WorldWideScience

Sample records for spalling

  1. Spall study in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    A SOC one-dimensional calculation of an underground nuclear test is presented to exemplify the shock propagation and spall phenomenology commonly predicted. Then to examine the effects of spherical divergence on spall, a series of SOC calculations, at different radii of curvature, are conducted and prediction of depth and velocity for the first spall zone are compared with predictions from simple analytic theory. The excellent agreement in this comparison verifies that the SOC code accurately represents the physics of spalling. This study also indicates that the total spall depth is independent of divergence because of the compensating effect that subsequent convergence has on the reflected wave. The latter result implies that the total depth of spall calculated for each underground nuclear tests must be critically examined and evaluated. Finally, SOC calculations for nuclear detonations in tuff and granite are performed to demonstrate the significant effect that variations in material response under shock loading have on shock propagation and spall

  2. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars; Faelth, Billy; Jacobsson, Lars; Harrstroem, Johan; Berglund, Johan

    2010-04-01

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  3. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  4. Spall response of single-crystal copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, W. D.; Fensin, S. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Jones, D. R.; La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Thomas, S. A.; Veeser, L. R.

    2018-02-01

    We performed a series of systematic spall experiments on single-crystal copper in an effort to determine and isolate the effects of crystal orientation, peak stress, and unloading strain rate on the tensile spall strength. Strain rates ranging from 0.62 to 2.2 × 106 s-1 and peak shock stresses in the 5-14 GPa range, with one additional experiment near 50 GPa, were explored as part of this work. Gun-driven impactors, called flyer plates, generated flat top shocks followed by spall. This work highlights the effect of crystal anisotropy on the spall strength by showing that the spall strength decreases in the following order: [100], [110], and [111]. Over the range of stresses and strain rates explored, the spall strength of [100] copper depends strongly on both the strain rate and shock stress. Except at the very highest shock stress, the results for the [100] orientation show linear relationships between the spall strength and both the applied compressive stress and the strain rate. In addition, hydrodynamic computer code simulations of the spall experiments were performed to calculate the relationship between the strain rate near the spall plane in the target and the rate of free surface velocity release during the pullback. As expected, strain rates at the spall plane are much higher than the strain rates estimated from the free surface velocity release rate. We have begun soft recovery experiments and molecular dynamics calculations to understand the unusual recompression observed in the spall signature for [100] crystals.

  5. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  6. Layer transfer by controlled spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, Stephen W; Fogel, Keith; Lauro, Paul; Shahrjerdi, Davood; Ott, John A; Sadana, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, we present what may be the simplest method yet devised for removing surface layers from brittle substrates. The process is called controlled spalling technology (CST) and works by depositing a tensile stressor layer on the surface of a substrate, introducing a crack near the edge of the substrate, and mechanically guiding the crack as a single fracture front across the surface. The entire process is performed at room-temperature using only common laboratory equipment. We present here, for the first time, the specific process conditions required for controlled spalling of Ge 〈0 0 1〉 substrates using Ni as the stressor layer. We also illustrate the versatility of CST by removing completed CMOS circuits from a Si wafer and demonstrate functionality of the flexible circuits. Raman spectroscopy of spalled circuits with the Ni stressor intact indicates a residual compressive Si strain of 0.0029, in good agreement with the calculated value of 0.0022. Therefore, CST also permits new opportunities for strain engineering of nanoscale devices. (fast track communication)

  7. Comparing Numerical Spall Simulations with a Nonlinear Spall Formation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, L.; Melosh, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Spallation accelerates lightly shocked ejecta fragments to speeds that can exceed the escape velocity of the parent body. We present high-resolution simulations of nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface. Initial results show the acceleration of near-surface material to velocities up to 1.8 times greater than the peak particle velocity in the detached shock, while experiencing little to no shock pressure. These simulations suggest a possible nonlinear spallation mechanism to produce the high-velocity, low show pressure meteorites from other planets. Here we pre-sent the numerical simulations that test the production of spall through nonlinear shock interactions in the near sur-face, and compare the results with a model proposed by Kamegai (1986 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report). We simulate near-surface shock interactions using the SALES_2 hydrocode and the Murnaghan equation of state. We model the shock interactions in two geometries: rectangular and spherical. In the rectangular case, we model a planar shock approaching the surface at a constant angle phi. In the spherical case, the shock originates at a point below the surface of the domain and radiates spherically from that point. The angle of the shock front with the surface is dependent on the radial distance of the surface point from the shock origin. We model the target as a solid with a nonlinear Murnaghan equation of state. This idealized equation of state supports nonlinear shocks but is tem-perature independent. We track the maximum pressure and maximum velocity attained in every cell in our simula-tions and compare them to the Hugoniot equations that describe the material conditions in front of and behind the shock. Our simulations demonstrate that nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface produce lightly shocked high-velocity material for both planar and cylindrical shocks. The spall is the result of the free surface boundary condi-tion, which forces a pressure gradient

  8. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  9. The spalling mechanism of fire exposed concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lottman, B.B.G.

    2017-01-01

    --- ENGLISH VERSION --- The spalling damage observed to concrete structures after severe fire exposure has been the topic of scientific research for the past decades. This phenomenon is commonly characterised by the sudden and in some cases violent breaking off of concrete pieces from the

  10. Spalling of concrete as studied by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, L.; Heijden, van der G.H.A.; Huinink, H.P.; Marchand, J.; Bissonnette, B.; Gagné, R.; Jolin, M.

    2006-01-01

    During the past twenty years concrete has developed in both strength and durability. A downside to these improvements is the increased risk of explosive spalling in case of fire. Different factors such as heating rate, applied loading, permeability, and moisture saturation play an important role in

  11. Low temperature spalling of silicon: A crack propagation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoni, Mariana; Uberg Naerland, Tine; Stoddard, Nathan; Guimera Coll, Pablo

    2017-06-08

    Spalling is a promising kerfless method for cutting thin silicon wafers while doubling the yield of a silicon ingot. The main obstacle in this technology is the high total thickness variation of the spalled wafers, often as high as 100% of the wafer thickness. It has been suggested before that a strong correlation exists between low crack velocities and a smooth surface, but this correlation has never been shown during a spalling process in silicon. The reason lies in the challenge associated to measuring such velocities. In this contribution, we present a new approach to assess, in real time, the crack velocity as it propagates during a low temperature spalling process. Understanding the relationship between crack velocity and surface roughness during spalling can pave the way to attain full control on the surface quality of the spalled wafer.

  12. Limits of Spalling of Fire-Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    on the nature of spalling, add the latest findings from the research of the author, and derives limits within which spalling should not take place. Some guidelines are formulated based on experience from research and practise for reducing the spalling risk for constructions beyond the safe design limits....... The limits provided are those, which can be stated at present, but further research is in progress, identifying more precisely the range of materials susceptible to spalling and contributing to the full understanding of the phenomenon....

  13. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  14. Shockless spalling damage of alumina ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.

    2012-05-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to build multi-layer armour. However reliable test data is needed to identify correctly models and to be able to perform accurate numerical simulation of the dynamic response of armour systems. In this work, isentropic loading waves have been applied to alumina samples to induce spalling damage. The technique employed allows assessing carefully the strain-rate at failure and the dynamic strength. Moreover, specimens have been recovered and analysed using SEM. In a damaged but unbroken specimen, interactions between cracks has been highlighted illustrating the fragmentation process.

  15. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  16. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  17. Spall behaviors of high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhi-qiang, Peng; Xing-zhi, Chen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhao-liang, Guo; Tie-gang, Tang; Hai-bo, Hu [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qing-ming, Zhang [National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-10

    Suites of sweeping detonation experiments were conducted to assess the spall behavior of high purity copper samples with different heat treatment histories. Incipient spall samples were obtained at different sweeping detonation condition. Metallographic and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analyses were performed on the soft-recovered samples. The effects of grain boundaries, grain size, crystal orientation and loading direction on the spall behaviors were discussed. Spall plane branching was found in the main spall plane of the damage samples. For similar microstructure, the area of voids increase with the increase of shock stress, and the coalescence of voids also become more obvious. Results from EBSD analysis show that the grain sizes were decreased and the grains were elongated along the direction of the plate width. Triple junctions composed of two or more general high angle boundaries are the preferred locations for intergranular damage. Voids prefer to nucleate in the grain boundaries composed of grain with high Taylor Factor (TF) than other grains. The damage areas in the grains with high TF are more severe. Boundaries close to perpendicular to the loading direction are more susceptible to void nucleation than the boundaries close to parallel to the loading direction, but the difference of voids nucleated in these two boundaries is less significant than the results obtained by plate impact experiment. It would be caused by the obliquity between the shock loading direction and the plate normal.

  18. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, 'SAC-5, CSPC', (''3/4'') large, and (''3/8'') small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study

  19. Spall behaviour of single crystal aluminium at three principal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G. D.; Chapman, D. J.; Whiteman, G.; Stirk, S. M.; Millett, J. C. F.; Johnson, S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of plate impact experiments have been conducted to study the spall strength of the three principal crystallographic orientations of single crystal aluminium ([100], [110] and, [111]) and ultra-pure polycrystalline aluminium. The samples have been shock loaded at two impact stresses (4 GPa and 10 GPa). Significant differences have been observed in the elastic behaviour, the pullback velocities, and the general shape of the wave profiles, which can be accounted for by considerations of the microscale homogeneity, the dislocation density, and the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal materials. The data have shown that there is a consistent order of spall strength measured for the four sample materials. The [111] orientation has the largest spall strength and elastic limit, followed closely by [110], [100], and then the polycrystalline material. This order is consistent with both quasi-static data and geometrical consideration of Schmid factors.

  20. Edge Effects at Spall Fracture for Titanium Alloys of Varying Oxygen Content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razorenov, Sergey

    1998-01-01

    ...% have been tested in about 50 shock-wave experiments. In the experiments performed the Hugoniot elastic limit, the spall strength, and the critical diameter for the spall element separation were measured...

  1. Ultrasonic detection of spall damage nucleation under low-velocity repeated impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Repeated plate impact testing with impact stress well below the threshold spall-stress (2.6 GPa on medium carbon steel was carried out to the identical target plate by impacting the flyer plate. Occurrence of spall damage under low-velocity repeated impact was evaluated nondestructively with a low frequency scanning acoustic microscope. We observed the spall damage distribution by the B- and C-scan images. In order to initiate the spall damage (voids in a ductile material or cracks in a brittle one the particular value of threshold spall-stress should be exceeded what already belongs to a commonly accepted knowledge. Generally, the spall damage development is dependent on the amplitude and the duration of the stress pulse. If the stress is high and duration is long enough to create tensile failure of material, the voids or cracks nucleate along the spall plane, and consequently, they form macrocracks. Therefore, the spall damage does not create when the first impact stress is less than the threshold spall-stress. However, after the fifth low-velocity repeated impact test, the generation of the spall damage was detected, even if the impact stress (1.1–1.7 GPa was lower than the threshold spall-stress (2.6 GPa.

  2. Evaluation of TBM tunnels with respect to stability against spalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Heyam; Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohd; Azit, Romziah

    2017-10-01

    As the depth of tunnels and underground construction increases, instability occurs in the form of rock bursting or spalling because of the induced stresses. Spalling may appear as a strong compressive stress causing crack growth behind the excavated surface and buckling of the thin rock slabs. In this paper, we describe how to reduce the rock spalling failure to increase the underground safety and the tunnel stability. Thus, a parametric study is implemented using 2-D Elasto-plastic finite elements stress analysis software to investigate the parameters that can minimize the extent and depth of the failure zone. The critical section of Pahang Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel under high overburden is analyzed. The effect of the shotcrete lining thickness, tunnel size and the removal of fallouts or scaled v-notch on the failure zone depth is investigated. The results demonstrate that the shotcrete lining thickness has less influence on the failure depth, while a small tunnel diameter minimizes the failure depth. In addition, the stability of the tunnel improves by removing the loose rock mass.

  3. Prediction of the spatial occurrence of fire induced spalling in concrete slabs using random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Coile R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the loss of concrete cover can significantly influence the reliability of concrete elements during fire, spalling should be taken into account when performing reliability calculations. However, the occurrence and spatial variation of spalling are highly uncertain. A first step towards a probabilistic analysis of spalling is made by combining existing deterministic models with a stochastic representation of the concrete tensile strength and by using random fields to model the tensile strength spatial variation.

  4. Shock-induced spall in copper: the effects of anisotropy, temperature, loading pulse and defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; An, Qi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC

    2009-07-28

    Shock-induced spall in Cu is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. We examine spallation in initially perfect crystals and defective solids with grain boundaries (columnar bicrystals), stacking faults or vacancies, as well as the effect of temperature and loading pulses. Spall in single crystal Cu is anisotropic, and defects and high temperature may reduce the spall strength. Taylor-wave (triangular shock-release wave) loading is explored in comparison with square wave shock loading.

  5. Preventive effect on spalling of UFC using jute fiber at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relationship between spalling behaviour and spalling ratio of UFC with three kinds of short fibers (jute, polypropylene, water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol at high temperature. The heating temperatures were 400 °C and 600 °C. Although the specimen with jute fiber dosage of 0.19% by volume was occurred explosive spalling, the damage of specimen was slightly small. It appears that the addition of jute fiber to UFC is effective for preventing spalling.

  6. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Li, B.; Huang, J.Y.; Ma, H.H.; Zhu, M.H.; Zhu, J.; Luo, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  7. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Li, B.; Huang, J.Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, H.H. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhu, M.H. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhu, J., E-mail: zhujun01@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Luo, S.N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2016-04-13

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  8. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  9. The shock and spall response of AA 7010-T7651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Painter, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are used extensively in armour. Their use as armour materials is primarily due to their relatively low densities and their high strength characteristics. The aerospace-grade 7000-series alloy Al7010-T7651 is one possible contender for armour. In this study a series of plate-impact experiments were undertaken to investigate the behaviour of this alloy under shock. Manganin stress gauges and a heterodyne velocimeter system were used to interrogate both strength and dynamic tensile failure (spall) respectively; with microscopic analysis of recovered samples providing insight into the development of failure in the material.

  10. Explosive Spalling of Fire Exposed Resource Saving Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a new test facility, which has been developed within the project “Resource Saving Concrete Structures”, also called “Green Concrete” and some test results from the project. A full report is available from the home page of the Department of Civil Engineering Kristiansen......, Hertz, Sørensen [1]. The main idea was to establish a test method by means of which it should be possible to assess whether a particular concrete has an increased risk of spalling compared to traditional concretes as defined in Hertz [2] and only using ordinary standard cylinders as test specimens....... The method has been applied on the green concretes of the project and later also as a first indicator in other projects. The method appears to be a valuable tool for the first investigation of new concretes...

  11. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  12. Extension of the principles of the kinetic conception of strength to the process of spalling fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molodets, A.M.; Dremin, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The universality and graphical physical meaning of the characteristic relationship for thermal activation processes and time stimulate attempts for its utilization to describe the time dependence of the spall strength. The involvement of this relationship to describe spall requires a definite model of the spall process first. It is also necessary to to consider the question of the relationship between the applied and local stresses and the selection of a definite connection between these variables. The phenomenological model of spall in which the analogue of the cumulative rudimentary discontinuity is isolated has already been proposed. In this paper, a model is proposed within the framework of this previously described model, taking into account the thermal activation processes and the mean level of the stresses. Comparisons of this model with experimental data on the spall in copper show good agreement. In the spall domain the overstress factor is approximately one third its limit value. This means that higher values of the applied stresses than those found under quasistatic conditions correspond to the identical local stress level. It is possible that the thermal activation stage proceeds during spall in metals exactly as under quasistatic conditions, namely; rudimentary discontinuities are submicrocracks of dimensions less than 10 -7 microns

  13. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito; Koike, Masashi; Matsubara, Makoto; Sugawara, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  14. Microstructure Effects on Spall Strength of Titanium-based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rene; Hofmann, Douglas; Thadhani, Naresh; Georgia Tech Team; GT-JPL Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    The spall strength of Ti-based metallic glass composites is investigated as a function of varying volume fractions (0-80%) of in-situ formed crystalline dendrites. With increasing dendrite content, the topology changes such that neither the harder glass nor the softer dendrites dominate the microstructure. Plate-impact experiments were performed using the 80-mm single-stage gas gun over impact stresses up to 18 GPa. VISAR interferometry was used to obtain rear free-surface velocity profiles revealing the velocity pullback spall failure signals. The spall strengths were higher than for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and remained high up to impact stress. The influence of microstructure on the spall strength is indicated by the constants of the power law fit with the decompression strain rate. Differences in fracture behavior reveal void nucleation as a dominant mechanism affecting the spall strength. The microstructure with neither 100% glass nor with very high crystalline content, provides the most tortuous path for fracture and therefore highest spall strength. The results allow projection of spall strength predictions for design of in-situ formed metallic glass composites. ARO Grant # W911NF-09 ``1-0403 NASA JPL Contract # 1492033 ``Prime # NNN12AA01C; NSF GRFP Grant #DGE-1148903; and NDSE & G.

  15. Assessment of the potential for rock spalling in the technical rooms of the ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siren, T.; Martinelli, D.; Uotinen, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is important to be able to predict the rock spalling in the ONKALO while the excavation advances deeper. When stresses at the excavation boundary reach the rock mass spalling strength, a brittle failure occurs that is often called 'spalling'. The spalling phenomenon occurs as a strong compressive stress induces crack growth behind the excavated surface. Spalling is, expressly, an event that can create problems in the ONKALO, not so much for the overall stability of all of the excavations, but rather in particular areas that can cause unnecessary and unintended over-excavations and hazards. For rock engineering and layout design purposes, the knowledge of the predicted spalling in the excavation surface is crucial. Optimization of the design is mainly done by directing the tunnels parallel to the major principal stress direction. However, due to the complex forms and crossing tunnels, especially at the shaft access drift area, sophisticated methods are required in order to minimize spalling and to support the unavoidable spalling that occurs. The complex tunnels require three-dimensional analysis. The software used for the main calculation has been MIDAS/GTS, a geotechnical 3-D FEM that is able to calculate complex geometries rather easily. Most of the models have also been verified with Rocscience Examine3D, which returns the results with a high precision at boundary. The area to model is large, and due to the computational limits, it is divided into six blocks. This analysis, carried out step by step for each block, permitted to draw a map of the spalling depth prevision in the whole tunnel contract 5 (TU5) area. The dominating rock types in the area are migmatitic gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The strength of these rocks has been broadly tested with point load and uniaxial compressive strength tests. The test results show a deviation of the UCS as well as other parameters. Due to this large deviation, a Monte Carlo has been used as an auxiliary analysis

  16. New data on the kinetics and governing factors of the spall fracture of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Savinykh, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents two examples of significant departures from usual trends of varying the resistance to spall fracture (spall strength) with changing loading history, load duration and peak shock stress. In experiments with vanadium single crystals we observed an important decrease of spall strength when increasing the shock stress. This was interpreted in terms of disruption of the matter homogeneity as a result of its twinning at shock compression. In experiments with 12Kh18N10T austenitic stainless steel we observed a sharp increase of recorded spall strength value when short load pulses of a triangular profile were replaced by shock pulses of long duration having a trapezoidal shape. This anomaly is associated with formation of the deformation-induced martensitic phase.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the micro-spalling of metallic targets subjected to laser shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, D.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-spalling is a failure phenomenon consisting in dynamic fragmentation of a material after partial or full melting under intense shock wave loading. High power pulsed lasers are used as shock wave generators in laboratory for scientific and industrial purposes, such as research on inertial confinement fusion. In this context, the production of high velocity fragments can damage the facilities where shock experiments are conducted. This thesis, realized in collaboration with different teams from CEA, aims at understanding and modeling the different processes involved in micro-spalling phenomenon. Experiments to study micro-spalling of laser shock-loaded tin and aluminum targets have been performed. Various and complementary diagnostics (photonic Doppler velocimetry, soft recovery of debris and microtomography) have been used to characterize the ballistic properties (size distributions and velocities) of droplets constituting the micro-spalling cloud. In parallel, phase transition and fragmentation models have been adapted to simulate micro-spalling. These models have been implemented in a code to predict the sizes and velocities of debris. The combination of experimental and numerical results allows characterizing the successive stages of micro-spalling from laser-matter interaction to the ejection of droplets. (author)

  18. A physics-based algorithm for the estimation of bearing spall width using vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, G.; Klein, R.; Bortman, J.

    2018-05-01

    Evaluation of the damage severity in a mechanical system is required for the assessment of its remaining useful life. In rotating machines, bearings are crucial components. Hence, the estimation of the size of spalls in bearings is important for prognostics of the remaining useful life. Recently, this topic has been extensively studied and many of the methods used for the estimation of spall size are based on the analysis of vibrations. A new tool is proposed in the current study for the estimation of the spall width on the outer ring raceway of a rolling element bearing. The understanding and analysis of the dynamics of the rolling element-spall interaction enabled the development of a generic and autonomous algorithm. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it does not require any human interference to make adjustments for each case. All of the algorithm's parameters are defined by analytical expressions describing the dynamics of the system. The required conditions, such as sampling rate, spall width and depth, defining the feasible region of such algorithms, are analyzed in the paper. The algorithm performance was demonstrated with experimental data for different spall widths.

  19. Role of spall in microstructure evolution during laser-shock-driven rapid undercooling and resolidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Kumar, Mukul; MoberlyChan, Warren J.; Reed, Bryan W.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Tierney, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported [Colvin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084906 (2007)] on the microstructure morphology of pure Bi metal subjected to rapid laser-shock-driven melting and subsequent resolidification upon release of pressure, where the estimated effective undercooling rates were of the order of 10 9 -10 10 K/s. More recently, we repeated these experiments, but with a Bi/Zn alloy (Zn atomic fraction of 2%-4%) instead of elemental Bi and with a change in target design to suppress spall in the Bi/Zn samples. We observed a similar microstructure morphology in the two sets of experiments, with initially columnar grains recrystallizing to larger equiaxed grains. The Bi samples, however, exhibited micron-scale dendrites on the spall surfaces, whereas there were no dendritic structures anywhere in the nonspalled Bi/Zn, even down to the nanometer scale as observed by transmission electron microscopy. We present the simulations and the interferometry data that show that the samples in the two sets of experiments followed nearly identical hydrodynamic and thermodynamic paths apart from the presence of (probably partially liquid) spall in pure Bi. Simulations also show that the spall occurs right at the moving phase front and, hence, the spall itself cuts off the principal direction for latent heat dissipation across the phase boundary. We suggest that it is the liquid spall itself that creates the conditions for dendrite formation

  20. DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Amy P. (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Clifford W.; Schatz, John F. (John F. Schatz Research & Consulting, Inc., Del Mar, CA); Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2006-02-01

    This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time after site closure. Some solid waste will be removed by the action of the drillbit and drilling fluid; this waste is referred to as cuttings and cavings. If the repository is pressurized above hydrostatic at the time of intrusion, solid waste material local to the borehole may be subject to mechanical failure and entrainment in high-velocity gases as the repository pressure is released to the borehole. Solid material that fails and is transported into the wellbore and thus to the surface comprise the spallings releases. The spallings mechanism is analogous to a well blowout in the modern oil and gas drilling industry. The current spallings conceptual model and associated computer code, DRSPALL, were developed for the 2004 recertification because the prior spallings model used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) was judged by an independent peer review panel as inadequate (DOE 1996, 9.3.1). The current conceptual model for spallings addresses processes that take place several minutes before and after a borehole intrusion of a WIPP waste room. The model couples a pipe-flow wellbore model with a porous flow repository model, allowing high-pressure gas to flow from the repository to the wellbore through a growing cavity region at the well bottom. An elastic stress model is applied to the porous solid domain that allows for mechanical failure of repository solids if local tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the waste. Tensile-failed solids may be entrained into the wellbore flow stream by a fluidized bed model, in which case they are ultimately transported to the land surface

  1. Preliminary assessment of potential underground stability (wedge and spalling) at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Derek [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering

    2005-12-15

    In SKB's Underground Design Premises the objective in the early design phase is to estimate if there is sufficient space for the repository at a site. One of the conditions that could limit the space available is stability of the underground openings, i.e., deposition tunnels and deposition boreholes. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for wedge instability and spalling that may be encountered at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites based on information from the site investigations program up to July 30, 2004. The rock mass spalling strength was defined using the in-situ results from SKB's Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment and AECL's Mine-by Experiment. These experiments suggest that the rock mass spalling strength for crystalline rocks can be estimated as 0.57 of the mean laboratory uniaxial compressive strength. A probability-based methodology utilizing this in-situ rock mass spalling strength has been developed for assessing the risk for spalling in a repository at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. The in-situ stresses and the uniaxial compressive strength data from these sites were used as the bases for the analyses. Preliminary findings from all sites suggest that, generally, the risk for spalling increases as the depth of the repository increases, simply because the stress magnitudes increase with depth. The depth at which the risk for spalling is significant, depends on the individual sites which are discussed below. The greatest uncertainty in the spalling analyses for Forsmark is related to the uncertainty in the horizontal stress magnitudes and associated stress gradients with depth. The confidence in these analyses can only be increased by increasing the confidence in the stress and geology model for the site. From the analyses completed it appears that spalling in the deposition tunnels can be controlled by orienting the tunnels approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal

  2. Influence of nano-size inclusions on spall fracture of copper single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razorenov, S. V.; Ivanchihina, G. E.; Kanel, G. I.; Herrmann, B.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Spall experiments have been carried out for copper in different structural states. The samples were copper single crystals, crystals of Cu+0.1% Si, copper crystals with silica particles of 180 nm average size, and polycrystalline copper. In experiments, the free surface velocity histories were recorded with the VISAR. The recovered samples were studied using optical microscopy and SEM. Solid solution Cu+0.1% Si demonstrates slower spall process than pure copper crystals. At longer pulse durations its spall strength is slightly less than that of pure crystals but approaches the latter with decreasing pulse duration. Fracture of copper with silica inclusions is completed much faster. The spall strength of this material is close to that of Cu+0.1% Si crystals at longer pulse duration and approaches the strength of polycrystalline copper with decreasing the load duration. Fractography of the spall surfaces correlates with the free surface velocity histories. The main fracture surface of the Cu+0.1% Si grains consists of net of dimples ∼4 μm to 40 μm mean diameter. The fracture surfaces of copper with silica inclusions is covered by a net of dimples of 1 μm to 5 μm size

  3. The influence of microstructure on the shock and spall behaviour of the magnesium alloy, Elektron 675

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazell, P.J.; Appleby-Thomas, G.J.; Wielewski, E.; Stennett, C.; Siviour, C.

    2012-01-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc and rare earth metals allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high strain-rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure stress evolution in an armour-grade wrought Mg alloy (Elektron 675) under one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of sample orientation and heat treatment were examined. The spall behaviour was interrogated using a heterodyne velocimeter system, with an estimate made of the material’s spall strength and Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) for both aged and unaged materials. In particular, it is shown that the HEL and spall strength values are higher along the extrusion direction. It is thought that this is caused by striations of relatively small grains that run along the extrusion direction.

  4. A study on spalling in soft rock under low confining stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Atsunori; Ebina, Takahito; Toida, Masaru; Shirasagi, Suguru; Kishida, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Toshihisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study spalling in soft rock excavation. During the test cavern excavation of the radioactive waste disposal project, spalling occurred. Therefore, it has been estimated performing the stress path simulation test and measuring the induced stress. In the stress path simulation test, the splitting failure has been confirmed under low confining stress. In the induced stress measurements, the rock mass around the cavern has shifted to the low radial confinement. Hence, spalling in soft rock was interpreted by the splitting failure caused by the induced stress under low confinement. Furthermore, the failure zone was proved by the numerical analysis applying the criterion based on the results of the above triaxial test. (author)

  5. Spalling stress in oxidized thermal barrier coatings evaluated by X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Furoh-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The spallation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is promoted by thermally grown oxide (TGO). To improve TBCs, it is very important to understand the influence of TGO on the spalling stress. In this study 'the TBCs were oxidized at 1373 K for four different periods: 0, 500,1000 and 2000 h. The distribution of the in-plane stress in oxidized TBCs, {sigma}{sub 1}, was obtained by repeating the X-ray stress measurement with low energy X-rays after successive removal of the surface layer. The distribution of the out-of-plane stress, {sigma}{sub 1} - {sigma}{sub 3}, was measured with hard synchrotron X-rays, because high energy X-rays have a large penetration depth. From the results by the low and high energy X-rays, the spalling stress in the oxidized TBCs, {sigma}{sub 3}, was evaluated. The evaluated value of the spalling stress for the oxidized TBC was a small tension beneath the surface, but steeply increased near the interface between the top and bond coating. This large tensile stress near the interface is responsible for the spalling of the top coating. (orig.)

  6. Effect of fire exposure on cracking, spalling and residual strength of fly ash geopolymer concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Prabir Kumar; Kelly, Sean; Yao, Zhitong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fire endurance of fly ash geopolymer concrete has been studied. • No spalling in geopolymer concrete cylinders up to 1000 °C fire. • Less cracking and better fire endurance of geopolymer concrete than OPC concrete. • Geopolymer microstructure remained stable up to 1000 °C fire. - Abstract: Fly ash based geopolymer is an emerging alternative binder to cement for making concrete. The cracking, spalling and residual strength behaviours of geopolymer concrete were studied in order to understand its fire endurance, which is essential for its use as a building material. Fly ash based geopolymer and ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete cylinder specimens were exposed to fires at different temperatures up to 1000 °C, with a heating rate of that given in the International Standards Organization (ISO) 834 standard. Compressive strength of the concretes varied in the range of 39–58 MPa. After the fire exposures, the geopolymer concrete specimens were found to suffer less damage in terms of cracking than the OPC concrete specimens. The OPC concrete cylinders suffered severe spalling for 800 and 1000 °C exposures, while there was no spalling in the geopolymer concrete specimens. The geopolymer concrete specimens generally retained higher strength than the OPC concrete specimens. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of geopolymer concrete showed continued densification of the microstructure with the increase of fire temperature. The strength loss in the geopolymer concrete specimens was mainly because of the difference between the thermal expansions of geopolymer matrix and the aggregates

  7. Analytic model for surface ground motion with spall induced by underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQueen, D.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides a detailed presentation and critique of a model used to characterize the surface ground motion following a contained, spalling underground nuclear explosion intended for calculation of the resulting atmospheric acoustic pulse. Some examples of its use are included. Some discussion of the general approach of ground motion model parameter extraction, not dependent on the specific model, is also presented

  8. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Harry Keo [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-07-11

    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed

  9. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva

    2011-05-01

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  10. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  11. In Situ Observation of Rock Spalling in the Deep Tunnels of the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (2400 m Depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Xu, Hong; Qiu, Shi-Li; Li, Shao-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Hao-Sen; Cheng, Yuan; Gao, Yao-Hui

    2018-04-01

    To study rock spalling in deep tunnels at China Jinping Underground Laboratory Phase II (CJPL-II), photogrammetry method and digital borehole camera were used to quantify key features of rock spalling including orientation, thickness of slabs and the depth of spalling. The failure mechanism was analysed through scanning electron microscope and numerical simulation based on FLAC3D. Observation results clearly showed the process of rock spalling failure: a typical spalling pattern around D-shaped tunnels after top-heading and bottom bench were discovered. The orientation and thickness of the slabs were obtained. The slabs were parallel to the excavated surfaces of the tunnel and were related to the shape of the tunnel surface and orientation of the principal stress. The slabs were alternately thick and thin, and they gradually increased in thickness from the sidewall inwards. The form and mechanism of spalling at different locations in the tunnels, as influenced by stress state and excavation, were analysed. The result of this study was helpful to those rethinking the engineering design, including the excavation and support of tunnels, or caverns, at high risk of spalling.

  12. Improving the behavior of concrete exposed to fire by using an air entraining agent (AEA: Assessment of spalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Aloia L.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several concrete mixes have been designed to evaluate the influence of an air entraining agent (AEA on spalling. Tests have been performed under the ISO curve (occasionally under the HCinc curve on specimens of various sizes and shapes to assess spalling. Results were somehow erratic on the smallest specimens whereas the beneficial effect of the air-bubble network could be emphasized on slabs.

  13. Variability in dynamic properties of tantalum : spall, attenuation and load/unload.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Trott, Wayne Merle; Vogler, Tracy John; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra

    2005-07-01

    A suite of impact experiments was conducted to assess spatial and shot-to-shot variability in dynamic properties of tantalum. Samples had a uniform refined {approx}20 micron grain structure with a strong axisymmetric [111] crystallographic texture. Two experiments performed with sapphire windows (stresses of approximately 7 and 12 GPa) clearly showed elastic-plastic loading and slightly hysteretic unloading behavior. An HEL amplitude of 2.8 GPa (corresponding to Y 1.5 GPa) was observed. Free-surface spall experiments showed clear wave attenuation and spallation phenomena. Here, loading stresses were {approx} 12.5 GPa and various ratios of impactor to target thicknesses were used. Spatial and shot-to-shot variability of the spall strength was {+-} 20%, and of the HEL, {+-} 10%. Experiments conducted with smaller diameter flyer plates clearly showed edge effects in the line and point VISAR records, indicating lateral release speeds of roughly 5 km/s.

  14. Spall wave-profile and shock-recovery experiments on depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixson, R.S.; Vorthman, J.E.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.; Tonks, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Depleted Uranium of two different purity levels has been studied to determine spall strength under shock wave loading. A high purity material with approximately 30 ppm of carbon impurities was shock compressed to two different stress levels, 37 and 53 kbar. The second material studied was uranium with about 300 ppm of carbon impurities. This material was shock loaded to three different final stress level, 37, 53, and 81 kbar. Two experimental techniques were used in this work. First, time-resolved free surface particle velocity measurements were done using a VISAR velocity interferometer. The second experimental technique used was soft recovery of samples after shock loading. These two experimental techniques will be briefly described here and VISAR results will be shown. Results of the spall recovery experiments and subsequent metallurgical analyses are described in another paper in these proceedings. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  16. Modeling Dynamic Anisotropic Behaviour and Spall Failure in Commercial Aluminium Alloys AA7010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials of aluminium alloys. The previous published constitutive model is used as a reference to start the development in this work. The proposed formulation that used a new definition of Mandel stress tensor to define Hill's yield criterion and a new shock equation of state (EOS) of the generalised orthotropic pressure is further enhanced with Grady spall failure model to closely predict shockwave propagation and spall failure in the chosen commercial aluminium alloy. This hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The implementations of a new EOS of the generalised orthotropic pressure including the spall failure are also discussed in this paper. The capability of the proposed constitutive model to capture the complex behaviour of the selected material is validated against range of Plate Impact Test data at 234, 450 and 895 ms-1 impact velocities.

  17. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Holtkamp, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  18. Modelling Dynamic Behaviour and Spall Failure of Aluminium Alloy AA7010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'at, N.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Kamarudin, K. A.; Jamian, S.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Awang, M. K.

    2017-10-01

    A finite strain constitutive model to predict the dynamic deformation behaviour of Aluminium Alloy 7010 including shockwaves and spall failure is developed in this work. The important feature of this newly hyperelastic-plastic constitutive formulation is a new Mandel stress tensor formulated using new generalized orthotropic pressure. This tensor is combined with a shock equation of state (EOS) and Grady spall failure. The Hill’s yield criterion is adopted to characterize plastic orthotropy by means of the evolving structural tensors that is defined in the isoclinic configuration. This material model was developed and integration into elastic and plastic parts. The elastic anisotropy is taken into account through the newly stress tensor decomposition of a generalized orthotropic pressure. Plastic anisotropy is considered through yield surface and an isotropic hardening defined in a unique alignment of deviatoric plane within the stress space. To test its ability to describe shockwave propagation and spall failure, the new material model was implemented into the LLNL-DYNA3D code of UTHM’s. The capability of this newly constitutive model were compared against published experimental data of Plate Impact Test at 234m/s, 450m/s and 895m/s impact velocities. A good agreement is obtained between experimental and simulation in each test.

  19. The characteristics of void distribution in spalled high purity copper cylinder under sweeping detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Jixinog; Guo, Zhaoliang; Tang, Tiegang; Hu, Haibo

    2018-03-01

    The effects of different peak compression stresses (2-5 GPa) on the spallation behaviour of high purity copper cylinder during sweeping detonation were examined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Microscopy, Doppler Pins System and Optical Microscopy techniques. The velocity history of inner surface and the characteristics of void distributions in spalled copper cylinder were investigated. The results indicated that the spall strength of copper in these experiments was less than that revealed in previous reports concerning plate impact loading. The geometry of cylindrical copper and the obliquity of incident shock during sweeping detonation may be the main reasons. Different loading stresses seemed to be responsible for the characteristics of the resultant damage fields, and the maximum damage degree increased with increasing shock stress. Spall planes in different cross-sections of sample loaded with the same shock stress of 3.29 GPa were found, and the distance from the initiation end has little effect on the maximum damage degree (the maximum damage range from 12 to 14%), which means that the spallation behaviour was stable along the direction parallel to the detonation propagation direction under the same shock stress.

  20. Spalling fracture of metals and alloys under intense x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitvin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Creation of different power and irradiating installations assisted in studying mechanical properties of structural materials under the effect of high-power radiation fluxes: laser, electron, X-ray, ion beam etc. There are being widely investigated such phenomena as surface and deep hardening of metals and alloys under irradiation, generation of elastic and shock waves, materials failure under thermal shock etc.In the paper there are discussed the results of long researches of spalling fracture of materials and alloys under intense X-radiation. Model assemblies with consequently arranged samples (foils) of metals and alloys under investigation underwent pulse X-radiation. The energy flux of X-radiation was weakened to the needed value by dose filters intensively absorbing soft spectrum of X-radiation. At carrying out the researches the foils of copper, nickel, titanium, brass, bronze, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, cadmium, lead, zinc, silver and steels 0.005-1 mm thick were used as objects under investigation. The samples diameter (10-16 mm) was chosen to be quite large as compared to their thickness so that the side load does not affect the central part of the samples and the front (looking the source of X-radiation) and back (shadow) surfaces of the samples are free what makes it possible to consider the processes of spalling fracture in one-dimensional approximation. Within the frames of kinetic approach to the problem of solid states spalling fracture under pulse loading that considers fracture as progressing in time process there were found spalling fracture time dependencies of lead, cadmium, zinc, silver, copper, brass, bronze, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum and steels under thermal shock initiated by X-radiation. It was demonstrated that longevity of metals and alloys under thermal shock exponentially decreases with the growth of rupture stresses amplitude and can be described in terms of kinetic concept of strength.Within the frames of

  1. Microstructural Effects on the Spall Properties of ECAE-Processed AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    stresses using 51 mm and 105 mm bore gas guns . The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) was measured to be approximately 181 ± 3 MPa. The spall strengths...MD 21218, USA b Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK c U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...21005, USA d Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received

  2. A survey of high explosive-induced damage and spall in selected metals using proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Clark, D.A.; Ferm, E.N.; Gallegos, R.A.; Hammon, D.; Hemsing, W.F.; Hogan, G.E.; Holmes, V.H.; King, N.S.P.; Lopez, R.P.; Merrill, F.E.; Morris, C.L.; Morley, K.B.; Murray, M.M.; Pazuchanics, P.D.; Prestridge, K.P.; Quintana, J.P.; Saunders, A.; Shinas, M.A.; Stacy, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple spall and damage layers can be created in metal when the free surface reflects a Taylor wave generated by high explosives. These phenomena have been explored in different thicknesses of several metals (tantalum, copper, 6061 T6-aluminum, and tin) using high-energy proton radiography. Multiple images (up to 21) can be produced of the dynamic evolution of damaged material on the microsecond time scale with a <50 ns 'shutter' time. Movies and multiframe still images of areal and (Abel inverted) volume densities are presented. An example of material that is likely melted on release (tin) is also presented

  3. Study of flow stress and spall strength of additively manufactured Ti-6-4 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Amitay; Paris, Vitaly; Yosef-Hai, Arnon; Gudinetsky, Eli; Tiferet, Eitan

    2017-06-01

    The use of additive manufacturing (AM) by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has extensively grown in the past few years. A major goal in AM is to manufacture materials with mechanical properties at least as good as traditionally manufactured materials. In this work we present results of planar impact tests and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests (SHPB) on Ti-6-4 manufactured by EBM and SLM processes. Results of planar impact tests on SLM samples display slightly higher spall strength compared to EBM while the stress at Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) is practically the same. Stress strain curves based on SHPB measurements at two different strain rates present similar plastic flow stresses for SLM and EBM processed Ti-6-4 alloy, while the flow stress is about 20% higher than reported for commercial reference material. The strain to failure of both materials shows considerable strain rate sensitivity. The results of post-mortem analysis of spall fracture will also be presented.

  4. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  5. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  6. DRSPALL: Impact of the Modification of the Numerical Spallings Model on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, Amy P. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered as documented in Software Problem Report (SPR) 13-001. The modifications to DRSPALL to correct the finite difference equations are detailed, and verification and validation testing has been completed for the modified DRSPALL code. The complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of spallings releases obtained using the modified DRSPALL is higher compared to that found in previous WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations. Compared to previous PAs, there was an increase in the number of vectors that result in a nonzero spallings volume, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases. The overall mean CCDFs for total releases using the modified DRSPALL are virtually unchanged, thus the modification to DRSPALL did not impact WIPP PA calculation results.

  7. The impact of the amount of polypropylene fibres on spalling behaviour and residual mechanical properties of Reactive Powder Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study on the spalling behaviour and mechanical properties of Reactive Powder Concretes (RPCs in high temperature are presented. The research program was established to evaluate the impact of low melting temperature polypropylene fibres PP on mechanical properties evolution with temperature but also to verify the effectiveness of their addition to prevent spalling. Three sets of RPC specimens were prepared for this study with different amount of PP fibres (no fibres, 1.0 kg/m3 and 2.0 kg/m3. The addition of PP fibres reduces the initial compressive strength of the RPC material by approx. 14% no significant influence on modulus of elasticity was observed. Addition of 1 kg/m3 of PP fibres in RPC, seem not to give a sufficient protection against occurrence of spalling phenomenon. By adding 2 kg/m3 of PP fibres the risk of spalling is significantly reduced.

  8. ZrCuAl Bulk Metallic Glass spall induced by laser shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Benjamin; Loison, Didier; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Lescoute, Emilien; Berthe, Laurent; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-01

    To face High Velocity Impacts, the aerospace industry is always seeking for innovative materials usable as debris shielding components. Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) revealed interesting mechanical properties in case of static and quasi-static loading conditions: high elasticity, high tenacity, low density and high fracture threshold... The department of Mechanics and Glass of the Institut of Physics Rennes conducted on the ELFIE facility, laser shock experiments to study the behavior of a ternary ZrCuAl BMG under high strain rate, up-to fragmentation process. On the one hand, in-situ diagnostics were used to measure ejection velocities with PDV and debris morphologies were observed by Shadowgraphy. On the other hand, spalled areas (dimensions and features) were characterized through post-mortem analysis (optical observations, profilometry and SEM). These results are compared to experimental and numerical data on the crystalline forms of the ZrCuAl basic compounds.

