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  1. Informe sobre análisis y evolución del fenómeno de las redes sociales en España (Report about Analysis and Evolution of the Phenomenon of Social Networks in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa María Romero-Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo establece un informe sobre el estado actual de las redes sociales en España. La importancia que en el momento actual tienen tales herramientas para la comunicación y el intercambio de eventos es totalmente indiscutible. Importancia también la tiene para la comunidad académica en su vertiente tanto científica como tecnológica. Se presentan los aspectos más significativos de las redes sociales de mayor relevancia y en sendas tablas se contrastan entre sí. También se revisan ejemplos de nuevas redes que comienzan a abrirse paso en la actualidad. Después se estudia la repercusión que sobre la economía y la empresa puedan tener las redes sociales y los tipos de vinculación que los usuarios tienen con ellas. Para terminar se tratan los efectos secundarios que puede tener el uso de estos medios.Abstract: This work presents a report about current of the Social Networks in Spain. These tools are very important to the communication and the interchange of events. The academic community is interested in the scientific and technological side too. The most relevant networks are presented. Rising new networks are studied too. Then we analyze the control that the Social Networks have on the economy and business and the links of the users. Finally we present side effects of the use of these tools.

  2. Informe preliminar sobre paludrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Peñuela Rozo

    1948-05-01

    Full Text Available En el año de 1945, Curd Davey y Rose eligieron la pirimidina como substancia de experimentación debido a que esta substancia se encuentra en las nucleo-proteinas y por su presencia en algunas sulfadrogas especial mente la sulfadiazina, de conocidas propiedades anti-palúdicas. Ensayaron la pirimidina y derivados en infestaciones por plasmodium gallinaceum en gallinas; y comprobaron que estas substancias tenían realmente acción antipalúdica. Pero al trasladar sus experiencias al hombre, encontraron que la pirimidina y sus derivados eran demasiado tóxicos. Pensando, entonces, en la similitud química del grupo de la pirimida y de la guanidina, incluyeron este último grupo en los compuestos para ensayar, descubriendo que la inclusión de la guanidina aumentaba grandemente la acción de las substancias en experiencia. Se obtuvo de esta manera un producto denominado en el numero 4-888, o paludrina, cuya fórmula o nombre químico es N. P. clorofenil N5 isopropildiguanidina, droga que se encontró muy activa contra las formas sanguíneas del Plasmodium Gallinaceum y que también se hallo activa contra las formas exoeritrocíticas del parásito. Esta capacidad de obrar sobre la fase exoeritrocítica es prácticamente exclusiva de esta substancia. Hasta hace poco tiempo esta fase exoeritrocítica, había sido demostrada solamente en trabajos de experimentación en las  aves; pero en la actualidad ha quedado también demostrada en la enfermedad humana, por experiencias del Filipino Nolasco and África, quien logro demostrar el plasmodium Vivax en el tejido retículo endotelial del pulmón de enfermos de paludismo, aunque ya Brug, en el año de 1940 había hecho comunicaciones en el mismo sentido. Se comprende la grande importancia de la paludrina, en el tratamiento del paludismo; si se considera que las recidivas de la enfermedad son debidas a la existencia de esta fase xeoeritrocítica.

  3. Report on the actual situation in Spain [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores]; Informe sobre la situacion actual en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josa, J M [Direccion de Plantas Piloto e Industriales, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-06-15

    According to the Spanish program of nuclear reactors uranium requirements are estimated from 1400 to 1600 t until 1970 and between 11 000 and 14 000 t until 1980. Prospecting current account with reserves of 11 000 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} with costs between 5 and 10$/lb U{sub 3}0{sub 8}, 40 000 t with costs from 10 to 15$/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and about 250 000 t with some potential costs between 15 and 30$/lb U{sub 3}0{sub 8}. The reserves for next development (with grades 0, 1-0, 2% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) are formed by deposits in granitic rocks (40%) and the rest in metamorphic rocks (shales), located in western Spain. The longer term reserves are made up of lignite and sedimentary formations (Miocene central strata, sediments from eastern Spain and Quartzites from Sierra Morena).

  4. Report on the Present Situation of the Environmental Legislation in Europe and Spain; Informe sobre la Situacion Actual de la Legislacion Ambiental en Europa y Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadoniga, M

    2006-07-01

    The normative system directed to the conservation and protection of the environment, guaranteeing a sustainable use of the natural resources and controlling the contamination, has a relatively recent origin, in the middle of the XXth century, but it has experienced a very fast growth due to the awareness on the part of the citizens and the administrations, of the damage that the human being causes to the environment and the serious consequences that this implies and that are being seen more and more often. The international standards are mainly based on Agreements and Programs without no legal entailment. The legislative frame of the European Union is based on the Programs of Communitarian Action, the last one published is the VI Program. The regulation of the different sectors is performed through Directives, that constitute the base for each group of sectorial norms. Spain, as member state of the European Union, must incorporate and transpose the communitarian norms that are promulgated. The environmental sectors and matters in which it is legislated are very varied, which implyis the existence of a profuse sectorial legislation, difficult to handle and apply. Therefore, the correct application and fulfillment of this norms constitute one of the greatest challenges for the industries and companies. (Author)

  5. Information transfer in the agricultural sector in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Canavate, Antonio; Hipola, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the structures of information transfer to the agricultural (production) and agro-alimentary (transformation and commercialization of the products) sector within Spain. A historical perspective is provided to better illustrate the reality and complexity of Spain with regard to the systems of agrarian extension, agricultural research, resources provided by Spain’s central administration, and the use of information by related enterprises. The Service of Agrarian Extens...

