialty contractors in the design process. Team integration has been found to improve an owner’s probability of success. However, during difficult economic times, owners can forego early team involvement and move toward low bid procurement to take advantage of competitive markets. This study explores the performance of integrated teams in the Spanish multifamily building constructi...

  2. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W, ethanol gasoline (E10 and pure gasoline (E0. The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the operating conditions. The usage of E10W increased NOX emissions at a wide load range. However, at low load conditions, E10W reduced HC, CO and CO2 emissions significantly. E10W also produced slightly less HC and CO emissions, while CO2 emissions were not significantly affected at higher operating points. Compared with E10, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressures and peak heat release rates at the tested operating conditions. In addition, decreases in NOX emissions were observed for E10W from 5 Nm to 100 Nm, while HC, CO and CO2 emissions were slightly higher at low and medium load conditions. From the results, it can be concluded that E10W fuel can be regarded as a potential alternative fuel for gasoline engine applications.

  3. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline

  5. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Viollet, Yoann; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have

  6. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  7. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum; Benzin nefti Kumkol`skogo mestorozhdeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadirov, A N; Zhizhin, N I; Musaeva, Z G

    1997-11-04

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author) 2 tabs., 1 fig. Suppl. Neft` i gaz Kazakhstana

  8. Cloud Forming Potential of Aerosol from Light-duty Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate the hygroscopicity and droplet kinetics of fresh and aged emissions from new generation gasoline direct injector engines retrofitted with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Furthermore, ageing and subsequent secondary aer...

  9. Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Changchun; Tang, Ying; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Xiaoli; Xu, Lianghong

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives.

  10. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Naser, Nimal; Roberts, William L.; Dibble, Robert W.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited

  11. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  12. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  14. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R. [KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences, Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  15. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  16. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  17. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  18. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  19. 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Sens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines in Berlin in November 2016. Experts from industry and universities discuss in their papers the challenges to ignition systems in providing reliable, precise ignition in the light of a wide spread in mixture quality, high exhaust gas recirculation rates and high cylinder pressures. Classic spark plug ignition as well as alternative ignition systems are assessed, the ignition system being one of the key technologies to further optimizing the gasoline engine.

  20. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  1. The importance of Rioja Denomination of Origin in the context of Spanish wine market La importancia de la Denominación de Origen Rioja en el contexto del mercado vitivinícola español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pablo de Valenciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current state of the wine industry, which, it based on information from the last 20 years, has experienced a very negative balance since it has been a significant reduction in the area of vineyards with 2009 data. However, rigorous analysis of the Rioja has allowed us to show the prosperous evolution of the production and marketing of the D.O.Ca Rioja, which has facilitated its consolidation as a first in the ranking. Also, the balance in terms of exports and sales in the domestic market has been very favorable in this period, since the D.O.Ca Rioja takes first place in both markets, so much so that the D.O. has a high recognition major importing countries of the World which are Germany and the UK. For this, the main factor of differentiation of these wineries is the time remaining wine in oak barrels, giving it a unique taste that the consumer knows how to reward.En este artículo se analiza la situación actual del sector vitivinícola, el cual, basándonos en datos de los últimos 20 años, ha experimentado un balance bastante negativo ya que se ha producido una reducción significativa de la superficie de viñedo con datos de 2009. Sin embargo, el análisis riguroso de la D.O.CA Rioja nos ha permitido recoger la evolución favorable de la producción y comercialización de la D.O.CA Rioja, lo cual ha facilitado su consolidación como primera del ranking. Asimismo, el balance en cuanto a las exportaciones y las ventas en el mercado interior ha sido muy favorable en dicho periodo, ya que, la D.O.CA Rioja ocupa un lugar privilegiado en ambos mercados, tanto es así que esta DO cuenta con un alto reconocimiento en los principales países importadores del Mundo, que son Alemania y Reino Unido. Para todo ello, el principal factor de diferenciación de estas bodegas es el tiempo que permanecen los vinos en barrica de roble, lo que le da un sabor inigualable que el consumidor sabe premia.