  9. Modeling of thermal spalling during electrical discharge machining of titanium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Bozkurt, B.; Faulk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Erosion in electrical discharge machining has been described as occurring by melting and flushing the liquid formed. Recently, however, thermal spalling was reported as the mechanism for machining refractory materials with low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion. The process is described in this paper by a model based on a ceramic surface exposed to a constant circular heating source which supplied a constant flux over the pulse duration. The calculations were based on TiB 2 mechanical properties along a and c directions. Theoretical predictions were verified by machining hexagonal TiB 2 . Large flakes of TiB 2 with sizes close to grain size and maximum thickness close to the predicted values were collected, together with spherical particles of Cu and Zn eroded from cutting wire. The cutting surfaces consist of cleavage planes sometimes contaminated with Cu, Zn, and impurities from the dielectric fluid

  10. Twin boundary spacing effects on shock response and spall behaviors of hierarchically nanotwinned fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fuping; Chen, Liu; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic deformation mechanisms of hierarchically nano-twinned (NT) Ag under shock conditions have been investigated using a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the same grain size d and the same spacing of primary twins λ 1 , the average flow stress behind the shock front in hierarchically NT Ag first increases with decreasing spacing of secondary twins λ 2 , achieving a maximum at a critical λ 2 , and then drops as λ 2 decreases further. Above the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanisms are dominated by three type strengthening mechanisms: (a) partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries (GBs) travel across other boundaries; (b) partial dislocations emitted from twin boundaries (TBs) travel across other TBs; (c) formation of tertiary twins. Below the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanism are dominated by two softening mechanisms: (a) detwinning of secondary twins; (b) formation of new grains by cross slip of partial dislocations. Moreover, the twin-free nanocrystalline (NC) Ag is found to have lower average flow stress behind the shock front than those of all hierarchically NT Ag samples except the one with the smallest λ 2 of 0.71 nm. No apparent correlation between the spall strength and λ 2 is observed in hierarchically NT Ag, since voids always nucleate at both GBs and boundaries of the primary twins. However, twin-free NC Ag is found to have higher spall strength than hierarchically NT Ag. Voids can only nucleate from GBs for twin-free NC Ag, therefore, twin-free NC Ag has less nucleation sources along the shock direction when compared to hierarchically NT Ag, which requiring higher tensile stress to create spallation. These findings should contribute to the understandings of deformation mechanisms of hierarchically NT fcc metals under extreme deformation conditions

  11. On the mechanism of polypropylene fibres in preventing fire spalling in self-compacting and high-performance cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Ye, G.; De Schutter, G.; Yuan, Y.; Taerwe, L.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing application of self-compacting concrete (SCC) in construction and infrastructure, the fire spalling behavior of SCC has been attracting due attention. In high performance concrete (HPC), addition of polypropylene fibers (PP fibers) is widely used as an effective method to prevent explosive spalling. Hence, it would be useful to investigate whether the PP fibers are also efficient in SCC to avoid explosive spalling. However, no universal agreement exists concerning the fundamental mechanism of reducing the spalling risk by adding PP fiber. For SCC, the reduction of flowability should be considered when adding a significant amount of fibres. In this investigation, both the micro-level and macro-level properties of pastes with different fiber contents were studied in order to investigate the role of PP fiber at elevated temperature in self-compacting cement paste samples. The micro properties were studied by backscattering electron microscopy (BSE) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests. The modification of the pore structure at elevated temperature was investigated as well as the morphology of the PP fibers. Some macro properties were measured, such as the gas permeability of self-compacting cement paste after heating at different temperatures. The factors influencing gas permeability were analyzed. It is shown that with the melting of PP fiber, no significant increase in total pore volume is obtained. However, the connectivity of isolated pores increases, leading to an increase of gas permeability. With the increase of temperature, the addition of PP fibers reduces the damage of cement pastes, as seen from the total pore volume and the threshold pore diameter changes. From this investigation, it is concluded that the connectivity of pores as well as the creation of micro cracks are the major factors which determine the gas permeability after exposure to high temperatures. Furthermore, the connectivity of the pores acts as a dominant factor

  12. Review and perspectives on spallings release models in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K.; Hansen, F.D.; Thompson, T.W.; Schatz, J.F.; Gross, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was licensed for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by the US Department of Energy. The facility consists of a repository mined in a bedded salt formation, approximately 650 m below the surface. Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency require that performance assessment calculations for the repository include the possibility that an exploratory drilling operation could penetrate the waste disposal areas at some time in the future. Release of contaminated solids could reach the surface during a drilling intrusion. One of the mechanisms for release, known as spallings, can occur if gas pressures in the repository exceed the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. Calculation of solids releases for spallings depends critically on the conceptual models for the waste, for the spallings process, and assumptions regarding driller parameters and practices. This paper presents a review of the evolution of these models during the regulatory review of the Compliance Certification Application for the repository. A summary and perspectives on the implementation of conservative assumptions in model development are also provided

  13. Review and perspectives on spallings release models in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K; Hansen, F.D.; Thompson, T.W.; Schatz, J.F.; Gross, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was licensed for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by the US Department of Energy. The facility consists of a repository mined in a bedded salt formation, approximately 650 m below the surface. Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency require that performance assessment calculations for the repository include the possibility that an exploratory drilling operation could penetrate the waste disposal areas at some time in the future. Release of contaminated solids could reach the surface during a drilling intrusion. One of the mechanisms for release, known as spallings, can occur if gas pressures in the repository exceed the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. Calculation of solids releases for spallings depends critically on the conceptual models for the waste, for the spallings process, and assumptions regarding driller parameters and practices. The paper presents a review of the evolution of these models during regulatory review of the Compliance Certification Application for the repository. A summary and perspectives on the implementation of conservative assumptions in model development are also provided

  14. Description and evaluation of a mechanistically based conceptual model for spall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Thompson, T.W. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A mechanistically based model for a possible spall event at the WIPP site is developed and evaluated in this report. Release of waste material to the surface during an inadvertent borehole intrusion is possible if future states of the repository include high gas pressure and waste material consisting of fine particulates having low mechanical strength. The conceptual model incorporates the physics of wellbore hydraulics coupled to transient gas flow to the intrusion borehole, and mechanical response of the waste. Degraded waste properties using of the model. The evaluations include both numerical and analytical implementations of the conceptual model. A tensile failure criterion is assumed appropriate for calculation of volumes of waste experiencing fragmentation. Calculations show that for repository gas pressures less than 12 MPa, no tensile failure occurs. Minimal volumes of material experience failure below gas pressure of 14 MPa. Repository conditions dictate that the probability of gas pressures exceeding 14 MPa is approximately 1%. For these conditions, a maximum failed volume of 0.25 m{sup 3} is calculated.

  15. Spall strength, dynamic elastic limit and fracture of ittrya dopped tetragonal zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyavskiy, Vladimir; Savinykh, Andrey; Schlothauer, Thomas; Lukin, Evgeny; Akopov, Felix

    2013-06-01

    Specimens of the ceramics based on zirconia partially stabilized by yttrium oxide of the composition of 97 mol % ZrO2 + 3 mol % Y2O3 were prepared. The densities of the specimens were 5.79 and 6.01 g/cc. The ceramics mainly have the tetragonal structure (93-98 wt. % of t-ZrO2) . The mechanical action on the ceramic activates the transformation of the tetragonal phase into the monoclinic one: at the abrasive cutting or at the fracture by hammer shock, the content of the monoclinic phase is increasing. The same trend was observed in the specimens, recovered after stepwise shock compression up to 36, 52 and 99 GPa. It was found that shock compression do not initiates tetragonal-monoclinic phase transition directly, and this transition is caused by the destruction. Recovered specimens do not reveal any traces of the phase change which was observed by Mashimo et al. under the pressures 30-35 GPa (J. Appl. Phys. 1995. V. 77. P. 5069). Recording of the profiles of the free surface velocity of the specimens during single-stage shock compression allowed us to determine the dynamic elastic limit, as well as spall strength of the material versus maximal shock stress. In addition, the ceramics were subjected to the action of low temperatures. There were no significant changes in the specimens recovered after storage in liquid nitrogen and helium. The work was supported by The State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM.

  16. Description and evaluation of a mechanistically based conceptual model for spall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Thompson, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    A mechanistically based model for a possible spall event at the WIPP site is developed and evaluated in this report. Release of waste material to the surface during an inadvertent borehole intrusion is possible if future states of the repository include high gas pressure and waste material consisting of fine particulates having low mechanical strength. The conceptual model incorporates the physics of wellbore hydraulics coupled to transient gas flow to the intrusion borehole, and mechanical response of the waste. Degraded waste properties using of the model. The evaluations include both numerical and analytical implementations of the conceptual model. A tensile failure criterion is assumed appropriate for calculation of volumes of waste experiencing fragmentation. Calculations show that for repository gas pressures less than 12 MPa, no tensile failure occurs. Minimal volumes of material experience failure below gas pressure of 14 MPa. Repository conditions dictate that the probability of gas pressures exceeding 14 MPa is approximately 1%. For these conditions, a maximum failed volume of 0.25 m 3 is calculated

  17. Prevalent material parameters governing spalling of a slag-impregnated refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blond, E.; Schmitt, N.; Arnould, O.; Hild, F. [LMT-Cachan (ENS de Cachan / CNRS-UMR 8535 / Univ. Paris 6), Cachan (France); Blumenfeld, P. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); Poirier, J. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); CRMHT-CNRS, Orleans (France)

    2004-07-01

    In steel ladle linings, bauxite refractories in contact with iron and steel slag are subjected to complex loadings. To identify the causes of degradation in different reactor linings, a coupling diagram made up of three poles is established: namely, slag impregnation (I), Thermomechanics (TM) and phase transformations (P). The variation of the microstructure and the gradient of the chemical composition resulting from the (I-P) coupling are characterized by microprobe analyses; a natural impregnation tracer is identified. The (I-T) coupling is studied by modeling the refractory lining behavior subjected to a cyclic thermal loading within the framework of the mechanics of porous continua. Parameters governing the location and amplitude of the maximum pore pressure are obtained and their influences are studied. The analysis of the (TM) pole leads to the identification of a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic model for bauxite in various states of slag impregnation. Numerical simulations show that the stress state developed during the heating stages can induce spalling, probably generated by a localized over-pressure of slag. (orig.)

  18. Multibillion-atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Plasticity, Spall, and Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Timothy C.

    2007-06-01

    Modern supercomputing platforms, such as the IBM BlueGene/L at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory, are enabling large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of phenomena that were unthinkable just a few years ago. Using either the embedded atom method (EAM) description of simple (close-packed) metals, or modified EAM (MEAM) models of more complex solids and alloys with mixed covalent and metallic character, simulations containing billions to trillions of atoms are now practical, reaching volumes in excess of a cubic micron. In order to obtain any new physical insights, however, it is equally important that the analysis of such systems be tractable. This is in fact possible, in large part due to our highly efficient parallel visualization code, which enables the rendering of atomic spheres, Eulerian cells, and other geometric objects in a matter of minutes, even for tens of thousands of processors and billions of atoms. After briefly describing the BlueGene/L and Roadrunner architectures, and the code optimization strategies that were employed, results obtained thus far on BlueGene/L will be reviewed, including: (1) shock compression and release of a defective EAM Cu sample, illustrating the plastic deformation accompanying void collapse as well as the subsequent void growth and linkup upon release; (2) solid-solid martensitic phase transition in shock-compressed MEAM Ga; and (3) Rayleigh-Taylor fluid instability modeled using large-scale direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. I will also describe our initial experiences utilizing Cell Broadband Engine processors (developed for the Sony PlayStation 3), and planned simulation studies of ejecta and spall failure in polycrystalline metals that will be carried out when the full Petaflop Opteron/Cell Roadrunner supercomputer is assembled in mid-2008.

  19. Localized atomic segregation in the spalled area of a Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glasses induced by laser-shock experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, B.; Loison, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Lescoute, E.; Nivard, M.; Berthe, L.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-shock experiments were performed on a ternary {Zr50{Cu}40{Al}10} bulk metallic glass. A spalling process was studied through post-mortem analyses conducted on a recovered sample and spall. Scanning electron microscopy magnification of fracture surfaces revealed the presence of a peculiar feature known as cup-cone. Cups are found on sample fracture surface while cones are observed on spall. Two distinct regions can be observed on cups and cones: a smooth viscous-like region in the center and a flat one with large vein-pattern in the periphery. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements conducted on these features emphasized atomic distribution discrepancies both on the sample and spall. We propose a mechanism for the initiation and the growth of these features but also a process for atomic segregation during spallation. Cup and cones would originate from cracks arising from shear bands formation (softened paths). These shear bands result from a quadrupolar-shaped atomic disorder engendered around an initiation site by shock wave propagation. This disorder turns into a shear band when tensile front reaches spallation plane. During the separation process, temperature gain induced by shock waves and shear bands generation decreases material viscosity leading to higher atomic mobility. Once in a liquid-like form, atomic clusters migrate and segregate due to inertial effects originating from particle velocity variation (interaction of release waves). As a result, a high rate of copper is found in sample cups and high zirconium concentration is found on spall cones.

  20. Spalling behavior and residual resistance of fibre reinforced Ultra-High performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong, Ming-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of spalling and residual mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures are presented in this paper. The compressive strength of the ultra-high performance concrete ranged from 160 MPa~185 MPa. This study aimed to discover the effective way to prevent spalling for the ultra-high performance concrete and gauge its mechanical properties after it was subjected to fire. The effects of fiber type, fiber dosage, heating rate and curing condition were investigated. Test results showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the ultra-high performance concrete declined slower than those of normal strength concrete after elevated temperatures. Polypropylene fiber rather than steel fiber was found effective to prevent spalling but affected workability. The effective fiber type and dosage were recommended to prevent spalling and ensure sufficient workability for casting and pumping of the ultra-high performance concrete.En este trabajo se presentan los resultados más relevantes del trabajo experimental realizado para valorar la laminación y las propiedades mecánicas residuales de hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones tras su exposición a altas temperaturas. La resistencia a la compresión del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones osciló entre 160 MPa~185 MPa. El objetivo de este estudio fue descubrir una manera eficaz de prevenir desprendimientos y/o laminaciones en este hormigón y medir sus propiedades mecánicas después de ser sometido al fuego. Las variables estudiadas fueron la presencia y dosificación de fibras, velocidad de calentamiento y condiciones de curado. Los resultados mostraron, tras la exposición a altas temperaturas, que la resistencia a compresión y el módulo de elasticidad del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones disminuían más lento que las de un hormigón con resistencia normal. La fibra de polipropileno resultó más eficaz para prevenir

  1. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  2. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, Jon Craig; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.; Anderson, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  3. The scale constituents and spalling characteristics of Ni-Fe(O-60%) alloys oxidized in air at 800-12000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, W.J.; Gardner, M.J.; Kowalski, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The spalling behaviour of scales on Ni-Fe alloys containing 0, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% Fe oxidized in air at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 0 C for periods up to 165 h have been investigated. The phases present and their relative amounts in the scales formed at 1200 0 C have been determined. Spalling was most severe in the Ni-30% Fe alloy, which had a scale consisting of 30% Nisub(x)Fesub(3-x)O 4 and 70% Nisub(1-x)Fesub(x)O. (author)

  4. Computational model of spalling and effective fibers on toughening in fiber reinforced composites at an early stage of crack formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available This work suggests a computational model that takes account of effective fibers on toughening in FRC at an early stage of crack formation. We derived the distribution of pressure provoked by a random inclined fiber in the matrix and calculated stresses through integrating the pressure and tangent stress along the fiber/matrix interface with the Kelvin's fundamental solution and the Mindlin's complementary solution. The evolution of spalling in the matrix was traced. The percentages of effective fibers were evaluated with variations in strength, interface resistance, diameter and elasticity modulus. The main conclusion is that low elasticity modulus combined high strength of fibers raises dramatically the effective fibers, which would benefit toughening.

  5. Influence of deposited nanoparticles on the spall strength of metals under the action of picosecond pulses of shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations of the generation and propagation of shock pulses of picosecond duration initiated by nanoscale impactors, and their interaction with the rear surface is carried out for aluminum and copper. It is shown that the presence of deposited nanoparticles on the rear surface increases the threshold value of the impact intensity leading to the rear spallation. The interaction of a shock wave with nanoparticles leads to severe plastic deformation in the surface layer of the metal including nanoparticles. A part of the compression pulse energy is expended on the plastic deformation, which suppresses the spall fracture. Spallation threshold substantially increases at large diameters of deposited nanoparticles, but instability develops on the rear surface of the target, which is accompanied by ejection of droplets. The instability disrupts the integrity of the rear surface, though the loss of integrity occurs through the ejection of mass, rather than a spallation.

  6. Effect of fibre orientations on the mechanical properties of kenaf–aramid hybrid composites for spall-liner application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. YAHAYA; S.M. SAPUAN; M. JAWAID; Z. LEMAN; E.S. ZAINUDIN

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of kenaf fibre orientation on the mechanical properties of kenaf–aramid hybrid composites for military vehicle's spall liner application. It was observed that the tensile strength of woven kenaf hybrid composite is almost 20.78%and 43.55%higher than that of UD and mat samples respectively. Charpy impact strength of woven kenaf composites is 19.78%and 52.07%higher than that of UD and mat kenaf hybrid composites respectively. Morphological examinations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The results of this study indicate that using kenaf in the form of woven structure could produce a hybrid composite material with high tensile strength and impact resistance properties.

  7. Contribution to the explanation of the spalling of small specimen without any mechanical restraint exposed to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Marcus V.G. de; Pliya, Prosper; Noumowe, Albert; Beaucour, Anne-Lise; Ortola, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of concrete subjected to high temperature is studied. The aim of the study is to explain the spalling or bursting phenomenon observed during experimental studies in the laboratory. Mechanical computations are carried out with the finite element code CAST3M developed at the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA). Heat gradient and water vapour pressure inside the concrete element are determined by using a thermo-hydrous model. Then, the mechanical stresses generated in the studied concrete element are calculated according to two behaviour assumptions: the linear isotropic elastic law and an elastoplastic model. Numerical simulations show that, during the heating cycles, tension stresses are developed in the central part and compression stresses at the surface of the cylindrical concrete element. The highest stresses appear when the surface temperature of the concrete element is about 300 o C. The tension stresses in the specimens then exceed the concrete tensile strength.

  8. Contribution to the explanation of the spalling of small specimen without any mechanical restraint exposed to high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Marcus V.G. de, E-mail: mvmorais@unb.b [Cergy-Pontoise University - L2MGC, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Pliya, Prosper [Cergy-Pontoise University - L2MGC, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noumowe, Albert, E-mail: Albert.Noumowe@u-cergy.f [Cergy-Pontoise University - L2MGC, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Beaucour, Anne-Lise; Ortola, Sophie [Cergy-Pontoise University - L2MGC, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    The behaviour of concrete subjected to high temperature is studied. The aim of the study is to explain the spalling or bursting phenomenon observed during experimental studies in the laboratory. Mechanical computations are carried out with the finite element code CAST3M developed at the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA). Heat gradient and water vapour pressure inside the concrete element are determined by using a thermo-hydrous model. Then, the mechanical stresses generated in the studied concrete element are calculated according to two behaviour assumptions: the linear isotropic elastic law and an elastoplastic model. Numerical simulations show that, during the heating cycles, tension stresses are developed in the central part and compression stresses at the surface of the cylindrical concrete element. The highest stresses appear when the surface temperature of the concrete element is about 300 {sup o}C. The tension stresses in the specimens then exceed the concrete tensile strength.

  9. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  10. Shock-induced mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yu; Wang, Fuchi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, Chengwen, E-mail: tanchengwen@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Shuyou [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Xiaodong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiang, Jianwei [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Honglei [China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, Hongnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy are systemically investigated during one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of oxygen content on the shock response and dynamic failure characteristic of Ti–6Al–4V are also shown through the comparison of the obtained results with those for commercial Ti–6Al–4V. The measured Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Ti–6Al–4V ELI is lower than that of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. While the fitted shock parameters and the measured Hugoniot in the stress-particle velocity space of Ti–6Al–4V ELI are found to be almost identical to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. These results indicate that the oxygen content can significantly affect the HEL of Ti–6Al–4V, but has little or no influence on the shock response of this alloy beyond the HEL. The postshock Ti–6Al–4V ELI does not display shock-induced strengthening during quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that the lack of high density dislocations or dislocation cells limits the shock-induced strengthening effect, although dislocation multiplication and tangles lead to increased yield strength and strain hardening rate of the reloaded material. Finally, Ti–6Al–4V ELI is demonstrated to spall in a ductile manner, and has similar spall strengths to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V under different shock loading conditions. The oxygen content exerts no effect on the spall fracture manner of Ti–6Al–4V, although reducing the oxygen content enables this alloy to endure more micro-damages.

  11. Shock-induced mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yu; Wang, Fuchi; Tan, Chengwen; Wang, Shuyou; Yu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jianwei; Ma, Honglei; Cai, Hongnian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy are systemically investigated during one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of oxygen content on the shock response and dynamic failure characteristic of Ti–6Al–4V are also shown through the comparison of the obtained results with those for commercial Ti–6Al–4V. The measured Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Ti–6Al–4V ELI is lower than that of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. While the fitted shock parameters and the measured Hugoniot in the stress-particle velocity space of Ti–6Al–4V ELI are found to be almost identical to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. These results indicate that the oxygen content can significantly affect the HEL of Ti–6Al–4V, but has little or no influence on the shock response of this alloy beyond the HEL. The postshock Ti–6Al–4V ELI does not display shock-induced strengthening during quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that the lack of high density dislocations or dislocation cells limits the shock-induced strengthening effect, although dislocation multiplication and tangles lead to increased yield strength and strain hardening rate of the reloaded material. Finally, Ti–6Al–4V ELI is demonstrated to spall in a ductile manner, and has similar spall strengths to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V under different shock loading conditions. The oxygen content exerts no effect on the spall fracture manner of Ti–6Al–4V, although reducing the oxygen content enables this alloy to endure more micro-damages

  12. Massive spalling of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface between solders and Cu substrate during liquid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Panneerselvam, A.; Mokhtari, O.; Green, M. A.; Mannan, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    The interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between Cu substrate and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-X (wt.%) solder alloys has been studied, where X consists of 0-5% Zn or 0-2% Al. The study has focused on the effect of solder volume as well as the Zn or Al concentration. With low solder volume, when the Zn and Al concentrations in the solder are also low, the initial Cu-Zn and Al-Cu IMC layers, which form at the solder/substrate interface, are not stable and spall off, displaced by a Cu6Sn5 IMC layer. As the total Zn or Al content in the system increases by increasing solder volume, stable CuZn or Al2Cu IMCs form on the substrate and are not displaced. Increasing concentration of Zn has a similar effect of stabilizing the Cu-Zn IMC layer and also of forming a stable Cu5Zn8 layer, but increasing Al concentration alone does not prevent spalling of Al2Cu. These results are explained using a combination of thermodynamic- and kinetics-based arguments.

  13. Use of acoustic emission technique to study the spalling behaviour of oxide scales on Ni-10Cr-8Al containing sulphur and/or yttrium impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.S.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Jonas, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now well established that the presence of small amounts of sulphur impurity in a NiCrAl-based alloy causes a deleterious effect on their high temperature oxidation behaviour. It is, however, not clear whether the adverse effect is due to a decrease in the spalling resistance of the oxide scale or due to an enhanced scale growth. In order to confirm which of the factors is dominating, two independent experimental techniques were used in the investigation of the oxidation behaviour of Ni-10Cr-8Al containing sulphur- and/or yttrium additions: conventional thermogravimetry, to study the scale growth rates and acoustic emission analysis to study the scale adherence. The results indicated that the dominant factor responsible for the deleterious effect of sulphur impurity on the oxidation of a Ni-10Cr-8Al alloy, was a significant change in the growth rate and the composition of the scale. Addition of yttrium improved the oxidation behaviour, not only by increasing the scale adherence, but also by reducing the scale growth due to gettering of sulphur. (orig.) [de

  14. Specific features of the occurrence, development, and re-compaction of spall and shear fractures in spherically-convergent shells made of unalloyed iron and some steels under their spherical explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.A.; Brichikov, S.A.; Gorbachev, D.M.; Brodova, I.G.; Yablonskikh, T.I.

    2007-01-01

    Results of comparative metallographic examination of recovered shells exposed to explosive loading in two modes (with and without a heavy casing confining explosion products scatter) are presented. The shells were made of high-purity and technical-grade unalloyed iron with the initial grain size 250 and 125 μm, steel 30KhGSA in delivery state and quenched up to HR C 35...40, austenitic stainless steel 12Kh18N10T. The heavy casing used in experiments is demonstrated to ensure a rather compact convergence of shells destroyed at high radii. In the described comparative experiments, one managed to compile the 12Kh18N10T steel shell, after it was spalled at high radii and exposed to shear fracture and spallation layer fragmentation at medium radii, into a compact sphere but failed to do the same with the 30KhGSA quenched steel shell after it was fractured according to spall and shear mechanisms at high and medium radii. Polar zones of this steel shell have obvious undercompressed areas due to significant dissipative losses to overcome the shear strength. Occurrence, development, and re-compaction of spall and shear fractures in spherically-convergent shells made of materials, which were already carefully investigated in 1D- and 2D-geometry experiments, were systematically studied in order to verify and validate new physical models of dynamic fractures, as well as up-to-date used in 1D-, 2D- and 3D-numerical algorithms [ru

  15. Spall Strength of Tungsten Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    1 PCS GROUP CAVENDISH LABORATORY W G PROUD MADINGLEY RD CAMBRIDGE UNITED KINGDOM 1 CENTRE D ETUDES DE GRAMAT J Y TRANCHET...46500 GRAMAT FRANCE 1 MINISTERE DE LA DEFENSE DR G BRAULT DGA DSP STTC 4 RUE DE LA PORTE DISSY 75015 PARIS FRANCE 1 SPART

  16. Mesoscale simulation of concrete spall failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S.; Sauer, M.; Millon, O.; Riedel, W.

    2012-05-01

    Although intensively studied, it is still being debated which physical mechanisms are responsible for the increase of dynamic strength and fracture energy of concrete observed at high loading rates, and to what extent structural inertia forces on different scales contribute to the observation. We present a new approach for the three dimensional mesoscale modelling of dynamic damage and cracking in concrete. Concrete is approximated as a composite of spherical elastic aggregates of mm to cm size embedded in an elastic cement stone matrix. Cracking within the matrix and at aggregate interfaces in the μm range are modelled with adaptively inserted—initially rigid—cohesive interface elements. The model is applied to analyse the dynamic tensile failure observed in Hopkinson-Bar spallation experiments with strain rates up to 100/s. The influence of the key mesoscale failure parameters of strength, fracture energy and relative weakening of the ITZ on macromechanic strength, momentum and energy conservation is numerically investigated.

  17. A systematization of glaze spalling in azulejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detachment of the glaze in azulejos is the ultimate form of decay, since it leads to the loss of the pictorial content. The detachment is usually considered in a diffuse way, however a close observation allows recognizing several types, often related to crazing, which this paper proposes to systematize.

  18. Spalled, aerodynamically modified moldavite from Slavice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.

    1964-01-01

    A Czechoslovakian tektite or moldavite shows clear, indirect evidence of aerodynamic ablation. This large tektite has the shape of a teardrop, with a strongly convex, deeply corroded, but clearly identifiable front and a planoconvex, relatively smooth, posterior surface. In spite of much erosion and corrosion, demarcation of the posterior and the anterior part of the specimen (the keel) is clearly preserved locally. This specimen provides the first tangible evidence that moldavites entered the atmosphere cold, probably at a velocity exceeding 5 kilometers per second; the result was selective heating of the anterior face and perhaps ablation during the second melting. This provides evidence of the extraterrestial origin of moldavites.

  19. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  20. Iron Damage and Spalling Behavior below and above Shock Induced α ε Phase Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltz, Christophe; Buy, Francois; Roy, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The study of dynamic damage and fracture of iron has been undertaken below and above phase transition by series of time resolved experiments using both light gas launcher and powder gun. Shock wave tests were conducted by symmetrical impacts of high purity iron. To reveal the material behavior we have done shock experiments where the target is covered with a window in order to limit release amplitude and to avoid specimen fragmentation. Metallurgical analysis of soft recovered samples yields information about damage and fracture processes related to thermo-mechanical loading paths. Tests conducted without window allow studying effects of both phase change and release transition. Optical and SEM characterizations lead us to observe several modes of damage: brittle, ductile diffuse with void growth and heavily localized smooth one. These figures are related with: rarefaction shock waves or interfaces between transformed and not transformed iron. Simulations are performed with the 1D to compare experimental data with numerical results. We explain post-mortem observations by the complex shock wave structure interactions: P1 and P2 shock fronts associated with some corresponding shock release during unloading stages

  1. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  2. Detection of hydrogen in hidden and spalled layers of turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, H.-E. [DECHEMA e. V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: zschau@dechema.de; Dietrich, M. [DECHEMA e. V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Renusch, D. [DECHEMA e. V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Schuetze, M. [DECHEMA e. V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Meijer, J. [Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum, Dynamitron-Tandem-Labor, Universitaetsstr. 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Becker, H.-W. [Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum, Dynamitron-Tandem-Labor, Universitaetsstr. 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Gas turbine blades are covered with an outer ceramic top coat and an inner metallic bond coat, namely a thermal barrier coating system (TBC). The stability of the TBC is strongly influenced by the thermally growing oxide (TGO) which forms between the top and bond coat during turbine operation. This work is focused on the role of hydrogen in the adhesion of the top coat after oxidation at 1100 deg. C in dry and wet air at various time steps between 75 and 1150 h. To obtain the essential hydrogen information from the TGO the nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C is used with a unique scattering chamber (SDIBA). This equipment combines the defined exfoliation of the top coat by using a 4-points bending mechanism followed by IBA. This allows the determination of hydrogen concentration depth profiles at the TGO and first results are presented.

  3. The Role of Second Phase Intermetallic Particles on the Spall Failure of 5083 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Bradley Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen, MD A reprint from Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials. 2016;2:476–483...Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 2 Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 123 J...2016) 2:476–483 479 123 ligaments between cracks and a second phase intermetallic particle (identified by black arrow) above the crack with an average

  4. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2000-01-01

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall

  5. Thermal stress estimation in relation to spalling of HSC restrained with steel rings at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanibe T.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study regarding the behavior of steel ring-restrained concrete in response to fire exposure. The study was conducted to enable estimation of thermal stress based on steel ring strain in such concrete under the conditions of a RABT 30 heating curve. The specimens used were made from high-strength concrete (Fc: 80 MPa restrained using steel rings with thicknesses of 0.5, 8 and 18 mm.

  6. Lifetime-determining spalling mechanisms of NiCoCrAlRe/EB-PVD zirconia TBC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritscher, K.; Schulz, U. [DLR - German Aerospace Center, Institute of Materials Research, 51170 Cologne (Germany); Leyens, C. [Technical University of Brandenburg (BTU) Cottbus, Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The mechanisms that control the lifetime of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems have been traced by two particular overlay bondcoats serving as model systems: superalloy pins (IN100, CMSX-4) with two alternative NiCoCrAlRE (RE: Hf, Y) bond coat compositions (i) NiCoCrAlY without and (ii) with co-dopants of silicon and hafnium. On top an electron-beam physical-vapor deposited (EB-PVD) yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) TBC commonly mixed with 2 wt.% hafnia, or, rarely with 10 wt.%, was applied. The test pins were thermo-cycled at 1100 and 1150 C until failure. Identical lifetimes in cyclic tests on YPSZ TBCs with 2 (relatively high sintering rate) and 10 wt.% hafnia (relatively low sintering rate) preclude an effect of diffusion mechanisms of the YPSZ TBC on lifetime. The fit of lifetimes and test temperatures to Arrhenius-type relationships gives activation energies for failure. These energies agree with the activation energies for anion and cation diffusion in alumina for the respective bondcoat variant: (i) for the NiCoCrAlY/TBC system for O{sup 2-} diffusion in alumina, (ii) for the NiCoCrAlYSiHf/TBC system for Al{sup 3+} diffusion in alumina. SEM and EDS investigations of the thermally grown oxides (TGOs) confirm the mechanisms responsible for TBC failure as indicated by activation energies. Two categories of failure can be distinguished: (i) NiCoCrAlY coatings fail by an ''adhesive mode of failure'' along smooth bond coat/TGO interfaces driven by a critical TGO thickness. (ii) NiCoCrAlYSiHf coatings fail later and more reluctantly by a ''cohesive'' crack mode via de-cohesion at the TGO/TBC interface. In the latter case a quasi-integrity of the crack-affected TGO is lengthily maintained up to failure by a crack-pinning mechanism which runs via Al{sup 3+} supply from the bondcoat. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Mechanismen, welche die Lebensdauer von Waermedaemmschichtsystemen bestimmen, wurden modellhaft anhand von zwei unterschiedlichen Auflagehaftschichten verfolgt. Dazu wurden Superlegierungsstiftproben (IN100, CMSX-4) mit zwei alternativen NiCoCrAlRE (RE: Hf, Y) Haftschichten versehen: (1.) NiCoCrAlY ohne und (2.) mit Silizium + Hafnium-Doppeldotierung. Darauf wurde eine Waermedaemmschicht mit 2 bzw. in Stichproben 10 Masse % HfO{sub 2} elektronenstrahlaufgedampft. Die Proben wurden bei 1100 und 1150 C bis zum Schichtversagen thermozykliert. Der Einfluss von Diffusionsvorgaengen in der YPSZ Waermedaemmschicht auf die Lebensdauer konnte anhand gleicher Lebensdauern in zyklischen Tests an Schichten mit 2 (rel. stark sinteraktiv) und 10 Masse % HfO{sub 2} (rel. schwach sinteraktiv) ausgeschlossen werden. Die arrheniusmaessige Verknuepfung von Lebensdauer- und Temperaturdaten resultiert in eine Aktivierungsenergie der Lebensdauern. Diese Werte stimmen mit der Aktivierungsenergie fuer Anionen- und Kationendiffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} folgendermassen ueberein: (1.) fuer das NiCoCrAlY-System fuer O{sup 2-}-Diffusion (= O{sup 2-}-dominiertes Zunderdickenwachstum), (2.) fuer das NiCoCrAlYSiHf-System fuer Al{sup 3+}-Diffusion im Zunder. Rasterelektronenoptische Untersuchungen der Zunderschichten bestaetigen den wahrscheinlichen Versagensmechanismus, wie durch die Aktivierungsenergien angedeutet, und charakterisieren zwei Versagenskategorien: (1.) NiCoCrAlY-Proben werfen die Waermedaemmschicht entlang der Grenzflaeche Haftschicht/Zunder im sog. ''adhaesiven Bruchmodus'' bei Erreichen einer kritischen Zunderdicke ab. (2.) NiCoCrAlYSiHf-Proben zeigen ein wesentlich spaeteres und zoegerlicheres Bruchverhalten im sog. ''kohaesiven Modus'' im Bereich der Grenzflaeche Zunder/Waermedaemmschicht; dabei wird kontinuierlich eine Quasi-Stabilitaet der stark rissbehafteten Waermedaemmschicht aufrecht erhalten durch einen Rissbegrenzungsmechanismus, der durch die Verfuegbarkeit von Al{sup 3+}-Ionen aus der Haftschicht ermoeglicht wird. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. A novel kerf-free wafering process combining stress-induced spalling and low energy hydrogen implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingault, Timothee; Pokam-Kuisseu, Pauline Sylvia; Ntsoenzok, Esidor [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Blondeau, Jean-Philippe [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Universite d' Orleans, Chateau de la Source, 45100 Orleans (France); Ulyashin, Alexander [SINTEF, Forskningsveien 1, 0314 Oslo (Norway); Labrim, Hicham; Belhorma, Bouchra [CNESTEN, B.P. 1382 R.P., 10001 Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we studied the potential use of low-energy hydrogen implantation as a guide for the stress-induced cleavage. Low-energy, high fluence hydrogen implantation in silicon leads, in the right stiffening conditions, to the detachment of a thin layer, around a few hundreds nm thick, of monocrystalline silicon. We implanted monocrystalline silicon wafers with low-energy hydrogen, and then glued them on a cheap metal layer. Upon cooling down, the stress induced by the stressor layers (hardened glue and metal) leads to the detachment of a thin silicon layer, which thickness is determined by the implantation energy. We were then able to clearly demonstrate that, as expected, hydrogen oversaturation layer is very efficient to guide the stress. Using such process, thin silicon layers of around 710 nm-thick were successfully detached from low-energy implanted silicon wafers. Such layers can be used for the growth of very good quality monocrystalline silicon of around 50 μm-thick or less. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. An Analytical Evaluation of Spall Suppression of Impulsively Loaded Aluminum Panels Based on a One Dimensional Stress Wave Propagation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    continued support in this research work. The author also wishes to thank Mr. Ronald E. Musante , Mr. Anthony P. Lee and the staff of FMC Corporation’s...West Point, New York 10996 8. Mr. R. E. Musante Manager, Armor Design Group Ordnance Division FMC Corporation California 90041 1105 Coleman Ave., Box

  9. The shock and spall response of three industrially important hexagonal close-packed metals: magnesium, titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, P J; Appleby-Thomas, G J; Wielewski, E; Escobedo, J P

    2014-08-28

    Magnesium, titanium and zirconium and their alloys are extensively used in industrial and military applications where they would be subjected to extreme environments of high stress and strain-rate loading. Their hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystal lattice structures present interesting challenges for optimizing their mechanical response under such loading conditions. In this paper, we review how these materials respond to shock loading via plate-impact experiments. We also discuss the relationship between a heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, typical of HCP materials, and the directional dependency of the elastic limit and, in some cases, the strength prior to failure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. «Tu, solo, con la storia alle spalle». Durs Grünbein e la DDR: un bilancio critico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vecchiato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses some of the most significant (post-GDR poems by Grünbein and traces the development of aesthetic and poetological issues that are central to the poet’s oeuvre. It provides an articulated overview of Grünbein’s poetics by examining funda­mental themes like the love/hate attitude towards his hometown Dresden, the comple­mentary concepts of history and memory, and the materialism of the body as an antidote to utopias.

  11. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  12. Validation of FEM models describing moisture transport in heated concrete by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Overbeek, van A.B.M.; Heijden, van der G.H.A.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Fire safety of buildings and structures is an important issue, and has a great impact on human life and economy. One of the processes negatively affecting the strength of a concrete building or structure during fire is spalling. Many examples exists in which spalling of concrete during fire has

  13. Design of fire resistant concrete structures, using validated Fem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Overbeek, van A.B.M.; Heijden, van der G.H.A.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Schlangen, E.; Schlutter, de G.

    2008-01-01

    Fire safety of buildings and structures is an important issue, and has a great impact on human life and economy. One of the processes negatively affecting the strength of a concrete building or structure during fire is spalling. Many examples exists in which spalling of concrete during fire has

  14. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  15. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  16. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture

  17. Behavior and analysis of an integral abutment bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    As a result of abutment spalling on the integral abutment bridge over 400 South Street in Salt Lake City, Utah, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) instigated research measures to better understand the behavior of integral abutment bridges. ...

  18. Type I fitting of copper tubes from a water distribution system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available with a greenish scale of a copper compound called malachite. Beneath this scale, the tube surface is covered with a smooth, shiny layer of dark cuprite which is very friable and easily spalled off. Pits are usually...

  19. An Improved SPH Technique for Fracture Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Libersky, Larry

    2000-01-01

    .... With these improvements, the MAGI code could solve the enormously complex problem of simulating Behind-Armor-Debris and subsequent interaction of the spall cloud with threat target components as well...

  20. Assessment of the exit defects in carbon fibre-reinforced plastic plates caused by drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Houjiang; Zhang Liangchi [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering; Chen Wuyi; Chen Dingchang [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, BJ (China). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This paper investigates the formation of the exit defects in carbon fibre-reinforced plates and characterizes their features in terms of drilling conditions. It was found that spalling and fuzzing are the major mechanisms of exit defects. The spalling, consisting of a main region and a secondary region, is caused by chisel and cutting edge actions, in which the former plays a key role. The fuzzing, however, exists in the cutting region where the included angle between the fibre direction of the surface layer and that of the cutting speed is acute. A severer spalling damage corresponds to a high spindle speed, a large feed rate and a great thrust force. Some empirical relationships, including a dimensionless formula, were developed for assessing the characteristic dimension of the spalling damage based on the known drilling conditions. (orig.)

  1. Linear Cracking in Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Concrete cracking in bridge decks remains an important issue relative to deck durability. Cracks can allow increased penetration of chlorides, which can result in premature corrosion of the reinforcing steel and subsequent spalling of the concrete de...

  2. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    ...) technology demonstrator and Crusader self-propelled howitzer platforms. Present integral armor manufacturing processes involve adhesive bonding of a composite structure with ballistic armor tiles, spall shield, and nuisance cover...

  3. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  4. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  5. Testing of the melter lid refractory for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Jain, V.; Mahoney, J.L.; Holman, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Monofrax H and Mulfrax 202 refractory were tested for potential application as the melter lid refractory for the WVDP. Resistance to spalling and corrosion by the slurry and offgas salts were primary criteria for selection. Test specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 450 and 1,100C for five weeks. Visual examination indicated some corrosion but no spalling. SEM/EDS analysis was performed to determine the glass/refractory interface corrosion mechanism. The refractory selection basis will be discussed

  6. Development of Laboratory Testing Criteria for Evaluating Cementitious, Rapid-Setting Pavement Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Squadron, Engineer (RED HORSE) squadrons, and Prime BEEF (Base Engineer Emergency Force) units. Additional users of this report include Army, Navy...approved AFRL 10 2007 PavePatch 3000 Conspec Co. Fail Not approved AFRL 11 2007 Premium Patch 200 Pre-Blend Products, Inc. Fail Expeditionary spall...damaged pavement. A small patch is not limited to spall repair as it may replace pavement damaged within a slab, such as a small utility cut . Large

  7. Complex investigation of thermo-technical parameters of Ruskov andesite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krepelka

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research of thermo-technical parameters of Ruskov andesite was made as a part of the complex research of its properties as well as of rock disintegration by the action of chemical flame on the rock surface, i.e. thermal spalling in particular. Thermal spalling is a process in which thermal stresses are induced in the surface layer of rock whose surface is thereby disintegrated into small parts, the so called spalls, by the brittle manner. The evaluation of thermo-technical properties of the studied rocks is necessary for the qualification and quantification of the thermal spalling process. The measured and evaluated parameters were the coefficient of linear thermal expansion, the coefficient of thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity and the coefficient of thermal diffusivity. Andesite from the Ruskov locality was chosen as a basic experimental material for the investigation of thermal spalling upon preliminary experiments. The estimated thermo-technical parameters were analyzed regarding the application of thermal spalling for the disintegration of the Ruskov andesite. The outcome as that the values of determine thermo-technical parameters established an expectation for its successful application.

  8. DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SHOCK LOADED THIN URANIUM FOILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.L.; Kelly, A.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Snow, R.C.; Gehr, R.J.; Rupp, Ted Dean; Sheffield, S.A.; Stahl, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    A series of spall experiments has been completed with thin depleted uranium targets, nominally 0.1 mm thick. The first set of uranium spall targets was cut and ground to final thickness from electro-refined, high-purity, cast uranium. The second set was rolled to final thickness from low purity uranium. The impactors for these experiments were laser-launched 0.05-mm thick copper flyers, 3 mm in diameter. Laser energies were varied to yield a range of flyer impact velocities. This resulted in varying degrees of damage to the uranium spall targets, from deformation to complete spall or separation at the higher velocities. Dynamic measurements of the uranium target free surface velocities were obtained with dual velocity interferometers. Uranium targets were recovered and sectioned after testing. Free surface velocity profiles were similar for the two types of uranium, but spall strengths (estimated from the magnitude of the pull-back signal) are higher for the high-purity cast uranium. Velocity profiles and microstructural evidence of spall from the sectioned uranium targets are presented.