  6. Spain: Marine sciences information activity report for 1999/2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    This 99/00 marine sciences-relevant activities report is a portrait of research information available within Spain. From the least available electronic information on such subjects as vaccines to a flood of information on thematics like Spanish Antartic research.

  7. Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cañavate, Antonio; Larios-Suárez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and current situation of postgraduate studies in Librarianship and Information Science (LIS) at the university level in Spain before and after the development of the Bologna Process's European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It contextualizes the historical development of these studies, describing how official…

  8. Information systems outsourcing: a Delphi study from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramírez, María Reyes; Gascó Gascó, José Luis; Llopis Taverner, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The widespread growth of information systems (IS) outsourcing on an international scale contrasts sharply with the somewhat limited development of this practice in Spain. The purpose of this paper is to deal with the situation of IS outsourcing in this country. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, the paper has used the opinions and comments of those in charge of IS departments at the largest Spanish firms through a normative Delphi study. Findings – Outsourcing makes it ...

  9. [Readability of surgical informed consent in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Norberto, Enrique María; Gómez-Alonso, Daniel; Trigueros, José M; Quiroga, Jorge; Gualis, Javier; Vaquero, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    To assess the readability of informed consent documents (IC) of the different national surgical societies. During January 2012 we collected 504 IC protocols of different specialties. To calculate readability parameters the following criteria were assessed: number of words, syllables and phrases, syllables/word and word/phrase averages, Word correlation index, Flesch-Szigriszt index, Huerta Fernández index, Inflesz scale degree and the Gunning-Fog index. The mean Flesch-Szigriszt index was 50.65 ± 6,72, so readability is considered normal. There are significant differences between specialties such as Urology (43.00 ± 4.17) and Angiology and Vascular Surgery (63.00 ± 3.26, P<.001). No IC would be appropriate for adult readability according to the Fernández-Huerta index (total mean 55.77 ± 6.57); the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery were the closest ones (67.85 ± 3.20). Considering the Inflesz scale degree (total mean of 2.84 ± 3,23), IC can be described as «somewhat difficult». There are significant differences between the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery (3.23 ± 0.47) that could be qualified as normal, or Cardiovascular Surgery (2.79 ± 0.43) as «nearly normal readability»; and others such as Urology (1, 70 ± 0.46, P<.001) and Thoracic Surgery (1.90 ± 0.30, P<.001), with a readability between «very» and «somewhat» difficult. The Gunning-Fog indexes are far from the readability for a general audience (total mean of 26.29 ± 10,89). IC developed by scientific societies of different surgical specialties do not have an adequate readability for patients. We recommend the use of readability indexes during the writing of these consent forms. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  11. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  12. Risk informed in-service inspection and testing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Juan; Marcelles, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish nuclear regulatory authority, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), requires the use of codes and standards in force in the country of origin of the plant technology. For this reason, the in-service inspection and testing programs applied at Spanish nuclear power plants basically adhere to the requirements of the ASME XI and ASME OM Codes. It is not surprising that when the earliest developments aimed at drawing up risk informed inservice inspection and testing programs were initiated within the framework of ASME, the Spanish industry should follows such developments very closely. In fact, persons within the Spanish nuclear industry joined different ASME committees involved in the development and approval of the various code cases encompassing these developments. Developments specific to the Spanish nuclear power plants were initiated at a time when the aforementioned reference documentation was in a very advanced stage of development/approval. Two clearly differentiated lines of work got under way: On the one hand, and as regards risk informed in-service testing programs, the American standards were used as the sole reference. In the case of risk informed in-service inspection programs, the Spanish nuclear power plant-owning utilities and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear decided to draw up a Spanish guideline that, although using the ASME developments as a reference, would have its own specific characteristics. In relation to the above, and referring to the chronology of the events, the activities performed to date in Spain are described

  13. (I) Informe sobre conflicto violento en colombia (2011–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Las negociaciones de paz entre el gobierno nacional y las FARC avanzan de modo considerable. Al momento del cierre del presente informe –julio de 2014–, se construyó un acuerdo sobre los tres primeros puntos de la agenda –la reforma agraria, la participación política y las drogas ilícitas–. Sin duda la negociación progresa, los puntos sobre los que se trazó un acuerdo tocan dimensiones neurálgicas de la vida colectiva: el agro y su atraso histórico, la democracia y sus cierres, el narcotráfic...