  2. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  3. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Risso, Jorge; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Busse, Meghan R.; Knittel, Christopher Roland

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  4. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Meghan R.; Kittel, Christopher R.; Zettelmeyer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  5. Effect of honey supplementation on toxicity of gasoline vapor exposure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M B Abubakar; W Z Abdullah; S A Sulaiman; F E Uboh; B S Ang

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Different health risks including haematotoxicity and weight loss have been reported for gasoline. Supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E has been shown to ameliorate the toxicity effects of gasoline vapours exposure. Honey contains vitamins, and polyphenols that possess good antioxidant properties. The potential role of honey in preventing gasoline-induced haematotoxicity and weight loss was assessed in male rats. The rats were exposed to gasoline (11.13±1.1cm...

  6. The 'haves' and 'have nots'. Gasoline price subsidies great and small

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    It is dramatic to compare national retail gasoline prices around the world in oil-rich, developing countries and oil-pore, developed countries. But a new Energy Detente study shows that countries less than 50% dependent upon oil imports, regardless of wealth, have comparatively low prices - and countries more than half dependent on oil imports have high prices. Internal market subsidies, it seems, are only a matter of degree. The 20 oil-producing countries consumed 130 gallon per capita per year, the non-oil countries 79 gallons. This double issue of ED contains the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the U.S. Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam; and Singapore as of September 6, and September 20, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, September 1991 Edition. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  8. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was

  9. 75 FR 52591 - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Requirements on Gasoline Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... gasoline transport vehicle (6 NYCRR 230.6(b)); and (3) to retain pressure-vacuum test and repair results... Gasoline Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... recent pressure- vacuum test results with the gasoline transport vehicle and retaining pressure-vacuum...

  10. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combined with non-S-RGAS for the sole purpose of producing midgrade gasoline. (6) Where S-RGAS is being... of the gasoline. (f) Downstream standards applicable to S-RGAS when produced or imported. (1) The downstream standard applicable to any gasoline classified as S-RGAS when produced or imported shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1220 - What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annual averaging period thereafter, gasoline produced at each refinery of a refiner or imported by an... annual averaging period thereafter, gasoline produced at each refinery of a refiner or imported by an... the gasoline benzene program? 80.1220 Section 80.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur... gasoline. The requirements of this section apply to any refiner approved for small refiner standards who...

  13. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  14. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast... specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the underground storage tank at the GDF to...

  15. 78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor... measures for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State. The September 18, 2009, SIP... .0953), entitled Vapor Return Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks...

  16. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.335 What gasoline sample...

  17. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline... prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited activities in 1991. During the 1991 regulatory control... shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor...

  18. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable for...

  19. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable for...

  2. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2006-0976; FRL-9430-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline Volatility; Correction AGENCY... a gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) limit of 7.8 pounds per square inch (psi) for gasoline sold in...

  3. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  4. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall: (a...

  5. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may manufacture...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall: (a...

  7. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and importers...

  8. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  9. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  10. 78 FR 72033 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline Vapor Control... Protection (FDEP), related to the State's gasoline vapor recovery program. This correcting amendment corrects... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This action corrects inadvertent errors in a rulemaking related to Florida's gasoline...

  11. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than in...

  13. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program..., 2009, for the purpose of removing Stage II vapor control requirements for new and upgraded gasoline... Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule 15A-02D...

  14. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  15. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  16. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80.73 Section 80.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. In appropriate...

  17. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  18. Higher prices at Canadian gas pumps: international crude oil prices or local market concentration? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anindya Sen

    2003-01-01

    There is little consensus on whether higher retail gasoline prices in Canada are the result of international crude oil price fluctuations or local market power exercised by large vertically-integrated firms. I find that although both increasing local market concentration and higher average monthly wholesale prices are positively and significantly associated with higher retail prices, wholesale prices are more important than local market concentration. Similarly, crude oil prices are more important than the number of local wholesalers in determining wholesale prices. These results suggest that movements in gasoline prices are largely the result of input price fluctuations rather than local market structure. (author)