  9. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi; Monshi, Ahmad; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. → MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. → Retained austenite conversion to α'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. → Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr) 7 C 3 , may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  10. High strain rates spallation phenomena with relation to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, E.

    1997-11-01

    Theoretical spall strength, defined as the stress needed to separate a material along a plane surface instantaneously, is one order of magnitude larger then the measured spell strength at strain rates up to 10 6 s -1 . The discrepancy is explained by material initial flaws and cavities which grow and coalesce under stress and weaken the material. Measurements of spall strength of materials shocked by a high power laser shows a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at strain rates of about 10 7 s -1 . This indicates that the initial flaws does not have time to coalesce and the interatomic forces become dominant. In order to break the material more cavities must be created. This cavities are characterized by the interatomic forces and are created statistically: material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and due to thermal fluctuations cavities are formed. Cavities larger than a certain critical size grow due to the stress. They grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. The theoretical results predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates, as observed experimentally. (authors)

  11. Anomaly in the dynamic strength of austenitic stainless steel 12Cr19Ni10Ti under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement results for the shock wave compression profiles of 12Cr19Ni10Ti steel and its dynamic strength in the strain rate range 105-106 s-1 are presented. The protracted viscous character of the spall fracture is revealed. With the previously obtained data taken into account, the measurement results are described by a polynomial relation, which can be used to construct the fracture kinetics. On the lower boundary of the range, the resistance to spall fracture is close to the value of the true strength of the material under standard low-rate strain conditions; on the upper boundary, the spall strength is more than twice greater than this quantity. An increase in the temperature results in a decrease in both the dynamic limit of elasticity and the spall fracture strength of steel. The most interesting result is the anomaly in the dependence of the spall fracture strength on the duration of the shock wave compression pulse, which is related to the formation of deformation martensite near the growing discontinuities.

  12. Determination on Damage Mechanism of the Planet Gear of Heavy Vehicle Final Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdan, RD; Setiawan, R.; Sasmita, F.; Suratman, R.; Taufiqulloh

    2018-02-01

    The works focus on the investigation of damage mechanism of fractured in the form of spalling of the planet gears from the final drive assembly of 160-ton heavy vehicles. The objective of this work is to clearly understand the mechanism of damage. The work is the first stage of the on-going research on the remaining life estimation of such gears. The understanding of the damage mechanism is critical in order to provide accurate estimate of the gear’s remaining life with observed initial damage. The analysis was performed based on the metallurgy laboratory works, including visual observation, macro-micro fractography by optical stereo and optical microscope and micro-vickers hardness test. From visual observation it was observed pitting that form lining defect at common position, which is at gear flank position. From spalling sample it was observed ratchet mark at the boundary between macro pitting and the edge of fractured parts. Further observation on the cross-section of the samples by optical microscope confirm that initial micro pitting occur without spalling of the case hardened surface. Spalling occur when pitting achieve certain critical size, and occur at multiple initiation site of crack propagation. From the present research it was concluded that pitting was resulted due to repeated contact fatigue. In addition, development of micro to macro pitting as well as spalling occur at certain direction towards the top of the gear teeth.

  13. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  14. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process

  15. Influence of the shot-peening treatment on the CRF gearing behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinie, D.; Lemaire, E.; Randrianarivo, L.; Dorier, C.

    1998-01-01

    Surface damage are observed in service on CRF case-hardened cases. Such damage is like surface fatigue which appears in the form of frosting and can come to a micro-spalling or even a spalling damage. Survey and studies realised on gears affected by such damage, led EDF and the manufacturer to search for appropriated solutions since 1985 (optimisation of the gear bottom profile, care of the grinding and the thermochemical processing, use of oils with higher viscosity). Simulations on a running wheel device can reproduce the meshing conditions on simplified specimen. The aim is to study the influence of residual stresses following a severe grinding and shot peening treatments. An empiric selection was realised among different shot peening treatments. Endurance tests are realised on case-hardened gears with or without shot-peening treatments. Compared with standard grinded gears, it appears that the shot-peening selected increases up to 40% the gear lifetime till extended spalling. (authors)

  16. Planetary Gearbox Fault Detection Using Vibration Separation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; Ehinger, Ryan T.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Studies were performed to demonstrate the capability to detect planetary gear and bearing faults in helicopter main-rotor transmissions. The work supported the Operations Support and Sustainment (OSST) program with the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) and Bell Helicopter Textron. Vibration data from the OH-58C planetary system were collected on a healthy transmission as well as with various seeded-fault components. Planetary fault detection algorithms were used with the collected data to evaluate fault detection effectiveness. Planet gear tooth cracks and spalls were detectable using the vibration separation techniques. Sun gear tooth cracks were not discernibly detectable from the vibration separation process. Sun gear tooth spall defects were detectable. Ring gear tooth cracks were only clearly detectable by accelerometers located near the crack location or directly across from the crack. Enveloping provided an effective method for planet bearing inner- and outer-race spalling fault detection.

  17. Hard-rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    Intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this technique appears promising for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a pulsed electron tunnel excavator, capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods, is presented. (auth)

  18. Hard rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    Intense submicrosecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types, the spall debris generally consisting of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods were studied. (auth)

  19. Innovative techniques for removing concrete surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report centers on the use of heat to decompose contaminated concrete to facilitate its removal. It discusses the use of electrical resistance heating and induction heating to cause differential expansion between the reinforcing steel and the concrete in order to spall the concrete. It introduces the concept of using induction heating to both decompose and spall steel impregnated concrete, acknowledging the work of Charles H. Henager in this field. The techniques are offered as theoretical and untested possibilities. Their practical application depends upon the effectiveness of alternatives and upon further development of these concepts

  20. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  1. Expansible apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object are described. The method consists of providing a hole having a circular wall in the surface layer of the object, the hole being at least as deep as the thickness of the surface layer to be removed, and applying an outward wedging pressure on the wall of the hole sufficient to spall the surface layer around the hole. By the proper spacing of an appropriate number of holes, it is possible to remove the entire surface layer. The apparatus consists of an elongated tubular-shaped body having a relatively short handle with a solid wall at one end. The wall of the remainder of the body contains a plurality of evenly spaced longitudinal cuts to form a relatively long expandable section. The outer end of the expandable section has an expandable, wedge-shaped spalling edge extending from the outer surface of the wall, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and expanding means in the body for outwardly expanding the expandable section and forcing the spalling edge into the wall of a hole with sufficient outward pressure to spall away the surface layer of concrete. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for removing surface layers of concrete which are radioactively contaminated

  2. Morte e assenza di pianto rituale: il controllo delle emozioni tra i guerriglieri tamil dello Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Natali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [Al Passo dell’Elefante] stavamo combattendo una battaglia molto feroce(…; ho caricato sulle spalle la soldatessa ferita e l’ho trasportata nelluogo in cui venivano curati i feriti. Mentre la trasportavo era ancora viva.Ma nel momento in cui l’ho appoggiata sulla stuoia ha esalato l’ultimorespiro (1 dicembre 2002, p. 8.

  3. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development Support: Delivery Order: Fundamental Science Investigations for Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    applied atomic and molecular spectroscopy, thermophysics and high temperature dielectric materials, thermal nanofluids for heat transfer...Films Doped With BZO, Y203, and BSnO .......................... 13 APPENDIX B Ball Bearing Raceway Fatigue Spall Propagation...APPENDIX H Flow Loop Experiments Using PAO/CNT Nanofluids ............................................................. 115 APPENDIX I Thermal

  4. Corrosion initiation and propagation in cracked concrete - a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, J.; Polder, R.

    2012-01-01

    The major degradation mechanism in civil engineering concrete structures is corrosion of reinforcement due to chloride penetration. Corrosion reduces serviceability and safety due to cracking and spalling of concrete and loss of steel cross section. Recently, service life design has moved from

  5. Sinkhole formation by groundwater withdrawal: far west rand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foose, R M

    1967-09-01

    Sinkholes up to 125 meters wide and 50 meters deep have developed catastrophically in thick unconsolidated debris above pinnacle-weathered dolomite after lowering of the groundwater surface by at least 160 meters. They are caused by shrinkage of desiccated debris, downward migration of debris into bedrock openings, and upward growth of multiple debris "caverns" by roof spalling.

  6. Experimental study of dynamic fragmentation of shockloaded metals below and above melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rességuier T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The breakout and reflection of a strong shock-wave upon the free surface of a metallic sample may lead to ejecta production of many types. Spall fracture is due to tensile stresses which result from the interaction of the incident and the reflected release waves. When the sample remains in solid state, one or several layers of finite thickness, called spalls, can be created and ejected. When melting is initiated during shock-wave propagation, tensile stresses are generated in a liquid medium and lead to the creation of an expanding cloud of liquid debris. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as microspalling, consists in a dynamic fragmentation process in the melted material. The present paper is devoted to the experimental investigation of the transition from spall fracture in solid state to the micro-spalling process in molten metals. This study, realized on tin and on iron, involves different shock generators (gas gun, pulsed laser… and diagnostics (velocimetry, high-speed optical shadowgraphy, fragments recovery.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING FAILURES IN NIGERIA: LAGOS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common failures seen on buildings were wall cracking, wall spalling, foundation settlement, column buckling, etc. Proper assurance of competent professionals and strict enforcement of ethical standards by the Nigerian Society of Engineers, the Nigerian Institute of Building, and the Nigerian Institute of Architects would ...

  8. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  9. La relatività e il senso comune nuova introduzione alle idee di Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, Hermann

    1965-01-01

    Sulle spalle dei giganti ; la quantità di moto ; la rotazione ; la luce ; propagazione delle onde sonore ; singolarità della luce ; il senso comune ; la natura del tempo ; la velocità ; coordinate e trasformazioni di Lorentz ; più veloci della luce ? ; l'accelerazione ; la massa.

  10. Effect of moisture on tuff stone degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Tuff stone elements with a large length/width ratio often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if differential dilation between parts with

  11. Effect of moisture on tuffstone weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.; Tolboom, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Tuffstone elements with a large length/width ratio, as e.g. mullions, often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if a differential dilation

  12. Small Portable Analyzer Diagnostic Equipment (SPADE) Program -- Diagnostic Software Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Electronic Equipment Electromagnetic Emission and Susceptibility Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Electromagnetic...ONLY. ORIENTATION OF DEFECT LOOKING HHO QIlILL: t -ed’-o· Significant efforts were expended to simulate spalling failures associated with naturally

  13. lui, lei e l'altra: trasfigurazione di sibilla aleramo e l'identità femminile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (nom de plume di Rina Faccio) ha trentasei anni e già alle spalle, giovanissima, un ... propria identità femminile non più all'interno del sistema patriarcale ma ..... seguire e rispondere sempre e a qualsiasi costo alla legge interiore “per una ...

  14. Preliminary investigations of potential light weight metallic armour applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, M.J. van de; Diederen, A.M.; Herlaar, K.

    2005-01-01

    Now that an industrial-scale low-cost production route for ballistic-grade titanium is within reach, the potential use of titanium armour could depend on a solution for the spalling of high strength titanium. This paper addresses a titanium based metal laminate as being a possible solution for the

  15. Specific Features of the Response of Cerium to Pulsed Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroshenko, S. A.; Zubareva, A. N.; Morozov, V. A.; Savenkov, G. G.; Utkin, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental studies of cerium at high rates and nanosecond durations of action have been performed. The isomorphic phase transition was studied upon shock compression. The spall strength of cerium has been determined. Cerium demonstrates anomalous compressibility upon dynamic loading. Stress waves dampen under action of a high-current electron beam due to the energy dissipation during fragmentation and twinning.

  16. X-ray microtomography study of the spallation response in Ta-W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S A; Withers, P J; Cotton, M; Millett, J C F; Bourne, N K

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the damage field resulting from spallation due to shock induced loading is an important aspect of understanding the mechanisms controlling the dynamic tensile failure process. Furthermore, the ability to observe in three-dimensions, and in a non-invasive manner, the physical damage present in a spalled sample post-impact can provide important data for predictive damage models. In the current study, the influence of peak shock stress and pulse duration on the spallation damage response in the tantalum alloy Ta-2.5% W is presented. Rear surface velocimetry (HetV) measurements from plate impact experiments have been combined with 3-D characterisation and quantification of the resulting damage evolution in the recovered targets using X-ray microtomography. Small differences in spall strength are observed - an increase in the pulse duration results in a decrease in spall strength, while spall strength increases with increase in peak shock stress. The level of damaged induced (void coalescence) is more significant for an increase in pulse duration, with a local damage volume fraction double that of the case for an increase in peak shock stress.

  17. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  18. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Šavija, B.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion

  19. Laser-driven planar impact of miniature specimens of HY-100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, David J.; Robbins, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of HY-100, a high-strength steel, under high strain-rate planar-impact conditions, has been studied with the Laser-Driven Miniflyer apparatus. Cold-rolled copper flyers 3 mm in diameter and either 50 or 100 microns thick have been laser-launched against HY-100 targets, 200 microns thick and nominally 10 mm square. The target specimens were sectioned from the 25-mm-thick HY-100 plate in three mutually perpendicular orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the plate rolling direction. The back-surface response of the HY-100 targets was monitored with dual VISARs. The flyer velocity was varied to produce a range of behavior, from deformation at low velocities, to damage formation at intermediate velocities, and finally to complete spall failure at the highest velocities. The target specimens were sectioned after testing to examine the microstructure and failure processes of the deformed material. Spall strengths were calculated from the VISAR signals. The VISAR traces showed well-defined elastic precursors, which were similar for all orientations of the specimens. The spall strengths, as estimated from the magnitude of the pullback signal, were also similar for all three orientations. The spall strength increased as the flyer impact velocity increased, to values of about 4.6 GPa. Metallographic examination revealed that damage occurred at lower impact velocities in specimens loaded in the through-thickness direction of the plate, as compared to specimens oriented parallel to the plate thickness, but this difference was not reflected in the pull-back signal or the spall strengths

  20. Fracture strength of aluminium alloys under rapid loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.D.; Rav, Amit S.; Sur, Amit; Kaushik, T.C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-04-01

    Spall fracture strength and dynamic yield strength of aluminium alloys have been measured at high strain rates generated in plate impact experiments carried out at different impact velocities ranging from 174 m/s to 560 m/s using single stage gas gun facility. In each experiment, the free surface velocity history of the sample plate of aluminium alloy has been derived from time resolved Doppler shift measured employing indigenously developed velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). The free surface velocity history so determined has been used to evaluate the spall fracture strength and dynamic yield strength of the target material. The two kinds of alloys of aluminium namely Al2014-T4 and Al2024-T4 have been investigated in these experiments. In Al2014-T4 target plates, the spall strength determined from free surface velocity history recorded for impact velocities of 179 m/s, 307 m/s, 398 m/s and 495m/s is 0.90 GPa, 0.96 GPa, 1.0 GPa and 1.1 GPa, respectively. The average strain rates just ahead of spall pulse have been found to vary from ∼ 1.1×10 4 /s to 2.4×10 4 /s. The dynamic yield strength derived from the measured Hugoniot elastic limit ranges from 0.36 GPa to 0.40 GPa. The spall strength for Al2024-T4 samples has been determined to be 1.11 GPa, 1.18 GPa and 1.42 GPa, at impact velocities of 174 m/s, 377 m/s and 560 m/s, respectively. The corresponding average strain rates range from 1.9×104/s to 2.5×104/s. The dynamic yield strength of Al2024-T4 at these impact velocities has been found to vary from 0.37 GPa to 0.43 GPa. The measured spall strengths in all these experiments are higher than the quasi-static value of 0.511 GPa for Al2014-T4 and 0.470 GPa for Al2024. Similarly, the dynamic yield strengths are also larger than the quasi-static value of 0.355 GPa for Al2014-T4 and 0.360 GPa for Al2024-T4. These experimental studies suggest that at high strain rates, both the alloys of aluminium offer higher resistance against the tensile

  1. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.S. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to ``lean`` and ``rich`` sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the ``lean`` atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the ``rich`` atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a ``breakaway``-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  2. High strain rate deformation and fracture of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel', G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the dynamic elastic limit and spall strength under shock wave loading of specimens of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 with a thickness ranging from 0.25 to 10 mm at normal and elevated (to 550°C) temperatures. From the results of measurements of the decay of the elastic precursor of a shock compression wave, it has been found that the plastic strain rate behind the front of the elastic precursor decreases from 2 × 105 s-1 at a distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at a distance of 10 mm. The plastic strain rate in a shock wave is one order of magnitude higher than that in the elastic precursor at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy decreases as the solidus temperature is approached.

  3. The resistance to deformation and facture of magnesium ma2-1 under shock-wave loading at 293 k and 823 k of the temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, Gennady; Kanel, Gennady I.; Razorenov, Sergey V.

    2012-03-01

    The Hugoniot elastic limit and spall strength of Ma2-1 magnesium deformable alloy were measured at the sample thickness varied from 0.25 mm to 10 mm at room and elevated temperatures. By means of analysis of decay of an elastic precursor wave it is found that initial plastic strain rate decreases from 2×105 s-1 at distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at distance of 10 mm. The strain rate in plastic shock wave is by order of magnitude higher at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy grows with increasing the strain rate and decreases with approach to the solidus temperature.

  4. Self-compacting concrete containing different powders at elevated temperatures - Mechanical properties and changes in the phase composition of the paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiyari, S.; Allahverdi, A.; Rais-Ghasemi, M.; Zarrabi, B.A.; Parhizkar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Fire resistance of self-compacting concretes (SCC) containing limestone and quartz powders, with two different compressive strengths, were evaluated and compared with normal concretes (NC). The residual mechanical strengths of the mixes at different temperatures were measured. The changes in the phase composition of the cement pastes at high temperatures were examined with thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry methods. The SCC mixes showed a higher susceptibility to spalling at high temperatures but the NC mixes suffered much more from loss of the mechanical strengths. Both the powder types and the compressive strength notably influenced the fire behavior of the SCC. The quartz powder accelerated the hydration of the SCC cement paste at high temperatures, up to 500 o C. However, the quartz-contained SCC showed the highest risk of spalling among all the mixes. The results showed that the thermal analysis could be a useful device for evaluating the fire behavior of building materials.

  5. Self-compacting concrete containing different powders at elevated temperatures - Mechanical properties and changes in the phase composition of the paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiyari, S., E-mail: bakhtiyari@bhrc.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, A., E-mail: ali.allahverdi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rais-Ghasemi, M., E-mail: raissghasemi@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, B.A., E-mail: zarrabi@chalmers.se [Fire Technology Dep., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (Sweden); Parhizkar, T., E-mail: parhizkar@bhrc.ac.ir [Dep. of Concrete Technology, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-20

    Fire resistance of self-compacting concretes (SCC) containing limestone and quartz powders, with two different compressive strengths, were evaluated and compared with normal concretes (NC). The residual mechanical strengths of the mixes at different temperatures were measured. The changes in the phase composition of the cement pastes at high temperatures were examined with thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry methods. The SCC mixes showed a higher susceptibility to spalling at high temperatures but the NC mixes suffered much more from loss of the mechanical strengths. Both the powder types and the compressive strength notably influenced the fire behavior of the SCC. The quartz powder accelerated the hydration of the SCC cement paste at high temperatures, up to 500 {sup o}C. However, the quartz-contained SCC showed the highest risk of spalling among all the mixes. The results showed that the thermal analysis could be a useful device for evaluating the fire behavior of building materials.

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Souhegan River Watershed Dam Number 35 (NH 00435), NHWRB 175.21, Merrimack River Basin, New Ipswich, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    left end of the service platform has spalled over a 12 inch by 4 inch area. This spalling is attributed to excessive concrete vibra- tion. A...reinforced rod on ton of service platform exposed for 12"’ 1-f f Irescenct- NKone notedl Hon n E, com r)-1 12"’ x I" on headwa . seer- S age flowing through...3 nL 3 o m W(\\ +4 X -. = 0 wix .- X a kD X-~ W-I)~ + 0 5 Z I-- wJ 0 - U) w X -n = -o-Xb \\ W -- ~U)~.I-+ + -L a " fJ f It 1.Z’ X - r X tO U- -w LLI- W

  7. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final experiment design, monitoring results and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eng, Anders [Acuo Engineering AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The field part of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) was finished in 2004. The experiment was designed to induce and monitor the process of brittle failure, spalling, in a fractured rock mass under controlled conditions. The field part was successfully conducted and a large data set was obtained. This report presents the final design of the experiment, the results of the monitoring, and the observations made during the spalling process and when the spalled rock was removed. When heating of the rock was initiated the rock responded quickly. After only a few days the spalling process was activated in the notch, as indicated by the acoustic emission system, and shortly thereafter displacement readings were recorded. Contraction (radial expansion) of the rock was recorded by several instruments before the notch reached the instrument levels. This contraction is probably the result of a 3D re-distribution of the stresses. The temperature increase in the system was both slower and reached a steady state much earlier than predicted by the numerical models. The propagation of the notch was therefore halted after approximately one month of heating. The power to the electrical heaters was therefore doubled. Spalling then started up again, and in one month's time it had propagated to a depth of approximately five metres in the hole. A second steady state was now reached, but this time the heater power was kept constant for a while to let the rock settle before the confinement pressure was reduced from 700 kPa to 0 in decrements of 50 kPa. The rock mass response to the pressure drop was very limited until the pressure was lowered to approximately 200 kPa (the atmospheric pressure is not included in the given pressure values). Large displacements and a high acoustic emission hit frequency were then measured in the open hole. After the de-pressurization of the confined hole, the heaters were left on for approximately one week

  8. Estimating the Contact Endurance of the AISI 321 Stainless Steel Under Contact Gigacycle Fatigue Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrai, R. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Osintseva, A. L.; Malygina, I. Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical testing of the AISI 321 corrosion resistant austenitic steel for contact gigacycle fatigue has been conducted with the application of a new method of contact fatigue testing with ultrasonic frequency of loading according to a pulsing impact "plane-to-plane" contact scheme. It has been found that the contact endurance (the ability to resist the fatigue spalling) of the AISI 321 steel under contact gigacycle fatigue loading is determined by its plasticity margin and the possibility of additional hardening under contact loading. It is demonstrated that the appearance of localized deep and long areas of spalling on a material surface can serve as a qualitative characteristic for the loss of the fatigue strength of the AISI 321 steel under impact contact fatigue loading. The value of surface microhardness measured within contact spots and the maximum depth of contact damages in the peripheral zone of contact spots can serve as quantitative criteria for that purpose.

  9. Calculating the shrapnel generation and subsequent damage to first wall and optics components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Lew, B.; Curran, D.R.; Sanchez, J.; Anderson, A.; Tobin, M.

    1996-01-01

    This study computationally assesses the threat from shrapnel generation on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) first wall, final optics, and ultimately other target chamber components. Motion of the shrapnel is determined both by particle velocities resulting from the neutron deposition and by x-ray and ionic debris loading arising from explosion of the hohlraum. Material responses of different target area components are computed from one-dimensional and two-dimensional stress wave propagation codes. Well developed rate-dependent spall computational models are used for stainless steel spall and splitting. Severe cell distortion is accounted for in shine-shield and hohlraum-loading computations. Resulting distributions of shrapnel particles are traced to the first wall and optics and damage is estimated for candidate materials. First wall and optical material damage from shrapnel includes crater formation and associated extended cracking. 5 refs., 10 figs

  10. Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of Cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubareva, A. N.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Utkin, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.

  11. Experimental investigation of dynamic compression and spallation of cerium at pressures up to 6 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubareva, A N; Kolesnikov, S A; Utkin, A V

    2014-01-01

    In this study the experiments on one-dimensional dynamic compression of Cerium (Ce) samples to pressures of 0.5 to 6 GPa using various types of explosively driven generators were conducted. VISAR laser velocimeter was used to obtain Ce free surface velocity profiles. The isentropic compression wave was registered for γ-phase of Ce at pressures lower than 0.76 GPa that corresponds to γ-α phase transition pressure in Ce. Shock rarefaction waves were also registered in several experiments. Both observations were the result of the anomalous compressibility of γ-phase of Ce. On the basis of our experimental results the compression isentrope of Ce γ-phase was constructed. Its comparison with volumetric compression curves allowed to estimate the magnitude of shear stress at dynamic compression conditions for Ce. Spall strength measurements were also conducted for several samples. They showed a strong dependence of the spall strength of Ce on the strain rate.

  12. Research on Deterioration Mechanism of Concrete Materials in an Actual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause for deterioration of the concrete structure located in severe environment has been explored both in field and in laboratory. Serious cracking and spalling appeared upon surface of the concrete structure soon after the structure was put into service. Both alkali-aggregate reaction and freeze-thaw cycles may result in similar macro visible cracking and spalling. The possibility of alkali-aggregate reaction was excluded by both field survey and lab examination such as chemical analysis, petrographic analysis, and determination of alkali reactivity of aggregates. According to results of freeze-thaw cycles, impermeability testing, and microstructure analysis, it is deduced that the severe environmental conditions plus the relatively inferior frost resistance cause the deterioration of concrete. Usage of air entraining admixture can improve frost resistance and impermeability. Furthermore, new approaches to mitigate the deterioration of concrete used in severe environmental condition are discussed.

  13. Fracture mechanics model of stone comminution in ESWL and implications for tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Sturtevant, Bradford

    2000-07-01

    Focused shock waves administered during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) cause stone fragmentation. The process of stone fragmentation is described in terms of a dynamic fracture process. As is characteristic of all brittle materials, fragmentation requires nucleation, growth and coalescence of flaws, caused by a tensile or shear stress. The mechanisms, operative in the stone, inducing these stresses have been identified as spall and compression-induced tensile microcracks, nucleating at pre-existing flaws. These mechanisms are driven by the lithotripter-generated shock wave and possibly also by cavitation effects in the surrounding fluid. In this paper, the spall mechanism has been analysed, using a cohesive-zone model for the material. The influence of shock wave parameters, and physical properties of stone, on stone comminution is described. The analysis suggests a potential means to exploit the difference between the stone and tissue physical properties, so as to make stone comminution more effective, without increasing tissue damage.

  14. Direct drilling related releases from the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is that due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid. The second concerns the borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Available literature concerning both processes and a quantitative model for erosion are presented. Calculations are shown that confirm the importance of gas-induced spall but no definitive model is developed. It is concluded that constitutive data for decomposed waste must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess the full significance of this latter mechanism

  15. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  16. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  17. Plasma sprayed TiC coatings for first wall protection in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Laan, J.G. van der; Laas, L.; Mack, M.; Dvorak, M.

    1989-01-01

    For protection of plasma facing components in nuclear fusion devices thick titanium carbide coatings are being developed. Coatings have been produced by plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS) and low pressure (LPPS) and analyzed with respect to microstructure and chemical composition. Thermo-mechanical evaluation has been performed by applying short pulse laser heat flux tests. The influence of coating thickness and porosity on the resistance to spalling by thermal shocks appears to be more important than aspects of chemical composition. (author)

  18. Analysis of bearing stiffness variations, contact forces and vibrations in radially loaded double row rolling element bearings with raceway defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Dick; Howard, Carl; Sawalhi, Nader; Moazen Ahmadi, Alireza; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating and analyzing the quasi-static load distribution and varying stiffness of a radially loaded double row bearing with a raceway defect of varying depth, length, and surface roughness. The method is applied to ball bearings on gearbox and fan test rigs seeded with line or extended outer raceway defects. When balls pass through the defect and lose all or part of their load carrying capacity, the load is redistributed between the loaded balls. This includes balls positioned outside the defect such that good raceway sections are subjected to increased loading when a defect is present. The defective bearing stiffness varies periodically at the ball spacing, and only differs from the good bearing case when balls are positioned in the defect. In this instance, the stiffness decreases in the loaded direction and increases in the unloaded direction. For an extended spall, which always has one or more balls positioned in the defect, this results in an average stiffness over the ball spacing period that is lower in the loaded direction in comparison to both the line spall and good bearing cases. The variation in bearing stiffness due to the defect produces parametric excitations of the bearing assembly. The qualitative character of the vibration response correlates to the character of the stiffness variations. Rapid stiffness changes at a defect exit produce impulses. Slower stiffness variations due to large wavelength waviness features in an extended spall produce low frequency excitation which results in defect components in the velocity spectra. The contact forces fluctuate around the quasi-static loads on the balls, with rapid stiffness changes producing high magnitude impulsive force fluctuations. Furthermore, it is shown that analyzing the properties of the dynamic model linearized at the quasi-static solutions provides greater insight into the time-frequency characteristics of the vibration response. This is demonstrated by relating

  19. Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

    2014-03-01

    This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  20. THE USE OF SISAL FIBRE AS REINFORCEMENT IN CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Tolêdo Filho,Romildo Dias; Joseph,Kuruvilla; Ghavami,Khosrow; England,George Leslie

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inclusion of fibre reinforcement in concrete, mortar and cement paste can enhance many of the engineering properties of the basic materials, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength and resistance to fatigue, impact, thermal shock and spalling. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced, cement based composites. Investigations have been carried out in many countries on various mechanical prop...

  1. Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Velioukhanov, V.P.; Ioltoukhovski, A.Y.; Pogodin, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

  2. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-03-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments were made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapidly-pulsed scanning electron beam was designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods

  3. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-01-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments have been made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapid-pulsed scanning electron-beam has been designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods. (author)

  4. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  5. Dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-melted tin: experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Resseguier, T. [CNRS ENSMA, Lab Combust and Deton, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Dragon, A. [CNRS ENSMA, Mecan and Phys Mat Lab, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Roy, G. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals is an issue of considerable importance for both basic science and a variety of technological applications, such as pyrotechnics or inertial confinement fusion, the latter involving high energy laser irradiation of thin metallic shells. Whereas spall fracture in solid materials has been extensively studied for many years, little data can be found yet about the evolution of this phenomenon after partial or full melting on compression or on release. Here, we present an investigation of dynamic fragmentation in laser shock-melted tin, from the 'micro-spall' process (ejection of a cloud of fine droplets) occurring upon reflection of the compressive pulse from the target free surface, to the late rupture observed in the un-spalled melted layer (leading to the formation of larger spherical fragments). Experimental results consist of time-resolved velocity measurements and post-shock observations of recovered targets and fragments. They provide original information regarding the loss of tensile strength associated with melting, the cavitation mechanism likely to occur in the melted metal, the sizes of the subsequent fragments and their ejection velocities. A theoretical description based on an energetic approach adapted to the case of a liquid metal is implemented as a failure criterion in a one-dimensional hydro-code including a multi-phase equation of state for tin. The resulting predictions of the micro-spall process are compared with experimental data. In particular, the use of a new experimental technique to quantify the fragment size distributions leads to a much better agreement with theory than previously reported. Finally, a complementary approach focused on cavitation is proposed to evaluate the role of this phenomenon in the fragmentation of the melted metal. (authors)

  6. PWR fuel rod corrosion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, S.; Mori, K.; Murata, K.; Kobasyashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Many particular appearance were observed on the fuel rod surfaces during fuel inspection at reactor outage in 1991. The appearances looked like small black circular nodules. The size was approximately 1 mm. This kind of appearances were found on fuel rods of which burnup exceeded approximately 30 GWd/t and at the second or third spans of the fuel assembly from the top. In order to clarify the cause, PIE was performed. The black nodules were confirmed to be oxide film spalling by visual inspection. Maximum oxide film thickness was 70 μm and spalling was observed where oxide thickness exceeded 40 t0 50 μm. Oxide film thickness was greater than expected. Many small pores were found in the oxide film when the oxide film had become thicker. Many circumferential cracks were also found in the film. It was speculated that these cracks caused the spalling of the oxide film. Hydride precipitates were mainly oriented circumferentially. Dense hydrides were observed near the outer rim of the cladding. No concentrated hydrides were observed near the spalling area. Maximum hydrogen content was 315 ppm. It was confirmed that the results of tensile test showed no significant effects by corrosion. The mechanism of accelerated corrosion was studied in detail. Water chemistry during irradiation was examined. Lithium content was maintained below 2.2 ppm. pH value was kept between 6.9 and 7.2. There was no anomalies in water chemistry during reactor operation. Cladding fabrication record clarified that heat treatment parameter was smaller than the optimum value. In Japan, heat treatment of the cladding was already optimized by improved fabrication process. Also chemical composition optimization of the cladding, such as low Tin and high Silicon content, was adopted for high burnup fuel. These remedies has already reduced fuel cladding corrosion and we believe we have solved this problem. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab

  7. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 10, Track 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Performance Measures for Prefabricated Submerged Concrete Breakwaters: Section 227 Cape May Point, New Jersey Demonstration Project, by Donald K Stauble...Wielputz Slope Stability Evaluation of the Baldhill Dam Right Abutment , by Neil T. Schwanz Design and Construction of Anchored Bulkheads with Synthetic Sheet... abutment ) 5 days into initial filling @ pool . • July 1968 structural inspection cited areas of spalling concrete and water flowing down stair treads in the

  8. Performance of geopolymer concrete in fire

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Portland cement concrete is a world-wide used construction material. However, when Portland cement concrete is exposed to fire, its mechanical properties are deteriorated. The deterioration of concrete is generally caused by the decomposition of the Portland cement hydrate or the thermal incompatibility between cement paste and aggregate. Spalling, which is a violent or non-violent breaking off of layers or pieces of concrete from the surface of a structural element, may also occur when the c...

  9. Evaluation of the Structural Performance of CTS Rapid Set Concrete Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    spall presenting high FOD (swept) and tire damage potential. ................................... 19  Figure 8. Saw-cutting repair area using CTL and...Figure 4 during ERDC/GSL TR-16-20 16 December 2014 and May 2015. A wet winter and spring resulted in a delay for completing the Series 5 repairs...be one of the most damaging in the USAF inventory to pavement surfaces because of its small footprint and high tire pressure. All repairs were

  10. Introduction to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of hydrodynamics and elastic--plastic flow are introduced for the purpose of defining hydrodynamic terms and explaining what some of the important hydrodynamic concepts are. The first part covers hydrodynamic theory; and discussed fundamental hydrodynamic equations, discontinuities, and shock, detonation, and elastic--plastic waves. The second part deals with applications of hydrodynamic theory to material equations of state, spall, Taylor instabilities, and detonation pressure measurements

  11. Development of a Computerized Data Base to Monitor Wheeled Vehicle Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Outside Storage of Cardboard Containers and Wood Crates .... ............ .77 5.9-7. Outside Storage of Large Components ... ........ 78 5.9-8. Indoor...for data collection: GR General Rusting GP General Pitting GPB General Paint Blistering GW General Wear LP Local Pitting LCA Local Chemical Attack LCC...upon surface area exposure of base metal. Therefore, when up to 1/5 of the surface area of the part has had the paint blistered, chipped , spalled, or

  12. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  13. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  14. Compressive behavior of steel fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete after exposure to elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G. M.; He, Y. H.; Yang, H.; Chen, J. F.; Guo, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    For sustainability considerations, the use of recycled aggregate in concrete has attracted many interests in the research community. One of the main concerns for using such concrete in buildings is its spalling in fire. This may be alleviated by adding steel fibers to form steel fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (SFRAC). This paper presents an experimental investigation into the compressive properties of SFRAC cylinders after exposure to elevated temperatures, including the compres...

  15. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  16. Danish Investigations on Silica Fume Concretes at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1992-01-01

    Describes fire tests in which the increased risk of explosive spalling of concrete densified by silica fume was first discovered. Further results are discussed from tests to define appropriate limits of silica fume content and to develop a new concrete for slender column units. Observations are m...... are made about circumstances under which superplasticizing additives in concrete gave rise to the development of toxic gases....

  17. Earthquake Resilient Bridge Columns Utilizing Damage Resistant Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Trono, William Dean

    2014-01-01

    Modern reinforced concrete bridges are designed to avoid collapse and to prevent loss of life during earthquakes. To meet these objectives, bridge columns are typically detailed to form ductile plastic hinges when large displacements occur. California seismic design criteria acknowledges that damage such as concrete cover spalling and reinforcing bar yielding may occur in columns during a design-level earthquake. The seismic resilience of bridge columns can be improved through the use of a da...

  18. Recommendations for Longitudinal Post-Tensioning in Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Full-depth precast concrete panels offer an efficient alternative to traditional cast-in-place concrete for replacement or new construction of bridge decks. Research has shown that longitudinal post-tensioning helps keep the precast bridge deck in compression and avoid problems such as leaking, cracking, spalling, and subsequent rusting on the beams at the transverse panel joints. Current design recommendations suggest levels of initial compression for precast concrete decks in a very limit...

  19. PWR fuel rod corrosion in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Mori, K; Murata, K; Kobasyashi, S [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Many particular appearance were observed on the fuel rod surfaces during fuel inspection at reactor outage in 1991. The appearances looked like small black circular nodules. The size was approximately 1 mm. This kind of appearances were found on fuel rods of which burnup exceeded approximately 30 GWd/t and at the second or third spans of the fuel assembly from the top. In order to clarify the cause, PIE was performed. The black nodules were confirmed to be oxide film spalling by visual inspection. Maximum oxide film thickness was 70 {mu}m and spalling was observed where oxide thickness exceeded 40 t0 50 {mu}m. Oxide film thickness was greater than expected. Many small pores were found in the oxide film when the oxide film had become thicker. Many circumferential cracks were also found in the film. It was speculated that these cracks caused the spalling of the oxide film. Hydride precipitates were mainly oriented circumferentially. Dense hydrides were observed near the outer rim of the cladding. No concentrated hydrides were observed near the spalling area. Maximum hydrogen content was 315 ppm. It was confirmed that the results of tensile test showed no significant effects by corrosion. The mechanism of accelerated corrosion was studied in detail. Water chemistry during irradiation was examined. Lithium content was maintained below 2.2 ppm. pH value was kept between 6.9 and 7.2. There was no anomalies in water chemistry during reactor operation. Cladding fabrication record clarified that heat treatment parameter was smaller than the optimum value. In Japan, heat treatment of the cladding was already optimized by improved fabrication process. Also chemical composition optimization of the cladding, such as low Tin and high Silicon content, was adopted for high burnup fuel. These remedies has already reduced fuel cladding corrosion and we believe we have solved this problem. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab.

  20. The void nucleation mechanism within lead phase during spallation of leaded brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Can; Chen, Xingzhi; Chen, Kaiguo; Hu, Haibo; Fu, Yanan

    2018-07-01

    The incipient spall behaviours of Cu-34%Zn-3%Pb leaded brass samples with annealed and cryogenic-treated conditions were loaded using one-stage light gas gun experiments. The effect of Pb-phase on dynamic damage nucleation in leaded brass specimens was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray computer tomography. It was found that the voids of incipient spall were mainly nucleated in the interior of the lead (no tensile stress would be produced within lead according to the impact theory) instead of nucleated at the phase interface as expected by quasi-static damage fracture theory. A nucleation model is proposed in the present work that is the asymmetry high compression zones in the centre of the lead-phase were formed by the rarefaction wave convergence effects of matrix/quasi-spherical lead interface, which caused adiabatic temperature rise that exceeded melting point of lead due to severe plastic deformation, finally led to local melting and void nucleation. In addition, the spall strength and damage rate increased with the increase in the Pb-phase number.

  1. Cracking and delamination of vapor-deposited tantalum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.M.; Duan, J.Z.; Liu, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on tantalum films which begin to crack and spall during vapor deposition on glass at a thickness of 180 nm. Islands and ribbons, 10 - 30 μm in size, delaminate by crack growth along the Ta/glass interface for several μm after which the crack penetrates into the glass to a depth of 0.5 - 1 μm and complete spalling occurs. X-ray diffraction showed that about 50% of the original bct, β-tantalum, phase had transformed to the bcc α-Ta phase. When Ta was deposited on glass that was first covered with 52 nm of copper, spalling was observed to begin at a thickness of 105 nm. In this case, the film first cracks and then peels along the Cu/glass interface and curls into scrolls indicating the presence of a small stress gradient. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited film, and electron diffraction of ion-milled flakes, showed that the Ta films deposited on Cu-coated glass almost completely transform to bcc α-Ta. The critical thickness for delamination along the Cu/glass interface is about 1/2 that for cracking in the glass substrate when an intermediate layer of Cu is not present. All of the above findings are in good agreement with previous observations on Cr films

  2. Subtask 1.8 - Investigation of Improved Conductivity and Proppant Applications in the Bakken Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethany Kurz; Darren Schmidt; Steven Smith Christopher Beddoe; Corey Lindeman; Blaise Mibeck

    2012-07-31

    Given the importance of hydraulic fracturing and proppant performance for development of the Bakken and Three Forks Formations within the Williston Basin, a study was conducted to evaluate the key factors that may result in conductivity loss within the reservoirs. Various proppants and reservoir rock cores were exposed to several different fracturing and formation fluids at reservoir conditions. The hardness of the rock cores and the strength of the proppants were evaluated prior to and following fluid exposure. In addition, the conductivity of various proppants, as well as formation embedment and spalling, was evaluated at reservoir temperatures and pressures using actual reservoir rock cores. The results of this work suggest that certain fluids may affect both rock and proppant strength, and therefore, fluid exposure needs to be considered in the field. In addition, conductivity decreases within the Bakken Formation appear to be a function of a variety of factors, including proppant and rock strength, as well as formation embedment and spalling. The results of this study highlight the need for advanced conductivity testing, coupled with quantification of formation embedment and spalling. Given the importance of proppant performance on conductivity loss and, ultimately, oil recovery, better understanding the effects of these various factors on proppant and rock strength in the field is vital for more efficient production within unconventional oil and gas reservoirs.

  3. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  4. Simultaneous thermal analysis and thermodilatometry of hybrid fiber reinforced UHPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Development of concrete technology and the availability of variety of materials such as silica fume, mineral microfillers and high-range water-reducing admixtures make possible to produce Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with compressive strength higher than 160 MPa. However, UHPC is prone to spall under high temperatures what limits its use for special applications only, such as offshore and marine structures, industrial floors, security barriers etc. The spalling is caused by the thermal stresses due to the temperature gradient during heating, and by the splitting force owing to the release of water vapour. Hybrid fibre reinforcement based on combination of steel and polymer fibres is generally accepted by concrete community as a functional solution preventing spalling. In this way, Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is produced possessing high mechanical strength, durability and resistance to water and salt ingress. Since UHPFRC find use in construction industry in tunnel linings, precast tunnel segments, and high-rise buildings, its behaviour during the high-temperature exposure and its residual parameters are of the particular importance. On this account, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and Thermodilatometry Analysis (TDA) were done in the paper to identify the structural and chemical changes in UHPFRC during its high-temperature load. Based on the experimental results, several physical and chemical processes that studied material underwent at high-temperatures were recognized. The obtained data revealed changes in the composition of the studied material and allowed identification of critical temperatures for material damage.