  14. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  15. El informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud.

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne G. Krug; James A. Mercy; Linda L. Dahlberg; Anthony B. Zwi

    2002-01-01

    En 1966, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la violencia como uno de los principales problemas de salud pública. Para dar seguimiento a dicha resolución, el 3 de octubre de este año, la OMS publicó el primer Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud, el cual analiza los diferentes tipos de violencia, incluidos el maltrato y abandono de menores, la violencia entre los jóvenes, la violencia contra la pareja, la violencia sexual, el maltrato a ancianos, la violencia autoinfligida y ...

  16. El informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne G. Krug

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1966, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la violencia como uno de los principales problemas de salud pública. Para dar seguimiento a dicha resolución, el 3 de octubre de este año, la OMS publicó el primer Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud, el cual analiza los diferentes tipos de violencia, incluidos el maltrato y abandono de menores, la violencia entre los jóvenes, la violencia contra la pareja, la violencia sexual, el maltrato a ancianos, la violencia autoinfligida y la violencia colectiva. Para todos estos tipos de violencia, el informe explora la magnitud de sus efectos en la salud y en la sociedad, los factores de riesgo y protección y los esfuerzos de prevención que se han desplegado. El lanzamiento del informe dará inicio a una Campaña Global de Prevención de la Violencia que durante un año se centrará en la aplicación de sus recomendaciones. Este artículo resume algunos de los puntos más importantes del informe mundial.

  17. Informational Literacy and Information and Communication Technologies Use by Secondary Education Students in Spain: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Ma. José Rodríguez; Migueláñez, Susana Olmos; Molina, María Pinto; Abad, Fernando Martínez; Riaza, Blanca García

    2011-01-01

    Informational literacy and the use of technologies by Secondary Education students in Spain: A descriptive study. The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), together with their application to research carried out on educational areas, are factors which contribute to the promotion of a new educative model constructed on…

  18. Who cares? A comparison of informal and formal care provision in Spain, England and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Auró, Aïda; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the prevalence of incapacity in performing daily activities and the associations between household composition and availability of family members and receipt of care among older adults with functioning problems in Spain, England and the United States of America (USA). We examine how living arrangements, marital status, child availability, limitations in functioning ability, age and gender affect the probability of receiving formal care and informal care from household members and from others in three countries with different family structures, living arrangements and policies supporting care of the incapacitated. Data sources include the 2006 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for Spain, the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2006), and the eighth wave of the USA Health and Retirement Study (2006). Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions are used to estimate the probability of receiving care and the sources of care among persons age 50 and older. The percentage of people with functional limitations receiving care is higher in Spain. More care comes from outside the household in the USA and England than in Spain. The use of formal care among the incapacitated is lowest in the USA and highest in Spain.

  19. [What kind of health information search the spinal cord injured patients from Spain on the internet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea-Muñoz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, María; Flórez-García, Mariano

    2015-04-16

    Internet is an alternative for health education to the population. Spinal cord injured individuals usually consult the Internet about their health problems. To identify the health information sources, the more consulted items and the confidence in Internet information of a group of spinal cord injured individuals from Spain. A survey to spinal cord injured individuals from Spain was conducted, with a questionnaire in Google Drive. It was accessible with a link in ASPAYM-Asturias web page. The questionnaire included epidemiological data and information about Internet use and confidence in its contents. 121 individuals answered the survey, 64% male, with an average age of 45 years. The predominant aetiology was traumatic (70%) and 72% were paraplegics. 83% prefer to consult health care providers directly. More of 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. The preferred item was 'orthopaedic materials and wheelchairs'. 27% of the sample trusts in the Internet information and 32% don't. This research provides information about Internet use of spinal cord injured individuals in Spain. Although we have to admit some bias in the study, more than 70% of the sample searches health problems on the Internet, mostly web pages in Spanish. About one in four individuals trust in information from Internet and most of the sample prefers recommendations directly from healthcare professionals.

  20. Prestige oil spill information and assessment Galicia, Spain January 20-22, 2003 : Meeting summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In mid-November 2002, an oil spill occurred off the coast of northwest Spain when the tanker, Prestige, broke apart and sank. The vast majority of the heavy fuel oil it transported was released into the sea along 900 kilometres of Spanish coastline. More than 20,000 people were affected as bans on fish and shellfish harvesting were issued. A delegation from Newfoundland left for Galicia, Spain in December 2002, to learn from the experience in an effort to enhance spill prevention and response for the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline. A brief overview of the Galicia region of Spain was provided, followed by general information concerning the jurisdictional complexity of Galicia. A number of issues and topics were discussed, such as: marine traffic corridors, safe havens; communication with the public; oil recovery operations; compensation; spill prevention; ban on fishing and shellfish harvesting; and, fishing industry's role in response operations. Tours of the areas affected were organized for the delegation. Upon return to Newfoundland, the delegation shared their acquired information and initiated discussions with the federal government concerning intergovernmental issues on oil spill prevention and response