  19. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  20. Improving gasoline quality produced from MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization process became one of the best gasoline production sources, as it gives a high octane product while saving environment from pollution impacts. This paper presents a practical study that aims to improve the gasoline quality and economic income of an existing light naphtha isomerization unit used for octane improvement. The study included selecting the optimum combination of isomerization unit equipment that gives better product specifications for a specified feed. Eight scenarios were studied and simulated to predict the product specs. The original studied unit is MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit at Alexandria-Egypt that recycles the unconverted hexane (C6. The other studied scenarios were adding fractionators for separating feed iso-pentanes, and recycling unconverted pentanes, hexanes and/or combinations of these fractionators. The results show a change in octane number of gasoline product for a specific feed. Once through process with no extra fractionators has lower octane number of 81 while that with de-iso-pentanizer–de-pentanizer and de-hexanizer produces gasoline with 92.3 octane number. Detailed economic study was done to calculate the return on investment “ROI” for each process option based on equipment, utilities, feed and product prices. Once through simple isomerization unit had the lowest ROI of 14.3% per year while the combination of De-iso-pentanizer with the De-hexanizer had the best ROI of 26.6% per year.

  1. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  2. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  4. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  5. Sales of diesel fuel up, gasoline sales down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend

  6. The distributional incidence of the gasoline tax in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Jiménez, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distributional incidence of the excise tax on gasoline in Chile using Household Budget Surveys. The incidence is calculated with respect to both income and expenditure distributions in order to consider the potential differences between transitory and permanent income. The Suits Index is estimated as a measure of the degree of progressivity of the tax, and confidence intervals are calculated using a bootstrap methodology to statistically compare changes in the incidence given changes in the tax. The results show that the tax, contrary to the evidence for several developed countries, is slightly or moderately progressive, with a lower degree of progressivity observed in the calculations based on income than those based on expenditure. The simulation of the 25% reduction in the tax rate implemented in 2008 shows that, in terms of incidence, its effect is to reduce the progressivity of the gasoline tax, which is the opposite of what was sought by the government with this policy. -- Highlights: •Gasoline tax is an optimal tax and is a significant instrument of climate policy. •Despite its benefits, it faces political economy challenges in its implementation. •In the public discussion in developing countries the tax is considered regressive. •The estimation of the distributional incidence shows that it is slightly progressive. •Increases in gasoline taxes can reduce both negative externalities and inequality

  7. Inventory of greenhouse gases emissions from gasoline and diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion are of global concern due to their negative effects on public health and environment. This paper is an inventory of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) released into the environment through consumption of fuels (gasoline and diesel) in Nigeria from 1980 to 2014. The fuel consumption data ...

  8. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  9. EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF COUNTY GASOLINE USE METHODOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews two EPA studies that investigated improvements in the allocation of state-level gasoline sales to the county level in order to improve annual county-level emissions estimates from this source category. The approaches taken in these studies are compared with the...

  10. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Sara Safari [Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad, E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran 14665-1998 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza [Catalysis Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Leila [Faculty of Chemistry, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  11. Comparative exergy analyses of gasoline and hydrogen fuelled ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.; Dincer, I.; Yang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative exergy models for naturally aspirated gasoline and hydrogen fuelled spark ignition internal combustion engines were developed according to the second laws of thermodynamics. A thorough graphical analysis of heat transfer, work, thermo mechanical, and intake charge exergy functions was made. An irreversibility function was developed as a function of entropy generation and graphed. A second law analysis yielded a proportional exergy distribution as a fraction of the intake charge exergy. It was found that the hydrogen fuelled engine had a greater proportion of the intake charge exergy converted into work exergy, indicating a second law efficiency of 50.13% as opposed to 44.34% for a gasoline fuelled engine. The greater exergy due to heat transfer or thermal availability associated with the hydrogen fuelled engine is postulated to be a part of the reason for decreased work output of a hydrogen engine. Finally, a second law analysis of both hydrogen and gasoline combustion reactions indicate a greater combustion irreversibility associated with gasoline combustion. A percentage breakdown of the combustion irreversibilities were also constructed according to information found in literature searches. (author)

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurobehavioral evaluations of rats gestationally exposed to gasoline vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US fuel supply is moving towards blends with higher ethanol levels, there are questions regarding effects of these fuel vapors in the developing fetus. As part of a project evaluating gasoline-ethanol blends of different proportions. we included an evaluation of inhaled pu...

  14. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  15. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... of such protection. (d) Exhaust pipe. (1) Exhaust pipe installations must conform to the requirements...

  16. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Lovisotto, Leonardo; Issayev, Gani; Badra, Jihad; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    , were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2

  17. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  19. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found

  20. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)