  5. Assessment of In Situ Time Resolved Shock Experiments at Synchrotron Light Sources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belak, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Hessler, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    Prior to fielding in situ time resolved experiments of shock wave loading at the Advanced Photon Source, we have performed feasibility experiments assessing a single photon bunch. Using single and poly-crystal Al, Ti, V and Cu shock to incipient spallation on the gas gun, samples were prepared from slices normal to the spall plane of thickness 100-500 microns. In addition, single crystal Al of thickness 500 microns was shocked to incipient spallation and soft recovered using the LLNL e-gun mini-flyer system. The e-gun mini-flyer impacts the sample target producing a 10's ns flat-top shock transient. Here, we present results for imaging, small-angle scattering (SAS), and diffraction. In particular, there is little SAS away from the spall plane and significant SAS at the spall plane, demonstrating the presence of sub-micron voids. * Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 and work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  6. High-Temperature Performance and Multiscale Damage Mechanisms of Hollow Cellulose Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalling resistance properties and their damage mechanisms under high temperatures are studied in hollow cellulose fiber-reinforced concrete (CFRC used in tunnel structures. Measurements of mass loss, relative dynamic elastic modulus, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of CFRC held under high temperatures (300, 600, 800, and 1050°C for periods of 2.5, 4, and 5.5 h were carried out. The damage mechanism was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction phase analysis. The results demonstrate that cellulose fiber can reduce the performance loss of concrete at high temperatures; the effect of holding time on the performance is more noticeable below 600°C. After exposure to high temperatures, the performance of ordinary concrete deteriorates faster and spalls at 700–800°C; in contrast, cellulose fiber melts at a higher temperature, leaving a series of channels in the matrix that facilitate the release of the steam pressure inside the CFRC. Hollow cellulose fibers can thereby slow the damage caused by internal stress and improve the spalling resistance of concrete under high temperatures.

  7. Nitrogen implantation of type 303 stainless steel gears for improved wear and fatigue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Misra, M.S.; Tack, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Fine-positioning mechanisms are responsible for accurate and reproducible control of aerospace system devices, i.e. filter grading wheels. Low wear and fatigue resistance of mechanism components, such as pinions and gears, can reduce system performance and reliability. Surface modification using ion implantation with nitrogen was used on type 303 stainless steel pinions and gears to increase tribological performance. Wear-life tests of untreated, nitrogen-implanted and nitrogen-implanted-and-annealed gears were performed in a fine-positioning mechanism under controlled environmental conditions. Wear and fatigue resistance were monitored at selected time intervals which were a percentage of the predicted failure life as determined by a numerical stress analysis. Surface analyses including scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were performed to establish the wear and fatigue mechanisms and the nitrogen concentration-depth distributions respectively. Nitrogen implantation resulted in a significant improvement in both surface wear and fatigue spalling resistance over those of untreated gears. A 40% reduction in surface wear and a 44% reduction in dedendum spalling was observed. In contrast, the nitrogen-implanted-and-annealed gears showed a 46% increase in sliding wear area and an 11% increase in spall density compared with those of untreated gears, indicating that the post-implantation anneal was detrimental to wear and fatigue resistance. (orig.)

  8. The corrosion behavior of hafnium in high-temperature-water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rishel, D.M.; Smee, J.D.; Kammenzind, B.F.

    1999-10-01

    The high-temperature-water corrosion performance of hafnium is evaluated. Corrosion kinetic data are used to develop correlations that are a function of time and temperature. The evaluation is based on corrosion tests conducted in out-of-pile autoclaves and in out-of-flux locations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at temperatures ranging from 288 to 360 C. Similar to the corrosion behavior of unalloyed zirconium, the high-temperature-water corrosion response of hafnium exhibits three corrosion regimes: pretransition, posttransition, and spalling. In the pretransition regime, cubic corrosion kinetics are exhibited, whereas in the posttransition regime, linear corrosion kinetics are exhibited. Because of the scatter in the spalling regime data, it is not reasonable to use a best fit of the data to describe spalling regime corrosion. Data also show that neutron irradiation does not alter the corrosion performance of hafnium. Finally, the data illustrate that the corrosion rate of hafnium is significantly less than that of Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4.

  9. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W. A.; Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Erdman, S.; Muliere, D.; Wheeler, B.

    2002-01-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being developed to study the use of ceramic coatings on components in the hot-gas path of advanced low-emission gas-fired turbines. The types of ceramic coatings include thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). TBCs are under development for vanes, blades, and combustor liners to allow hotter gas-path temperatures, and EBCs are under development to reduce environmental damage to high-temperature components made of ceramic matrix composites. The NDE methods will be used to (a) provide data to assess the reliability of new coating application processes, (b) identify defective components that could cause unscheduled outages, (c) track growth rates of defects during component use in engines, and (d) allow rational judgment for replace/repair/re-use decisions regarding components. Advances in TBC application, both electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS), are allowing higher temperatures in the hot-gas path. However, as TBCs become ''prime reliant,'' their condition at scheduled or unscheduled outages must be known. NDE methods are under development to assess the condition of the TBC for pre-spall conditions. EB-PVD test samples with up to 70 thermal cycles have been studied by a newly developed method involving polarized laser back-scatter NDE. Results suggest a correlation between the NDE laser data and the TBC/bond-coat topography. This finding is important because several theories directed toward understanding the pre-spall condition suggest that the topography in the thermally grown oxide layer changes significantly as a function of the number of thermal cycles. Tests have also been conducted with this NDE method on APS TBCs. Results suggest that the pre-spall condition is detected for these coatings. One-sided, high-speed thermal imaging also has shown promise for NDE of APS coatings. Testing of SiC/SiC composites for combustor liners

  10. Calculating the shrapnel generation and subsequent damage to first wall and optics components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Lew, B.; Curran, D.R.; Sanchez, J.; Anderson, A.; Tobin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to computationally assess the threat from shrapnel generation on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) first wall, final optics, and ultimately other target chamber components. Shrapnel is defined as material.that is in a solid, liquid, or clustered-vapor phase with sufficient velocity to become a threat to exposed surfaces as a consequence of its impact. Typical NIF experiments will be of two types, low neutron yield shots in which the capsule is not cryogenically cooled, and high yield shots for which cryogenic cooling of the capsule is required. For non-cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be produced by spaIIing, melting and vaporizing of ''shine shields'' by absorption and shock wave loading following 1-ω and 2-ω laser radiation. For cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be generated through shock wave splitting, spalling, and droplet formation of the cryogenic tubes following neutron energy deposition. Motion of the shrapnel is determined not only by particle velocities resulting from the neutron deposition, but also by both x-ray and debris loading arising from explosion of the hohlraum. Material responses of different target area components are computed from one- dimensional and two-dimensional stress wave propagation codes. Well developed rate-dependent spall computational models are used for stainless steel spall and splitting,. Severe cell distortion is accounted for in shine-shield and hohlraum-loading computations. Resulting distributions of shrapnel particles are traced to the first wall and optics and damage is estimated for candidate materials. First wall and optical material damage from shrapnel includes crater formation and associated extended cracking

  11. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final 2D coupled thermo-mechanical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Staub, Isabelle; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    A site scale Pillar Stability Experiment is planned in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. One of the experiment's aims is to demonstrate the possibilities of predicting spalling in the fractured rock mass. In order to investigate the probability and conditions for spalling in the pillar 'prior to experiment' numerical simulations have been undertaken. This report presents the results obtained from 2D coupled thermo-mechanical numerical simulations that have been done with the Finite Element based programme JobFem. The 2D numerical simulations were conducted at two different depth levels, 0.5 and 1.5 m below tunnel floor. The in situ stresses have been confirmed with convergence measurements during the excavation of the tunnel. After updating the mechanical and thermal properties of the rock mass the final simulations have been undertaken. According to the modelling results the temperature in the pillar will increase from the initial 15.2 deg up to 58 deg after 120 days of heating. Based on these numerical simulations and on the thermal induced stresses the total stresses are expected to exceed 210 MPa at the border of the pillar for the level at 0.5 m below tunnel floor and might reach 180-182 MPa for the level at 1.5 m below tunnel floor. The stresses are slightly higher at the border of the confined hole. Upon these results and according to the rock mechanical properties the Crack Initiation Stress is exceeded at the border of the pillar already after the excavation phase. These results also illustrate that the Crack Damage Stress is exceeded only for the level at 0.5 m below tunnel floor and after at least 80 days of heating. The interpretation of the results shows that the required level of stress for spalling can be reached in the pillar.

  12. II. Application of field data from heater experiments conducted at Stripa, Sweden, to parameters for repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.; Carlsson, H.; Nelson, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    Current experiments are designed to yield information about both the near-field and the far-field effects of thermomechanical loading of an in-situ, granitic rock mass. Electrically heated canisters, constructed to represent high-level radioactive waste canisters, are emplaced in boreholes from excavations some 340 m below the surface. Thermally induced spalling along the heater borehole wall, a near-field effect, has been monitored and two types of spalling, one serious and one not serious, have been identified. A suggested failure criterion for the serious type of spalling is sigma/sub max/ greater than or equal to C 0 (where sigma/sub max/ is the maximum induced compressive stress at the borehole wall and C 0 is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock). In one of these experiments this criterion was exceeded, and gross failure at the wall occurred when the equivalent power to the heater was increased beyond 5 kW. The far-field effects of the applied loading are investigated by measuring the temperature, displacement, and stress fields and then comparing the results with predictions which were made based on linear thermoelastic theory. The results show that the dominant mode of heat transfer through the rock is by conduction and, therefore, that predictions of the temperature field are made readily using simple calculations. However, displacements and stresses within the rock mass are measured to be only one-half or less of the values predicted. Two reasons for this major discrepancy are suggested. Work to verify this result is in progress

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained Materials under Shock Wave Loadings. Experimental Data and Results of Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.

  14. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

  15. Effects of inside spallation of a coating on the debonding of its interface with a substrate subjected to a laser shock

    CERN Document Server

    Boustie, M; Romain, J P; Jeandin, M

    2002-01-01

    When applying a laser shock to a substrate with a coating in order to test the adhesion strength of the interface, traction can be generated not only at the interface, but also within the materials. The effects of a possible rupture of these materials prior to the debonding is analysed by shock wave propagation mechanisms and experimentally evidenced for plasma sprayed coatings of alumina on an aluminium substrate. An estimate of the bond strength and the spall strength of the coating is obtained by numerical simulation.

  16. Coating with overlay metallic-cermet alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A base layer of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet) is arc plasma sprayed onto a substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use. A top layer of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then arc plasma sprayed onto the base layer. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base layer serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top layer and the substrate. Otherwise, the 10 protective top layer would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  17. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  18. Effects of retained austenite and hydrogen on the rolling contact fatigue behaviours of carbide-free bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chunlei; Dan, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Fucheng, E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, Bo [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yan, Zhigang; Shan, Jun; Long, Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-01-31

    The effects of retained austenite and hydrogen on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behaviours of a new carbide-free bainitic steel (CFBS) were studied by means of the RCF testing, electrolytic hydrogen charging, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the new carbide-free bainitic steels (CFBSs) exhibited very good RCF performance under the high contact stress of 1.7 GPa, and pitting and spalling were the main mode of the RCF failure. The RCF performance of the new CFBS was improved by the retained austenite content increasing, while obviously decreased by hydrogen.

  19. Effects of inside spallation of a coating on the debonding of its interface with a substrate subjected to a laser shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustie, M; Auroux, E; Romain, J P; Jeandin, M

    2002-01-01

    When applying a laser shock to a substrate with a coating in order to test the adhesion strength of the interface, traction can be generated not only at the interface, but also within the materials. The effects of a possible rupture of these materials prior to the debonding is analysed by shock wave propagation mechanisms and experimentally evidenced for plasma sprayed coatings of alumina on an aluminium substrate. An estimate of the bond strength and the spall strength of the coating is obtained by numerical simulation

  20. Effects of inside spallation of a coating on the debonding of its interface with a substrate subjected to a laser shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustie, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Auroux, E [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Romain, J P [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Jeandin, M [Centre des Materiaux Pierre Marie Fourt, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, 91003 Evry (France)

    2002-11-11

    When applying a laser shock to a substrate with a coating in order to test the adhesion strength of the interface, traction can be generated not only at the interface, but also within the materials. The effects of a possible rupture of these materials prior to the debonding is analysed by shock wave propagation mechanisms and experimentally evidenced for plasma sprayed coatings of alumina on an aluminium substrate. An estimate of the bond strength and the spall strength of the coating is obtained by numerical simulation.

  1. Experimental studies on local damage of reinforced concrete structures by the impact of deformable missiles-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Tachikawa, H.; Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kobayshi, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an accidental aircraft crash into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the engine, the rigid portion of the aircraft, and the global elasto-plastic structural response caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the front face of the target together with missile penetration into the target, scabbing of concrete from the rear face of the target and perforation of the missile through the target. The engine is a soft missile that deforms during impact. An experimental research program has been planned and executed to establish a rational evaluation method of the local damage by the deformable engine missiles

  2. Residual signal feature extraction for gearbox planetary stage fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Ursin, Thomas; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2017-01-01

    Faults in planetary gears and related bearings, e.g. planet bearings and planet carrier bearings, pose inherent difficulties on their accurate and consistent detection associated mainly to the low energy in slow rotating stages and the operating complexity of planetary gearboxes. In this work......, identification of the expected spectral signature for proper residual signal calculation and filtering of any frequency component not related to the planetary stage. Two field cases of planet carrier bearing defect and planet wheel spalling are presented and discussed, showing the efficiency of the followed...

  3. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George Thompson III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faulkner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Briggs, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, Ross Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hare, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shinas, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research

  4. Multiscale characterization of White Etching Cracks (WEC) in a 100Cr6 bearing from a thrust bearing test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Guzmán, F. Gutiérrez; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    A common cause for premature bearing failures in wind turbine gearboxes are the so-called White Etching Cracks (WEC). These undirected, three-dimensional cracks are bordered by regions of altered microstructure and ultimately lead to a cracking or spalling of the raceway. An accelerated WEC test...... significant grain refinement. Atom probe tomography showed the microstructure in the undamaged zone has a plate-like martensitic structure with carbides, while no carbides were detected in the WEA where the microstructure consisted of equiaxed 10 nm grains. A three dimensional characterisation of WEC network...

  5. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  6. Posthumous Humans, Modern Vampires: Re-use, seriality, chorality of horror tropes in True Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2016-01-01

    Cosa rende alcuni di noi – abitatori di ecosistemi narrativi sempre più densi e complessi – compulsivi spettatori dell'orrore? Cosa decreta la vivacità di tropi horror dotati di una storia già lunga alle spalle e il loro corrente, inesausto riuso catodico?La proposta critica che avanziamo in questa sede è un invito a contemperare nell'analisi delle produzioni televisive seriali contemporanee, aspetti narratologici e produttivi, fattori (intra- e inter)testuali e sociologici, a partire dalla c...

  7. Barrier design for tornado-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant facilities and many other structures need protection against missiles generated by tornados and explosions. The missile impacts result in both local and overall effects on barriers or targets. The local effects are characterized by penetration, perforation and backface spalling or scabbing of the target material. The overall effects of missile impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the flexural and shear behaviour of the target. Empirical formulas are presented to determine the local effects on concrete and steel barriers. Procedures are given for determining the design loads for overall effects. Design methods are described. (Auth.)

  8. FEG-SEM investigation of α-alumina scales formed on FeCrAlY alloys oxidised at 1200 celsius degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badairy, H.; Tatlock, G.; Beahan, P.; Fawcett, S.; Hunt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.The work presented here is part of an ongoing European funded project, SMILER, with the aim of improving the performance of alumina forming Fe-20 Cr-5 Al during high temperature industrial applications. One aspect of the project is to investigate the influence of additives on the oxidation behaviour of these alloys. During this study a LEO 1550 FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), equipped with INCA x-ray microanalysis facilities was used. Ultra-high-purity model alloys, where the levels of additives (Hf, Zr, Ti, Si and Y) were carefully controlled, and one commercial YHfAl alloy were oxidised at 1200 degree celsius for up to 3100h (100h/cycle). The YHfAl, (Ti+Zr)- and (Zr+Hf)-containing alloys showed the highest oxidation rates when oxidised, whereas the Si-containing alloy showed the lowest oxidation rate. However, the Si-containing alloy spalled the most while the (Zr+Hf)-containing and YHfAl alloys showed little spallation. The additives appeared to influence the spallation of the formed α-alumina scale. On the alloy with Si, the scale spalled at the scale/metal interface (adhesively). Whereas on alloys containing (Hf+Ti) and (Hf+Zr) and the YHfAl alloy, the scale mainly spalled in a cohesive manner (within the scale). Also, the added elements affected the scale topography. In general the formed scale has a columnar at the scale/metal interface whereas the grains are equiaxed at the scale/gas interface. However, in the cas of YHfAl and (Zr+Hf)-containing alloys, a sunflower type structure was observed in both fractured samples in the regions where the scale spalled cohesively. Preliminary EDX analysis revealed that the center of the sunflower structure was rich in Mg, for example in the case of YHfAl. This suggests that there may be inhomogeneities in the metal substrate, prior to oxidation, where high concentrations of Mg increase the local oxide growth rate. However, the exact reason behind the formation of sunflower type structure

  9. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  10. Barrier design for tornado-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear powerplant facilities and many other structures need protection against missiles generated by tornadoes and explosions. The missile impacts result in both local and overall effects on barriers or targets. The local effects are characterized by penetration, perforation, and backface spalling or scabbing of the target material. The overall effects of missile impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the flexural and shear behavior of the target. Empirical formulas are presented to determine the local effects on concrete and steel barriers. Procedures are given for determining the design loads for overall effects. Design methods are described

  11. Windows(Registered Trademark)-Based Software Models Cyclic Oxidation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, J. L.; Auping, J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidation of high-temperature aerospace materials is a universal issue for combustion-path components in turbine or rocket engines. In addition to the question of the consumption of material due to growth of protective scale at use temperatures, there is also the question of cyclic effects and spallation of scale on cooldown. The spallation results in the removal of part of the protective oxide in a discontinuous step and thereby opens the way for more rapid oxidation upon reheating. In experiments, cyclic oxidation behavior is most commonly characterized by measuring changes in weight during extended time intervals that include hundreds or thousands of heating and cooling cycles. Weight gains occurring during isothermal scale-growth processes have been well characterized as being parabolic or nearly parabolic functions of time because diffusion controls reaction rates. In contrast, the net weight change in cyclic oxidation is the sum of the effects of the growth and spallation of scale. Typically, the net weight gain in cyclic oxidation is determined only empirically (that is, by measurement), with no unique or straightforward mathematical connection to either the rate of growth or the amount of metal consumed. Thus, there is a need for mathematical modeling to infer spallation mechanisms. COSP is a computer program that models the growth and spallation processes of cyclic oxidation on the basis of a few elementary assumptions that were discussed in COSP: A Computer Model of Cyclic Oxidation, Oxidation of Metals, vol. 36, numbers 1 and 2, 1991, pages 81-112. Inputs to the model include the selection of an oxidation-growth law and a spalling geometry, plus oxide-phase, growth-rate, cycle-duration, and spall-constant parameters. (The spalling fraction is often shown to be a constant factor times the existing amount of scale.) The output of COSP includes the net change in weight, the amounts of retained and spalled oxide, the total amounts of oxygen and metal

  12. A comparative tribological study of chromium coatings with different specific hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Barthole, M.; Belliard, P.; Lelait, L.

    1995-06-01

    The wear resistance in dry friction of two electrolytic and two pVD hard chromium coatings deposited on construction steel substrates is studied by means of standard pin on disc multi-pass, unidirectional operation. For both of these friction modes low cycle high load operation with cemented carbide pins leads to essentially coatings hardness controlled, abrasive wear. For these well adhering commercial coatings (both for through thickness cracking and for spalling failure) assessed by standard testing, are inadequate for quality ranking with respect to wear resistance. Steady state friction corresponds to a stabilised third body essentially composed of chromium oxide. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. On the mechanism of running-in during wear tests of a babbitt B83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.; Fazlyakhmetov, R. F.; Pshenichnyuk, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    Based on an analysis of changes in the structure of cast babbitt of grade B83 in the process of wear tests and on a comparison of the wear curves of cast babbitt and electroplated coating of the same phase composition, there is proposed a wear mechanism at the running-in stage of B83, which is reduced to the spalling-off of coarse particles of the intermetallic β phase, pressing-in of the cleaved particles into the soft plastic matrix, and the formation of a fairly homogeneous coating uniformly paved by small, hard particles.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of zirconium alloys in pre-transition and post-transition kinetic regimes at corrosion in electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkov, A.A.; Shavshin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    With the aim of investigation on oxidation of zirconium alloys (Zr+2.5% Nb) the critical thickness of beginning of spalling of froming oxide films in HCl and NHO 3 aqueous solutions was evaluated by coulometry with accelerated procedure. Some variants of predeposition of modificated oxide coatings are proposed increase pre-transition regime time and to decrease corrosion during post-transition regime. Increase in agressivity of solutions (addition of 1 vol.% HF) and UV irradiation are found to increase 3-4 times pre-transition period

  15. Numerical simulations and analysis for the Aespoe pillar stability experiment. Part 1. Continuum based approaches using finite element method and comparison with other analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Koyama, Tomofumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nakama, Shigeo; Fujita, Tomoo

    2013-01-01

    DECOVALEX-2011 is an international cooperation project for enhancing the numerical models of radioactive waste repositories. In DECOVALEX-2011 project, the failure mechanism during excavation and heating processes observed in the Aespoe pillar stability experiment, which was carried out at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, were simulated using Finite Element Method. When the calibrated parameters were used, simulation results agree qualitatively well with the experimental results. Therefore, it can be said that the spalling phenomenon is expressible even by the application with the continuum model by the use of the suitable parameters. (author)

  16. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Králik, Juraj, E-mail: juraj.kralik@stuba.sk [Faculty of Civil Engineering, STU in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava (Slovakia); Králik, Juraj, E-mail: kralik@fa.stuba.sk [Faculty of Architecture, STU in Bratislava, Námestie Slobody 19, 812 45 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  17. Summary of oxidation driven mobilization data and their use in fusion safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.A.; Smolik, G.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out experiments to simulate accident conditions with air or steam ingress, and determine the amount of material mobilized from the material. We also perform first principles modeling to understand the mechanisms involved in mobilization, and determine whether volatilization or oxide spalling dominates mobilization. Our results indicate that if long-term accident temperatures are kept below ∝700 C, oxidation-driven mobilization may be less important than resuspension of tokamak dust, release of corrosion products, and release of plasma-vaporized material. (orig.)

  18. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited applications of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, J.H.; Ungrin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Accelerators have been tools in the physicist's arsenal since the early 1930's, and the requirements of the research laboratory have spawned most of the significant advances in the technology. The characteristics needed in medical and industrial applications frequently differ from those needed by researchers. The authors review a variety of applications in medical therapy; medical isotope production; sterilization of medical supplies, food and water; the production of synthetic materials; industrial radiography; borehole logging; gemstone colour changes; the production of micropore filters; material modifications; long-wavelength radiation generation; sewage treatment; stack gas cleaning; electronuclear breeding; laser weaponry; and rock spalling and tunneling

  20. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  1. On the Currents and Transports Connected with the Atlantic Meridional Overtuning Circulation in the Subpolar North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    of the main results follow in section 6. 40˚ 44˚ 48˚ 52˚ 56˚ 60˚ 64˚ 68˚ Greenland Iceland Scotland UK Ireland De nm ar k St ra it IFR FBC WTR HB...Flemish Cap/Pass HB: Hatton Bank IFR : Iceland−Faroe Ridge RC/P: Rockall Channel/Plateau WTR: Wyville−Thomson Ridge 4 3 2 1 km −60˚ −50˚ −40˚ −30˚ −20...important role in the wintertime deep convection in the Labrador Sea, which may impact the AMOC (However, Pickart and Spall [2007] suggested that the

  2. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.S. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to lean'' and rich'' sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the lean'' atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the rich'' atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a breakaway''-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  3. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  4. Effect of grain size and arrangement on dynamic damage evolution of ductile metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Mei-Lan; Zhong Sheng; Fan Duan; Zhao Li; He Hong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments have been carried out to examine the effect of grain size and grain arrangement on the damage evolution of ultrapure aluminum. Two groups of samples, “cross-cut“ and “longitudinal-cut,“ are obtained from the rolled aluminum rod along different directions. The peak compressive stress is approximately 1.25 GPa−1.61 GPa, which can cause incipient spall damage that is correlated to the material microstructure. The metallographic analyses of all recovered samples show that nearly all damage nucleates at the grain boundaries, especially those with larger curvature. Moreover, under lower shock stress, the spall strength of the “longitudinal-cut“ sample is smaller than that of the “cross-cut“ sample, because the different grain sizes and arrangement of the two samples cause different nucleation, growth, and coalescence processes. In this study, the difference in the damage distribution between “longitudinal-cut“ and “cross-cut“ samples and the causes for this difference under lower shock-loading conditions are also analyzed by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. It is very important for these conclusions to establish a reasonable and perfect equation of damage evolution for ductile metals. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  5. Wear Resistance of TiC Reinforced Cast Steel Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobula S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel.

  6. Sliding friction of nanocomposite WC1-x/C coatings: transfer film and its influence on tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Gubisch, M; Spiess, L; Schaefer, J A

    2009-06-01

    The transfer film on steel spheres formed in reciprocating sliding against nanocomposite coatings based on nanocrystalline WC1-x in amorphous carbon matrix is characterized and correlated with the tribological properties measured by a precision microtribometer. With the presence of transfer film, a coefficient of friction approximately 0.13 and a depth wear rate approximately 0.35 x 10(-10) m/N.Pass were obtained. The central zone of the transfer film covering approximately 25% of the Hertz contact area is intact while cracks and wear debris are found in the vast peripheral area. It is also heavily oxidized due to the absence of carbon, which is located at the peripherals and acts as lubricants. We propose that the oxidation of WC and adhesion of the oxides to the surface of sphere is the main mechanism for the buildup of the transfer films. With the thickening of the film, the internal stress increases. Under the shear stress, spalling and cracking of the transfer film take place. The overall tribological performance of the coatings is therefore a competing process of buildup and spalling of transfer films.

  7. An update of conditions in the Donkin-Morien tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedsman, R.W. [Seedsman Geotechnics Pty Ltd., Mt. Kembla (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    Two 7.6 diameter tunnels were constructed in the Donkin-Morien peninsula in Nova Scotia in 1984 and 1985. Ground support designs of the tunnel were based on the identification of rock failure zones using finite element analyses and the Hoek Brown failure criterion. The tunnels were flooded in 1992 when the mining project was abandoned. However, subsequent monitoring data from the tunnels were used to analyze brittle rock behaviour before and after its subsequent dewatering. This paper discussed the results of a feasibility study conducted to compare collapse zones in the roof and sides of the tunnel with results obtained from a simple elastic analysis technique that used brittle parameters, a spalling limit of 5, and a low-dependent shear modulus. Analyses were conducted to examine the potential maximum height of failure as a function of the coal seams. The study showed that coal measure rocks can be analyzed using the brittle failure criterion when both transverse anisotropy and low spalling limits were included. However, it is not possible to determine the contribution of corrosion to the deterioration of the tunnels. The analysis will be used to form a design for re-supporting the tunnels. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Negative pressure and spallation in graphite targets under nano- and picosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, R S; Khishchenko, K V [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasyuk, I K; Semenov, A Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rinecker, T; Schoenlein, A [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rosmej, O N [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Germany, 64291 Darmstadt, Planckstraße, 1 (Germany); Tomut, M [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany, 64289 Darmstadt, Karolinenplatz, 5 (Germany)

    2015-05-31

    We present the results of experiments on the spallation phenomena in graphite targets under shock-wave nano- and picosecond irradiation, which have been performed on Kamerton-T (GPI, Moscow, Russia) and PHELIX (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) laser facilities. In the range of the strain rates of 10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, the data on the dynamic mechanical strength of the material at rapure (spallation) have been for the first time obtained. With a maximal strain rate of 1.4 × 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, the spall strength of 2.1 GPa is obtained, which constitutes 64% of the theoretical ultimate tensile strength of graphite. The effect of spallation is observed not only on the rear side of the target, but also on its irradiated (front) surface. With the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes, the morphology of the front and rear surfaces of the targets is studied. By means of Raman scattering of light, the graphite structure both on the target front surface under laser exposure and on its rear side in the spall zone is investigated. A comparison of the dynamic strength of graphite and synthetic diamond is performed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  9. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-28

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 10 3 to 10 4  s -1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Design for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  11. Microdamage in polycrystalline ceramics under dynamic compression and tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.S.; Zhang, D.; Feng, R.; Wu, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In-grain microplasticity and intergranular microdamage in polycrystalline hexagonal-structure ceramics subjected to a sequence of dynamic compression and tension are studied computationally using the Voronoi polycrystal model, by which the topological heterogeneity and material anisotropy of the crystals are simulated explicitly. The constitutive modeling considers crystal plasticity by basal slip, intergranular shear damage during compression, and intergranular mode-I cracking during tension. The model parameters are calibrated with the available shock compression and spall strength data on polycrystalline α-6H silicon carbide. The numerical results show that microplasticity is a more plausible micromechanism for the inelastic response of the material under shock compression. On the other hand, the spallation behavior of the shocked material can be well predicted by intergranular mode-I microcracking during load reversal from dynamic compression to tension. The failure process and the resulting spall strength are, however, affected strongly by the intensity of local release heterogeneity induced by heterogeneous microplasticity, and by the grain-boundary shear damage during compression

  12. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s−1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual–Forquin–Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’. PMID:27956504

  13. Slagging gasifier refractories. A new pathway to longer refractory life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnake, Mark [Harbinson-Walker Refractories Company, Mexico, MO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Solid fuel slagging gasification to convert coal or petroleum coke feedstocks into syngas has rapidly evolved over the last 25 years. The gasifier is a high temperature, high pressure reaction chamber. Operating temperatures are between 1250 and 1575 C. Pressures will be between 20.4 and 68 atm. Syngas has been typically used for chemical feedstocks, fuel for power plants, or for steam and hydrogen generation in other industrial applications. Ash which comes from the solid fuel during gasification has many impurities. It melts during the gasifier reactor operation forming a liquid that penetrates the refractory lining. Given time, the refractory will wear away from thermal spalling, structural spalling, or overheating of the refractory. In some cases, all three wear mechanisms are seen in the same gasifier lining. Industry users have identified refractory life as one major limiting factor in worldwide use of this technology. Users have stated if the refractory liner can increase on-line availability of the gasifier operation, more industry acceptance of this technology is possible. Harbison-Walker Refractories Company will review destructive factors affecting lining life and discuss new refractory materials that have dramatically increased gasifier lining life and reliability. New refractory materials will be presented and supported by field trial results and post mortem analysis.

  14. The corrosion of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Swam, L.F.P.; Shann, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of thermo-mechanical processing of cladding on the corrosion of Zircaloy-4 in commercial PWRs that have been investigated. Visual observations and nondestructive measurements at poolside, augmented by observations in the hot cell, indicate that the initial black oxide transforms into a grey or tan later white oxide layer at a thickness of 10 to 15 μm independent of the thermal processing history of the tubing. At an oxide layer thickness of 60 to 80 μm, the oxide may spall depending somewhat on the particular oxide morphology formed and possibly on the frequency of power and temperature changes of the fuel rods. Because spalling of oxide lowers the metal-to-oxide interface temperature of fuel rods, it reduces the corrosion rate and is beneficial from that point of view. To determine the effect of thermo-mechanical processing on in-reactor corrosion of Zircaloy-4, oxide thickness measurements at poolside and in the hot cell have been analyzed with the MATPRO corrosion model. A calibrated corrosion parameter in this model provides a measure of the corrosion susceptibility of the Zircaloy-4 cladding. It was found necessary to modify the MATPRO equations with a burnup dependent term to obtain a near constant value of the corrosion parameter over a burnup range of approximately 10 to 45 MWd/kgU. Different calculational tests were performed to confirm that the modified model accurately predicts the corrosion behavior of fuel rods

  15. Electron accelerator for tunneling through hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.

    1975-10-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods are presented, with primary emphasis on the electron accelerator and only a brief description of the tunneling aspects. Of several candidate types of accelerators, a linear induction accelerator producing electron pulses (5 MV, 5 kA, 1.0 μs = 25 kJ) at a 360 Hz rate was selected for the conceptual example. This provides the required average electron beam power output of 9 MW. The feasibility of such an accelerator is discussed

  16. Electron accelerator for tunneling through hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.

    1975-01-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods are presented with primary emphasis on the electron accelerator and only a brief description of the tunneling aspects. Of several candidate types of accelerators, a linear induction accelerator producing electron pulses (5 MV, 5 kA, 1.0 μs = 25 kJ) at a 360 Hz rate was selected for the conceptual example. This provides the required average electron beam power output of 9 MW. The feasibility of such an accelerator is discussed

  17. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The present report addresses aspects of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) evolution of the repository host rock that are of potential importance to the SR-Site safety assessment of a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository. The report covers the evolution of rock temperatures, rock stresses, pore pressures and fracture transmissivities during the excavation and operational phase, the temperate phase and a glacial cycle on different scales. The glacial cycle is assumed to include a period of pre-glacial permafrost with lowered temperatures and with increased pore pressures in the rock beneath the impermeable permafrost layer. The report also addresses the question of the peak temperature reached during the early temperate phase in the bentonite buffer surrounding the spent fuel canisters. The main text is devoted exclusively to the projected THM evolution of the rock at the Forsmark site in central Sweden. The focus is on the potential for stress-induced failures, i.e. spalling, in the walls of the deposition holes and on changes in the transmissivity of fractures and deformation zones. All analyses are conducted by a combination of numerical tools (3DEC) and analytical solutions. All phases are treated separately and independently of each other, although in reality construction will overlap with heat generation because of the step-by-step excavation/deposition approach with some 50 years between deposition of the first and last canisters. It is demonstrated here that the thermal and thermo-mechanical evolution of the near-field will be independent of heat generated by canisters that were deposited in the past, provided that deposition is made in an orderly fashion, deposition area by deposition area. Peak temperatures and near-field stresses can, consequently, be calculated as if all canisters were deposited simultaneously. The canister and tunnel spacing is specified such that the peak buffer temperature will not exceed 100 deg C in any deposition hole, i.e. not

  18. Eddy-current testing of fatigue degradation upon contact fatigue loading of gas powder laser clad NiCrBSi-Cr3C2 composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrai, R. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Gorkunov, E. S.; Soboleva, N. N.; Kogan, L. Kh.; Malygina, I. Yu.; Osintseva, A. L.; Davydova, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibilities of the eddy-current method for testing the fatigue degradation under contact loading of gas powder laser clad NiCrBSi-Cr3C2 composite coating with 15 wt.% of Cr3C2 additive have been investigated. It is shown that the eddy-current testing of the fatigue degradation under contact loading of the NiCrBSi-15%Cr3C2 composite coating can be performed at high excitation frequencies 72-120 kHz of the eddy-current transducer. At that, the dependences of the eddy-current instrument readings on the number of loading cycles have both downward and upward branches, with the boundary between the branches being 3×105 cycles in the given loading conditions. This is caused, on the one hand, by cracking, and, on the other hand, by cohesive spalling and compaction of the composite coating, which affect oppositely the material resistivity and, correspondingly, the eddy-current instrument readings. The downward branch can be used to monitor the processes of crack formation and growth, the upward branch - to monitor the degree of cohesive spalling, while taking into account in the testing methodology an ambiguous character of the dependences of the eddy-current instrument readings on the number of loading cycles.

  19. The corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B in sulfur and sodium polysulfides at 623 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study was completed to determine the corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B, a nickel-based alloy with high molybdenum content, in sulfur and sodium polysulfides (Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/,Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/) at 623 K. In sulfur, molybdenum corrodes very slowly, with a parabolic rate constant of 3.6 x 10/sup -9/ cm s/sup -1/2/. Hastelloy B shows no measurable corrosion after 100h of exposure to sulfur. The corrosion reaction of molybdenum in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is characterized by the formation of a protective film that effectively eliminates further corrosion after the first 100h of exposure. Hastelloy B, however, corrodes rapidly in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, with corrosion rates approaching those of pure nickel under the same conditions. After the first 4h of exposure, the kinetics for the corrosion of Hastelloy B in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ follows a linear rate law. The scale morphology has multiple spalled layers of NiS/sub 2/, with some crystallites of NiS/sub 2/ appearing on the leading face of the scale and between the individual scale layers. This spalling causes smaller coupons of the Hastelloy B to corrode faster than larger coupons

  20. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, D.V.; Watts, A.J.; Rice, D.A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented

  1. Extracorporeal tubing in the roller pump raceway: physical changes and particulate generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Allison J Bednarski; Horbal, Alexander; Leatherbury, Robert; Hansford, Derek J

    2008-09-01

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride tubing is used as the blood conduit in the heart lung bypass circuit. The section in the roller pump undergoes rigorous compression. Fatigue leads to material changes in weight and length of the bulk material. Particles are released during normal pump operation. This study evaluates the time course of particle loss. Three segments of 1/2" ID tubing run in the raceway for 30-minute, 1-hour, or 2-hour. The fluid path of each segment includes an oxygenator; a castor oil blend was used for the prime. The 5 mL sample was acquired at 10 minute intervals. Raceway tubing segments were measured for a change in weight and length. The same procedure repeated with 1/4" ID and 3/8" ID tubing. All tubing increased at least 5 mm by the 2-hour trial. There were no remarkable changes in weight. Particles were measured for size and percent volume. Tubing with 1/2" ID performed most consistently for particle release during all trials. Particles were observed as small as 1 nm. Particles as large as 3 micron could be confirmed. For all tubing there was particle release by 30 minutes. Perfusionists must consider tubing inner diameter and wall thickness in choosing the pPVC for the raceway in order to minimize particulate emboli. This research suggests that 3/8" ID tubing produces spalls inconsistently compared to 2" ID tubing. Thinner wall thickness tubing also has the potential to limit spall formation.

  2. Dynamic behavior of zirconium alloy E110 under submicrosecond shock-wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress waves have been measured under shock wave loading of zirconium alloy E110 samples with the 0.5 – 8 mm thickness at normal and elevated temperatures. Duration of shock loading pulses varied from ∼0.05 up to 1μs with the amplitude varying from 3.4 up to 23 GPa. Free-surface velocity profiles have been registered using VISAR and PDV interferometers with nanosecond resolution. Attenuation of the elastic precursor has been measured to determine plastic strain rate behind the elastic precursor front. The plastic strain rate was observed to decrease with propagation from 106 s−1 at the 0.46-mm distance down to 2 ⋅ 104 s−1 at the 8-mm distance. Spall strength has been measured under normal and elevated temperatures. Spall strength versus strain rate relationships have been constructed in the 105 s−1 – 106s−1 range. Under shock compression higher than 10.6 GPa, the three-wave configuration of the shock wave has been registered and the polymorphous α → ω transition is considered to be the reason of this phenomenon. This work was supported by State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” within State Contract # H.4x.44.90.13.1111

  3. Dynamic behavior of zirconium alloy E110 under submicrosecond shock-wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. N.; Kozelkov, O. E.; Mayorova, A. S.; Malyugina, S. N.; Mokrushin, S. S.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Stress waves have been measured under shock wave loading of zirconium alloy E110 samples with the 0.5 - 8 mm thickness at normal and elevated temperatures. Duration of shock loading pulses varied from ˜0.05 up to 1μs with the amplitude varying from 3.4 up to 23 GPa. Free-surface velocity profiles have been registered using VISAR and PDV interferometers with nanosecond resolution. Attenuation of the elastic precursor has been measured to determine plastic strain rate behind the elastic precursor front. The plastic strain rate was observed to decrease with propagation from 106 s-1 at the 0.46-mm distance down to 2 ṡ 104 s-1 at the 8-mm distance. Spall strength has been measured under normal and elevated temperatures. Spall strength versus strain rate relationships have been constructed in the 105 s-1 - 106s-1 range. Under shock compression higher than 10.6 GPa, the three-wave configuration of the shock wave has been registered and the polymorphous α → ω transition is considered to be the reason of this phenomenon. This work was supported by State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" within State Contract # H.4x.44.90.13.1111

  4. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  5. Effects of air blast on power plant structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Valentin, R.A.; McLennan, D.A.; Turula, P.

    1978-10-01

    The effects of air blast from high explosives detonation on selected power plant structures and components are investigated analytically. Relying on a synthesis of state of the art methods estimates of structural response are obtained. Similarly blast loadings are determined from compilations of experimental data reported in the literature. Plastic-yield line analysis is employed to determine the response of both concrete and steel flat walls (plates) under impulsive loading. Linear elastic theory is used to investigate the spalling of concrete walls and mode analysis methods predict the deflection of piping. The specific problems considered are: the gross deformation of reinforced concrete shield and containment structures due to blast impulse, the spalling of concrete walls, the interaction or impact of concrete debris with steel containments and liners, and the response of exposed piping to blast impulse. It is found that for sufficiently close-in detonations and/or large explosive charge weights severe damage or destruction will result. This is particularly true for structures or components directly exposed to blast impulse

  6. The influence of cerium and yttrium ion implantation upon the oxidation behaviour of a 20% Cr/25% Ni/Nb stabilised stainless steel, in carbon dioxide, at 8250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Dearnaley, G.; Houlton, M.R.; Hawes, R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of cerium and yttrium ion implantation upon the oxidation behaviour of a 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised stainless steel during up to 7 157h exposure to carbon dioxide, at 825 0 C has been examined. The doses ranged between 5 x 10 14 and 10 17 ions cm -2 . Above thresholds of between 5 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 15 yttrium and between 5 x 10 15 and 10 16 cerium ions cm -2 the implantation of both elements improved the oxidation resistance of the 20/25/Nb steel. Yttrium exerted the greater influence, reducing by a factor of two the attack after 7 157h. Up to 80% of the oxide formed on the 20/25/Nb steel spalled, particularly on thermal cycling. Cerium and yttrium implantation improved oxide adhesion by similar extents, which increased with ion dose such that with the highest doses, no spallation was measurable. The effect of the implanted elements derived from their incorporation within the oxide film. It was initiated by their promotion of the formation of an initial chromium-rich oxide layer, which had a finer grain size than that formed on the 20/25/Nb steel. Reduction in continuing attack was associated in part, with improved oxide adhesion, as this decreased the significant contribution to the attack of the 20/25/Nb steel from the reoxidation of spalled areas. (author)

  7. Study on the first wall TiC coated materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yungui; Zou Congpei

    1994-08-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of TiC coating, electron beam thermal shock and thermal fatigue testing of TiC coated materials are described. The dense and fine coating is deposited at 1100 degree, CH 4 flux of 0.36 L/min and H 2 flux of 1.16 L/min, and the deposition rate reaches 0.7 μm/min. The correlation between coating thickness and process parameters is given. Pulsed by electron beams with high power density up to 226 MW/m 2 for 0.6 s, the TiC layers of TiC/graphite, TiC/molybdenum and TiC/316L SS spall from substrates, and 316L SS is molten. A lot of TiC layer spall from 316L SS after 2 hear cycles between 900 degree C and -246 degree C, net-cracks are formed on the surface of TiC/graphite during the fatigue testing, but no exfoliation of TiC layer is observed up to the maximum heat cycles 200. Neither cracks nor exfoliation of TiC layer on molybdenum are found after 200 heat cycles

  8. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr-W-C alloys in impure helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Taizo; Sahira, Kensho; Sakonooka, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Noboru

    1976-01-01

    Influence of the minor alloy constituents such as Al, Mn and Si on the hot corrosion behavior of Ni-20Cr-20W-0.07C alloy was studied in 99.995% helium gas at 1000 0 C, comparing with that behavior of commercial Ni-base superalloys (Hastelloy X and Inconel 617). The low oxidizing potential in the impure helium gas usually causes selective oxidation of these elements and the growth of oxide whiskers on the surface of specimen at elevated temperature. The intergranular attack was caused by selective oxidation of Al, Si and Mn. The spalling of oxide film was restrained by addition of Mn and Si, providing tough spinel type oxide film on the surface and 'Keyes' on the oxide-matrix interface respectively. The amount and the morphology of the oxide whiskers depended on Si and Mn content. More than 0.29% of Si content without Mn always caused the growth of rather thinner whiskers with smooth surface, and the whiskers analyzed by electron diffraction patterns and EPMA to be Cr 2 O 3 containing Si. Mn addition changed the whiskers to thicker ones of spinel type oxide (MnCr 2 O 1 ) with rough surface. On the basis of these results, the optimum content of Al, Mn and Si to minimize the growth of whiskers, the intergranular attack and the spalling of oxide film was discussed. (auth.)