  1. Relationship between patient dependence and direct medical-, social-, indirect-, and informal-care costs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens2 1Department of Economics, University of Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, Spain Objective: The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' dependence on others relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of patient dependence measured by the Dependence Scale on costs for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD in Spain. Methods: The Co-Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease study is an 18 multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients with AD according to the clinical dementia rating score and their caregivers in Spain. This study also gathered data on resource utilization for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. The data of 343 patients and their caregivers were collected through the completion of a clinical report form during one visit/assessment at an outpatient center or hospital, where all instruments were administered. The data collected (in addition to clinical measures also included sociodemographic data concerning the patients and their caregivers. Cost analysis was based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the Resource Utilization in Dementia Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Resource unit costs were applied to value direct medical-, social-, and indirect-care costs. A replacement cost method was used to value informal care. Patient dependence on others was measured using the Dependence Scale, and the Cumulative Index Rating Scale was administered to the patient to assess multi-morbidity. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of dependence and other sociodemographic and clinical variables on cost of care. Results: The mean (standard deviation costs per patient

  2. El impuesto sobre bebidas azucaradas en España = Tax on sugar sweetened beverages in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ortún Rubio, Vicente; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime (Pinilla Domínguez)

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo aporta una revisión crítica acerca de los retos a los que se enfrentan los impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas como instrumento de políticas de salud, para revertir la tendencia epidémica de la obesidad. Se valoran las experiencias de los países más significados, en particular México, y se reflexiona sobre el contrapeso que ejerce la industria a las políticas antiobesidad y el poder de los lobbies. Esas políticas impositivas en pro de la salud pública han de sobreponerse a la...

  3. Informe sobre la violencia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Salama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es por la pobreza, por las enorme desigualdades en materia de ingreso o por sus evoluciones respectivas que la violencia ha alcanzado cifras record en muchos países de América Latina? ¿Es debido a la insuficiente represión, a las escasas tropas de policía, a la gran ineficiencia de la justicia o a su extrema laxitud que se desencadena la violencia? ¿Es a causa de las recientes guerras civiles, de las dictaduras que han dejado profundas huellas en el comportamiento, tanto de las fuerzas del orden como de los ciudadanos, que la violencia se mantiene en un nivel tan elevado? ¿Es porque poblaciones enteras han sido excluidas, y sus culturas y sus identidades ignoradas, que las sociedades se encuentren tan poco cohesionadas y que se desarrolle la violencia? ¿Es debido a la producción y comercialización de las drogas que la violencia es tan elevada?El propósito de este artículo es analizar los factores que inducen a tales tipos de violencia. La reducción de la violencia en el mediano y en el largo plazo requiere un cierto número de prerrequisitos para lograr una sociedad más cohesionada: disminuir sustancialmente las desigualdades socioeconómicas, promover una redistribución más equitativa, desarrollar una educación primaria y profesional de calidad, mejorar la calidad de las instituciones, particularmente y sobre todo, las de justicia y policía, e inventar políticas urbanas. Es en este contexto que se inscriben las “soluciones culturales”, por medio de políticas urbanas pero, sobre todo, y muy particularmente, en cierto número de países, el reconocimiento de los derechos y valores, ignorados durante mucho tiempo, de poblaciones completas. Esta es la dificultad y la magnitud de las tareas, sin la cual una política de represión no sabría ser eficaz.

  4. Comparison between changes in flood hazard and risk in Spain using historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis; Gilabert, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the COST Action ES0901 "European procedures for flood frequency estimation (FloodFreq)" had as objective "the comparison and evaluation of methods for flood frequency estimation under the various climatologic and geographic conditions found in Europe". It was highlighted the improvement of regional analyses on at-site estimates, in terms of the uncertainty of quantile estimates. In the case of Spain, a regional analysis was carried out at a national scale, which allows identifying the flow threshold corresponding to a given return period from the observed flow series recorded at a gauging station. In addition, Mediero et al. (2014) studied the possible influence of non-stationarity on flood series for the period 1942-2009. In parallel, Barnolas and Llasat (2007), among others, collected documentary information of catastrophic flood events in Spain for the last centuries. Traditionally, the first approach ("top-down") usually identifies a flood as catastrophic, when its exceeds the 500-year return period flood. However, the second one ("bottom-up approach") accounts for flood damages (Llasat et al, 2005). This study presents a comparison between both approaches, discussing the potential factors that can lead to discrepancies between them, as well as accounting for information about major changes experienced in the catchment that could lead to changes in flood hazard and risk.

  5. Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-08-01

    The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.