  9. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr-W-C alloys in impure He gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Taizo; Sahira, Kensho; Sakonooka, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Noboru

    1977-01-01

    Influence of the minor alloy constituents such as Al, Mn and Si on the hot corrosion behavior of Ni-20Cr-20W-0.07C alloy was studied in 99.995%He gas at 1,000 0 C, in comparison with the behavior of commercial Ni-base superalloys (Hastelloy X and Inconel 617). The low oxidizing potential in the impure He gas usually causes selective oxidation of the elements described above and the growth of oxide whiskers on the surface of specimen at elevated temperatures. The intergranular attack was caused by selective oxidation of Al, Si and Mn. The spalling of oxide film was restrained by additions of Mn and Si, providing tough spinel type oxide film on the surface and 'keys' on the oxide-matrix interface respectively. The amount and morphology of the oxide whiskers depended on Si and Mn contents. Si of more than 0.29% without Mn always caused the growth of rather thinner whiskers with smooth surface, and the whiskers analyzed by electron diffraction patterns and EPMA to be Cr 2 O 3 containing Si. Mn addition changes the whiskers to thicker ones of spinel type oxide (MnCr 2 O 4 ) with rough surface. On the basis of these results, the optimum contents of Al, Mn and Si to minimize the growth of whiskers, the intergranular attack, and the spalling of oxide film were discussed. (auth.)

  10. Concrete spaller. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has numerous buildings and facilities that have become contaminated through operation of nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication processes, and research laboratory operations. These buildings and facilities, often constructed of concrete, need to be decontaminated before they can be safely decommissioned or demolished. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's concrete spaller is a hand-held tool that can be used for decontaminating flat or slightly curved concrete surfaces, obtaining concrete samples, and in-depth removal from cracks in concrete. The concrete spaller includes a 9-ton hydraulic cylinder and spalling bit. It runs from a hydraulic pump that expands the spaller in pre-drilled holes in the concrete. The result is removal of concrete chunks that fall into the attached metal shroud. The concrete spaller is more efficient than traditional tools such as hand-held pneumatic scabblers and scalers. For example, the spaller is capable of spalling 1.3 m 3 /hr (0.23 ft 2 /min), compared to 1.1 m 2 /hr (0.20 ft 2 /min), for the baseline scabbler and scaler demonstrated at 3-mm (1/8-in.) depth. The spaller is also capable of removing concrete at a greater depth than traditional tools. Operating cost of the spaller ($128/m 2 or $11.93/ft 2 [optimum conditions]) is less than the baseline tools: scaler ($155/m 2 or $14.40/ft 2 ) and scabbler ($156/m 2 or $14.53/ft 2 )

  11. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Summary of preparatory work and predictive modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J. Christer

    2004-11-01

    The Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, APSE, is a large scale rock mechanics experiment for research of the spalling process and the possibility for numerical modelling of it. The experiment can be summarized in three objectives: Demonstrate the current capability to predict spalling in a fractured rock mass; Demonstrate the effect of backfill (confining pressure) on the rock mass response; and Comparison of 2D and 3D mechanical and thermal predicting capabilities. This report is a summary of the works that has been performed in the experiment prior to the heating of the rock mass. The major activities that have been performed and are discussed herein are: 1) The geology of the experiment drift in general and the experiment volume in particular. 2) The design process of the experiment and thoughts behind some of the important decisions. 3) The monitoring programme and the supporting constructions for the instruments. 4) The numerical modelling, approaches taken and a summary of the predictions. In the end of the report there is a comparison of the results from the different models. Included is also a comparison of the time needed for building, realizing and make changes in the different models

  12. Behaviour of concrete structures in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a "state-of-the-art" review of research into the effects of high temperature on concrete and concrete structures, extending to a range of forms of construction, including novel developments. The nature of concrete-based structures means that they generally perform very well in fire. However, concrete is fundamentally a complex material and its properties can change dramatically when exposed to high temperatures. The principal effects of fire on concrete are loss of compressive strength, and spalling - the forcible ejection of material from the surface of a member. Though a lot of information has been gathered on both phenomena, there remains a need for more systematic studies of the effects of thermal exposures. The response to realistic fires of whole concrete structures presents yet greater challenges due to the interactions of structural elements, the impact of complex small-scale phenomena at full scale, and the spatial and temporal variations in exposures, including the cooling phase of the fire. Progress has been made on modeling the thermomechanical behavior but the treatment of detailed behaviors, including hygral effects and spalling, remains a challenge. Furthermore, there is still a severe lack of data from real structures for validation, though some valuable insights may also be gained from study of the performance of concrete structures in real fires. .

  13. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  14. Burst Pressure Failure of Titanium Tanks Damaged by Secondary Plumes from Hypervelocity Impacts on Aluminum Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry; Ghosn, Louis; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Keddy, Chris; Rodriquez, Karen; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William

    2011-01-01

    Metallic pressure tanks used in space missions are inherently vulnerable to hypervelocity impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris; thereby knowledge of impact damage and its effect on the tank integrity is crucial to a spacecraft risk assessment. This paper describes tests that have been performed to assess the effects of hypervelocity impact (HVI) damage on Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) pressure vessels burst pressure and characteristics. The tests consisted of a pair of HVI impact tests on water-filled Ti-6Al-4V tanks (water being used as a surrogate to the actual propellant) and subsequent burst tests as well as a burst test on an undamaged control tank. The tanks were placed behind Aluminum (Al) shields and then each was impacted with a 7 km/s projectile. The resulting impact debris plumes partially penetrated the Ti-6Al-4V tank surfaces resulting in a distribution of craters. During the burst tests, the tank that failed at a lower burst pressure did appear to have the failure initiating at a crater site with observed spall cracks. A fracture mechanics analysis showed that the tanks failure at the impact location may have been due to a spall crack that formed upon impact of a fragmentation on the Titanium surface. This result was corroborated with a finite element analysis from calculated Von-Mises and hoop stresses.

  15. Dynamic tensile response of alumina-Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atisivan, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    Plate impact experiments were carried out to examine the high strain-rate tensile response of alumina-aluminum (Al) composites with tailored microstructures. A novel processing technique was used to fabricate interpenetrating phase alumina-aluminum composites with controlled microstructures. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), a commercially available rapid prototyping technique, was used to produce the controlled porosity mullite ceramic preforms. Alumina-Al composites were then processed via reactive metal infiltration of porous mullite ceramics. With this approach, both the micro as well as the macro structures can be designed via computer aided design (CAD) to tailor the properties of the composites. Two sets of dynamic tensile experiments were performed. In the first, the metal content was varied between 23 and 39 wt. percent. In the second, the microstructure was varied while holding the metal content nearly constant. Samples with higher metal content, as expected, displayed better spall resistance. For a given metal content, samples with finer metal diameter showed better spall resistance. Relationship of the microstructural parameters on the dynamic tensile response of the structured composites is discussed here

  16. The influence of the admixture of the fullerene C60 on the strength properties of aluminum and copper under shock-wave loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezruchko, G S; Razorenov, S V; Popov, M Y

    2014-01-01

    Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and dynamic (spall) strength measurements of pressed aluminum and copper samples with an admixture of the fullerene C60 with 2-5 wt% under shock-wave loading were carried out. The peak pressure in the shock-wave was equal to 6 GPa. The measurements of the elastic-plastic and strength properties were based on the recording and the subsequent analysis of the sample free surface velocity histories, recorded by Velocity Interferometric System for Any Reflection (VISAR). It was found that the admixture of 5 wt% fullerene in aluminum samples led to an increase of the Hugoniot elastic limit for aluminum samples by a factor of ten. The copper samples with the admixture of 2 wt% fullerene also demonstrated an increase of the Hugoniot elastic limit in comparison with commercial copper. The measured values of the Hugoniot elastic limit were equal to 0.82-1.56 GPa for aluminum samples and 1.35-3.46 GPa for copper samples, depending on their porosity. As expected, the spall strength of the samples with fullerene decreased by about three times in comparison with the undoped samples as a result of the influence of the solid fullerene particles which were concentrators of tension stresses in the material under dynamic fracture.

  17. Dynamic material properties of refractory metals: tantalum and tantalum/tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, M.D.; Lassila, D.H.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Steinberg, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We have made a careful set of impact wave-profile measurements (16 profiles) on tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys at relatively low stresses (to 15 GPa). Alloys used were Ta 96.5 W 3.5 and Ta 86.5 W 13.5 (wt%) with oxygen contents of 30 endash 70 ppm. Information available from these experiments includes Hugoniot, elastic limits, loading rates, spall strength, unloading paths, reshock structure and specimen thickness effects. Hugoniot and spall properties are illustrated, and are consistent with expectations from earlier work. Modeling the tests with the Steinberg-Guinan-Lund rate-dependent material model provides for an excellent match of the shape of the plastic loading wave. The release wave is not well modeled due to the absence of the dynamic Bauschinger effect. There is also a discrepancy between experiments and calculations regarding the relative timing of the elastic and plastic waves that may be due to texture effects. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  19. X-ray quantitative analysis on spallation response in high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Jixiong; Peng, Zhiqiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo, Zhaoliang; Tang, Tiegang; Hu, Haibo [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Hu, Yanan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The 3-D quantitative investigation of spall behavior in high purity copper plants with different heat treatment histories was characterized using X-ray computer tomography (XRCT). The effect of shock stress and grain size on the spatial distribution and morphology of incipient spall samples were discussed. The results revealed that, in samples with similar microstructure, the ranges of void distribution decrease with the increasing of shock stress. The characteristic parameters (such as mean elongation, mean flatness and mean sphericity of voids) determined using XRCT herein as a function of shock stress and grain size. The quantitative analyses of spallation datasets render functional relationships between the microscopic parameters (like volume, frequency) of spallation voids and the microstructure. The XRCT observations show that voids are prone to coalescence in thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) sample, while the final maximum and mean volume of void were smaller than that of annealed sample. This is due to the smaller grain size of TMT sample, which means more nucleation sites of voids, this made the voids get closer and easier to coalescence, and flat voids formed ultimately.

  20. Limits to the adherence of oxide scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Manning, M.I.

    1989-10-01

    Fracture mechanics is used to identify criteria under which uniform oxide scales may be expected to fail due to rapidly applied strains. The most common failure mode occurs when the strain, ε, builds up in the scale until the strain energy density per unit area exceeds the fracture surface energy, γ, of the oxide. This produces spalling when ε > (2γ/hE) 1/2 , where h is the scale thickness and E is the oxide Youngs modulus. In thin scales, as the external strain is applied to the oxide via the metal substrate, it is clear that no further strain can be applied to the oxide if the substrate has itself been strained beyond yield. This gives rise to extended oxide adherence in which the oxide cracks and forms a series of islands but remains attached to the deformed metal. When the oxide thickness is less than its comminution limit, the flaw size necessary for brittle fracture exceeds the oxide thickness and the oxide yields in a ductile manner without cracking. The results are presented as maps of failure strain versus oxide thickness for various oxide systems such as Fe 3 O 4 , Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and NiO. The observed cases of spalling are found to lie within the predicted regions. (author)

  1. Electron microscopy characterization of a molybdenum diffusion barrier in metallizations for chip carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2004-01-01

    Mo layers have been studied as potential diffusion barriers for Au-Sn solder bonds in micro/optoelectronic device packaging. Solder was electroplated as alternating AuSn and Au 5 Sn multi-layers on wafers covered with Ti as an adhesion layer, followed by Mo as the diffusion barrier and Au as a capping layer. Samples were annealed at 340-420 deg. C for as long as 20 min. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were utilized to characterize interfacial reactions. Mo was found to be metallurgically stable, relative to the Au-Sn solder and the other metallization components, at temperatures up to at least 420 deg. C. However, the effectiveness of Mo as a barrier can be compromised by two factors. One of these is related to surface roughness associated with AlN or Al 2 O 3 carriers. Non-uniform metallization coverage can lead to breaks in the Mo barrier, resulting in contact between the carrier and molten solder during bonding applications. In addition, thermal stresses generated during heating and cooling can lead to cracking and spalling of the Mo and adhesion layers, exposing the carrier material to molten solder. Pre-annealing can help to relieve the thermal stresses and prevent spalling

  2. Numerical Simulations of Thermo-Mechanical Processes during Thermal Spallation Drilling for Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, D.; Walsh, S. D. C.; Rudolf von Rohr, P.; Saar, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling expenses constitute a significant share of the upfront capital costs and thereby the associated risks of geothermal energy production. This is especially true for deep boreholes, as drilling costs per meter increase significantly with depth. Thermal spallation drilling is a relatively new drilling technique, particularly suited to the hard crystalline (e.g., basement) rocks in which many deep geothermal resources are located. The method uses a hot jet-flame to rapidly heat the rock surface, which leads to large temperature gradients in the rock. These temperature gradients cause localized thermal stresses that, in combination with the in situ stress field, lead to the formation and ejection of spalls. These spalls are then transported out of the borehole with the drilling mud. Thermal spallation not only in principle enables much faster rates of penetration than traditional rotary drilling, but is also contact-less, which significantly reduces the long tripping times associated with conventional rotary head drilling. We present numerical simulations investigating the influence of rock heterogeneities on the thermal spallation process. Special emphasis is put on different mineral compositions, stress regimes, and heat sources.

  3. Degradation phenomena of magnetic attachments used clinically in the oral environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chae-Heon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Kwak, Jong-Ha

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the failure of magnetic attachments used to retain dental prostheses. Dyna magnets were retrieved from dentures that had failed after 34 months of clinical use. These magnetic attachments were prepared and sectioned so as to observe the corrosion surface and layer in order to analyze the corrosion behaviors of the attachments. The corroded surface was observed under a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) (JSM 840A, JEOL, Japan). An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to analyze the corrosion product formed due to corrosion in the oral environment. Erosion-corrosion started in the uneven portion of the stainless steel cover in the magnetic attachments composed with Nd-Fe-B alloy. Corrosion was initiated on the worn stainless steel surface, followed by spalling of magnetic material due to corrosive solution. The corrosion rate increased drastically after the corrosion product caused spalling in Nd-Fe-B alloy. Corrosion initiated in the uneven stainless steel surface as well as in the welded zone. In conclusion, the failure of magnetic attachments may occur by either welding failure or breakdown of the encapsulating material. Thus, we believe that treating the surface of magnetic attachments would resolve the corrosion problem seen in magnetic attachments to some extent.

  4. Boiler materials for ultra-supercritical coal power plants—Steamside oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, R.; Sarver, J.; Tanzosh, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of tubing materials carrying steam at high temperature is of great concern to fossil power plant operators. This is due to the fact that the oxide films formed on the steam side can lead to major failures and consequently to reduced plant availability. The wall loss of the pressure boundary caused by oxidation can increase the hoop stresses and cause premature creep failures; second, the increased insulation of the tubes due to the low thermal conductivity of the oxide film can lead to increased metal temperature, thereby exacerbating the fireside corrosion as well as creep problems. The third concern is that thicker oxides may spall more easily when the plant is cooled down. On restart, the spalled material may lodge somewhere in the system with the potential for causing tube blockages, or it may be swept out with the working fluid and enter the steam turbine causing erosion damage to the turbine nozzles and blades. Failures of tubing and turbine components by these mechanisms have been widely reported in the United States. In view of the importance of the steamside oxidation, a major study of the phenomenon is being carried out as part of a major national program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office. As a prelude to the experimental work, a literature survey was performed to document the state of the art. Results of the review are reported here.

  5. Bridge Crack Detection Using Multi-Rotary Uav and Object-Base Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. Y.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.; Wang, S. H.; Fang, W. C.; Wang, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    can calculate the width of a crack object. For spalling volume calculation, we also apply SGM to obtain dense surface geometry. Assuming the background is a planar surface, we can fit a planar function and convert the surface geometry into a DSM. Thus, for spalling area its height will be lower than the plane and its value will be negative. We can thus apply several image processing technique to segment the spalling area and calculate the spalling volume as well. For bridge inspection and UAV image management within a laboratory, we develop a graphic user interface. The major functions include crack auto-detection using OBIA, crack editing, i.e. delete and add cracks, crack attributing, 3D crack visualization, spalling area/volume calculation, bridge defects documentation, etc.

  6. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at Olkiluoto

  7. BRIDGE CRACK DETECTION USING MULTI-ROTARY UAV AND OBJECT-BASE IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Rau

    2017-08-01

    on image scale we can calculate the width of a crack object. For spalling volume calculation, we also apply SGM to obtain dense surface geometry. Assuming the background is a planar surface, we can fit a planar function and convert the surface geometry into a DSM. Thus, for spalling area its height will be lower than the plane and its value will be negative. We can thus apply several image processing technique to segment the spalling area and calculate the spalling volume as well. For bridge inspection and UAV image management within a laboratory, we develop a graphic user interface. The major functions include crack auto-detection using OBIA, crack editing, i.e. delete and add cracks, crack attributing, 3D crack visualization, spalling area/volume calculation, bridge defects documentation, etc.

  8. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  9. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  10. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  11. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 degree centigrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Ramirez, A.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Chaon-Nava, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Fe 3 Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO 2 +N 2 at 900 degree centigrade for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe 3 AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage. (Author) 39 refs.

  12. Determination of the contact stresses in double-row tapered roller bearings using the finite element method, experimental analysis and analytical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lostado, Ruben [University of La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Martinez, Roberto Fernandez [University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); MacDonald, Bryan J. [Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2015-11-15

    Double-row Tapered roller bearings (TRBs) are mechanical devices that are designed to support high axial, radial and torque loads. This combination of loads produces high contact stresses on the bearing raceways that are difficult to predict and validate experimentally, and can cause defects like pitting and fatigue spalling. In response, theoretical models have been proposed by many researchers to calculate the approximate distribution of contact stresses over the bearing raceways. More recently, numerical methods that are based on the Finite element method (FEM) have been used to obtain the contact stresses, although this method requires that the mesh size first be adjusted. This paper shows a process for adjusting a double-row TRB Finite element (FE) model. It is based on generating successive nonlinear FE submodels to calculate the distribution of contact stresses. A theoretical model and contact pressure sensors were used to adjust and validate the Finite element (FE) model.

  13. Principles underlying the Fourth Power Nature of Structured Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Steady structured shock waves in materials including metals, glasses, compounds and solid mixtures, when represented through plots of Hugoniot stress against a measure of the strain rate through which the Hugoniot state is achieved, have consistently demonstrated a dependence to the fourth power. A perhaps deeper observation is that the product of the energy dissipated through the transition to the Hugoniot state and the time duration of the Hugoniot state event exhibits invariance independent of the Hugoniot amplitude. Invariance of the energy-time product and the fourth-power trend are to first order equivalent. Further, constancy of this energy-time product is observed in other dynamic critical state failure events including spall fracture, dynamic compaction and adiabatic shear failure. The presentation pursues the necessary background exposing the foregoing shock physics observations and explores possible statistical physics principals that may underlie the collective dynamic observations.

  14. Typical corrosion of alumina refractory in aluminum reflow oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, Jaoa B.

    2014-01-01

    The refractory linings of furnaces for secondary melting of aluminum, are exposed to intense attack by the molten metal. This occurs, because molten aluminum has a strong reducing power over the refractory oxide components, particularly Fe 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and TiO 2 . In this work, based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, it is presented a post mortem study of the mechanisms that lead to a premature wear of a 80% Al2O3 chemically bonded refractory bricks, used in the metal line of an aluminum re-melting furnace. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides SiO 2 and TiO 2 contained in the refractory were reduced and transformed into their metallic elements causing an intense structural spalling. (author)

  15. Temperature Measurement and Damage Detection in Concrete Beams Exposed to Fire Using PPP-BOTDA Based Fiber Optic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, distributed fiber optic sensors based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA) are characterized and deployed to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete specimens exposed to fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9 %. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  16. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya

    1999-01-01

    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  17. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-01

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot "mix" may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields—not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or "grains" of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. We describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulations and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.

  18. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Romain, J P; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T D; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm sup - sup 2. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm sup - sup 2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  19. The structure of leached sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Turner, G.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, solid state 29 Si, 11 B, 17 O, and 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate how the structures of sodium borosilicate glasses change during leaching in water at pH 1, 9, and 12. Results show that the random network structure present prior to leaching is transformed into a network of small condensed ring structures and/or colloidal silica particles. The restructuring of leached glass can be rationalised on the basis of simple hydrolysis (depolymerisation) and condensation (repolymerisation) reactions involving Si-O-Si and Si-O-B bonds. The structural changes that occur during leaching influence the properties of the leached layer, including leaching kinetics, crazing and spalling, and slow crack growth. (author)

  20. Graphite limiter and armour damage in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvey, T.; Taylor, T.; Trester, P.

    1983-01-01

    Graphite coated with TiC has been used extensively in Doublet III for limiters and neutral beam armour. Performance of these components has been superior to that of the metal components previously used. Damage to the coated graphite has occurred and can be classified into three categories: (1) gross failure of the graphite due to thermal stresses induced by the combination of high applied energy fluxes and mechanical restraint, (2) surface failure of the graphite due to runaway electron impingement, and (3) loss of TiC coating due to arcing, sputtering, vaporization and spalling, primarily during plasma disruptions and other abnormal plasma conditions. Design improvements are being continually implemented to minimize this damage and its consequences. (author)

  1. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  2. Representation of two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAUGHN, PALMER; BEAN, J.E.; HELTON, JON CRAIG; LORD, MICHAEL E.; MACKINNON, ROBERT J.; SCHREIBER, JAMES D.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the representation of two-phase (gas and brine) flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are discussed: (1) system of nonlinear partial differential equations used to model two-phase flow, (2) incorporation of repository shafts into model (3) creep closure of repository. (4) interbed fracturing, (5) gas generation (6) capillary action in waste, (7) borebole model (8) numerical solution and (9) gas and brine flow across specified boundaries. Two-phase flow calculations are a central part of the 1996 WIPP PA and supply results that are subsequently used in the calculation of releases to the surface at the time of a drilling intrusion (i.e., spallings, direct brine releases) and long-term releases due to radionuclide transport by flowing groundwater

  3. Refractories in the Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.P.; Bhadra, A.K.; Sircar, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of addition of ZrO 2 in different proportions in the refractories of the Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system was studied. The investigation was confined to two broad ranges of compositions incorporating zirconia (15-30 percent and 80-85 percent) in the Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 -SiO 2 system. The overall attainment of properties is dependent upon the mode of fabrication and firing, and bears a relationship with the phase assemblages and the relative proportion thereof. Of the different characteristics, the trend of dissociation of zircon has been found to be specially significant vis-a-vis the temperature of firing and thermal shock resistance. Reassociation of the dissociated products has been ascribed to bring forth improved resistance to thermal spalling. The different products developed during this investigation are considered to be very promising which find useful applications in view of the properties attained by them. (auth.)

  4. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romain, J P [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Bonneau, F [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Dayma, G [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Boustie, M [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Resseguier, T de [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France); Combis, P [Departement de Physique Theorique et Appliquee CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2002-11-11

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm{sup -2}. The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence <1.4 J cm{sup -2}, the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface.

  5. Pressure measurements and an analytical model for laser-generated shock waves in solids at low irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J P; Bonneau, F; Dayma, G; Boustie, M; Resseguier, T de; Combis, P

    2002-01-01

    Low amplitude shock waves (from 1 to 300 bar) have been generated in gold layers deposited on a quartz substrate, by laser pulses at an incident fluence from 0.4 to 4.0 J cm -2 . The quartz was used as a pressure gauge for recording the induced shock profile. At a fluence -2 , the shock pressure does not exceed 10 bar and the shock front is followed by a tension peak typical of an absorption in solid state. An analytical model of the compression-tension process has been developed, accounting for shock pressure and shock profile evolution as a function of irradiation conditions and material properties. From this model a mechanical interpretation is given to previous observations of spalling of the irradiated target surface

  6. Fracture Failure of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Jaini

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture.

  7. Improved cyclic oxidation resistance of electron beam physical vapor deposited nano-oxide dispersed {beta}-NiAl coatings for Hf-containing superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hongbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)], E-mail: Guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn; Cui Yongjing; Peng Hui; Gong Shengkai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Oxide dispersed (OD) {beta}-NiAl coatings and OD-free {beta}-NiAl coatings were deposited onto a Hf-containing Ni-based superalloy by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Excessive enrichment of Hf was found in the TGO on the OD-free coating due to outward diffusion of Hf from the superalloy, causing accelerated TGO thickening and spalling. The OD-coating effectively prevented Hf from outward diffusion. Only small amount of Hf diffused to the coating surface and improved the TGO adherence by virtue of the reactive element effect. The OD-coating exhibited an improved oxidation resistance as compared to the OD-free coating.

  8. Control effect of fracture on hard coal cracking in a fully mechanized longwall top coal caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-ping Wei; Zhong-hua Li; Pei-miao Sang; Shang-qiang Chen [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2009-03-15

    Through theoretical analysis, simulation test and practice, the law of a fracture's influence on hard top coal press cracking was studied. The study focused on the relation between fracture and coal strength, top coal caving ability and work face layout. Based on the investigation of the fracture system, the control of press cracking was achieved by matching working face to fracture orientation to improve top-coal caving ability and recovery. The matching principle was pointed out: the top-coal caving working face should be perpendicular to or obliquely cross the primary fracture at a large angle, and cross the secondary fracture at a small angle. The rational match can increase the recovery ratio of top-coal and avoid rib spalling. The application of control technology on hard top coal press cracking was introduced at the longwall top-coal caving face. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, Michael D.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Kanel et al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. 'Failure' (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study we have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime

  10. Experimental results from Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.

    1979-06-01

    The results indicate that the temperature fields in a rock mass containing geologic discontinuities can be predicted accurately using the simple theory of heat conduction. Geologic discontinuities appear to introduce significant nonlinear thermomechanical deformation into the rock mass, as a result of which the thermally induced displacements are much less than those predicted by the simple theory of thermo-elasticity. In addition, the assumption that the rock properties are temperature independent appears to increase the values predicted for these displacements significantly. Therefore, it is important that the temperature dependence of these properties is known and that these values be used in the calculations. The onset of significant thermal spalling along the walls of the heater boreholes appears to be related to conditions where the maximum induced compressive stress exceeds the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. 7 figures

  11. Stress effects in cylindrical tubes of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels with oxide scales. Materials selection for a HPLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    2002-11-01

    In the frame of the studies for a high performance concept of a light water reactor (LWR) different materials for the cladding are investigated, among them are austenitic and ferritic/martensitic (f/m) steels of different Cr content. Due to the envisaged very extended life times of the fuel elements in the reactor, corrosion problems may arise. Thus, cracking and/or spalling effects in oxide scales on metallic components may play an important role in the corrosion process as they lead, in general, to a drastic enhancement in the oxidation rates. Analytical models for different fundamental stress problems in the compound oxide scale/metallic substrate have been developed and implemented in the computer code OXSPA. These models concern the growth stresses in the cylindrical tubes, the stresses due to temperature changes and radial temperature gradients and the stresses due to inside and outside pressures. (orig.)

  12. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  13. Spigolature toponomastiche carsiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Doria

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Denominazione di cui si ignora l'"origine", annota Carlo Chersi nella sua accurata guida Itinerari del Carso triestino (giunta postuma alla sua settima edizione, Trieste 1984, a proposito di Coste, nome di un colle abbastanza alto(m. 410 che si eleva alle spalle di Sales (Salež, nella catena cui appar­ tengono anche il Monte San Leonardo (Sv. Leonard, a. N. 0., e la Vetta Grande (Ostri Vrh aS. E., ed è chiamato oggi local­ mente Gradec (in quanto sede di castelliere, cfr. A. M. Radmilli ASPP 193-75, p. 126 e già C. Marchesetti Castellieri, Trieste 1903, p. 37 o anche (Monte Dernovesch (Dernovesh, grafie te­ deschizzanti di uno slov. (dial. Dernovcah (dall'agg. drnovec "provvisto di zolle erbose".

  14. Sensitivity of Variables with Time for Degraded RC Shear Wall with Low Steel Ratio under Seismic Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hee; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2011-01-01

    Various factors lead to the degradation of reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall over time. The steel section loss, concrete spalling and strength of material have been considered for the structural analysis of degraded shear wall. When all variables with respect to degradation are considered for probabilistic evaluation of degraded shear wall, many of time and effort were demanded. Therefore, it is required to define important variables related to structural behavior for effectively conducting probabilistic seismic analysis of structures with age-related degradation. In this study, variables were defined by applying the function of time to consider degradation with time. Importance of variables with time on the seismic response was investigated by conducting sensitivity analysis

  15. Discrete-Feature Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport for SR-Can Review. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (US))

    2008-03-15

    Discrete-feature models were developed to represent the main classes of water-conducting features at the Laxemar and Forsmark candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The models encompass features on scales ranging from individual fractures 2 m or larger in radius around deposition holes, or spalled zones around deposition holes and tunnels, to deformation zones on the scale of kilometres. Equivalent discontinuum features are used to represent the aggregate properties of fractures outside of the vicinity of deposition holes where an explicit representation is used. Deposition hole locations within the repository layout are conditioned to each stochastic realization of the discrete-fracture population, using a full-perimeter-intersection criterion to identify discriminating fractures that pose a seismic risk, and a simulated pilot-hole criterion to exclude deposition-hole locations with excessive flows. The utilization factors of 0.70 obtained here for the full repository at Forsmark and = 0.53 for the full repository at Laxemar are significantly lower than the corresponding values = 0.93 and 0.88 for the most nearly comparable case presented in the SR-Can Main Report. Further investigation is needed to discern whether this discrepancy is primarily due to possible nonconservative assumptions in SKB's analytical modelling approach, or due to artefacts of the simulation approach using finite domains, which could lead to overly conservative values in the present study. Flows through the discrete-feature model variants are calculated by finite-element simulation. Distributions of flows to deposition holes are presented for the Laxemar base case and for an initial suite of variants for Forsmark. Results for Forsmark indicate that the distribution of flow to deposition holes is robust with respect to the set of variants considered, and that a given single realization of the discrete-fracture network (DFN) submodel produces representative results

  16. Comparison of the tribological properties at 25 C of seven different polyimide films bonded to 301 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A pin-on-disk type of friction and wear apparatus was used to study the tribological properties of seven different polyimide films bonded to AISI 301 stainless steel disks at 25 C. It was found that the substrate material was extremely influential in determining the lubricating ability of the polyimide films. All seven films spalled in less than 1000 cycles of sliding. This was believed to be caused by poor adherence to the 301 stainless steel or the inability of the films to withstand the high localized tensile stresses imparted by the deformation of the soft substrate under sliding conditions. The friction coefficients obtained for six of the polyimides varied between 0.21 to 0.32 while one varied between 0.32 to 0.39.

  17. Corrosion of ferrous alloys in eutectic lead-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained on austenitic prime candidate alloy (PCA) and Type 316 stainless steel and ferritic HT-9 and Fe-9Cr-1Mo steels in a flowing Pb-17 at. % Li environment at 727 and 700 K (454 and 427 0 C). The results indicate that the dissolution rates for both austenitic and ferritic steels in Pb-17Li are an order of magnitude greater than in flowing lithium. The influence of time, temperature, and alloy composition on the corrosion behavior in Pb-17Li is similar to that in lithium. The weight losses for the austenitic steels are an order of magnitude greater than for the ferritic steels. The rate of weight loss for the ferritic steels is constant, whereas the dissolution rates for the austenitic steels decrease with time. After exposure to Pb-17Li, the austenitic steels develop a very weak and porous ferrite layer which easily spalls from the specimen surface

  18. Transient fission gas release during direct electrical heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-12-01

    The gas release behavior of irradiated EBR-II fuel was observed to be dependent on several factors: the presence of cladding, the retained gas content, and the energy absorbed. Fuel that retained in excess of 16 to 17 μmoles/g of fission gas underwent spallation as the cladding melted and released 22 to 45% of its retained gas, while fuel with retained gas levels below approx. 15 to 16 μmoles/g released less than approx. 9% of its gas as the cladding melted. During subsequent direct electrical heating ramps, fuel that did not spall released an additional quantity of gas (up to 4 μmoles/g), depending on the energy absorbed

  19. The release of fission products from uranium metal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.

    1989-03-01

    The literature on the release of fission products as gaseous species from irradiated uranium metal in oxidising atmospheres has been reviewed. Release of actinides and of fission products as spalled particulate were not considered. Data is given on the release in air, carbon dioxide, steam and mixtures of steam and air. The majority of data discussed lie between 800 and 1200 0 C though some results for xenon, krypton and iodine releases below 800 0 C are given. Two measures of fission product release are discussed: the release fraction, F(tot), which is the ratio of the total release to the initial inventory, and the fractional release, F(ox), which is the fraction released from the oxidised metal. The effect of burn-up, atmosphere and temperature on F(tot) and F(ox) is examined and the conditions under which the release fraction, F(tot) is proportional to the extent of oxidation discussed. (author)

  20. Insulating Coating Development for Vanadium Alloys. Phase I Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunda, N.; Sastri, S.; Jayaraman, M.; Karandikar, P.

    2000-01-01

    Self-cooled liquid-lithium/vanadium blanket offers many advantages for fusion power systems. Liquid metals moving through a magnetic field are subjected to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that can increase the pressure drop and affect the flow profiles and heat transfer. Insulating coatings are required to eliminate this effect. Based on the thermodynamic stability data five different coatings were selected PVD and CVD processes were developed to deposit these coatings. All coatings have resistivities much higher than the minimum required. Liquid lithium testing at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that one of the coatings showed only partial spalling. Thus, further refinement of this coating has significant potential to satisfy the requirements for Li/V blanket technology

  1. Solute transport and the prediction of breakaway oxidation in gamma + beta Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Al transport and the condition leading to breakaway oxidation during the cyclic oxidation of gamma + beta NiCrAl alloys have been studied. The Al concentration/distance profiles were measured after various cyclic oxidation exposures at 1200 C. It was observed that cyclic oxidation results in a decreasing Al concentration at the oxide/metal interface, maintaining a constant flux of Al to the Al2O3 scale. It was also observed that breakaway oxidation occurs when the Al concentration at the oxide/metal interface approaches zero. A numerical model was developed to simulate the diffusional transport of Al and to predict breakaway oxidation in gamma + beta NiCrAl alloys undergoing cyclic oxidation. In a comparison of two alloys with similar oxide spalling characteristics, the numerical model was shown to predict correctly the onset of breakaway oxidation in the higher Al-content alloy.

  2. Influence of cobalt oxide on structure and phase composition of zirconium-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of Co 3 O 4 addition in a quantity from 10 to 90% on microstructure, phase content, lattice parameter and structure of ZrO 2 ceramics spallings stabilized with yttrium oxide, is studied. It is found out that in the process of ceramics synthesis the formation of three-phased heterogeneous system of matrix type occurs. At cobalt oxide content within the range of 10-30% a matrix consist of ZrO 2 base solid solution, at cobalt oxide content from 50 to 90% it is a matrix base, at 40% Co 3 O 4 the regions with both type matrixes exist. Cobalt oxide introduction decreases the sintering temperature without loss in operation indices of heat sensitive ceramics for resistance transducers

  3. On the shock response of the magnesium alloy Elektron 675

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Siviour, Clive; Wielewski, Euan

    2011-06-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc or rare-earths allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high-strain rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure longitudinal stress evolution in armour-grade wrought Mg-alloy Elektron 675 under 1D shock loading. The strength and spall behaviour was interrogated, with an estimate made of the material's Hugoniot elastic limit. Finally, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to investigate post-shock microstructural changes.

  4. A study on the strength of an armour-grade aluminum under high strain-rate loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.

    2010-06-01

    The aluminum alloy 5083 in tempers such as H32 and H131 is an established light-weight armour material. While its dynamic response under high strain-rates has been investigated elsewhere, little account of the effect of material orientation has been made. In addition, little information on its strength under such loadings is available in the literature. Here, both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress have been measured using embedded manganin stress gauges during plate-impact experiments on samples with the rolling direction aligned both orthogonal and parallel to the impact axis. The Hugoniot elastic limit, spall, and shear strengths were investigated for incident pressures in the range 1-8 GPa, providing an insight into the response of this alloy under shock loading. Further, the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front was investigated to give an indication of material response.

  5. SR-Site Pre-modelling: Sensitivity studies of hydrogeological model variants for the Laxemar site using CONNECTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Hoek, Jaap; Hartley, Lee (Serco (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study investigated a number of potential model variants of the SR-Can hydrogeological models of the temperate period and the sensitivity of the performance measures to the chosen parameters. This will help to guide the choice of potential variants for the SR-Site project and provide an input to design premises for the underground construction of the repository. It was found that variation of tunnel backfill properties in the tunnels had a significant effect on performance measures, but in the central area, ramps and shafts it had a lesser effect for those property values chosen. Variation of tunnel EDZ properties only had minor effects on performance measures. The presence of a crown space in the deposition tunnels had a significant effect on the tunnel performance measures and a lesser effect on the rock and EDZ performance measures. The presence of a deposition hole EDZ and spalling also had an effect on the performance measures.

  6. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  7. Uranium oxidation: Characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water by infrared and sorption analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, E. L.; Smyrl, N. R.; Condon, J. B.; Eager, M. H.

    1984-04-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. The results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. Inert gas sorption analyses and diffuse reflectance infrared studies combined with electron microscopy prove valuable in defining the chemistry and morphology of the oxidic products and hydrated intermediates.

  8. Uranium oxidation: characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Smyrl, N.R.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. Results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. 27 figures

  9. Investigation of the dynamic behavior in materials submitted to sub-picosecond laser driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at high strain rate and present a great interest for research and industrial applications. The latest laser technologies evolutions provide an access to shorter regimes in duration, below the picosecond. This work, which results from a collaboration between the P' institute, the PIMM laboratory and the CEA-DAM, is dedicated to the characterization of the metallic material behavior in this ultra-short mode (aluminium, tantalum), leading to extreme dynamic solicitation in the target (>10 7 s -1 ). The study includes the validation of experimental results obtained on the LULI 100 TW facility by comparison with numerical model. First, the study is orientated to the femtosecond (fs) laser-matter interaction, which is different from what happens in nanosecond regime. Indeed, the characteristic duration scale is comparable to several molecular phenomena like non-equilibrium electrons-ions states. The aim is to determine the equivalent pressure loading induced by the laser pulse on the target. Then, the shock wave propagation within the target has been studied and particularly its pressure decay, notably strong in this regime. In this configuration, the spalls observed are thin, a few μm order, and show a planar rupture morphology. The results obtained by post-mortem observation show that the spall thickness is thinner if the target thickness is reduced. The spalls are characterized by the VISAR measurement. Within the framework of dynamic damage modeling and rupture criteria dimensioning, particularly those which have been validated in the ns regime as Kanel, shots with different thicknesses have been carried out to determine the damage properties in function of strain rate and validate the parameters by prolongation to the ultra-shorts modes. Then, the study has been generalized to the 2D propagation waves, which can explain the spall diameter evolutions. Meanwhile, microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser

  10. Study on corrosion behavior of candidate materials in 650℃ supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuli; Luo Ying; Zhang Qiang; Wang Hao; Qiu Shaoyu

    2014-01-01

    The general corrosion behavior of three candidate materials (347, HR3C and In-718) was investigated in 650 ℃/25 MPa deionized water. Morphology and composition of the surface oxide film with different exposure time were observed through FEG-SEM and EDS. The phase constitute was analyzed by GIXRD. For all the test materials, the weight loss follows typical parabolic law and the weight loss of 347 shows more than 40 times higher than that of HR3C and In-718. The oxide film of three alloys mainly consists of Ni(Cr, Fe) 2 O 4 . In-718 shows severe pitting and the oxide film of 347 appears significant spalling, while HR3C has compact oxide film. In the high temperature supercritical water, the high Cr content may enhance the general corrosion property of the alloys, while addition of Nb may be detrimental to the pitting resistance of alloys. (authors)

  11. Excellent mechanical properties and resistance to cavitation erosion for an ultra-low carbon CrMnN stainless steel through quenching and partitioning treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ze-an; Fu, Wan-tang; Zhu, Zhe; Li, Bin; Shi, Zhong-ping; Sun, Shu-hua

    2018-05-01

    The retained austenite content (RAC), the mechanical properties, and the resistance to cavitation erosion (CE) of the 00Cr13Mn8MoN steel after quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing were investigated. The results show that the Q&P process affected the RAC, which reached the maximum value after partitioning at 400°C for 10 min. The tensile strength of the steel slightly decreased with increasing partitioning temperature and time. However, the elongation and product of strength and elongation first increased and then decreased. The sample partitioned at 400°C for 10 min exhibited the optimal property: a strength-ductility of 23.8 GPa·%. The resistance to CE for the 00Cr13Mn8MoN steel treated by the Q&P process was improved due to work hardening, spalling, and cavitation-induced martensitic transformation of the retained austenite.

  12. High-rate deformation and fracture of steel 09G2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Vl. Vas.; Balandin, Vl. Vl.; Bragov, A. M.; Igumnov, L. A.; Konstantinov, A. Yu.; Lomunov, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of steel 09G2S deformation and fracture laws in a wide range of strain rates and temperature variations are given. The dynamic deformation curves and the ultimate characteristics of plasticity in high-rate strain were determined by the Kolsky method in compression, extension, and shear tests. The elastoplastic properties and spall strength were studied by using the gaseous gun of calibre 57 mm and the interferometer VISAR according to the plane-wave experiment technique. The data obtained by the Kolsky method were used to determine the parameters of the Johnson-Cook model which, in the framework of the theory of flow, describes how the yield surface radius depends on the strain, strain rate, and temperature.

  13. The effect of surface condition and cold work on the sulphidation resistance of 153MA at 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakalos, P.; Hertzman, S.; Pettersson, R.F.A. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Ivarsson, B. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    The normal grain sized 153MA-sample experienced an almost linear weight gain curve in the sulphidizing environment while modified materials, with a finer grain size or cold worked structure, displayed more parabolic behaviour and lower weight gains. These effects may be related to more effective Cr-diffusion in the modified samples with a higher Cr-grain boundary diffusion in the fine grain-sample and a higher Cr-bulk diffusion rate in the cold worked sample. The sand blasted sample performed exceedingly well with a thin protective oxide layer compared to the etched and ground samples which both suffered significant weight loss and spalling. The deformed surface structure on the sand blasted sample enhances the Cr-bulk diffusion thus promoting a protective Cr-rich oxide formation. (orig.)

  14. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzas, J.-D.

    1999-01-01

    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  15. Wiedemann-Franz ratio in high-pressure and low-temperature thermal xenon plasma with 10% caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N.V.; Milic, B.S.; Stojilkovic, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of various transport properties of low-temperature noble-gas plasmas with additives has aroused a continuous interest over a considerable spall of time, due to numerous applications. In this paper the results of a theoretical evaluation of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and their ratio (the Wiedemann-Franz ratio) in xenon plasma with 10% of argon and 10% of caesium are presented, for the temperature range from 2000 K to 20000 K, and for pressures equal to or 5, 10, and 15 time higher than the normal atmospheric pressure. The plasma was regarded as weakly non-ideal and in the state of local thermodynamical equilibrium with the assumption that the equilibrium is attained with the pressure kept constant. The plasma composition was determined on the ground of a set of Saha equations; the ionization energy lowerings were expressed with the aid of a modified plasma Debye radius r* D (rather than the standard r D ), as proposed previously

  16. Characterisation of AGR fuel cladding alloy using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Sparry, R.P.; Wild, R.K.

    1987-08-01

    Uranium dioxide fuel used in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) is contained in a ribbed can of 20wt%Cr/25wt%Ni/Nb stabilised steel. Laboratory circumstances, spall during thermal cycling. To date it has been difficult to identify active material originating from the oxidation product of the cladding alloy in the cooling circuit. In an attempt to solve this problem we have set out to characterise fully a sample of oxide from this source and work is in progress to obtain suitable oxide samples from the surface of a 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel. In view of its high sensitivity and the ability to obtain chemical information from relatively small areas we have sought to use Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). (author)

  17. Some Aspects of Structural Modeling of Damage Accumulation and Fracture Processes in Metal Structures at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Lepov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of brittle fracture of structures at low temperature conditions connected to damage accumulation and ductile-brittle transition in metals. The data for locomotive tire contact impact fatigue and spalling are presented. The results of experimental testing showed the impact toughness drop at low temperature. The internal friction method was applied to revealing of the mechanism of dislocation microstructure changes during the low temperature ductile-brittle transition. It has been shown for the first time that the transition is not connected to interatomic interactions but stipulated by thermofluctuation on nucleus such as microcracks and by their further growth and coalescence. From now on, the proposed mechanism would be used for theoretical and numerical modeling of damage accumulation and fracture in materials.

  18. Mechanical stability of the diamond-like carbon film on nitinol vascular stents under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jong; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Han, Seung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Woo; Shin, Kyong-Min; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films coated on nitinol vascular stents was investigated under cyclic loading condition by employing a stent crimping system. DLC films were coated on the vascular stent of a three dimensional structure by using a hybrid ion beam system with rotating jig. The cracking or delamination of the DLC coating occurred dominantly near the hinge connecting the V-shaped segments of the stent where the maximum strain was induced by a cyclic loading of contraction and extension. However the failures were significantly suppressed as the amorphous Si (a-Si) buffer layer thickness increased. Interfacial adhesion strength was estimated from the spalled crack size in the DLC coating for various values of the a-Si buffer layer thickness

  19. DISILICIDE BASE REFRACTORY METAL COATINGS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Sidney I.

    1963-03-15

    Studies of probable effects of space environment exposure of Durak B'' (a Chromizing Corp. proprietary disilicide coating) coated Mo are described. It was concluded that, in a high-temperature environment, solar radiation will not affect the material system. Sputtering will not cause a structural problem, but it may cause a change in optical properties. Meteoroids may cause coating spalling and minimum to possibly total failure. Some protection system will probably be necessary. Vacuum will cause some coating evaporation. The rate will be temperature-dependent and probably of a low order. The possible problem area is that the evaporation appears to occur preferentially at crack sites. Ionized nitrogen and hydrogen may react with the coating and charge physical or mechanical properties. (A.G.W.)

  20. Rio Blanco: nuclear operations and chimney reentry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Guido, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Rio Blanco was the third experiment in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare Program to develop technology to stimulate gas production from geologic formations not conducive to production by conventional means. The project was sponsored by CER Geonuclear Corporation, with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory providing the explosives and several technical programs, such as spall measurement. Three nuclear explosives specifically designed for this application were detonated simultaneously in a minimum-diameter emplacement well using many commercially available but established-reliability components. The explosive system performed properly under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. Emplacement and stemming operations were designed with the aim of simplifying both the emplacement and reentry and fully containing the detonation products. An integrated command and control system was used with communication to all three explosives through a single coaxial cable. Reentry and the initial production testing are completed. To date 98 million standard ft 3 of chimney gas have been produced. (auth)

  1. Application of elasticity theory at Sandia Labortories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, L.

    1975-01-01

    Examples are given of the application of linear elasticity theory to the solution of practical problems encountered at Sandia Laboratories. It is being applied to a very broad range of problems: those in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, some involving static and some dynamic response, to materials having isotropic and anisotropic symmetry, to homogeneous and inhomogeneous bodies, etc. Various extensions of the theory to include electric, magnetic and thermal effects, to account for material microstructure, for radiation and spall damage, chemical reactions, and other phenomena have been developed and/or applied. In some applications linear elasticity represents the physics of a problem well and is the theory of choice. In others the theory was used because it lent insight into a larger problem that was also attacked by means of other theories and/or experiment, and in some cases it serves as a part of a more encompassing theory

  2. Evaluation of pore structures and cracking in cement paste exposed to elevated temperatures by X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Yeom, E-mail: kimky@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 411-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Tae Sup, E-mail: taesup@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Pil, E-mail: bamtol97@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 411-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    When cement-based materials are exposed to the high temperatures induced by fire, which can rapidly cause temperatures of over 1000 °C, the changes in pore structure and density prevail. In the present study, mortar specimens were subjected to a series of increasing temperatures to explore the temperature-dependent evolution of internal pore structure. High-performance X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe the evolution of temperature-induced discontinuities at the sub-millimeter level. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the cause of physical changes in the heated mortar specimens. Results exhibit the changes in pore structure caused by elevated temperatures, and thermally induced fractures. We discuss the progressive formation of thermally induced fracture networks, which is a prerequisite for spalling failure of cement-based materials by fire, based on visual observations of the 3D internal structures revealed by X-ray CT.

  3. Evaluation of pore structures and cracking in cement paste exposed to elevated temperatures by X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup; Park, Kwang Pil

    2013-01-01

    When cement-based materials are exposed to the high temperatures induced by fire, which can rapidly cause temperatures of over 1000 °C, the changes in pore structure and density prevail. In the present study, mortar specimens were subjected to a series of increasing temperatures to explore the temperature-dependent evolution of internal pore structure. High-performance X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe the evolution of temperature-induced discontinuities at the sub-millimeter level. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the cause of physical changes in the heated mortar specimens. Results exhibit the changes in pore structure caused by elevated temperatures, and thermally induced fractures. We discuss the progressive formation of thermally induced fracture networks, which is a prerequisite for spalling failure of cement-based materials by fire, based on visual observations of the 3D internal structures revealed by X-ray CT

  4. High temperature corrosion studies on friction-welded dissimilar metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivazhagan, N.; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya; Reddy, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of weldment at elevated temperatures and especially their corrosion behaviour has become an object of scientific investigation recently. Investigation has been carried out on friction-welded AISI 4140 and AISI 304 under molten salt of Na 2 SO 4 + V 2 O 5 (60%) environment at 500 and 550 deg. C under cyclic condition. The influences of welding parameters on the hot corrosion have been discussed. The resulting oxide scales in the weldment have been characterized systematically using surface analytical techniques. Scale thickness on low alloy steel side was found to be more and was prone to spalling. Weld region has been found to be more prone to degradation than base metals due to inter diffusion of element across the interface and the formation of intermetallic compound

  5. High temperature corrosion studies on friction-welded dissimilar metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arivazhagan, N. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)]. E-mail: arivadmt@iitr.ernet.in; Singh, Surendra [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Prakash, Satya [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Reddy, G.M. [Defense Metallurgical and Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2006-07-25

    Understanding the behaviour of weldment at elevated temperatures and especially their corrosion behaviour has become an object of scientific investigation recently. Investigation has been carried out on friction-welded AISI 4140 and AISI 304 under molten salt of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (60%) environment at 500 and 550 deg. C under cyclic condition. The influences of welding parameters on the hot corrosion have been discussed. The resulting oxide scales in the weldment have been characterized systematically using surface analytical techniques. Scale thickness on low alloy steel side was found to be more and was prone to spalling. Weld region has been found to be more prone to degradation than base metals due to inter diffusion of element across the interface and the formation of intermetallic compound.

  6. Analysis of Material Removal and Surface Characteristics in Machining Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Filled Alumina Composites by WEDM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebushan Singh Meinam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of ceramic materials with electrically conductive particles increases the overall conductivity of the ceramic material. This allows the ceramic material to be more readily machined using wire electrical discharge machining process. The current work is an approach to identify the machinability of multi walled carbon nanotubes filled alumina composites in wire electrical discharge machining process. Alumina samples of 5 vol. % and 10 vol. % multi walled carbon nanotubes are machined and analysed for material removal rate and the surface characteristics. An increase in material removal rate is observed with increase in filler concentrations. At the same time, better surface roughness is observed. The surface characteristics of composite alumina are further compared with Monel 400 alloy. It has been observed that spalling action is the dominating material removal mechanism for alumina composites, while melting and evaporation is for the Monel 400 alloy.

  7. Evaluation of Oconee steam-generator debris. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigdon, M.A.; Rubright, M.M.; Sarver, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    Pieces of debris were observed near damaged tubes at the 14th support plate elevation in the Oconee 1-B steam generator. A project was initiated to evaluate the physical and chemical nature of the debris, to identify its source, and to determine its role in tube damage at this elevation. Various laboratory techniques were used to characterize several debris and mill scale samples. Data from these samples were then compared with each other and with literature data. It was concluded that seven of eight debris samples were probably formed in the steam generator. Six of these samples were probably formed by high temperature aqueous corrosion early in the life of the steam generator. The seventh sample was probably formed by the deposition and spalling of magnetite on the Inconel steam generator tubes. None of the debris samples resembled any of the mill scale samples

  8. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10 4 to 4 × 10 4  s −1 . The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading

  9. Dynamic properties of nickel-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackenberg, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Cooley, Jason; Swift, Damian; Paisley, Dennis; Bourne, Neil; Gray, George III; Hauer, Allan

    2004-01-01

    The shock response of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti alloys have been investigated to support studies of shock-induced martensitic transitions. The equation of state (EOS) and elasticity were predicted using ab initio quantum mechanics. Polycrystalline NiTi samples were prepared with a range of compositions, and thickesses between about 100 and 400 μm. Laser-driven flyer impact experiments were used to verify the EOS and to measure the flow stress from the amplitude of the elastic precursor; the spall strength was also obtained from these experiments. The laser flyer EOS data were consistent with Hugoniot points deduced from gas gun experiments. Decaying shocks were induced in samples, by direct laser irradiation with a variety of pressures and durations, to investigate the threshold for martensite formation

  10. Standard guide for corrosion-related failure analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers key issues to be considered when examining metallic failures when corrosion is suspected as either a major or minor causative factor. 1.2 Corrosion-related failures could include one or more of the following: change in surface appearance (for example, tarnish, rust, color change), pin hole leak, catastrophic structural failure (for example, collapse, explosive rupture, implosive rupture, cracking), weld failure, loss of electrical continuity, and loss of functionality (for example, seizure, galling, spalling, swelling). 1.3 Issues covered include overall failure site conditions, operating conditions at the time of failure, history of equipment and its operation, corrosion product sampling, environmental sampling, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, morphology (mode) or failure, and by considering the preceding, deducing the cause(s) of corrosion failure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibili...

  11. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  12. Spallation in NiTi under One-Dimensional Shock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallwork, A.; Workman, A.; Meziere, Y. J. E.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic response of the shape memory alloy NiTi has been of interest to a number of investigators because it displays a shape memory effect. The dynamic tensile (spall) strength of this material is measured under one-dimensional shock loading. The loading stress pulse length and impact stress were varied to a peak stress of 15 GPa. The pull back stress (σpbs) was found to increase with the applied pulse length. This suggests that the dynamic tensile strength is dependent upon the generation of a deformation micro structure that evolves behind the shock front. In contrast, increasing stress levels result in a near-constant pull back stress, although at the lowest applied stress, spallation did not occur

  13. Unusual behaviour of usual materials in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanel, G I

    2014-01-01

    Exotic results of investigations of inelastic deformation and fracture under shock wave loading are presented and briefly discussed. Temperature effects on the flow stress at high strain rate may differ even in sign from those we observe at low and moderate strain rates. Investigations of the temperature-rate dependence of the yield stress at shock compression demonstrate intense multiplication of dislocations. At the highest strain rates, so-called ideal (ultimate) shear and tensile strength is reached in experiments with picosecond durations of shock loading. Although grain boundaries, in general, reduce resistance to fracture as compared to single crystals, the spall strength of ultra-fine-grained metals usually slightly exceeds that of coarse-grain samples. Failure wave phenomena have been observed in shock-compressed glasses.

  14. Yield and strength properties of the Ti-6-22-22S alloy over a wide strain rate and temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, L.; Kanel, G.I.; Razorenov, S.V.; Bezrouchko, G.S.; Meyer, L.

    2002-01-01

    A mechanical behavior of the Ti-6-22-22S alloy was studied under uniaxial strain conditions at shock-wave loading and under uniaxial compressive stress conditions over a strain rate range of 10-4 s-1 to 103 s-1. The test temperature was varied from -175 deg. C to 620 deg. C. The strain-rate and the temperature dependencies of the yield stress obtained from the uniaxial stress tests and from the shock-wave experiments are in a good agreement and demonstrate a significant decrease in the yield strength as the temperature increases. This indicates the thermal activation mechanism of plastic deformation of the alloy is maintained at strain rates up to 106 s-1. Variation of sample thickness from 2.24 to 10 mm results in relatively small variations in the dynamic yield strength and the spall strength over the whole temperature range

  15. Geotechnical field data and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report documents the geomechanical data collected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant up to June 30, 1989 and describes the conditions of underground openings from July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989. The data is required to understand performance during operations and does not include data from tests performed to support performance assessment. In summary, the underground openings have performed in a satisfactory manner during the reporting period. This analysis is based primarily on the evaluation of instrumentation data, in particular the comparison of measured convergence with predictions, and the observations of exposed rock surfaces. The main concerns during this period have been the deterioration found in Site Preliminary Design Validation Test Rooms 1 and 2 and some spalling found in Panel 1. 14 refs., 45 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Method for improving the performance of oxidizable ceramic materials in oxidizing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improved adhesion of thermal barrier coatings to nonmetallic substrates using a dense layer of ceramic on an underlying nonmetallic substrate that includes at least one oxidizable component. The improved adhesion occurs because the application of the dense ceramic layer forms a diffusion barrier for oxygen. This diffusion barrier prevents the oxidizable component of the substrate from decomposing. The present invention applies ceramic by a process that deposits a relatively thick and dense ceramic layer on the underlying substrate. The formation of the dense layer of ceramic avoids the problem of void formation associated with ceramic formation by most prior art thermal decomposition processes. The formation of voids has been associated with premature spalling of thermal barrier layers and other protective layers applied to substrates.

  17. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Design for whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Gurbuz, O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes determination of local and overall effects on reinforced concrete panels due to whipping pipe impact in postulated pipe break events. Local damage includes the prediction of minimum concrete panel thickness required to prevent spalling from the back face of the target reinforced concrete panels. Evaluation of overall effect deals with the ductility ratio calculation for the target reinforced concrete panels. Design curves for determining the minimum panel thickness and the minimum reinforcement of reinforced concrete panels are presented in this paper for some cases commonly encountered in nuclear applications. The methodology and the results provided can be used to determine if an existing reinforced concrete wall is capable of resisting the whipping pipe impact, and consequently, if pipe whip restraints can be eliminated

  19. Adherence and scratching resistance of nanometric titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoali, S.; Dominguini, L.; Borges, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    TiO 2 films has been used to extend the wear resistance in bearing, seals for pumps and bone prostheses. In this study was analyzed the conventional hardness and scratch toughness. The scratching test equipment used was developed at the Laboratory of materials Labmat / UFSC. The tests were performed on Titania films deposited on glass plates and ceramics via reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited by 10, 15 and 60 min. One of the samples has a titanium metal film of a few nanometers thick between the substrate and the Titania film, the oxide has been deposited for 30 min. At this rang of tests loads the deposited films show good adhesion to substrate, there was no cracking or spalling of the film. (author)

  20. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Disturbed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HELTON, JON CRAIG; BEAN, J.E.; ECONOMY, K.; GARNER, J.W.; MACKINNON, ROBERT J.; MILLER, JOEL D.; SCHREIBER, J.D.; VAUGHN, PALMER

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository under disturbed conditions resulting from drilling intrusions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformations are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure and brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite are potentially the most important in PA for the WIPP. Subsequent to a drilling intrusion repository pressure was dominated by borehole permeability and generally below the level (i.e., 8 MPa) that could potentially produce spallings and direct brine releases. Brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite tended to be small or nonexistent with its occurrence and size also dominated by borehole permeability

  1. Finite element simulation of exfoliation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    We previously reported bond strength measurements of metal/ceramic interfaces using shock waves to separate the bond by spallation. The technique relies on interpretation of the free surface velocity of a metal film as it is spalled from its substrate. A number of questions have been raised concerning the details of the interaction of the shock and interface. We provide answers by numerically modeling the experiments. We rederive the relationship between the maximum stress at the bond interface and the free surface velocity of the metal overlayer. We compare the analytical result with numerical calculations based on less restrictive assumptions, thereby supporting the analysis. We illustrate important design considerations of the experiment with numerical calculation and in the process, evaluate the effect of the artificial damping on the numerical results

  2. Tests of Hercules/Ultramet CVD coatings in hot hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.; Svandrlik, J.; Adams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The effort by Hercules and Ultramet to produce CVD NbC coatings, which protect carbon-carbon substrates from hot hydrogen, has had some success but with some limitations. The coatings increase the survival time at atmospheric pressure and low flow rate of hydrogen by about a factor of 40 over uncoated graphite at 3000 K. However, the grain structure is not stable at these temperatures, and after about 10--20 minutes, the coating is subject to rapid degradation by spalling in visible chunks. Further experiments would have to be performed to determine the effects of higher pressures and flow rates, for it is not clear how these factors would affect the survival time, considering that one of the main failure mechanisms is independent of the atmosphere

  3. Influence of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforcement on High-Performance Concrete Thin Plates at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Lauridsen, Dan H.; Hodicky, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    A basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh was introduced as reinforcement in high-performance concrete (HPC) thin plates (20–30 mm) for implementation in precast sandwich panels. An experimental program studied the BFRP mesh influence on HPC exposed to high temperature. A set of standard...... furnace tests compared performances of HPC with and without BFRP mesh, assessing material behavior; another set including polypropylene (PP) fibers to avoid spalling compared the performance of BFRP mesh reinforcement to that of regular steel reinforcement, assessing mechanical properties......, requiring the use of steel. Microscope observations highlighted degradation of the HPC-BFRP mesh interface with temperature due to the melting polymer matrix of the mesh. These observations call for caution when using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement in elements exposed to fire hazard....

  4. Comparison of AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings deposited on the surface of plasma nitrocarburized high carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wanglin; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yue; Kwon, Sikchol; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The duplex coatings were produced by combination of nitrocarburizing and multi-arc ion plating. • The γ′-phase plays the nucleation sites for the coating nitrides. • The compound layers (CL) considerably enhance mechanical and tribological properties of the duplex PVD coatings. • The main wear mechanisms of the PVD coatings with and without CL are oxidation wear, the combination of spalling, chipping and oxidation wear, respectively. - Abstract: The AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings were produced on the surface of plasma nitrocarburized T10 steels by multi-arc ion plating. The comparison of the microstructures and mechanical properties of the duplex coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, in association with mechanical property measurement. The results show that the AlCrN coatings with columnar grown are mainly composed of nanocrytalline fcc-(Cr,Al)N phases with {111} preferred orientation, whereas the superlattice and nanocomposite AlCrTiSiN coatings with planar growth mainly consist of nanocrystalline fcc-(Cr,Al)N phases with {100} perfected orientation, hcp-AlN and Si 3 N 4 amorphous phases. The AlCrTiSiN duplex coating with the compound layer reveals higher hardness, adhesion strength, load capacity and lower friction coefficient when compared with the other duplex coatings, which is due to its superlattice and nanocomposite structure. Additionally, these improved properties are related to the appearance of the γ′-phase which plays the nucleation sites for the coating nitrides and provides a strong supporting effect for the AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings. The main wear mechanism of the duplex coatings without compound layer is spalling and chipping wear as well as tribooxidation wear, whereas the main wear mechanism of the duplex coatings with compound layer is tribooxidation wear

  5. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  6. Corrosion of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in high-temperature PWRs: Measurement of waterside corrosion in North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfour, M.G.; Kilp, G.R.; Comstock, R.J.; McAtee, K.R.; Thornburg, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Twenty-four peripheral rods and two interior rods from North Anna Unit 1, End-of-Cycle 7, were measured at poolside for waterside corrosion on four-cycle Region 6 assemblies F35 and F66, with rod average burnups of 60 GWD/MTU. Similar measurements were obtained on 24 two-cycle fuel rods from Region 8A assemblies H02 and H10 with average burnups of about 40 GWD/MTU. The Region 6 peripheral rods had been corrosion measured previously after three cycles, at 45 GWD/MTU average burnup. The four-cycle Region 6 fuel rods showed high corrosion, compared to only intermediate corrosion level after three cycles. The accelerated corrosion rate in the fourth cycle was accompanied by extensive laminar cracking and spalling of the oxide film in the thickest regions. The peak corrosion of the two-cycle region 8A rods was 32 μm to 53 μm, with some isolated incipient oxide spalling. In conjunction with the in-reactor corrosion measurements, extensive characterization tests plus long-term autoclave corrosion tests were performed on archive samples of the three major tubing lots represented in the North Anna measurements. The autoclave tests generally showed the same ordering of corrosion by tubing lot as in the reactor; the chief difference between the archive tubing samples was a lower tin content (1.38 percent) for the lot with the lowest corrosion rate compared with a higher tin content (1.58) for the lot with the highest corrosion rate. There was no indication in the autoclave tests of an accelerated rate of corrosion as observed in the reactor

  7. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  8. Micro Electro Discharge Machining for Nonconductive Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yeakub Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In micro-electro discharge machining (micro-EDM of nonconductive ceramics, material is removed mainly by spalling due to the dominance of alternating thermal load. The established micro-EDM models established for single spark erosion are not applicable for nonconductive ceramics because of random spalling. Moreover, it is difficult to create single spark on a nonconductive ceramic workpiece when the spark is initiated by the assisting electrode. In this paper, theoretical model of material removal rate (MRR as the function of capacitance and voltage is developed for micro-EDM of nonconductive zirconium oxide (ZrO2. It is shown that the charging and discharging duration depend on the capacitance and resistances of the circuit. The number of sparks per unit time is estimated from the single spark duration s derived from heat transfer fundamentals. The model showed that both the capacitance and voltage are significant process parameters where any increase of capacitance and voltage increases the MRR. However, capacitance was found to be the dominating parameter over voltage. As in case of higher capacitances, the creation of a conductive carbonic layer on the machined surface was not stable; the effective window of machining 101 - 103 pF capacitance and 80 - 100 V gap voltage or 10 - 470 pF capacitance and 80 - 110 V gap voltage. This fact was confirmed EDX analysis where the presence of high carbon content was evident. Conversely, the spark was found to be inconsistent using parameters beyond these ranges and consequently insignificant MRR. Nevertheless, the effective number of sparks per second were close to the predicted numbers when machining conductive copper material. In addition, higher percentage of ineffective pulses was observed during the machining which eventually reduced the MRR. In case of validation, average deviations between the predicted and experimental values were found to be around 10%. Finally, micro-channels were machined on

  9. Environment modelling in near Earth space: Preliminary LDEF results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Atkinson, D. R.; Wagner, J. D.; Crowell, L. B.; Allbrooks, M.; Watts, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts by space debris cause not only local cratering or penetrations, but also cause large areas of damage in coated, painted or laminated surfaces. Features examined in these analyses display interesting morphological characteristics, commonly exhibiting a concentric ringed appearance. Virtually all features greater than 0.2 mm in diameter possess a spall zone in which all of the paint was removed from the aluminum surface. These spall zones vary in size from approximately 2 - 5 crater diameters. The actual craters in the aluminum substrate vary from central pits without raised rims, to morphologies more typical of craters formed in aluminum under hypervelocity laboratory conditions for the larger features. Most features also possess what is referred to as a 'shock zone' as well. These zones vary in size from approximately 1 - 20 crater diameters. In most cases, only the outer-most layer of paint was affected by this impact related phenomenon. Several impacts possess ridge-like structures encircling the area in which this outer-most paint layer was removed. In many ways, such features resemble the lunar impact basins, but on an extremely reduced scale. Overall, there were no noticeable penetrations, bulges or spallation features on the backside of the tray. On Row 12, approximately 85 degrees from the leading edge (RAM direction), there was approximately one impact per 15 cm(exp 2). On the trailing edge, there was approximately one impact per 72 cm(exp 2). Currently, craters on four aluminum experiment trays from Bay E09, directly on the leading edge are being measured and analyzed. Preliminary results have produced more than 2200 craters on approximately 1500 cm(exp 2) - or approximately 1 impact per 0.7 cm(exp 2).

  10. Molten Core - Concrete interactions in nuclear accidents. Theory and design of an experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevon, T.

    2005-11-01

    In a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the molten core of the reactor may flow onto the concrete floor of containment building. This would cause a molten core . concrete interaction (MCCI), in which the heat transfer from the hot melt to the concrete would cause melting of the concrete. In assessing the safety of nuclear reactors, it is important to know the consequences of such an interaction. As background to the subject, this publication includes a description of the core melt stabilization concept of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), which is being built in Olkiluoto in Finland. The publication includes a description of the basic theory of the interaction and the process of spalling or cracking of concrete when it is heated rapidly. A literature survey and some calculations of the physical properties of concrete and corium. concrete mixtures at high temperatures have been conducted. In addition, an equation is derived for conservative calculation of the maximum possible concrete ablation depth. The publication also includes a literature survey of experimental research on the subject of the MCCI and discussion of the results and deficiencies of the experiments. The main result of this work is the general design of an experimental facility to examine the interaction of molten metals and concrete. The main objective of the experiments is to assess the probability of spalling, or cracking, of concrete under pouring of molten material. A program of five experiments has been designed, and pre-test calculations of the experiments have been conducted with MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis program and conservative analytic calculations. (orig.)

  11. The behavior of reinforced concrete barriers subjected to the impact of tornado generated deformable missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, P.M.; Meyers, B.L.; Buchert, K.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a general model for the evaluation of local effects damage including, penetration and backface spalling, of reinforced concrete barriers subjected to the impact of deformable tornado generated missiles. The model is based on an approximte force time history which assumes: 1) the initial penetration of the missile occurs without significant deformation of the missile if the strength of the missile is greater than that of the barrier. This portion of the time history is represented by a linear and finite rise time; 2) wrinkling or collapse of the missile occurs when the critical stress of the missile is exceeded. This portion of the time histroy is represented by a constant force-time relationship, although a decreaseing force might be more accurate; 3) while the missile is penetrating and wrinkling both elastic and plastic stress waves are developed in the missile, and compressive and shear stress waves are generated in he target. When the shear waves reach the backface of the slab, doagonal cracks initiating at the end of the penetrating missile are formed. These cracks propagate to the backface reinforcing where splitting cracks are formed. Finally, yield hinge lines form in the plane of reinforcing; 4) repenetration of the missile occurs after the wrinkling has caused a change in missile cross section. This repenetration results from moving the failure cone described in three above, and is also represented by the costant force time history. Using the assumptions, relationships for the penetration depth of the missile the wrinkling length of the missile, the critical missile stress, the time history of the impact and the spalling of the target are developed. (Auth.)

  12. Characterization of the inside and outside oxide surfaces of irradiated pressure tubes of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    The inside and outside surfaces of two pressure tubes (PT) removed from Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE) after 10 of effective full power years (EFPY) were characterized. The oxide thickness of both faces, in different zones, was also measured. The inside surfaces of both PTs, B-102 (A-14) and B-298 (L-12), were covered with a black oxide that replicates the original PT surface. A network of microcracks perpendicular to the inside surface in contact with the coolant was found. In some cases, near the outlet of the PT, some spalling of the oxide was also found. These small microcracks and spalling do not affect the protective character of the oxide since a thickness about 5 or 6 μm of an undamaged oxide is found at the metal/oxide interface side. The oxide thickness changes between approximately 6 to 12 μm for B-102 tube and around 7 to 15 μm for B-298 tube. The average corrosion rate is 1.16 μm/10 4 HH for B-102 tube and 1.35 μm/10 4 HH for B-298 tube at 5.8 m position for both PTs. These corrosion rates show good corrosion behaviour of CNE PTs. The average corrosion rate of the inside surface of the PTs depends on the coolant temperature but not on fast neutron flux. The outside oxide film is black, shiny, compact and protective, replicating also the original surface. The oxide thickness changes between 2 to 6.5 μm in B-102 tube and between 1.8 to 3.7 μm B-298 tube. These oxide thicknesses are within the values reported for PTs in CANDU Stations. (author) [es

  13. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1986-02-01

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  14. An anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive formulation generalised for orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour that involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials using an anisotropic Hill's yield criterion by means of the evolving structural tensors. The yield surface of this hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is aligned uniquely within the principal stress space due to the combination of Mandel stress tensor and a new generalised orthotropic pressure. The formulation is developed in the isoclinic configuration and allows for a unique treatment for elastic and plastic orthotropy. An isotropic hardening is adopted to define the evolution of plastic orthotropy. The important feature of the proposed hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is the introduction of anisotropic effect in the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state (EOS). The formulation is further combined with Grady spall failure model to predict spall failure in the materials. The proposed constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The combination of the proposed stress tensor decomposition and the Mie-Gruneisen EOS requires some modifications in the code to reflect the formulation of the generalised orthotropic pressure. The validation approach is also presented in this paper for guidance purpose. The \\varvec{ψ} tensor used to define the alignment of the adopted yield surface is first validated. This is continued with an internal validation related to elastic isotropic, elastic orthotropic and elastic-plastic orthotropic of the proposed formulation before a comparison against range of plate impact test data at 234, 450 and {895 ms}^{-1} impact velocities is performed. A good agreement is obtained in each test.

  15. Experimental research on the structural instability mechanism and the effect of multi-echelon support of deep roadways in a kilometre-deep well.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Peng

    Full Text Available We study the structural instability mechanism and effect of a multi-echelon support in very-deep roadways. We conduct a scale model test for analysing the structural failure mechanism and the effect of multi-echelon support of roadways under high horizontal stress. Mechanical bearing structures are classified according to their secondary stress distribution and the strength degradation of the surrounding rock after roadway excavation. A new method is proposed by partitioning the mechanical bearing structure of the surrounding rock into weak, key and main coupling bearing stratums. In the surrounding rock, the main bearing stratum is the plastic reshaping and flowing area. The weak bearing stratum is the peeling layer or the caving part. And the key bearing stratum is the shearing and yielding area. The structural fracture mechanism of roadways is considered in analysing the bearing structure instability of the surrounding rock, and multi-echelon support that considers the structural characteristics of roadway bearings is proposed. Results of the experimental study indicate that horizontal pressure seriously influences the stability of the surrounding rock, as indicated by extension of the weak bearing area and the transfer of the main and key bearing zones. The falling roof, rib spalling, and floor heave indicate the decline of the bearing capacity of surrounding rock, thereby causing roadway structural instability. Multi-echelon support is proposed according to the mechanical bearing structure of the surrounding rock without support. The redesigned support can reduce the scope of the weak bearing area and limit the transfer of the main and key bearing areas. Consequently, kilometre-deep roadway disasters, such as wedge roof caving, floor heave, and rib spalling, can be avoided to a certain degree, and plastic flow in the surrounding rock is relieved. The adverse effect of horizontal stress on the vault, spandrel and arch foot decreases. The

  16. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  17. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  18. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  19. Strength properties and structure of a submicrocrystalline Al-Mg-Mn alloy under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A. N.; Brodova, I. G.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The results of studying the strength of a submicrocrystalline aluminum A5083 alloy (chemical composition was 4.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.11Si-0.23Fe-0.03Cr-0.02Cu-0.06Ti wt % and Al base) under shockwave compression are presented. The submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy was produced in the process of dynamic channel-angular pressing at a strain rate of 104 s-1. The average size of crystallites in the alloy was 180-460 nm. Hugoniot elastic limit σHEL, dynamic yield stress σy, and the spall strength σSP of the submicrocrystalline alloy were determined based on the free-surface velocity profiles of samples during shock compression. It has been established that upon shock compression, the σHEL and σy of the submicrocrystalline alloy are higher than those of the coarse-grained alloy and σsp does not depend on the grain size. The maximum value of σHEL reached for the submicrocrystalline alloy is 0.66 GPa, which is greater than that in the coarse-crystalline alloy by 78%. The dynamic yield stress is σy = 0.31 GPa, which is higher than that of the coarse-crystalline alloy by 63%. The spall strength is σsp = 1.49 GPa. The evolution of the submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy during shock compression was studied. It has been established that a mixed nonequilibrium grain-subgrain structure with a fragment size of about 400 nm is retained after shock compression, and the dislocation density and the hardness of the alloy are increased.

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  1. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (μDFN approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create μDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-μDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the mechanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in

  2. An evaluation of the spring finger solder joints on SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 connector assemblies (MC3617,W87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Hlava, Paul Frank; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 circular JT Type plug connectors are used on a number of nuclear weapons and Joint Test Assembly (JTA) systems. Prototype units were evaluated for the following specific defects associated with the 95Sn-5Sb (Sn-Sb, wt.%) solder joint used to attach the beryllium-copper (BeCu) spring fingers to the aluminum (Al) connector shell: (1) extended cracking within the fillet; (2) remelting of the solder joint during the follow-on, soldering step that attached the EMR adapter ring to the connector shell (and/or soldering the EMR shell to the adapter ring) that used the lower melting temperature 63Sn-37Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy; and (3) spalling of the Cd (Cr) layer overplating layer from the fillet surface. Several pedigrees of connectors were evaluated, which represented older fielded units as well as those assemblies that were recently constructed at Kansas City Plant. The solder joints were evaluated that were in place on connectors made with the current soldering process as well as an alternative induction soldering process for attaching the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely reflected the different extents to which the connector was mated to its counterpart assembly. In all cases, the spring finger solder joints on the SA1358-10 connectors were remelted as a result of the subsequent EMR adapter ring attachment process. Spalling of the Cd (Cr) overplating layer was also observed for these connectors, which was a consequence of the remelting activity. On the other hand, the SA2052-4 connector did not exhibit evidence of

  3. Fibras de polipropileno e sua influência no comportamento de concretos expostos a altas temperaturas: revisão Polypropylene fibers and their influence on the behavior of concretes exposed to high temperatures: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. de Castro

    2011-03-01

    before fire; however, in practice the stability of this material is reduced by high temperatures. Unfortunately, under such circumstances, concrete elements present excessive damages or even catastrophic failures. When exposed to high temperatures, cement based materials undergo physicochemical changes that damage their mechanical properties and spoil their resistance to heat transfer. Although the thermal features of a high strength concrete are similar to those of a conventional concrete, this material has a greater sensibility to high temperatures due to its reduced porosity, showing a higher relative loss of the mechanical properties and explosive spalling in the temperature range between 100 ºC and 400 ºC. The spalling can be avoided by adding polypropylene fibers in concrete: when melted and partially absorbed by the cement matrix, the fibers generate a permeable network that allows the outward gas migration, decreasing the pore pressure in the material and, consequently, eliminating the possibility of explosive spalling occurrence. Thus, in the present paper, a review regarding the behavior of concretes exposed to high temperatures, as well as the influence of polypropylene fibers have been addressed for concretes applied in the civil engineering area.

  4. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  5. Anisotropic damage and dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete structures until failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambart, M.

    2009-09-01

    Dynamic loadings such as impact on reinforced concrete structures lead to degradations and structural failures significantly different to the ones observed for quasi-static loadings. Local effects (spalling, compaction...) and global mechanisms (bending, shear, perforation...) are experimentally observed. Wave propagation due to dynamics loadings can lead to failure in tension in a part of a structure or a component previously in compression. Induced damage anisotropy in concrete is partly responsible for the dissymmetry of behavior between tension and compression. Concrete anisotropy can be modelled by means of a second order damage tensor. In the damage model considered, damage growth is governed by the positive extensions. The model, written in the thermodynamics framework, is robust and is able to compute efficiently Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. The initial anisotropic model is here extended to dynamics by introducing a viscosity law to govern dynamic damage evolution. The strain rate effect observed experimentally in tension (strength increases with strain rate) is reproduced. In compression no strain rate is introduced since inertial forces seem sufficient to reproduce the strength enhancement in dynamics. One also focuses on regularization issues. For high strain rates the solution is regularized since the characteristic time introduced indirectly defines an internal length and since the damage rate is bounded by a maximum damage rate parameter (visco/delay damage law). This visco/delay regularization is efficient at large strain rates, otherwise, the delay in damage evolution is too small to let damage grow in a wide enough zone. For quasi-static or low speed dynamic cases, the regularization is gained by means of classical non-local damage. For intermediary loading rates where both the strain rate effect and the non-local regularization are needed, a non-local delay-damage model is written (and used in 3D computations). The example of a dynamic

  6. On Working Capacity Criteria for Screw-Roller Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today roller-screw mechanisms (RSM are the most prospective motion converters from rotary to linear type. RSM manufacturers have suggested their design in the way, similar to the rolling bearings, in static and dynamic load ratings. The latter means that during long operations the main criterion of the RSM working capacity is fatigue spalling. However, this approach does not permit to consider temporal changes of the most critical performance parameters of the RSM (such as the axial play, the efficiency factor, the axial stiffness, the accuracy, the starting torque force for zero lash RSMs, etc. through calculations. The abovementioned method was not perfect, because the choice of the main criterion of RSM working capacity was wrong. The article proves that wear-resistance is the main criterion of RSM working capacity. The proof is the RSM efficiency factor equal to 80-88% on the average. The power loss occurs because of overcoming a sliding friction between multiple (from 300 to 1000 interfacing turns of thread on the screw and the rollers as well as on the rollers and the nut. That is why the RSMs are the screwtype rolling mechanisms with an essential portion of sliding friction. High-accuracy measurements taken using the device called a form-tracer for threaded pieces permitted to determine the essential changes on the profiles of turns of threads on the rollers (a straight-line portion appeared on the radial profile; these changes could emerge only from wear. Besides, the length of this portion increased with the increasing RSM operation time. The JSC “Moskvich” has examined the RSMs, which have been put out of operation after completing their service life as parts of robot welding machines. There were no traces of fatigue spalling found on the threaded surfaces of the RSM parts, while the sizes of the straight-line portions on the turns of the roller threads were much bigger than they were during the measurements after the initial

  7. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  8. Programme for repository host rock characterisation in the ONKALO (ReRoC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2009-04-01

    radionuclide transport modelling; and (4) the stress-induced spalling experiment at chainage 3900, investigating the impact of the excavations of simulated deposition holes on the potential for spalling failure. In addition, the main principles of the EDZ project are presented. The experimental timetable is also presented. All the experiments will start in 2009- 2010, but some will last years and will not have been completed when the construction licence application for the final disposal facility is submitted in 2012. (orig.)

  9. Analytical and experimental investigation of microstructural alterations in bearing steel in rolling contact fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher Moghaddam, Sina

    investigated; however, a stereology study showed that larger inclusions have a higher chance to be located at the critical depth and cause failure. Crack maps were recorded and compared to spall geometries observed experimentally. The results show that crack initiation locations and final spall shapes are similar to what has been observed in failed bearings.