  6. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  7. [Global analysis of the readability of the informed consent forms used in public hospitals of Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Crespo, M I; Coronado-Vázquez, M V; Ramirez-Durán, M V

    To analyse the readability of informed consent forms (ICF) used in Public Hospitals throughout Spain, with the aim of checking their function of providing comprehensive information to people who are making any health decision no matter where they are in Spain. A descriptive study was performed on a total of 11,339 ICF received from all over Spanish territory, of which 1617 ICF were collected from 4 web pages of Health Portal and the rest (9722) were received through email and/or telephone contact from March 2012 to February 2013. The readability level was studied using the Inflesz tool. A total of 372 ICF were selected and analysed using simple random sampling. The Inflesz scale and the Flesch-Szigriszt index were used to analyse the readability. The readability results showed that 62.4% of the ICF were rated as a "little difficult", the 23.4% as "normal", and the 13.4% were rated as "very difficult". The highest readability means using the Flesch index were scored in Andalusia with a mean of 56.99 (95% CI; 55.42-58.57) and Valencia with a mean of 51.93 (95% CI; 48.4-55.52). The lowest readability means were in Galicia with a mean of 40.77 (95% CI; 9.83-71.71) and Melilla, mean=41.82 (95% CI; 35.5-48.14). The readability level of Spanish informed consent forms must be improved because their scores using readability tools could not be classified in normal scales. Furthermore, there was very wide variability among Spanish ICF, which showed a lack of equity in information access among Spanish citizens. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  9. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and…

  10. Informe sobre la Tercera Conferencia Internacional "Crimea 96".

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkinson, Alan

    1996-01-01

    El Distribuidor Nacional de Argentina agradece al Sr. Alan Hopkinson la autorización para la traducción al español de su informe, y a la Revista InfoISIS por realizar dicha traducción y permitir su inclusión en nuestra Home Page.

  11. La ceguera como motivo en Ensayo sobre la ceguera de José Saramago e Informe sobre ciegos de Ernesto Sábato

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación, El motivo de la ceguera en el Ensayo sobre la ceguera de José Saramago e Informe sobre ciegos de Ernesto Sábato, analiza desde el área y la metodología de la literatura comparada el uso del motivo literario de la ceguera en los dos textos mencionados, resaltando las similitudes y diferencias del tratamiento del motivo dentro de las dos obras y como éste sostiene una serie de obsesiones e ideas sobre el estado actual del mundo que comparten los autores de las dos n...

  12. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  13. Assessment of the quality of medication information for patients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Lorenzo, Susana; Pérez-Jover, Virtudes; Navarro, Isabel; Martín de Rosales, Ana María; Lara, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the extent to which Spanish leaflets and drug information on the Net met quality criteria. A descriptive study was conducted comparing readability (REA) and comprehensibility (COM) criteria of a random sample of 77 marketed products of the 12 active ingredients most frequently sold in 2010 in Spain. Leaflets were approved by the Spanish Agency for Medication (AEMPS). Flesch index, DISCERN, ELF, MIDAS and CIRF scales were used to evaluate quality criteria. COM assessment yielded between 63 and 77% of the maximum possible scores on the scales. None of the websites or leaflets met all the quality criteria of the DISCERN, CIRF or MIDAS scales. Four (3%) leaflets met all the 22 quality criteria of ELF. The leaflets showed shortcomings regarding: medication benefits (17 required substantial improvements, 31.5%), correct forms of storage (13, 24.1%), contraindications (12, 22.2%), side effects (11, 20.4%) and precautions to be taken (9, 16.7%). The quality of the information approved by the AEMPS is superior to that which can be found by surfing the Net. More specific information on precautions, complications and how to avoid common patient errors would allow patients the best chance to contribute to their own clinical safety.

  14. Taxes for waste management: Catalonian (Spain); Impuestos para la gestion de residuos : el canon sobre residuos de Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiola, L.

    2002-07-01

    The use of environmental taxes in the waste management is more and more frequent. Nevertheless, many initiative do not arrive at good term due to the difficulties that the process of definition and approval of this type of measures involves. Generally, literature on the subject does not collect valuable information about the insolvent experiences. This work illustrates one of these cases: the project of the Canon Law on waste of Catalonia, presented to the Catalan Parliament in 1997. It is a tribute that imposed the disposition of the remains of certain waste, with the purpose of favoring minimization and valuation. Next the antecedents and the characteristics of this tax, as well as the obstacles that prevented. (Author) 27 refs.

  15. Rappresentazioni e (intraducibilità del delirio: Informe sobre ciegos di Alberto Breccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Nanni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay proposes an analysis of the relationship between text and images in Informe sobre ciegos (1991 by Alberto Breccia. In his obstinate renunciation to unnecessary words, or surplus signs, and by employing graphic devices that convey a "telluric and formless" world, Breccia interprets and illustrates – without making it comprehensible – the self-destructive delirious state of Fernando Vidal, one of the most controversial and fascinating characters in Argentinian literature. In particular, the essay focuses on the conspiracy – at the level of both form and content – and on the graphic (untranslatability of his delirium.