  10. Stress generation and hierarchical fracturing in reactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Iyer, K.; Royne, A.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.; Mathiesen, J.; Feder, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hierarchical fracture patterns are the result of a slowly driven fracturing process that successively divides the rocks into smaller domains. In quasi-2D systems, such fracture patterns are characterized by four sided domains, and T-junctions where new fractures stop at right angles to pre-existing fractures. We describe fracturing of mm to dm thick enstatite layers in a dunite matrix from the Leka ophiolite complex in Norway. The fracturing process is driven by expansion of the dunite matrix during serpentinization. The cumulative distributions of fracture lengths show a scaling behavior that lies between a log - normal and power law (fractal) distribution. This is consistent with a simple fragmentation model in which domains are divided according to a 'top hat' distribution of new fracture positions within unfractured domains. Reaction-assisted hierarchical fracturing is also likely to be responsible for other (3-D) structures commonly observed in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, including the mesh-textures observed in individual olivine grains, and the high abundance of rectangular domains at a wide range of scales. Spectacular examples of 3-D hierarchical fracture patterns also form during the weathering of basaltic intrusions (dolerites). Incipient chemical weathering of dolerites in the Karoo Basin in South Africa occurs around water- filled fractures, originally produced by thermal contraction or by externally imposed stresses. This chemical weathering causes local expansion of the rock matrix and generates elastic stresses. On a mm to cm scale, these stresses lead to mechanical layer-by-layer spalling, producing the characteristic spheroidal weathering patterns. However, our field observations and computer simulations demonstrate that in confined environments, the spalling process alone is unable to relieve the elastic stresses. In such cases, chemical weathering drives a much larger scale hierarchical fracturing process in which fresh dolerite undergoes a

  11. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  12. The role of major forest fires on rock physical decay in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Tessler, Naama; Tsatskin, Alexander; Greenbaum, Noam

    2017-04-01

    Massive destruction of carbonate rocks occurred on the slopes of Mt. Carmel (Israel), during a severe forest fire in 2010. The bedrock surfaces exhibited extensive exfoliation into flakes and spalls covering up to 80%-100% of the exposed rocks; detached boulders were totally fractured or disintegrated. The fire affected six carbonate units—various types of chalk, limestone, and dolomite. The burned flakes show a consistent tendency towards flatness, in all lithologies, as 85%-95% of the flakes were detached in the form of blades, plates, and slabs. The extent of the physical disruption depends on rock composition: the most severe response was found in the chalk formations which are covered by calcrete (Nari crusts). These rocks reacted by extreme exfoliation, at an average depth of 7.7 to 9.6 cm and a maximum depth of 20 cm. Scorched and blackened faces under the upper layer of spalls provide strong evidence that chalk breakdown took place at an early stage of the fire. The extreme response of the chalks can be explained by the laminar structure of the Nari, which served as planes of weakness for the rock destruction. Three years after the fire, the rocks continue to exfoliate and break down internally. As the harder surface of the Nari was removed, the more brittle underlying chalk is exposed to erosion. These flakes seem to play an important role in reforming the soil after the fire, especially by increasing the coarse particles percentage. These, in spite of the absence of vegetation cover, improve soil infiltration and percolation rates and cause long-term changes to the hydrological regime. It is difficult to estimate the frequency of high-intensity fires in the Carmel region over the past 2-3 million years, as well as the extension and density of the vegetation. It is even harder to assess the frequency of fires (and the destruction) of a single rock outcrop. Our findings show that rock outcrop may lose even 20 cm of its thickness in a single fire. This

  13. RESIDUAL RESOURCE STUDY OF DEFECTIVE RAILS FOR TYPE P 50 CYCLE TEST OF ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Yosyfovych

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to the study and evaluation of residual life for defective rails P50 operated on the roads of the Kyiv subway, which are taken out of service because of defects 11.1-2 on the side of the rolling surface of the rail head. Methodology. The studies were performed with the use of experimental methods: testing of samples of defective rails in the cyclical strength of the pulse machine and testing of defective rails in the static load limit on the hydraulic vertical press. Findings. The performed experiments indicate that on the tests basis in 2 million cycles is only a small development (increase in size 0.5-0.7 mm of existing code defects 11.2 as a result of shedding the particles of crumble out metal on the side of the rails head of working prototypes. The intensity and the catastrophic development of defects, such as 11.2, or transformation of these defects in defects such as 21.2 or 30G.2 did not happen in any case. Originality. For the first time in Ukraine with the theoretical calculations substantiated the greater possibility of defects formation of contact fatigue origin in the form of spall and jag of metal on the surface of the rail, at the edge of the head. It is the result of the creation of a high degree of stress nonequilibrium compression in this area, due to the high values of principal normal stresses and appearance of large shear stresses in the body of the head at a depth of 2.5-3.5 mm, exceeding the yield strength and metal endurance. The tests of experimental prototypes of defective rails on high cycle endurance (based № = 2,1h10 cycles with periodic defectoscopic control were conducted. Practical value. In experiments, the new data of the resistance ability to spall rail defects on the surface of the head of rolling on the code 11.1-2 long-term cyclic loading equal to operational magnitude at the wheel load test of 2 million cycles was obtained. That is, the defective rails can have residual life

  14. Coupled numerical simulation of fire in tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, F.; Pachera, M.; Schrefler, B. A.; Gawin, D.; Witek, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a coupling strategy for the analysis of a tunnel under fire is presented. This strategy consists in a "one-way" coupling between a tool considering the computational fluid dynamics and radiation with a model treating concrete as a multiphase porous material exposed to high temperature. This global approach allows for taking into account in a realistic manner the behavior of the "system tunnel", composed of the fluid and the solid domain (i.e. the concrete structures), from the fire onset, its development and propagation to the response of the structure. The thermal loads as well as the moisture exchange between the structure surface and the environment are calculated by means of computational fluid dynamics. These set of data are passed in an automatic way to the numerical tool implementing a model based on Multiphase Porous Media Mechanics. Thanks to this strategy the structural verification is no longer based on the standard fire curves commonly used in the engineering practice, but it is directly related to a realistic fire scenario. To show the capability of this strategy some numerical simulations of a fire in the Brenner Base Tunnel, under construction between Italy and Austria, is presented. The numerical simulations show the effects of a more realistic distribution of the thermal loads with respect to the ones obtained by using the standard fire curves. Moreover, it is possible to highlight how the localized thermal load generates a non-uniform pressure rise in the material, which results in an increase of the structure stress state and of the spalling risk. Spalling is likely the most dangerous collapse mechanism for a concrete structure. This coupling approach still represents a "one way" strategy, i.e. realized without considering explicitly the mass and energy exchange from the structure to the fluid through the interface. This results in an approximation, but from physical point of view the current form of the solid-fluid coupling is

  15. Testing of electroformed deposited iridium/powder metallurgy rhenium rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Dickerson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    High-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials offer the thermal margin for high performance and extended lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets. Rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (Ir) allow hours of operation at 2200 C on Earth-storable propellants. One process for manufacturing Ir/Re rocket chambers is the fabrication of Re substrates by powder metallurgy (PM) and the application of Ir coatings by using electroformed deposition (ED). ED Ir coatings, however, have been found to be porous and poorly adherent. The integrity of ED Ir coatings could be improved by densification after the electroforming process. This report summarizes the testing of two 22-N, ED Ir/PM Re rocket chambers that were subjected to post-deposition treatments in an effort to densify the Ir coating. One chamber was vacuum annealed, while the other chamber was subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP). The chambers were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants, at mixture ratios that simulated the oxidizing environments of Earth-storable propellants. ne annealed ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 24 firings and 4.58 hr at a mixture ratio of 4.2. After only 9 firings, the annealed ED Ir coating began to blister and spall upstream of the throat. The blistering and spalling were similar to what had been experienced with unannealed, as-deposited ED Ir coatings. The HIP ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 91 firings and 11.45 hr at mixture ratios of 3.2 and 4.2. The HIP ED Ir coating remained adherent to the Re substrate throughout testing; there were no visible signs of coating degradation. Metallography revealed, however, thinning of the HIP Ir coating and occasional pores in the Re layer upstream of the throat. Pinholes in the Ir coating may have provided a path for oxidation of the Re substrate at these locations. The HIP ED Ir coating proved to be more effective than vacuum annealed and as-deposited ED Ir. Further densification is still required to

  16. Designing experiments for maximum information from cyclic oxidation tests and their statistical analysis using half Normal plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.Y.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    (up to the onset of spall), the onset of spalling, spallation rate and also the variation between the 3 replications. The method is illustrated by cyclic oxidation of alloy 800 undertaken as part of the COTEST project. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Hot corrosion of arc ion plating NiCrAlY and sputtered nanocrystalline coatings on a nickel-based single-crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Chen, Minghui; Cheng, Yuxian; Yang, Lanlan; Bao, Zebin; Liu, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Hot corrosion of three metallic coatings was investigated. •NiCrAlY coating loses protectiveness against hot corrosion due to scale spallation. •The two nanocrystalline coatings perform better than NiCrAlY in hot corrosion. •Ta oxidation leads to scale pitting and corrosion of the nanocrystalline coating. •Y addition in the nanocrystalline coating reduces such harmful effect of Ta. -- Abstract: Hot corrosion in sulfate salt at 850 °C of three metallic coatings is investigated comparatively. The NiCrAlY coating loses its protectiveness after 200 h corrosion. Its oxide scale spalls off partly and becomes porous as a consequence of basic fluxing. The nanocrystalline coating (SN) performs better than the NiCrAlY one, but its scale is porous as well. Oxidation and/or sulfidation of Ta account for the formation of pores. The yttrium modified nanocrystalline coating (SNY) provides the highest corrosion resistance. Yttrium completely inhibits oxidation and sulfidation of Ta. Its scale is intact and adherent, and exclusively composted of alumina.

  18. Spallation of oxide scales from NiCrAlY overlay coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, A.; Evans, H.E.; Ponton, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    A common method of protecting superalloys from aggressive environments at high temperatures is by plasma spraying MCrAlY (M = Fe, Ni and/or Co) to form an overlay coating. Oxidation resistance is then conferred through the development of an alumina layer. However, the use of such coatings is limited at temperatures above about 1100 C due to rapid failure of the protective oxide scales. In this study, the oxidation behaviour of air-plasma-sprayed NiCrAlY coatings has been investigated at 1200 C in 1 atm air. A protective alumina layer develops during the early stages, but breakaway oxidation occurs after prolonged exposure. The results suggest that the critical temperature drop to initiate failure is inversely proportional to the scale thickness, and an analytical model is put forward to explain this behaviour. Local surface curvature of the coating can lead to delamination within the oxide during cooling and it is shown that the largest individual pore in a spall region is the critical flaw for oxide fracture. (orig.)

  19. The Interface Structure of High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant Aluminum-Based Coatings on Titanium Billet Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhefeng; Rong, Ju; Yu, Xiaohua; Kun, Meng; Zhan, Zhaolin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yannan

    2017-10-01

    A new type of high-temperature oxidation-resistant aluminum-based coating, on a titanium billet surface, was fabricated by the cold spray method, at a high temperature of 1050°C, for 8 h, under atmospheric pressure. The microstructure of the exposed surface was analyzed via optical microscopy, the microstructure of the coating and elemental diffusion was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and the interfacial phases were identified via x-ray diffraction. The Ti-Al binary phase diagram and Gibbs free energy of the stable phase were calculated by Thermo-calc. The results revealed that good oxidation resistant 50-μm-thick coatings were successfully obtained after 8 h at 1050°C. Two layers were obtained after the coating process: an Al2O3 oxidation layer and a TiAl3 transition layer on the Ti-based substrate. The large and brittle Al2O3 grains on the surface, which can be easily spalled off from the surface after thermal processing, protected the substrate against oxidation during processing. In addition, the thermodynamic calculation results were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Effect of nano-particulate sol-gel coatings on the oxidation resistance of high-strength steel alloys during the press-hardening process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekehtaz, M.; Benfer, S.; Fuerbeth, W. [DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klesen, C.; Bleck, W. [Institut fuer Eisenhuettenkunde der RWTH Aachen, Intzestrasse 1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The need for lighter constructional materials in automotive industries has increased the use of high-strength steel alloys. To enhance passenger's safety press hardening may be applied to steel parts. However, as the steel parts are heated up to 950 C during this process they have to be protected by some kind of coating against the intense oxide formation usually taking place. As the coating systems used so far all have certain disadvantages in this work the ability of nano-particulate thin coatings obtained by the sol-gel process to improve the oxidation resistance of 22MnB5 steel is investigated. The coatings obtained from three sols containing lithium aluminum silicate and potassium aluminum silicate showed the best performance against oxidation. The structural properties of the coating materials were characterized using different methods like XRD and differential thermal analysis. Comparison of the oxidation rate constants proved the ability of the coatings to protect against oxidation at temperatures up to 800 C. Press-hardening experiments in combination with investigations on the thermal shock resistance of the coated samples also showed the ability of the coatings to stay intact during press hardening with only slight spalling of the coatings in the bending areas. The absence of any secondary intermetallic phases and layer residues during laser beam welding experiments on coated samples proves the suitability of the nano-particulate coatings for further industrial processing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Characteristics of colloids generated during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.

    1993-10-01

    Aqueous colloidal suspensions were generated by reacting nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90 degrees C at different ratios of the glass surface area to solution volume (S/V). The colloids have been characterized in terms of size, charge, identity, and stability with respect to salt concentration, pH, and time, by examination using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and transmission electron microscopy. The colloids are predominately produced by precipitation from solution, possibly with contribution from reacted layers that have spallated from the glass. These colloids are silicon-rich minerals. The colloidal suspensions agglomerate when the salinity of the solutions increase. The following implications for modeling the colloidal transport of contaminants have been derived from this study: (1) The sources of the colloids are not only solubility-limited real colloids and the pseudo colloids formed by adsorption of radionuclides onto a groundwater colloid, but also from the spalled surface layers of reacted waste glasses. (2) In a repository, the local environment is likely to be glass-reaction dominated and the salt concentration is likely to be high, leading to rapid colloid agglomeration and settling; thus, colloid transport may be insignificant. (3) If large volumes of groundwater contact the glass reaction site, the precipitated colloids may become resuspended, and colloid transport may become important. (4) Under most conditions, the colloids are negatively charged and will deposit readily on positively charged surfaces. Negatively charged surfaces will, in general, facilitate colloid stability and transport

  2. Protective coatings for in-vessel fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.

    1984-01-01

    Coatings of Al/Si, SAP (Sintered Aluminium Powder), Al 2 O 3 , TiC (low-Z material) and Ta have been developed for in-vessel component protection. Anodic oxidation, vapor depositions, reactive sputtering, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and plasma spray have been the coating formation methods studied. AISI 316, 310, 304, Inconel 600 and Mo were adopted as base materials. the coatings were characterized in terms of composition, structure and connection with the supporting material. The behavior of coatings under H + , D + and He + irradiation in the energy range 100 eV-8 keV was tested and compared to the solid massive samples. TiC and Ta coatings were tested with thermal shock under power density pulses of 1 kW/cm 2 generated by an electron beam gun. Temperature-dependence of the erosion of TiC by vacuum arcs in a magnetic field was also studied. TiC coatings have low sputtering values, good resistance to arcing and a high chemical stability. TiC and Ta, CVD and plasma spray coatings are thermal-shock resistant. High thermal loads produce cracks but no spalling. Destruction occurred only after melting of the base material. The plasma spray coating method seems to be most appropriate for developing remote handling applications in fusion devices. (orig.)

  3. Hot corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed partially stabilized zirconia coatings in a lithium molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seong; Park, Byung Heong; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

    2008-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. It is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling molten salt. IN713LC is one of the candidate materials proposed for application in electrolytic reduction process. In this study, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) top coat was applied to a surface of IN713LC with an aluminized metallic bond coat by an optimized plasma spray process, and were investigated the corrosion behavior at 675 .deg. C for 216 hours in the molten salt LiCl-Li 2 O under an oxidizing atmosphere. The as-coated and tested specimens were examined by OM, SEM/EDS and XRD, respectively. The bare superalloy reveals obvious weight loss, and the corrosion layer formed on the surface of the bare superalloy was spalled due to the rapid scale growth and thermal stress. The top coatings showed a much better hot-corrosion resistance in the presence of LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt when compared to those of the uncoated superalloy and the aluminized bond coatings. These coatings have been found to be beneficial for increasing to the hot-corrosion resistance of the structural materials for handling high temperature lithium molten salts

  4. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  5. Static and dynamic oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, K.E.; Sankaran, S.N.; Clark, R.K.; Wallace, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt.%) studied under static conditions at 649 to 1093 degrees C for as long as 120 hr. and under simulated hypersonic flight (dynamic oxidation) conditions at 982 degrees C for as many as 16 half-hour cycles. Under simulated hypersonic flight conditions heavy oxidation and spalling of the oxide was observed. It was concluded that titanium aluminides used in hypersonic applications must have oxidation protective coatings. In this preliminary study coatings about one micrometer thick were applied by sputter deposition, form solutions, and from sol-gels. The materials applied by sputter deposition were oxides or fluorides thought to be stable against the metal and the materials applied from solutions and sol-gels were generally glass-formers and were intended for use in the final coating formulation as topcoats to the sputter-deposited coatings. Form weight gain and cross-sectional microscopy of the coated materials after oxidation exposure for 1 hr at 982 degrees C, it was found that because of cracks and porosity the sputter-deposited coatings did not have sufficient film integrity to shield the alloy

  6. Using PDV to Understand Damage in Rocket Motor Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth; Chapman, David; Ottley, Phillip; Proud, William; Gould, Peter; Cullis, Ian

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing requirement to design and manufacture insensitive munition (IM) rocket motors for in-service use under a wide range of conditions, particularly due to shock initiation and detonation of damaged propellant spalled across the central bore of the rocket motor (XDT). High speed photography has been crucial in determining this behaviour, however attempts to model the dynamic behaviour are limited by the lack of precision particle and wave velocity data with which to validate against. In this work Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) has been combined with high speed video to give accurate point velocity and timing measurements of the rear surface of a propellant block impacted by a fragment travelling upto 1.4 km s-1. By combining traditional high speed video with PDV through a dichroic mirror, the point of velocity measurement within the debris cloud has been determined. This demonstrates a new capability to characterise the damage behaviour of a double base rocket motor propellant and hence validate the damage and fragmentation algorithms used in the numerical simulations.

  7. Interfacial Characteristics of TiN Coatings on SUS304 and Silicon Wafer Substrates with Pulsed Laser Thermal Shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Nokun; Jeon, Seol; Choi, Youngkue; Shin, Hyun-Gyoo; Lee, Heesoo; Jeon, Min-Seok

    2014-01-01

    TiN coatings prepared on different substrates that had different coefficients of thermal expansion were subjected to pulsed laser thermal shock and observed by using FIB milling to compare the deterioration behaviors. TiN coating on SUS304, which had a larger CTE (⁓17.3 × 10 - 6 /℃) than the coating was degraded with pores and cracks on the surface and showed significant spalling of the coating layer over a certain laser pulses. TiN coating on silicon wafer with a smaller CTE value, ⁓4.2 × 10‒6 /℃, than the coating exhibited less degradation of the coating layer at the same ablation condition. Cracks propagated at the interface were observed in the coating on the silicon wafer, which induced a compressive stress to the coating. The coating on the SUS304 showed less interface cracks while the tensile stress was applied to the coating. Delamination of the coating layer related to the intercolumnar cracks at the interface was observed in both coatings through bright-field TEM analysis.

  8. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  9. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism

  10. Data report for the nondestructive examination of Turkey Point spent fuel assemblies B02, B03, B17, B41, and B43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    The fuel assembly sip test on all rods from assembly B17 were of sound intergrity. Visual examination showed three general regions of rod surface appearance: a dark adherent crud layer at the bottom of the rod, black spalling crud layers in the middle, and a spotty gray loose powdery coating with dark crud or oxide underneath towards the top. Rod lengths varied from 152.395 inches to 152.707 inches. Maximum rod bow measurements for rods G9, I9, and G7 were 0.038 to 040 inch and 0.022 inch for rods H6 and J8. Results from profilometry scans showed the maximum ovality for the five rods was 0.0066 inch with average diameters ranging from 0.4187 to 0.4198 inch. Extensive ridging from pellet-clad interaction over the entire length was evident on all rods. Gamma scan results showed no cesium peaking and no pellet gaps greater than 0.025 inch. No unusual areas, other than ridging and possible fuel-cladding bonding, were seen in the eddy current results

  11. INSAR observations of the DPRK event series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, R. J.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) data have revealed signals associated with the recent DPRK events in 2016 and 2017. These signals include decorrelation and indications of subsidence. Both standard phase differences and amplitude offsets are calculated. We show results of INSAR analysis as conducted using C and L band data and investigate the causes of the decorrelation (e.g. subsidence, landslide, or spall) and compare the observed signal with numerical models of deformation and seismic observations. A time series approach is applied to constrain post-event deformation at the weeks to months' timescale. We compare the INSAR observations of the DPRK tests with previous observations of events at other source regions using ERS archive data, which revealed a variety of post-seismic signatures. The signatures are evaluated with respect to the known geology and causes, including long-term surface relaxation and possible groundwater/thermal effects. Particular focus is on the sites on Pahute and Rainier Mesa, which displayed long-term subsidence signals that extended for several years after the explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC

  12. Mix and instability growth seeded at the inner surface of CH-ablator implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Orth, C. D.; Clark, D. S.; Amendt, P.; Hammel, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Huang, H.

    2014-10-01

    Mix and hydro instability growth are key issues in implosions of ignition targets on NIF. The implosions are designed so that the amplitude of perturbations is thought to be determined by initial seeds to the hydrodynamic instabilities, amplified by an instability growth factor. Experiments have indicated that growth factors can be calculated fairly well, but characterizing the initial seeds is an ongoing effort. Several threads of investigation this year have increased our understanding of growth seeded at the CH/DT interface. These include: more detailed characterization of the CH inner surface; possible other seeds, such as density irregularities either from fabrication defects or arising during the implosion; experiments on the Omega laser measuring velocity modulations on shock fronts shortly after breaking out from the CH, which can seed subsequent growth; and the possible significance of non-hydrodynamic effects such as plasma interpenetration or spall-like ejecta upon shock breakout. This presentation describes these developments, the relationships between them, and their implications for ignition target performance. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines. Final report, 11 Mar 1979-1 Sep 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogan, J.W.; Stetson, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO 2 .82O 3 , CaO.TiO 2 , 2CaO.SiO 2 , and MgO.Al 2 O 3 . The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO 2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO 2 .8Y 2 O 3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines

  14. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi, E-mail: boiler@seu.edu.cn; Xu, Jian-Qun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  15. Irradiation of a CANDU UOsub(2) fuel element with twenty-three machined slits cut through the zircaloy sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaSilva, R.L.

    1984-09-01

    A CANDU fuel element was purposely defected, exposing a minimum UOsub(2) fuel stack area of 272 mmsup(2), by machining 23 longitudinal slits through the Zircaloy-4 sheathing. The element was then irradiated in the X-2 loop of the NRX reactor for a period of 14.64 effective full power days at a linear heat rating of 48 kW/m to investigate the relationship between fission product release and UOsub(2) oxidation behaviour in an element with minimal fuel-to-gap fission gas trapping. The fission product releases, as measured by on-line gamma-ray spectroscopy, revealed that the noble gases and radioiodines are both released from the UOsub(2) fuel matrix directly to the coolant via simple diffusion kinetics, and that their diffusivities in hyperstoichiometric UOsub(2) are approximately equal. The oxidation of UOsub(2) to the higher states UOsub(2+x), Usub(4)Osub(9) and Usub(3)Osub(8), was accompanied by substantial fuel swelling and sheath deformation preferentially located in the lower powered end of the element. The spalling and erosion behaviour of the fuel pellets was correlated to the rate of fuel oxidation

  16. Experimental Studies on the Fire Behaviour of High Performance Concrete Thin Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents experimen......In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents....... The parametric assessment of the specimen performance included: thickness of the specimen, testing apparatus, and concrete mix (both with and without polypropylene fibres). The results verified the ability of H-TRIS to impose an equivalent thermal boundary condition to that imposed during a standard furnace test......, with good repeatability, and at comparatively low economic and temporal costs. The results demonstrated that heat induced concrete spalling occurred 1 to 5 min earlier, and in a more destructive manner, for thinner specimens. An analysis is presented combining the thermal material degradation, vapour pore...

  17. Impact cratering on porous targets in the strength regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2017-12-01

    Cratering on small bodies is crucial for the collision cascade and also contributes to the ejection of dust particles into interplanetary space. A crater cavity forms against the mechanical strength of the surface, gravitational acceleration, or both. The formation of moderately sized craters that are sufficiently larger than the thickness of the regolith on small bodies, in which mechanical strength plays the dominant role rather than gravitational acceleration, is in the strength regime. The formation of microcraters on blocks on the surface is also within the strength regime. On the other hand, the formation of a crater of a size comparable to the thickness of the regolith is affected by both gravitational acceleration and cohesion between regolith particles. In this short review, we compile data from the literature pertaining to impact cratering experiments on porous targets, and summarize the ratio of spall diameter to pit diameter, the depth, diameter, and volume of the crater cavity, and the ratio of depth to diameter. Among targets with various porosities studied in the laboratory to date, based on conventional scaling laws (Holsapple and Schmidt, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1849-1870, 1982) the cratering efficiency obtained for porous sedimentary rocks (Suzuki et al., J. Geophys. Res. 117, E08012, 2012) is intermediate. A comparison with microcraters formed on a glass target with impact velocities up to 14 km s-1 indicates a different dependence of cratering efficiency and depth-to-diameter ratio on impact velocity.

  18. Implementation of Highly-Flowable Strain Hardening Fiber Reinforced Concrete in New RC Beam-Column Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of New RC project was aimed to reduce the member sections and increase the available space of high rise buildings by using high strength concrete (f’c > 70 MPa and high strength rebars (fy > 685 MPa. Material consumptions and member section sizes can be further reduced owing to the upgrade of strength. However, the nature of brittleness of high strength may also cause early cover spalling and other ductility issues. Addition of steel fibers is an alternative as transverse reinforcement. Highly flowable strain hardening fiber reinforced concrete (HF-SHFRC has excellent workability in the fresh state and exhibits the strain-hardening and multiple cracking characteristics of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC in their hardened state. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing HF-SHFRC in New RC building systems, particularly for beam-column joints as an alternative of transverse reinforcements. Four full-scale exterior beam-column joints, including two specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements and two specimens made of HF-SHFRC without any stirrup, are tested. Test results show that the HF-SHFRC specimens perform as well as specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements regarding failure mode, ductility, energy dissipation and crack width control. Integration of New RC building systems and HF-SHFRC can assuring construction qualities and further diminish labor work and give infrastructure longer service life, and eventually lower the life-cycle cost.

  19. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of PVD-Coated Cemented Carbide as Evaluated by a New Multipass Scratch-Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallqvist

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new test method based on multipass scratch testing has been developed for evaluating the mechanical and tribological properties of thin, hard coatings. The proposed test method uses a pin-on-disc tribometer and during testing a Rockwell C diamond stylus is used as the “pin” and loaded against the rotating coated sample. The influence of normal load on the number of cycles to coating damage is investigated and the resulting coating damage mechanisms are evaluated by posttest scanning electron microscopy. The present study presents the test method by evaluating the performance of Ti0.86Si0.14N, Ti0.34Al0.66N, and (Al0.7Cr0.32O3 coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation on cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the test method is quick, simple, and reproducible and can preferably be used to obtain relevant data concerning the fatigue, wear, chipping, and spalling characteristics of different coating-substrate composites. The test method can be used as a virtually nondestructive test and, for example, be used to evaluate the fatigue and wear resistance as well as the cohesive and adhesive interfacial strength of coated cemented carbide inserts prior to cutting tests.

  20. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-30

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  1. Fireside Corrosion Behaviors of Super304H and HR3C in Coal Ash/Gas Environment with Different SO2 Contents at 650 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yan; Huang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yongli; Zhao, Xinbao; Yuan, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Super304H and HR3C used for USC boiler applications were investigated in simulated coal ash/gas environments with 0.1 and 1.5% of SO2 at 650 °C for 500 h. The results indicated that the increase in SO2 accelerated the corrosion rate and the spalling tendency of the corrosion layer in both tested alloys. Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and FeCr2O4 main peaks were revealed by XRD on Super304H, but on HR3C only the Cr2O3 peak showed a high intensity. The SO2 content did not affect the corrosion product composition of any of the alloys, but accelerated the inner sulfidation and the spallation on Super304H. No obvious internal sulfidation was observed on HR3C in either SO2 content. Based on the experimental results, the alloy corrosion mechanism and the influence of sulfur content on the corrosion process were discussed.

  2. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  3. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  4. Effects of Tungsten Addition on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-3.5B Alloy in Liquid Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tungsten addition on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Fe-3.5B alloys in a liquid zinc bath at 520 °C were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis. The microstructure evolution in different alloys is analyzed and discussed using an extrapolated Fe-B-W ternary phase diagram. Experimental results show that there are three kinds of borides, the reticular (Fe, W2B, the rod-like (Fe, W3B and flower-like FeWB. The addition of tungsten can refine the microstructure and improve the stability of the reticular borides. Besides, it is beneficial to the formation of the metastable (Fe, W3B phase. The resultant Fe-3.5B-11W (wt % alloy possesses excellent corrosion resistance to liquid zinc. When tungsten content exceeds 11 wt %, the formed flower-like FeWB phase destroys the integrity of the reticular borides and results in the deterioration of the corrosion resistance. Also, the corrosion failure resulting from the spalling of borides due to the initiation of micro-cracks in the grain boundary of borides is discussed in this paper.

  5. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of energy produced by the interaction of the intense pulses of short-ranged fusion microexplosion products with materials is one of the most difficult problems in inertially-confined fusion (ICF) reactor design. The short time and deposition distance for the energy results in local peak power densities on the order of 10 18 watts/m 3 . High local power densities may cause change of state or spall in the reactor materials. This will limit the structure lifetimes for ICF reactors of economic physical sizes, increasing operating costs including structure replacement and radioactive waste management. Four basic first wall protection methods have evolved: a dry-wall, a wet-wall, a magnetically shielded wall, and a fluid wall. These approaches are distinguished by the way the reactor wall interfaces with fusion debris as well as the way the ambient cavity conditions modify the fusion energy forms and spectra at the first wall. Each of these approaches requires different heat transfer considerations

  6. Solid state impact welding of BMG and copper by vaporizing foil actuator welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek, Anupam, E-mail: vivek.4@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Presley, Michael [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Flores, Katharine M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hutchinson, Nicholas H.; Daehn, Glenn S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    The objective of this study was to create impact welds between a Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) and copper at a laboratory scale and subsequently investigate the relationship between interfacial structure and mechanical properties. Vaporizing Foil Actuator (VFA) has recently been demonstrated as a versatile tool for metalworking applications: impact welding of dissimilar materials being one of them. Its implementation for welding is termed as VFA Welding or VFAW. With 8 kJ input energy into an aluminum foil actuator, a 0.5 mm thick Cu110 alloy sheet was launched toward a BMG target resulting in an impact at a velocity of nearly 600 m/s. For this experiment, the welded interface was straight with a few BMG fragments embedded in the copper sheet in some regions. Hardness tests across the interface showed increase in strength on the copper side. Instrumented peel test resulted in failure in the parent copper sheet. A slower impact velocity during a separate experiment resulted in a weld, which had wavy regions along the interface and in peel failure again happened in the parent copper sheet. Some through-thickness cracks were observed in the BMG plate and there was some spall damage in the copper flyers. TEM electron diffraction on a sample, cut out from the wavy weld interface region using a focused ion beam, showed that devitrification of the BMG was completely avoided in this welding process.

  7. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  8. Standard Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the standard test methods available for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of interlayer materials used in multi-ply aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 Interlayer materials are used to laminate glass-to-glass, glass-to-plastic, and plastic-to-plastic. Interlayer materials are basically transparent adhesives with high-quality optical properties. They can also serve as an energy absorbing medium, a fail-safe membrane to contain cockpit pressure and to prevent entry of impact debris; a strain insulator to accommodate different thermal expansion rates of members being laminated and as an adherent to prevent spalling of inner surface ply material fragments. The relative importance of an interlayer characteristic will be a function of the prime use it serves in its particular application. 1.3 This guide, as a summary of various methods in Section 2, is intended to facilitate the selection of tests that can be applied to interlayer materials. 1.4 The test methods list...

  9. Refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Primary metal smelters are recovering a greater percentage of their stack emissions because of increased global environmental pressures. Copper and nickel producers processing sulfide ore are under particular scrutiny for sulfur dioxide emissions. The use of various acid plant designs and associated scrubbers to capture the gas is commonplace. Failure of acid plant or sulfur dioxide control devices can be very expensive, both in terms of repair costs and lost production. Close attention should be paid to ensure smooth, long term and proper operation of these vessels. With INCO flash furnace shops smelter gases are treated immediately upon leaving the furnace in a particulate scrubber where the gases are cooled and de-dusted in a water spray chamber. The amount of chlorine and fluorine in the waste gas can vary widely, ranging from non-existent to being a major source of concern for refractory wear. Developed specifically for use in hazardous waste incinerators burning fluorine-containing materials, spall-resistant, high-purity alimina bricks were installed in various gas cleaning units in copper smelting plants. Because of the materials's combination of abrasion resistance, thermal cycling resistance, and chemical durability under conditions of variable SO(3) and fluorine attack, the material has proven to be more than adequate for the challenges of gas cleaning equipment. 2 refs.

  10. Dry recovery test of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Manabu; Kawamata, Kazuhiko; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1981-01-01

    The oxidation conditions for pulverizing directly Pu-U mixed oxide pellets without mechanical crushing were examined to simplify the process and to reduce radiation exposure during the dry recovery of highly enriched Pu pellets. The specimens used were the Pusub(0.3) Usub(0.7) Osub(2-x) pellets with different density, which were sintered at 1650 deg C for 2 hours under an atmosphere of 5 % H 2 - N 2 . The oxidation experiment was carried out under several conditions. The oxidation products were examined by weight gain, X-ray diffraction, appearance pictures, SEM photographs and so on. From these studies, it can be concluded that the oxidation in NO 2 diluted with air was very powerful, but if only the coarse spalling of Pusub(0.3) Usub(0.7) O 2 sintered pellets is required, it is sufficient to oxidize them in air for 1 hr in a temperature range from 400 to 600 deg C. (Asami, T.)

  11. Strut and tie modeling for RC short beams with corroded stirrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the major problems that shorten the service life of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Steel stirrups, due to their location as an outer reinforcement, are more susceptible to corrosion problems and damage. However, there is limited research work in the literature on the effects of stirrup corrosion on the shear strength of RC beams. This paper attempts to evaluate analytically the residual shear strength of RC short beams with corrosion-damaged stirrups. The shear strength of short or deep beams are generally determined using the strut and tie model. The corrosion effects were implemented in the model to make it capable of predicting the residual shear capacity of RC beams with corroded stirrups. The effect of corrosion is implemented considering the reduction in geometry of the concrete cross section due to spalling and reduction in effective compressive strength of concrete due to corrosion cracks. The proposed strut and tie model which accounts for the corrosion effects was verified using the experimental data available in the literature, and good agreement was found.

  12. A Review of the Effects of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Graves, H.L. III

    2006-01-01

    Concrete's properties are more complex than those of most materials because not only is concrete a composite material whose constituents have different properties, but its properties depend upon moisture and porosity. Exposure of concrete to elevated temperature affects its mechanical and physical properties. Elements could distort and displace, and, under certain conditions, the concrete surfaces could spall due to the buildup of steam pressure. Because thermally-induced dimensional changes, loss of structural integrity, and release of moisture and gases resulting from the migration of free water could adversely affect plant operations and safety, a complete understanding of the behavior of concrete under long-term elevated-temperature exposure as well as both during and after a thermal excursion resulting from a postulated design-basis accident condition is essential for reliable design evaluations and assessments of nuclear power plant structures. As the properties of concrete change with respect to time and the environment to which it is exposed, an assessment of the effects of concrete aging is also important in performing safety evaluations. The effects of elevated temperature on Portland cement concretes and constituent materials are summarized, design codes and standards identified, and considerations for elevated temperature service noted. (authors)

  13. Ground Shock Resistant of Buried Nuclear Power Plant Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornai, D.; Adar, A.; Gal, E.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) might be subjected to hostile attacks such as Earth Penetrating Weapons (EPW) that carry explosive charges. Explosions of these weapons near buried NPP facility might cause collapse, breaching, spalling, deflection, shear, rigid body motion (depending upon the foundations), and in-structure shock. The occupants and the equipment in the buried facilities are exposed to the in-structure motions, and if they are greater than their fragility values than occupants might be wounded or killed and the equipment might be damaged, unless protective measures will be applied. NPP critical equipment such as pumps are vital for the normal safe operation since it requires constant water circulation between the nuclear reactor and the cooling system, including in case of an immediate shut down. This paper presents analytical- semi empirical formulation and analysis of the explosion of a penetrating weapon with a warhead of 100kgs TNT (Trinitrotoluene) that creates ground shock effect on underground NPP structure containing equipment, such as a typical pump. If the in-structure spectral shock is greater than the pump fragility values than protective measures are required, otherwise a real danger to the NPP safety might occur

  14. Transpassive dissolution of alloy 625, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum in high-temperature solutions containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritzer, P.; Boukis, N.; Dinjus, E.

    2000-01-01

    Coupons of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and the nickel-based Alloy 625 (UNS 06625) were corroded in strongly oxidizing hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions at 350 C and a pressure (p) of 24 MPa, with reaction times between 0.75 h and 50 h. For Alloy 625, the effect of surface roughness also was investigated. Nickel and molybdenum showed strong material loss after only 5 h of reaction as a result of the instability of the solid oxides formed under experimental conditions. The attack on chromium started at the grain boundaries. At longer reaction times, thick, spalling oxide layers formed on the surface. The attack on Alloy 625 also started at the grain boundaries and at inclusions leading to the formation of small pits. On polished surfaces, the growth of these pits occurred faster than on nonpolished surfaces, but fewer pits grew. Corrosion products formed at the surface consisted of oxygen and chromium. On isolated spots, nickel- and chlorine-containing products also were found

  15. Microstructural Study on Oxidation Resistance of Nonmodified and Platinum Modified Aluminide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Sieniawski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Platinum electroplating layers (3 and 7 μm thick) were deposited on the surface of the Inconel 713 LC, CMSX 4, and Inconel 625 Ni-base superalloys. Diffusion treatment at 1050°C for 2 h under argon atmosphere was performed after electroplating. Diffusion treated samples were aluminized according to the low activity CVD process at 1050°C for 8 h. The nonmodified aluminide coatings consist of NiAl phase. Platinum modification let to obtain the (Ni,Pt)Al phase in coatings. The coated samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation testing at 1100°C. It was discovered that increase of the platinum electroplating thickness from 3 to 7 μm provides the improvement of oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings. Increase of the platinum thickness causes decreases in weight change and decreases in parabolic constant during oxidation. The platinum provides the pure Al2O3 oxide formation, slow growth oxide layer, and delay the oxide spalling during heating-cooling thermal cycles.

  16. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R W; Stubbs, T F; Cherry, J T [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  17. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.; McDaniel, K.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. We cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e., compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion

  18. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. They cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e. compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion

  19. Oxidation and creep failure of alloy 617 foils at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K.; Ko, G.D.; Li, F.X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjkang@chonnam.ac.kr

    2008-08-31

    The microstructure of thermally grown oxides (TGO) and the creep properties of alloy 617 were investigated. Oxidation and creep tests were performed on 100 {mu}m thick foils at 800-1000 deg. C in air environment, while the thickness of TGO was monitored in situ. According to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping micrographs observation, superficial dense oxides, chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which was thermodynamically unstable at 1000 deg. C, and discrete internal oxides, alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), were found. Consequently, the weight of the foil specimen decreased due to the spalling and volatilization of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer after an initial weight-gaining. Secondary and tertiary creeps were observed at 800 deg. C, while the primary, secondary and tertiary creeps were observed at 1000 deg. C. Dynamic recrystallization occurred at 800 deg. C and 900 deg. C, while partial dynamic recrystallization at 1000 deg. C. The apparent activation energy, Q{sub app}, for the creep deformation was 271 kJ/mol, which was independent of the applied stress.

  20. Dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Ting Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous deep underground projects have been designed and constructed in China, which are beyond the current specifications in terms of scale and construction difficulty. The severe failure problems induced by high in situ stress, such as rockburst, spalling, damage of deep surrounding rocks, and time-dependent damage, were observed during construction of these projects. To address these problems, the dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels is proposed based on the disintegration process of surrounding rocks using associated dynamic control theories and technologies. Seven steps are basically employed: (i determination of design objective, (ii characteristics of site, rock mass and project, and identification of constraint conditions, (iii selection or development of global design strategy, (iv determination of modeling method and software, (v preliminary design, (vi comprehensive integrated method and dynamic feedback analysis, and (vii final design. This dynamic method was applied to the construction of the headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station. The key technical issues encountered during the construction of deep hard rock tunnels, such as in situ stress distribution along the tunnels, mechanical properties and constitutive model of deep hard rocks, determination of mechanical parameters of surrounding rocks, stability evaluation of surrounding rocks, and optimization design of rock support and lining, have been adequately addressed. The proposed method and its application can provide guidance for deep underground projects characterized with similar geological conditions.

  1. Impact of ionisation on the conservation of fresh stuffed pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhaou, Thouraya

    2012-01-01

    Fresh stuffed pasta are highly appreciated by consumers due to their specific taste and flavor. However, they are perishable foodstuffs having a short shelf life. The aim of this work was to extend their shelf life using three doses of ionizing gamma 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Studing the impact of this treatment on the microbiological (FAMT, E-coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Sallmonelle, yeasts and molds), physicochemical (pH, water content and water activity), sensory (color) and cooking qualities (swelling, cooking loss and spalling) of the product showed the effectiveness of its doses toward the spoilage and pathogenic flora. However, organoleptic and cooking qualities were significantly affected by the doses 3 and 5 kGy. Only the dose 1 kGy could improve the microbiological quality without influencing the organoleptic and culinary qualities of the product. The shelf life prediction according to ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Testing) method of different samples confirmed the effectiveness of the dose 1 kGy which gave the highest shelf life value (62 days). As the shelf life of un-ionized product is 45 days, the 1 kGy dose has allowed extending the shelf life of 17 days.

  2. The Applicability of Different Fluid Media to Measure Effective Stress Coefficient for Rock Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective stress coefficient for permeability (ESCK is the key parameter to evaluate the properties of reservoir stress sensitivity. So far, little studies have clarified which ESCK is correct for a certain reservoir while rock ESCK is measured differently by different fluid media. Thus, three different fluids were taken to measure a fine sandstone sample’s ESCK, respectively. As a result, the ESCK was measured to be the smallest by injecting nitrogen, the largest by injecting water, and between the two by brine. Besides, those microcharacteristics such as rock component, clay mineral content, and pore structure were further analyzed based on some microscopic experiments. Rock elastic modulus was reduced when water-sensitive clay minerals were encountered with aqua fluid media so as to enlarge the rock ESCK value. Moreover, some clay minerals reacting with water can spall and possibly block pore throats. Compared with water, brine can soften the water sensitivity; however, gas has no water sensitivity effects. Therefore, to choose which fluid medium to measure reservoir ESCK is mainly depending on its own exploitation conditions. For gas reservoirs using gas to measure ESCK is more reliable than water or brine, while using brine is more appropriate for oil reservoirs.

  3. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  4. The underwater installation of a drained geomembrane system on Lost Creek Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onken, S.; Harlan, R.C.; Wilkes, J.; Vaschetti, G.

    1998-01-01

    Lost Creek Dam was constructed in California around 1923. It is a 122 foot high concrete arch dam with a crest elevation of 3,287 feet and a crest length of 490 feet. Over the years, the dam and the condition of the concrete face have deteriorated. The concrete is porous and seeps water along the entire downstream face. In winter, the seeping water freezes, penetrates the concrete and causes expansion and spalling of the concrete surface. In some places, the concrete has very low strength to a depth of a foot or more, rendering the dam only marginally safe. Seven mitigative measures were identified as possible solutions to the problem. It was determined that the seepage of the water through the concrete dam could be stopped with the installation of a geomembrane to the upstream face. This paper describes the unique underwater installation of a drained geomembrane system on the concrete face of the dam. This was the first ever installation of a drained geomembrane system on an entire dam using divers. Monitoring will determine the success of the project, and whether the seepage of the water through the porous concrete had been reduced sufficiently to stop the deterioration of the concrete on the downstream face. 2 refs., 12 figs

  5. Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a virtually ideal reinforcing agent due to extremely high aspect ratios and ultra high strengths. It is evident from contemporary research that utilization of CNT in producing new cement-based composite materials has a great potential. Consequently, possible practical application of CNT reinforced cementitious composites has immense prospect in the field of applied nanotechnology within construction industry. Several repair, retrofit, and strengthening techniques are currently available to enhance the integrity and durability of concrete structures with cracks and spalling, but applicability and/or reliability is/are often limited. Therefore, there is always a need for innovative high performing concrete repair materials with good mechanical, rheological, and durability properties. Considering the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and the test results of CNT reinforced cement composites, it is apparent that such composites could be used conveniently as concrete repair material. With this end in view, the applicability of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT reinforced cement composites as concrete repair material has been evaluated in this study in terms of setting time, bleeding, and bonding strength (slant shear tests. It has been found that MWNT reinforced cement mortar has good prospective as concrete repair material since such composites exhibited desirable behavior in setting time, bleeding, and slant shear.

  6. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  7. Behavior of steels in flowing liquid PbBi eutectic alloy at 420-600 deg. C after 4000-7200 h

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Schumacher, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Engelko, V.; Rusanov, A.; Markov, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of steel exposure up to 7200 h in flowing LBE at elevated temperatures and is a follow-up paper of that with results of an exposure of up to 2000 h. The examined AISI 316 L, 1.4970 austenitic and MANET 10Cr martensitic steels are suitable as a structural material in LBE (liquid eutectic Pb 45 Bi 55 ) up to 550 deg. C, if 10 -6 wt% of oxygen is dissolved in the LBE. The martensitic steel develops a thick magnetite and spinel layer while the austenites have thin spinel surface layers at 420 deg. C and thick oxide scales like the martensitic steel at 550 deg. C. The oxide scales protect the steels from dissolution attack by LBE during the whole test period of 7200 h. Oxide scales that spall off are replaced by new protective ones. At 600 deg. C severe attack occurs already after 2000 and 4000 h of exposure. Steels with 8-15 wt% Al alloyed into the surface suffer no corrosion attack at all experimental temperatures and exposure times

  8. Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Peng, J.F. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cao, B.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Jin, X.S. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, M.H., E-mail: zhuminhao@swjtu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Tribo-chemical behavior was investigated during rolling contact friction. • Tribo-film may weaken the absorptive ability of O/C atoms on the surface. • Tribo-film is related to a low friction coefficient at rolling friction condition. - Abstract: The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2–3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.

  9. Range calculations for spallation recoils in ThF4 by use of the computer code 'Marlowe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Roessler, K.

    1978-12-01

    The determination of cross sections of spallation reactions requires a knowledge of the target thickness since only the products recoiling from the target are measured and their yield depends on the range. The effective target thickness is a function of the projectile's Z, A and spallation recoil energy and, thus, varies for the individual products. The computer code MARLOWE was used to evaluate energy vs. range curves in the binary collisions approximation. The program was extended to the high energy regime taking into account the stripping of electrons from the projectile and the concomitant changes in the interaction potentials especially for the inelastic part of the collisions. A complementary computer program LATTIC was developed for the parameterization of the lattice description. This code enables the application of MARLOWE to target materials with complicated crystallographic structure. Test calculations for a series of projectile/target combinations showed a reasonable agreement with experimental recoil ranges of Pd, Ag, Os and Ir isotopes from proton induced spallation in Ag, In and Pb targets, respectively. MARLOWE was then applied to calculate product ranges of the 232 Th(p,spall)X-reaction in the ployatomic system ThF 4 . The calculated energy vs. range curves enabled the evaluation of the mean spallation recoil ranges for all possible products, e.g. 170.8 μg/cm 2 for 192 Tl, 115.2 μg/cm 2 for 208 At and 37.1 μg/cm 2 for 223 Ac. (orig.)

  10. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Modelling of fracture development of APSE by FRACOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, Mikael; Baotang Shen; Lee, Hee-Suk

    2004-03-01

    An in-situ experiment has started at Aespoe HRL to investigate the stability of a pillar between two closely located boreholes of deposition hole scale. This full-scale experiment is named the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). One of the holes will be pressurized with 0.8 MPa water pressure to simulate confinement by backfill. Thermal stresses will be applied in the pillar by the use of electric heaters to reach the spalling conditions. To quantify the degree of damage during the experiment, an Acoustic Emission (AE) system will be used and strain measurements will be installed. FRACOD is a two dimensional BEM/DDM code for fracturing analysis in rock material. Here it has been used to model the rock mass response during the planned sequences of excavation-confinement-heating. The models predict the stress and displacement fields, fracture initiation and propagation, coalescence and the final failure of the rock mass. The presences of pre-existing fractures, which may have significant influence on the pillar behaviour, have also been considered in the modelling. This report summarises the modelling work using FRACOD to simulate the various experimental stages

  11. Cycle oxidation behavior and anti-oxidation mechanism of hot-dipped aluminum coating on TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with network microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X T; Huang, L J; Wei, S L; An, Q; Cui, X P; Geng, L

    2018-04-10

    Controlled and compacted TiAl 3 coating was successfully fabricated on the network structured TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by hot-dipping aluminum and subsequent interdiffusion treatment. The network structure of the composites was inherited to the TiAl 3 coating, which effectively reduces the thermal stress and avoids the cracks appeared in the coating. Moreover, TiB reinforcements could pin the TiAl 3 coating which can effectively improve the bonding strength between the coating and composite substrate. The cycle oxidation behavior of the network structured coating on 873 K, 973 K and 1073 K for 100 h were investigated. The results showed the coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of the TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites. The network structure was also inherited to the Al 2 O 3 oxide scale, which effectively decreases the tendency of cracking even spalling about the oxide scale. Certainly, no crack was observed in the coating after long-term oxidation due to the division effect of network structured coating and pinning effect of TiB reinforcements. Interfacial reaction between the coating and the composite substrate occurred and a bilayer structure of TiAl/TiAl 2 formed next to the substrate after oxidation at 973 K and 1073 K. The anti-oxidation mechanism of the network structured coating was also discussed.

  12. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Drift scale thermomechanical analysis for thermal loading and retrievability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    The repository portion of the Mined Geologic Disposal System for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is currently in the advanced conceptual design stage. In support of systems studies, a numerical method was used to estimate the stability of emplacement drifts. Thermomechanical analyses, using the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis code, were performed using input data from Yucca Mountain documents. The analysis found that the stresses produced in the rock at thermal loads of 27.4 kilograms uranium per m2 (KgU/m2) would exceed stability criteria and could result in tunnel instability. At thermal loads between 20.5 KgU/m2, the drift is predicted to be stable and its structural integrity remains after thermal loading. In this case, the smaller diameter drift emplacement appears to have better stability. However, local rock spalling may occur. According to the numerical prediction, more rock fall may occur during the retrieval period due to the stress relaxation caused by the rapid cooling in the immediate drift area

  14. Experimental study on dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yungang; Ma, Haidong; Liang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Heng; Zhao, Qinxin; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew point corrosion and ash deposit tests in a biomass-fired boiler were performed. • The XRD, XRF and SEM methods were used to analyze corrosion samples. • The deposits were made up of ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. • The metal matrix simultaneously confronted chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. - Abstract: The dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler were experimentally studied. The cross-sectional morphology and composition of the ash deposition were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), respectively. The results showed that the test tube surface was covered by ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. The ash deposit layer and the coupling layer were prone to spall off together. The coupling layer consists of partial ash and corrosion products. The corrosion layer was mainly composed of chlorides (FeCl_3, FeCl_2, and FeOCl) and oxides (FeOOH, Fe_2O_3). With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the corrosion depth decreased dramatically and the dew point corrosion was alleviated efficiently. The metal matrix simultaneously suffered from chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was above water dew point, the main corrosion mode was oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was below water dew point, the main corrosion mode was chlorine corrosion.

  15. In-can melting process and equipment development from 1974 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, H.T.

    1979-08-01

    Both the defense HLLW stores in tanks presently and the HLLW from proposed reprocessing of commercial LWR fuel can be vitrified as borosilicate glass in containers made of 300-series stainless steel by the ICM (in-can melting) process. Melting rates of 50 kg/h in 12-in.-dia cans and 117 kg/h in 28-in.-dia cans can be achieved in the ICM by using the rising-level charging method and internal heat-transfer plate assemblies in the cans. The ICM process can be monitored and remotely controlled without the aid of instrumentation attached to the waste can. The ICM process is compatible with both heated-wall spray calciners and fluidized-bed calciners. The ICM process causes residual tensile stresses as high as the yield strength in vitrified product containers made of 300-series stainless steel. Spall due to oxidation of the exterior of the can during an ICM process can be prevented by using an inert cover gas, by putting a protective coating on the can surface, or by using an oxidation-resistant alloy. Processing problems are minimized and product quality is improved when the complete can is located inside the furnace chamber by setting it on the hearth. A maximum of 24 kW and an average of 15 kW is required per 15-in.-high furnace zone to melt waste borosilicate glass at a rate of 117 kg/h in a 28-in.-dia ICM

  16. Decontamination of U-metal surface by an oxidation etching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Shaffer, R.J.; Weed, H.C. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    A surface treatment to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts is described. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidation process to create a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are significantly large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination. (authors)

  17. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)

  18. SNC meteorites: Clues to martian petrologic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The shergottites, nakhlites, and Chassigny (SNC meteorites) are apparently cumulate mafic and ultramafic rocks that crystallized at shallow levels in the crust of their parent body. The mineralogy and chemistry of these meteorites are remarkably like equivalent terrestrial rocks, although their ratios of Fe/(Fe+Mg) and certain incompatible elements and their oxygen isotopic compositions are distinctive. All have crystallization ages of 1.3 b.y. or younger and formed from magmas produced by partial melting of previously fractionated source regions. Isotope systematics suggest that the SNC parent body had a complex and protracted thermal history spanning most of geologic time. Some meteorites have been severely shock metamorphosed, and all were ejected from their parent body at relatively recent times, possibly in several impact events. Late crystallization ages, complex petrogenesis, and possible evidence for a large gravitational field suggest that these meteorites are derived from a large planet. Trapped gases in shergottite shock melts have compositions similar to the composition measured in the Martian atmosphere. Ejection of Martian meteorites may have been accomplished by acceleration of near-surface spalls or other mechanisms not fully understood. If SNC meteorites are of Martian origin, they provide important information on planetary composition and evolution. The bulk composition and redox state of the Martian mantle, as constrained by shergottite phase equilibria, must be more earthlike than most current models. Planetary thermal models should benefit from data on the abundances of radioactive heat sources, the melting behavior of the mantle, and the timing of planetary differentiation

  19. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Stubbs, T.F.; Cherry, J.T.

    1970-01-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  20. Analysis of Precursors Prior to Rock Burst in Granite Tunnel Using Acoustic Emission and Far Infrared Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhao Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the physical mechanism of the anomalous behaviors observed prior to rock burst, the acoustic emission (AE and far infrared (FIR techniques were applied to monitor the progressive failure of a rock tunnel model subjected to biaxial stresses. Images of fracturing process, temperature changes of the tunnel, and spatiotemporal serials of acoustic emission were simultaneously recorded during deformation of the model. The b-value derived from the amplitude distribution data of AE was calculated to predict the tunnel rock burst. The results showed that the vertical stress enhanced the stability of the tunnel, and the tunnels with higher confining pressure demonstrated a more abrupt and strong rock burst. Abnormal temperature changes around the wall were observed prior to the rock burst of the tunnel. Analysis of the AE events showed that a sudden drop and then a quiet period could be considered as the precursors to forecast the rock burst hazard. Statistical analysis indicated that rock fragment spalling occurred earlier than the abnormal temperature changes, and the abnormal temperature occurred earlier than the descent of the AE b-value. The analysis indicated that the temperature changes were more sensitive than the AE b-value changes to predict the tunnel rock bursts.

  1. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing and Crystallographic Orientation on the Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X70 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohaeri, Enyinnaya; Omale, Joseph; Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the electrochemical response of X70 pipeline steel substrates thermomechanically processed at different conditions. The WE sample was hot rolled at a temperature range of 850 °C to 805 °C and cooled at a rate of 42.75 °C/s. Another sample WD was hot rolled from 880 °C to 815 °C and cooled at a faster rate of 51.5 °C/s. Corrosion tests were conducted electrochemically by potentiodynamic polarization in hydrogen-charged and non-hydrogen-charged environments. A lower corrosion rate was measured with hydrogen charging due to the rapid formation of corrosion product film on pipeline substrate, but WE specimen emerged as the most susceptible to corrosion with and without hydrogen charging. Variations in thermomechanical rolling conditions influenced grain orientation, protective film properties, corrosion, and cracking behavior on both specimens. Cracks were seen in both specimens after hydrogen charging, but specimen WE experienced a more intense deterioration of protective corrosion product film and subsequent cracking. A large part of specimen WD retained its protective corrosion product film after the polarization test, and sites where spalling occurred resulted in pitting with less cracking. Despite weak crystallographic texture noticed in both specimens, WD showed a higher intensity of corrosion-resistant 111||ND-oriented grains, while WE showed a more random distribution of 111||ND-, 011||ND-, and 001||ND-oriented grains with a lower intensity.

  2. Excavation damage and organic growth in a 1.2m diameter borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, R.A.; Gann, P.; Brown, D.A.; Boychuk, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.24m diameter borehole was drilled 5m into the floor of a typical drill-and-blast tunnel in unfractured granite, at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Three generations of excavation damage, characteristic of what may be encountered in boreholes excavated for in-hole emplacement of used fuel wastes was observed. These include: (1) damage related to the initial excavation of the room, (2) damage caused by the drilling of the borehole itself, and (3) damage due to subsequent stress-induced spalling of the borehole walls. A biofilm containing a variety of microorganisms has developed where seepage issues from the concrete-granite interface. The biota were introduced from surface water used for mining and drilling. Their growth has been stimulated by residues from blasting and drilling, which have concentrated iron and silicon by passive sorption and energy metabolism. Ferrous iron has been oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite/hematite to give an orange/brown colouration on the biofilm interface black. These observations, significant to the understanding and monitoring of excavation damage, highlight the importance of thorough, in situ, multi-disciplinary characterization for vault design

  3. Canister positioning. Influence of fracture system on deposition hole stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The study concerns the mechanical behaviour of rock surrounding tunnels and deposition holes in a nuclear waste repository. The mechanical effects of tunnel excavation and deposition hole excavation are investigated by use of a tunnel scale numerical model representing a part of a KBS-3 type repository. The excavation geometry, the initial pre-mining state of stress, and the geometrical features of the fracture system are defined according to conditions that prevail in the TBM tunnel rock mass in Aespoe HRL. Comparisons are made between results obtained without consideration of fractures and results obtained with inclusion of the fracture system. The focus is on the region around the intersection of a tunnel and a deposition hole. A general conclusion is that a fracture system of the type found in the TBM rock mass does not have a decisive influence on the stability of the deposition holes. To estimate the expected extent of spalling, information about other conditions, e.g. the orientation of the initial stresses and the strength properties of the intact rock, is more important than detailed information about the fracture system

  4. Biochemical Contributions to Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Alloy 22 in a Continual Flow System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.; Martin, S.; Masterson, B.; Lian, T.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) may decrease the functional lifetime of nuclear waste packaging materials in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Biochemical contributions to corrosion of package materials are being determined in reactors containing crushed repository-site rock with the endogenous microbial community, and candidate waste package materials. These systems are being continually supplied with simulated ground water. Periodically, bulk chemistries are analyzed on the system outflow, and surfacial chemistries are assessed on withdrawn material coupons. Both Fe and Mn dissolved from C1020 coupons under conditions that included the presence of YM microorganisms. Insoluble corrosion products remained in a reduced state at the coupon surface, indicating at least a localized anoxic condition; soluble reduced Mn and Fe were also detected in solution, while precipitated and spalled products were oxidized. Alloy 22 surfaces showed a layer of chrome oxide, almost certainly in the Cr(III) oxidation state, on microcosm-exposed coupons, while no soluble chrome was detected in solution. The results of these studies will be compared to identical testing on systems containing sterilized rock to generate, and ultimately predict, microbial contributions to waste package corrosion chemistries

  5. Microscopic Characterization of Tensile and Shear Fracturing in Progressive Failure in Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2018-01-01

    Compression-induced tensile and shear fractures were reported to be the two fundamental fracture types in rock fracturing tests. This study investigates such tensile and shear fracturing process in marble specimens containing two different flaw configurations. Observations first reveal that the development of a tensile fracture is distinct from shear fracture with respect to their nucleation, propagation, and eventual formation in macroscale. Second, transgranular cracks and grain-scale spallings become increasingly abundant in shear fractures as loading increases, which is almost not observed in tensile fractures. Third, one or some dominant extensional microcracks are commonly observed in the center of tensile fractures, while such development of microcracks is almost absent in shear fractures. Microcracks are generally of a length comparable to grain size and distribute uniformly within the damage zone of the shear fracture. Fourth, the width of densely damaged zone in the shear fracture is nearly 10 times of that in the tensile fracture. Quantitative measurement on microcrack density suggests that (1) microcrack density in tensile and shear fractures display distinct characteristics with increasing loading, (2) transgranular crack density in the shear fracture decreases logarithmically with the distance away from the shear fracture center, and (3) whatever the fracture type, the anisotropy can only be observed for transgranular cracks with a large density, which partially explains why microcrack anisotropy usually tends to be unobvious until approaching peak stress in specimens undergoing brittle failure. Microcracking characteristics observed in this work likely shed light to some phenomena and conclusions generalized in seismological studies.

  6. Microscopic simulations of shock propagation in condensed media: comparison between real time and frequency domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karo, A.M.; Hardy, J.R.; Mehlman, M.H.

    1985-07-01

    Computer molecular dynamics (CMD) is now recognized as a very powerful technique for examining the microscopic details of a wide variety of chemical and physical phenomena, including the shock-induced fast decomposition processes that characterize the shock-initiation of energetic materials. The purpose of the present paper is to describe some results obtained by new methods of post processing of CMD data. First we present a pictorial history of a canonical system which is bonded with identical potentials and has identical atomic masses. We then present Fourier transforms of the energy components of different units judiciously chosen to show the ''frequency fingerprint'' of the shock impact and passage through specific units of the system, including, e.g., the behavior of spalled fragments. To complement these studies, we also display the behavior of our canonical system when defect (point or line) are present. In these studies we monitor the motion of diatoms above and below a line defect consisting of heavy masses. The Fourier transform techniques provide optimum compromise histories which present neither too much nor too little detail

  7. Summary discussion of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Anderson, D. Richard; Basabilvazo, G.; Jow, Hong-Nian; Marietta, Melvin G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for total radionuclide release from the WIPP to the accessible environment is described. The resultant CCDFs (1) combine releases due to cuttings and cavings, spallings, direct brine release, and long-term transport in flowing groundwater, (2) fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standard 40 CFR 191 for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste, and (3) constitute an important component of the DOE's successful Compliance Certification Application to the EPA for the WIPP. Insights and perspectives gained in the performance assessment (PA) that led to these CCDFs are described, including the importance of (1) an iterative approach to PA, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, (3) a clear conceptual model for the analysis, (4) the separation of stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, (5) quality assurance procedures, (6) early involvement of peer reviewers, regulators, and stake holders, (7) avoidance of conservative assumptions, and (8) adequate documentation

  8. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  9. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  10. Recent papers from DX-1, detonation science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Over the past year members of DX-1 have participated in several conferences where presentations were made and papers prepared for proceedings. There have also been several papers published in or submitted to refereed journals for publication. Rather that attach all these papers to the DX-1 Quarterly Report, we decided to put them in a Los Alamos report that could be distributed to those who get the quarterly, as well as others that have an interest in the work being done in DX-1 both inside and outside the Laboratory. This compilation does not represent all the work reported during the year because some people have chosen not to include their work here. In particular, there were a number of papers relating to deflagration-to-detonation modeling that were not included. However, this group of papers does present a good picture of much of the unclassified work being done in DX-1. Several of the papers include coauthors from other groups or divisions at the Laboratory, providing an indication of the collaborations in which people in DX-1 are involved. Discussed topics of submitted papers include: shock compression of condensed matter, pyrotechnics, shock waves, molecular spectroscopy, sound speed measurements in PBX-9501, chemical dimerization, and micromechanics of spall and damage in tantalum.

  11. Study of particles clouds ejected under shock: the contributions of Photonic Doppler Velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhomme, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    A metal plate subjected to a shock (tin, 10 GPa) undergoes a variety of damages such as spalling or the ejection of a cloud of particles. Two main mechanisms govern the formation of this cloud: the micro-jetting and the melting under shock. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV, a.k.a. LDV or het-V) is a multi-velocity time-resolved diagnostic. Developed from 2000's, the all-fibered conception makes its integration easy into shock experiments. The purpose of the thesis is to describe the contributions of PDV systems for high-velocity (several km/s) particle-cloud characterization, including micro-jetting cloud. This document presents a state of the art of shock generators, diagnostics and (numerical and experimental) studies involved in metallic micro-machined jetting. An extensive study of a PDV system is proposed. It leads to the definition of time-velocity spectrogram, evaluated in units of collected power, and a detection capability limit. Thanks to photon diffusion models, a threshold in the diameter of the measured particle is estimated. A PDV spectrogram simulation program is shown within the framework of particle clouds. Finally, several experimental campaigns are exposed. They emphasize the remarkable capacities of the system; results are compared to simulations. Diameter distributions are inferred using slowing down in air or in other gazes. Some radiometric analyses are also performed. (author) [fr

  12. Physical properties of glasses exposed to Earth-facing and trailing-side environments on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Weeks, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.

    1993-01-01

    The exposure of 108 glass samples and 12 glass-ceramic samples to Earth-orbit environments permitted measurements which establish the effects of each environment. Examination of five glass types and one glass ceramic located on both the Earth-facing side and the trailing edge revealed no reduction in strength within experimental limits. Strength measurements subjected less than 5 percent of the sample surface area to stresses above 90 percent of the glass's failure strength. Seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred on trailing edge samples. One of those impacts occurred in a location which was subjected to 50 percent of the applied stress at failure. Micrometeorite or space debris impacts were not observed on Earth-facing samples. The physical shape and structure of the impact sites were carefully examined using stereographic scanning electron microscopy. These impacts induce a stress concentration at the damaged region which influences mechanical strength. The flaw size produced by such damage was examined to determine the magnitude of strength degradation in micrometeorite or space-debris impacted glasses. Scanning electron microscopy revealed topographical details of impact sites which included central melt zones and glass fiber production. The overall crater structure is similar to much larger impacts of large meteorite on the Moon in that the melt crater is surrounded by shocked regions of material which fracture zones and spall areas. Residual stresses arising from shock compression and cooling of the fused zone cannot currently be included in fracture mechanics analyses based on simple flaw size examination.

  13. Mechanical Property and Oxidation Behavior of ATF cladding developed in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To realize the coating cladding, coating material (Cr-based alloy) as well as coating technology (3D laser coating and arc ion plating combined with vacuum annealing) can be developed to meet the fuel cladding criteria. The coated Zr cladding can be produced after the optimization of coating technologies. The coated cladding sample showed the good oxidation/corrosion and adhesion properties without the spalling and/or severe interaction with the Zr alloy cladding from the various tests. Thus, it is known that the mechanical property and oxidation behavior of coated cladding concept developed in KAERI is reasonable for applying the ATF cladding in LWRs. At the present time various ATF concepts have been proposed and developing in many countries. The ATF concepts with potentially improved accident performance can be summarized to the coating cladding, Mo-Zr cladding, FeCrAl cladding, and SiCf/SiC cladding. Regarding the cladding performance, ATF cladding concepts will be evaluated with respect to the accident scenarios and normal operations of LWRs as well as to the fuel cladding fabrication.

  14. High temperature corrosion of nickel alloys by molten calcium chloride in an oxidising environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Roger; Gittos, Mike

    2012-09-01

    A series of nickel alloys was submerged in molten calcium chloride (a molten salt proposed for and used in the nuclear industry for a variety of applications), at 850 deg. C for 72 hours under an oxidising environment. The samples were analysed in detail, in order to determine their corrosion behaviour and suitability for use under these conditions. 310 stainless steel was used as a reference material. Extensive corrosion occurred and the observed attack on the metal substrates was general and massive with corrosion rates ranging from 1.17 mm/year, for Haynes 214, to 13.3 mm/year, for 310 stainless steel. All materials showed selective leaching of chromium from the samples but the oxide layer formed was not protective, spalling away easily. The severity of the attack was not immediately visible from the corrosion rate alone: samples showed a friable scale on the surface and deep penetration of the attack beneath, up to 0.63 mm for 310 stainless steel. In some cases, the attack was clearly intergranular with chromium being depleted along the grain boundaries, whereas in others, the attack was more general. No simple correlation between alloying elements and corrosion rate was apparent, with additions of aluminium and silicon appearing to have little or no protective effect. Alloys 600 and Haynes HR-160 showed promise, with relatively low corrosion rates and penetration depths. (authors)

  15. The Finite Strain Johnson Cook Plasticity and Damage Constitutive Model in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Jason James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A finite strain formulation of the Johnson Cook plasticity and damage model and it's numerical implementation into the ALEGRA code is presented. The goal of this work is to improve the predictive material failure capability of the Johnson Cook model. The new implementation consists of a coupling of damage and the stored elastic energy as well as the minimum failure strain criteria for spall included in the original model development. This effort establishes the necessary foundation for a thermodynamically consistent and complete continuum solid material model, for which all intensive properties derive from a common energy. The motivation for developing such a model is to improve upon ALEGRA's present combined model framework. Several applications of the new Johnson Cook implementation are presented. Deformation driven loading paths demonstrate the basic features of the new model formulation. Use of the model produces good comparisons with experimental Taylor impact data. Localized deformation leading to fragmentation is produced for expanding ring and exploding cylinder applications.

  16. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  17. Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.

    1981-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release

  18. Numerical simulation of head top coal's stability control of fully mechanized longwall mining with sublevel caving face in large dip seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Wan, Z.; Jiang, F.; Jia, P. [Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    Stability control of the head face's top-coal is one of the key techniques of realising high production and high efficiency in coal mining in fully mechanized top-coal caving face. The characteristics of the stress in the overlying strata of the fully mechanized top-coal caving face and the top coal were analysed using FLAC{sup 3D}. The results show that the tip-to-face top-coal generates a large deformation while it is in the stress-relaxed area. The top-coal in the front of the wall appears to be the failure area for the effect of the abutment pressure that spreads over the coal seam. The surrounding rock of the upper face end is the key part strengthened the control of the rib spalling. The first and frequent appearing phenomenon of losing stability of the powered supports is that the back base of the hydraulic power supports in the top of the face slips. Increasing the quality of support and so on can maintain the stability of surrounding rock. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Structural strength deterioration of coastal bridge piers considering non-uniform corrosion in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anxin; Yuan, Wenting; Li, Haitao; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    In the aggressive marine environment over a long-term service period, coastal bridges inevitably sustain corrosion-induced damage due to high sea salt and humidity. This paper investigates the strength reduction of coastal bridges, especially focusing on the effects of non-uniform corrosion along the height of bridge piers. First, the corrosion initiation time and the degradation of reinforcement and concrete are analyzed for bridge piers in marine environments. To investigate the various damage modes of the concrete cover, a discretization method with fiber cells is used for calculating time-dependent interaction diagrams of cross-sections of the bridge piers at the atmospheric zone and the splash and tidal zone under a combination of axial force and bending moment. Second, the shear strength of these aging structures is analyzed. Numerical simulation indicates that the strength of a concrete pier experiences dramatic reduction from corrosion initiation to the spalling of the concrete cover. Strength loss in the splash and tidal zone is more significant than in the atmospheric zone when structures' service time is assumed to be the same.

  20. Evaluation on effects of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of RC beams with cracking damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Otsuka, Taku

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of aging reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the applicability of the material degradation model that takes reinforcing steel corrosion into consideration for finite element analysis. We conducted the corrosion tests under the simulated tidal environment and the flexural loading tests for the RC beams with cracking damage and initial defects. Then, the experimental results were numerically correlated to validate the devised modeling. The obtained results were summarized as follows: (a) The cracking damage in specimens caused a minor effect on the reinforcing steel corrosion in the case where the thickness of cover concrete was 40 mm and main rebars did not yield before chloride attack. On the other hand the maximum corrosion ratio of the deteriorated part became considerably larger than that of the non-cracking part in the specimens where the cover concrete were removed partially to simulate spalling by the severe corrosion. (b) Based on the test results, we derived the corrosion velocity of reinforcing steel corresponding to cracking damage degrees. (c) In FEM analyses, we showed that the above modeling can estimate the flexural strength of RC beams in consideration of the degradation in elongation performance of reinforcing steel due to corrosion. (author)

  1. Experimental Study On Flexural Behaviour Of Beams Reinforced With GFRP Rebars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, G.; Sundaravadivelu, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    In saline, moisture and cold conditions corrosion of steel is inevitable and the lot of economy is used for rehabilitation works. Corrosion of steel is nothing but oxidation of iron in moisture conditions and this corrosion leads to the spalling of concrete which intern reduces the strength of the structure. To reduce this corrosion effects, new materials with resistance against corrosion have to be introduced. Many experiments are going on using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as alternate material for steel due to its non-corrosive nature, weight of GFRP is nearly one third of steel and ultimate tensile strength is higher than steel. In this paper, six beams are casted in which three beams are casted with steel as main and shear reinforcement and another three beams are casted with GFRP as main reinforcement with steel as shear reinforcing material. All beams casted are of same dimensions with variation in reinforcement percentage. The size of the beams casted is of length 1200 mm, breadth 100 mm and depth 200 mm. The clear cover of 25 mm is provided on top and bottom of the beam. Beams are tested under two-point loading with constant aspect ratio (a/d) and comparing the flexural strength, load deflection curves and types of failures of beams reinforced with GFRP as main reinforcement and beams reinforced with conventional steel. The final experimental results are compared with numerical results. M30 grade concrete with Conplast as a superplasticizer is used for casting beams.

  2. Effect of sulfur removal on Al2O3 scale adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-03-01

    If the role of reactive element dopants in producing A12O3 scale adhesion on NiCrAl alloys is to getter sulfur and prevent interfacial segregation, then eliminating sulfur from undoped alloys should also produce adherence. Four experiments successfully produced scale adhesion by sulfur removal alone. (1) Repeated oxidation and polishing of a pure NiCrAl alloy lowered the sulfur content from 10 to 2 parts per million by weight (ppmw), presumably by removing the segregated interfacial layer after each cycle. Total scale spallation changed to total retention after 13 such cycles, with no changes in the scale or interfacial morphology. (2) Thinner samples became adherent after fewer oxidation polishing cycles because of a more limited supply of sulfur. (3) Spalling in subsequent cyclic oxidation tests of samples from experiment (1) was a direct function of the initial sulfur content. (4) Desulfurization to 0.1 ppmw levels was accomplished by annealing melt-spun foil in 1 arm H2. These foils produced oxidation weight change curves for 500 1-hour cycles at 1100 °C similar to those for Y- or Zr-doped NiCrAl. The transition between adherent and nonadherent behavior was modeled in terms of sulfur flux, sulfur content, and sulfur segregation.

  3. Slurry Erosion Performance of Ni-Al2O3 Based Thermal-Sprayed Coatings: Effect of Angle of Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.; Shollock, B. A.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, slurry erosion performance of high velocity flame-sprayed Ni-Al2O3 based coatings was evaluated. The coatings were deposited on a hydroturbine steel (CA6NM) by varying the content of Al2O3 in Ni. Using jet-type test rig, erosion behavior of coatings and bare steel was evaluated at different impingement angles. Detailed investigation of the surface morphology of the eroded specimens was undertaken using SEM/EDS to identify potential erosion mechanism. A parameter named "erosion mechanism identifier" (ξ) was used to predict the mode of erosion. It was observed that the coating prepared using 40 wt.% of Al2O3 showed a highest resistance to erosion. This coating enhanced the erosion resistance of the steel by 2 to 4 times. Spalling in the form of splats and chunks of material (formed by interlinking of cracks) along with fracture of Al2O3 splats were identified as primary mechanisms responsible for the loss of coating material. The erosion mechanism of coatings and bare steel predicted by ξ was in good agreement with that observed experimentally. Among different parameters,, a function of fracture toughness ( K IC) and hardness ( H) showed excellent correlation with erosion resistance of coatings at both the impingement angles.

  4. Deformation of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 in sub-microsecond shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. N.; Kozelkov, O. E.; Mayorova, A. S.; Malyugina, A. S.; Mokrushin, S. S.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Strength characteristics of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 were measured under shock - wave loading conditions at normal and elevated temperatures and results of these measurements are presented. Measurements were taken in conditions when samples were impacted by plane shock waves with the pressure up to 13 GPa and duration from ˜0.05 μs up to 1 μs. Free-surface velocity profiles were recorded with the help of VISAR and PDV laser Doppler velocimeters having nanosecond time resolution. Evolution of elastic precursors with samples thickness varying from 0.5 up to 8 mm is also considered. Measured attenuation of the elastic precursor was used to determine plastic strain rate behind the precursor front. Temperature effect on the value of dynamic elastic limit and spall strength at normal and elevated temperatures is studied. This work is implemented with the support of the State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" under State Contract H.4x.44.90.13.1111.

  5. Deformation of zirconium – niobium alloy E635 in sub-microsecond shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength characteristics of zirconium - niobium alloy E635 were measured under shock - wave loading conditions at normal and elevated temperatures and results of these measurements are presented. Measurements were taken in conditions when samples were impacted by plane shock waves with the pressure up to 13 GPa and duration from ∼0.05 μs up to 1 μs. Free-surface velocity profiles were recorded with the help of VISAR and PDV laser Doppler velocimeters having nanosecond time resolution. Evolution of elastic precursors with samples thickness varying from 0.5 up to 8 mm is also considered. Measured attenuation of the elastic precursor was used to determine plastic strain rate behind the precursor front. Temperature effect on the value of dynamic elastic limit and spall strength at normal and elevated temperatures is studied. This work is implemented with the support of the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” under State Contract H.4x.44.90.13.1111.

  6. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray III G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For additive manufacturing (AM, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no “ASTM-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  7. Estimations of impact strength on reinforced concrete structures by the discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, H.; Kusano, N.; Koshika, N.; Aoyagi, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Sawamoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    There has been a rising interest in the response of reinforced concrete structures to impact loading, from the point of view in particular of disaster prevention at nuclear power facilities, and there is an urgent requirement for establishment of design methods against such type of loads. Structural damage on reinforced concrete structures under impact load includes local damage and global damage. The behavior of local damage, such as penetration into the structures, rear face scabbing, perforation, or spalling, has been difficult to estimate by numerical analysis, but over recent years research has advantaged and various analytical methods have been tried. The authors proposed a new approach for assessing local damage characteristics by applying the discrete element method (DEM), and verified that the behavior of a concrete slab suffering local damage may be qualitatively expressed. This was followed by the discussion of the quantitative evaluation of various constants used in the DEM analysis in reference. The authors apply the DEM to the simulation analysis of impact tests on reinforced concrete panels and analytical investigations are made on the local damage characteristics and response values that are difficult to assess through tests, in an attempt to evaluate the mechanism of local damage according to the hardness of the missiles

  8. IMPULSE Highlights for recent experiments at the Advanced Photon Source (2/9-2/18 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-18

    This report is a presentation, with slides noting, Over 40 experiments were completed during this run using X-ray imaging on the IMPULSE system at Sector 32 IDB; Summary of new experiments: Idealized sphere compaction – Capture progression of dynamic densification through an idealized system on 0.500 mm borosilicate glass spheres (Slide 1); Detonator and EBW Imaging Experiments on IMPULSE – First time HE was intentionally detonated at APS (Slide 2); Spall and high strain rate crack nucleation/propagation in PMMA – PCI data is providing new and unique insights for model validation (Slide 3); Fiber composite for armor applications was studied under ballistic impact of Dyneema (Collaboration with Army Research Laboratory) (Slide 4). Summary of on-going experiments; Crack propagation in vitreous carbon – observed crack motion and caustic; Jet formation experiments on large grain cerium to examine phase dependent strength; Ballistic impact of Comp-B and TNT to examine thermo-mechanical response in-situ with various penetrator geometries to vary shear concentration. Other efforts: IMPULSE system moved and installed in Sector 35 (DCS). This includes the 4-frame X-ray detection system, 4- channel PDV, and other gun diagnostics; New remotely operated mobile IMPULSE structure in fabrication – to be delivered to APS in April; 4 Mini-VISAR Systems and 4-channel PDV installed in DCS instrumentation room with all associated diagnostics.

  9. Extremely flexible nanoscale ultrathin body silicon integrated circuits on plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrjerdi, Davood; Bedell, Stephen W

    2013-01-09

    In recent years, flexible devices based on nanoscale materials and structures have begun to emerge, exploiting semiconductor nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. This is primarily to circumvent the existing shortcomings of the conventional flexible electronics based on organic and amorphous semiconductors. The aim of this new class of flexible nanoelectronics is to attain high-performance devices with increased packing density. However, highly integrated flexible circuits with nanoscale transistors have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we show nanoscale flexible circuits on 60 Å thick silicon, including functional ring oscillators and memory cells. The 100-stage ring oscillators exhibit the stage delay of ~16 ps at a power supply voltage of 0.9 V, the best reported for any flexible circuits to date. The mechanical flexibility is achieved by employing the controlled spalling technology, enabling the large-area transfer of the ultrathin body silicon devices to a plastic substrate at room temperature. These results provide a simple and cost-effective pathway to enable ultralight flexible nanoelectronics with unprecedented level of system complexity based on mainstream silicon technology.

  10. Method of hydrospalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudenhoven, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed of breaking rock from a free surface which uses hydrofracturing to induce rock failure. Initially, a hole is cut in the rock face to a depth suitable for spalling by a high pressure water jet drill. Next, at the bottom of this hole a thin circular slot is hydraulically cut into the rock. The slot's circular axis is cut parallel to the transverse axis of the hole and the slot is made larger than the hole diameter. Following this step, a high pressure packer, with a high pressure tube passing through its center, is inserted into the drill hole. This packer is placed near the bottom of the hole above the slot and inflated. A fluid, like water, under high pressure is pumped down the hole past the packer into the slotted area. This high pressure fluid initiates a tensile fracture in the rock at the circular periphery of the slot. Tension is induced in the rock at this peripheral location due to the small radius of curvature existing there. This circular tensile fracture propagates outward away from the drill hole and upward to the free rock surface. After the rock fragment is broken free, pressure is released from the packer and it is withdrawn from the hole letting the fragment drop. To advance through the rock, the process is continuously repeated with the high pressure fluid being applied to the slotted area over a very short time period

  11. The effect of aerobic corrosion on anaerobically-formed sulfide layers on carbon steel in dilute near-neutral pH saline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, B.W.A.; Keech, P.G.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The corrosion rate is low when steel is exposed to anaerobic conditions (pH = 8.9). •An anaerobic corrosion with sulfide to aerobic switch increases the corrosion rate. •Aerobic conditions leads to corrosion and oxide deposition beneath FeS. •Continual air exposure leads to the blistering of the original FeS film. -- Abstract: The aerobic corrosion of pipeline steel was investigated in an aqueous sulfide solution by monitoring the corrosion potential and periodically measuring the polarization resistance. The properties and composition of the corrosion product deposits formed were determined using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The establishment of aerobic conditions leads to corrosion and (oxyhydr)oxide deposition beneath the anaerobically-formed mackinawite film originally present on the steel surface. This leads to blistering and spalling of the sulfide film. Chemical conversion of the mackinawite to Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides also occurs but is a relatively slow reaction

  12. An investigation of Crater Diameter on Plain Slab Foamed Concrete Rice Husk Ash (FCRHA Exposed to Low Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadipramana Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable material building and construction, the foamed concrete (FC in this investigation was modified by adding the Rice Husk Ash (RHA as sand replacement to increase its strength. Furthermore, this modification material (is called FCRHA treated on impact loading. This investigation was motivated when the plain slab of FCRHA subjected to small impactor, then the nose impactor over all would penetrate into slab target due to porosity of FCRHA. The experimental produced plain slabs FCRHA and FC (as a control with 1400 kg/m3 and 1600 Kg/m3 of densities. In impact test all plain slabs exposed by 40 mm steel blunt nose impactor with various impact velocities. The result showed the crater which produced by impact loading was not found spalling, scabbing, radial crack and widely cratering. This local damage occurred when porosity of FCRHA took over the impact loading. The nose impactor over all considered have been successful penetrated into slab of FCRHA and FC. Therefore, the diameter of crater equals to diameter of impactor. With this certainty, the prediction penetration depth on plain slab FCRHA (also FC can be determined in future investigation. In addition, the penetration of impactor on FCRHA with low impact velocity give the same impression on penetration impactor with high impact velocity on FC.

  13. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of shock wave and spallation phenomena in metal foils irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Demaske, Brian; Inogamov, Nail; Oleynik, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Femtosecond laser irradiation of metals is an effective technique to create a high-pressure frontal layer of 100-200 nm thickness. The associated ablation and spallation phenomena can be studied in the laser pump-probe experiments. We present results of a large-scale MD simulation of ablation and spallation dynamics developing in 1,2,3μm thick Al and Au foils irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. Atomic-scale mechanisms of laser energy deposition, transition from pressure wave to shock, reflection of the shock from the rear-side of the foil, and the nucleation of cracks in the reflected tensile wave, having a very high strain rate, were all studied. To achieve a realistic description of the complex phenomena induced by strong compression and rarefaction waves, we developed new embedded atom potentials for Al and Au based on cold pressure curves. MD simulations revealed the complex interplay between spallation and ablation processes: dynamics of spallation depends on the pressure profile formed in the ablated zone at the early stage of laser energy absorption. It is shown that the essential information such as material properties at high strain rate and spall strength can be extracted from the simulated rear-side surface velocity as a function of time.

  15. Power-Cooling-Mismatch Test Series. Test PCM-2: postirradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, S.L.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the postirradiation examination of four 0.91-m long pressurized water reactor (PWR) type, UO 2 -fueled zircaloy-clad fuel rods tested in an in-pile experimental investigation of pre- and post-departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) behavior of previously unirradiated fuel rods. None of the four fuel rods tested failed during testing or during reactor shut down. Visual and metallographic examination of the individual fuel rods indicated that the length of the high temperature zone of film boiling varied from rod to rod. Two of the four fuel rods showed evidence of damage by film boiling, characterized by oxide spalling and cladding collapse. Metallographic examination of these fuel rods showed internal cladding oxidation resulting from fuel-cladding reaction. Cladding embrittlement by oxidation is evaluated. A comparison of the cladding surface temperatures estimated metallographically for the separate fuel rods with cladding surface temperatures measured during testing and calculated from the Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient (FRAP-T) computer code is included

  16. Propagation of shock waves in elastic solids caused by cavitation microjet impact. II: Application in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Chuong, C J; Preminger, G M

    1993-07-01

    To better understand the mechanism of stone fragmentation during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the model developed in Part I [P. Zhong and C.J. Chuong, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 19-28 (1993)] is applied to study cavitation microjet impingement and its resultant shock wave propagation in renal calculi. Impact pressure at the stone boundary and stress, strain at the propagating shock fronts in the stone were calculated for typical ESWL loading conditions. At the anterior surface of the stone, the jet induced compressive stress can vary from 0.82 approximately 4 times that of the water hammer pressure depending on the contact angles; whereas the jet-induced shear stress can achieve its maximum, with a magnitude of 30% approximately 54% of the water hammer pressure, near the detachment of the longitudinal (or P) wave in the solid. Comparison of model predictions with material failure strengths of renal calculi suggests that jet impact can lead to stone surface erosion by combined compressive and shear loadings at the jet impacting surface, and spalling failure by tensile forces at the distal surface of the stone. Comparing responses from four different stone types suggests that cystine is the most difficult stone to fragment in ESWL, as observed from clinical experience.

  17. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  18. Obtention of the constitutive equation of hydride blisters in fuel cladding from nanoindentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Rengel, M.A., E-mail: mamartin.rengel@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, c/ Profesor Aranguren, 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, F.J., E-mail: javier.gomez@amsimulation.com [Advanced Material Simulation, AMS, Bilbao (Spain); Rico, A., E-mail: alvaro.rico@urjc.es [DIMME, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J. [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, c/ Profesor Aranguren, 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J. [DIMME, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    It is well known that the presence of hydrides in nuclear fuel cladding may reduce its mechanical and fracture properties. This situation may be worsened as a consequence of the formation of hydride blisters. These blisters are zones with an extremely high hydrogen concentration and they are usually associated to the oxide spalling which may occur at the outer surface of the cladding. In this work, a method which allows us to reproduce, in a reliable way, hydride blisters in the laboratory has been devised. Depth-sensing indentation tests with a spherical indenter were conducted on a hydride blister produced in the laboratory with the aim of measuring its mechanical behaviour. The plastic stress-strain curve of the hydride blister was calculated for first time by combining depth-sensing indentation tests results with an iterative algorithm using finite element simulations. The algorithm employed reduces, in each iteration, the differences between the numerical and the experimental results by modifying the stress-strain curve. In this way, an almost perfect adjustment of the experimental data was achieved after several iterations. The calculation of the constitutive equation of the blister from nanoindentation tests, may involve a lack of uniqueness. To evaluate it, a method based on the optimization of parameters of analytical equations has been proposed in this paper. An estimation of the error which involves this method is also provided.

  19. Corrosion of ferrous alloys exposed to thermally convective Pb-17 at. % Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A type 316 stainless steel thermal convection loop with type 316 stainless steel coupons and a Fe-9 Cr-1 Mo steel loop containing Fe-12 Cr-1 MoVW steel specimens circulated molten Pb-17 at. % Li at a maximum temperature of 500 0 C. Specimens were exposed for greater than 6000 h. Mass loss and surface characterization data were compared for these two alloys. At any particular exposure time, the corrosion of type 316 stainless steel by Pb-17 at. % Li was more severe, and of a different type than that of similarly exposed Fe-12 Cr-1 MoVW steel. The austenitic alloy suffered nonuniform penetration and dissolution by the lead-lithium, whereas the Fe-12 Cr-1 MoVW steel tended to be more uniformly corroded. The presence of a ferritic layer on the type 316 stainless steel, and its susceptibility to spalling during specimen cleaning, were shown to be important in evaluating the data and in comparing corrosion losses for the type types of alloys. A model for the nonuniform penetration of type 316 stainless steel by Pb-17 at. % Li was suggested

  20. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Dominique

    1991-01-01

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s -1 ) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 10 4 s -1 ). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.10 6 s -1 , then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author) [fr