  16. "Más piedad que improperios" : un informe pericial del Dr. Egas Moniz sobre homosexualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A principios del siglo XX, Egas Moniz, insigne neurólogo y Premio Nobel portugués, emitió un informe pericial sobre homosexualidad para un caso de anulación matrimonial que constituye un material de gran valor como ejemplo de aplicación efectiva del conocimiento sexológico disponible en la época. En este mismo periodo la flamante legislación republicana estableció la anulación del matrimonio contemplando causas de carácter médico y se tipificaron penalmente las relaciones entre personas del m...

  17. Más piedad que improperios: un informe pericial del Dr. Egas Moniz sobre homosexualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A principios del siglo XX, Egas Moniz, insigne neurólogo y Premio Nobel portugués, emitió un informe pericial sobre homosexualidad para un caso de anulación matrimonial que constituye un material de gran valor como ejemplo de aplicación efectiva del conocimiento sexológico disponible en la época. En este mismo periodo la flamante legislación republicana estableció la anulación del matrimonio contemplando causas de carácter médico y se tipificaron penalmente las relaciones entre personas del m...

  18. Informe sobre bartonellosis: presentado a la academia nacional de medicina, el 23 de mayo de 1939

    OpenAIRE

    Franco F., Roberto; Almanzar V., Pedro José

    2012-01-01

    La Comision nombrada hace poco más de un mes para estudiar el trabajo preliminar del Académico doctor Patiño Camargo, sobre Bartonellosis en Colombia, aspira con el presente informe, no solo a cumplir Ia determinación del Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, sino a satisfacer el plausible deseo del autor -claramente expresado- de someter a discusión el estudio en referencia. Convencidos estamos de que encuadra en el espíritu de esta Corporación, la discusión serena de tópicos cient...

  19. Economic Assessment of Opportunities for Managed Aquifer Recharge Techniques in Spain Using an Advanced Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Escalante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic aspects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR techniques considered in the DINA-MAR (Depth Investigation of New Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in Spain project. This project firstly identified the areas with potential for MAR for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands of Spain using characteristics derived from 23 GIS layers of physiographic features, spanning geology, topography, land use, water sources and including existing MAR sites. The work involved evaluations for 24 different types (techniques of MAR projects, over this whole area accounting for the physiographic features that favor each technique. The scores for each feature for each type of technique were set based on practical considerations and scores were accumulated for each location. A weighting was assigned to each feature by “training” the integrated score for each technique across all the features with the existing MAR sites overlay, so that opportunities for each technique could be more reliably predicted. It was found that there were opportunities for MAR for 16% of the area evaluated and that the additional storage capacity of aquifers in these areas was more than 2.5 times the total storage capacity of all existing surface water dams in Spain. The second part of this work, which is considered internationally unique, was to use this GIS methodology to evaluate the economics of the various MAR techniques across the region. This involved determining an economic index related to key physiographic features and applying this as an additional GIS overlay. Again this was trained by use of economic information for each of the existing MAR sites for which economic data and supply or storage volume were available. Two simpler methods were also used for comparison. Finally, the mean costs of MAR facilities and construction projects were determined based on the origin of the water. Maps of potential sites for Managed Aquifer

  20. Informe preliminar sobre el estudio farmacológico del "yagé" como agente activo sobre el sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Nuñez Olarte

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available La experimentación farmacológica en Psiquiatría, iniciada en 1930 por Jong y Baruk con sus estudios sobre la catatonia experimental inducida por la aplicación de bulbo capnina en el animal, y extendida más tarde a la observación en seres humanos sanos y enfermos, ha sido objeto, a raíz del advenimiento de las drogas llamadas alucinógenas, de una renovación que se presenta fecunda dentro del dominio de la especialidad psiquiátrica, donde abre la posibilidad de nuevas orientaciones etiopatogénicas y psicopatológicas, dejando entrever la posibilidad de su aplicación con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos.

  1. Postcolonial Perspectives on the Inclusion of Immigrant Students in Galiza, Spain Perspectivas Postcoloniales sobre la Acogida del Alumnado Inmigrante en Galiza, España.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Teasley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study offers a critical exploration of educational policy in Galiza (or Galicia, Spain, in light of the growing cultural diversity of its population and its own socio-cultural history. By situating schools' "welcoming" (acogida, or reception and inclusion, of immigrant students within a broad, transversal terrain of postcolonial and relational (McCarthy, 1993 and 2005 analysis–one that traverses disciplinary perspectives and national and historical contexts–the main intent is to reflect on specific aspects of the official inclusion policy in order to help transform schooling into a more just and integrative cross-cultural institution. A series of ethnographic observations currently underway in educational communities of the four provinces of Galiza will provide some initial impressions of this policy as seen from the necessary perspectives of practice in schools. Some key questions include: What relevance does the postcolonial perspective have for the educational integration of immigrant students in Galiza? Does the mere development of a postcolonial awareness among teachers and students, as well as a relational understanding of today's world, constitute a potentially transformational, even emancipatory, pedagogical and curricular intervention? It is argued that it does, to the extent that it reveals the assimilationist orientation of integration, in the currently predominant approaches to inclusion or welcoming. Este estudio representa una exploración crítica de la política educativa de Galiza (o Galicia, España, ante la creciente diversidad cultural de su población y ante su propia historia sociocultural. Al situar la "acogida" escolar del alumnado de origen inmigrante dentro de un amplio terreno transversal de análisis postcolonial y relacional (McCarthy, 1993 y 2005—uno que atraviesa perspectivas disciplinarias y contextos nacionales e históricos—la intención principal es reflexionar

  2. Informe sobre reptiles colombianos (I: Noticia sobre el primer hallazgo de la Tortuga Geoemyda Annulata (Gray en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medem Fred

    1956-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoemyda annulata fue descrita por Gray en 1860, del Ecuador (Esmeraldas. El typus y dos paratypus que se conservan en el British Museum (Boulenger, 1889: 127. Dunn (1945: 320 afirma que G. annulata es muy común en la Zona del Canal de Panamá. Schmidt (1946: 8 coleccionó material de dicha Zona, como también en Barro Colorado, isla situada en la misma región. El límite norte de la distribución geográfica para G. annulata aparentemente es Costa Rica (Chelopus gabbii, Cope, 1876, puesto que al menos desconozco datos exactos sobre su existencia más al norte.  En Colombia G. annulata no ha sido encontrada según Dunn (op. cit.: 320, quien sugirió como "muy probable" su presencia en este país. Durante la expedición "Operación Truandó" realizada por la Armada Nacional en julio de 1955, el autor logró hallar un ejemplar de G. annulata y pudo comprobar que dicha tortuga pertenece a la fauna colombiana.

  3. Promoting the use of health information and communication technologies in Spain: a new approach based on the ICT-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Blázquez Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the use of new technologies is having an important effect on individuals’ health knowledge and behavior. The objective of this paper is to study the potential reduction in health care utilization associated with the expansion of new technologies. Using Spanish micro data from the Survey on the Equipment and Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-H in Households for 2014 we analyze information technologies equipment, availability of access and means of Internet connection per household. We model the probability of an individual being internet user in Spain as a function of a range of socio-economic characteristics, including individual’s gender, age, education and employment situation. Also, we hypothesized that a greater use of this communication technologies is related to a lesser health care expenditure.

  4. Information Technology, Human Resources Management Systems and Firm Performance: An Empirical Analysis from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ficapal-Cusí

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper uses survey data on 1.518 Catalan firms (in Spain, with capital in Barcelona to examine the relationship between IT use, innovative human resources management systems (IHRMS and firm’s performance. Using factor and cluster analysis, we find that only one-third of Catalan firms use IHRMS. Using association analysis we find that firms that adopt IHMRS are more internationalised; show grater ability to adapt to the change environment, to innovate and to collaborate; focuses product/service differentiation strategy enhancing quality; apply a greater degree of new forms of work organization; use IT more intensively; and invest more in training their employees Using regression analysis, we find that features which are structural, technological, strategic, organisational and result-related explain the adoption of IHRMS.

  5. Informe sobre una investigación entomológica realizada en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. A. Antunes

    1937-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación entomológica cuyo informe presentamos, se realizó en los municipios de Restrepo y Villavicencio, Intendencia del Meta, Colombia, del 12 de diciembre de 1934 al 30 de marzo de 1935 y coincidió con un brote epidémico de fiebre amarilla silvestre. Solamente sufrieron la fiebre personas residentes fuéra de las poblaciones. Ninguna infección fue adquirida dentro de éIlas. La poblaciones cabeceras de los municipios de Restrepo y Villa vicencio, hálIanse situadas al pie de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera de los Andes, entre ésta y las grandes llanuras que al Oriente se dilatan hasta las fronteras con el Brasil y Venezuela. Junto a VilIavicencio y cortando el camino que lo une a Restrepo, corre el Río Guatiquía, Durante el período de la investigación ningún caso de fiebre amarilla se registró en el área de la margen derecha de este río, pero posteriormente se ha comprobado la presencia de fiebre amarilla silvestre en ambas márgenes del Guatiquía indistintamente. La epidemia en cuestión abarcó una extensa zona en el municipio de Restrepo, y en el de Villavicencio, apenas la vereda El Retiro sobre la margen izquierda del Guatiquía.

  6. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  7. [Access to health information sources in Spain. how to combat "infoxication"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Martin, Miguel Ángel; Albornos-Muñoz, Laura; Escandell-García, Cintia

    2012-01-01

    Internet has become a priceless source for finding health information for both patients and healthcare professionals. However, the universality and the abundance of information can lead to unfounded conclusions about health issues that can confuse further than clarify the health information. This aspect causes intoxication of information: infoxication. The question lies in knowing how to filter the information that is useful, accurate and relevant for our purposes. In this regard, integrative portals, such as the Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, compile information at different levels (international, national and regional), different types of resources (databases, repositories, bibliographic sources, etc.), becoming a starting point for obtaining quality information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. New accounting information system: An application for a basic social benefit in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Peña-Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting information on social benefits is included, in accordance with the scope of its management, in the general Social Security budget. The information contained in the budget may be relevant, but it is likely to be insufficient to enable comparisons to be made with an entity's financial statements for previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. Thus, IPSAS 1 proposes the presentation of additional information. On the basis of the New Public Management theory, this paper proposes an aggregate accounting model for accounting expenditure as a multi-annual information system which complements and expands information on a potential basic social benefit. This system reports in detail on the trends in the items that fund it, with the aim of achieving maximum transparency and accountability in public administrations by ensuring timely provision of quality information.

  9. Social perception of environment and waste management in Pucol (Valencia-Spain); Percepcion social sobre la gestion de residuos urbanos: el caso del municipio de Pucol (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo Calatayud, V.

    2011-07-01

    The present study analyzes the situation of waste management and environmental problems in the municipality of Pucol (Valencia-Spain) from multi variant statistical analysis data from a sociological survey. It can be highlighted the following aspects: to) The citizen percentage that recycles correctly all type of waste residues is of 8.93% and the percentage of recycles of any kind of residue is of 60.97%; b) to have a high educational level and the fact of having close containers entails, in a significant way, to recycled more; c) the container of plastics, bricks and cans is not used appropriately given that more than 70% of the sample uses the organic garbage container for this purpose; and d) the town of Pucol perceives the lack of environmental awareness as the environmental main problem of the municipality with a percentage of 36.3%.. (Author)

  10. Information related to postal flows and big data analysis potential. The case of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alvaro, O.; Nuñez Gonzalez, A.

    2016-07-01

    National Post Offices manage huge volumes of letters and parcels. Data associated to these flows are growing fast, with a great variety related to the diversity of postal products. The research described in this paper has classified all information flows of Correos, the Spanish National Post Office. In spite of the complexity of the current postal service portfolio, only four categories of matrices allow the classification of all postal information flows. Thanks to the migration towards new products, analyses with simple techniques will provide more and better information in the future, due to the structured nature of existing databases. (Author)

  11. Corporate information transparency on the Internet by listed companies in Spain (IBEX35) and Mexico (IPYC)

    OpenAIRE

    Briano Turrent, Guadalupe C.; Rodr??guez Ariza, L??zaro

    2012-01-01

    Financial and non-financial disclosure play a central role in the functioning of capital markets. In this context, the Internet has been adopted as an effective mechanism for large companies to disseminate corporate information. The institutional theory approach has been applied to identify both formal (fundamentally legal and economic) and informal factors that significantly influence listed companies??? level of corporate transparency on the Internet. Our work aims to build on existing stud...

  12. Information search behaviour, understanding and use of nutrition labeling by residents of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Castillo, L; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Moya-Geromini, A

    2015-03-01

    To describe the information search behaviour, comprehension level, and use of nutritional labeling by consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of consumers recruited in five stores of the main supermarket chains in Madrid: a random sample of 299 consumers (response rate: 80.6%). Interviewers collected information about the information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Analyses examined the frequency of the variables of interest. Differences were tested using the Chi-square statistic. In this sample, 38.8% of consumers regularly read the nutritional labeling before making a purchase (45% of women vs 30% in men; P = 0.03) and the most common reason reported was choosing healthier products (81.3%). The proportion of people who were interested in additives and fats was the higher, (55% and 50%, respectively). Lack of time (38.9%), lack of interest (27.1%), and reading difficulties (18.1%) were the most common reasons given for not reading labels. Over half (52.4%) of consumers reported completely understanding the nutritional information on labels and 20.5% reported using such information for dietary planning. Reported information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling were relatively high among consumers of the study, and their main goal was picking healthier products. However, not only are there still barriers to reading the information, but also the information most relevant to health is not always read or understood. Thus, interventions to increase nutritional labeling comprehension and use are required in order to facilitate the making of healthier choices by consumers. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Information needs of health technology assessment units and agencies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galnares-Cordero, Lorea; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the information needs of Spanish health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and units to facilitate access to the resources they require to substantiate their reports. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among HTA bodies to ascertain the actual situation of subscriptions to information resources and what information specialists from these bodies considered would be the ideal subscription situation. Their information needs were then studied, and the resources that best met these needs were put forward. Following this definition, a subscriptions policy was adopted with suppliers and publishers. The survey showed that HTA bodies share a minimum of core subscriptions that includes open sources (MEDLINE, DARE) and sources that the government subscribes to for the health community (ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library Plus). There was no common approach to determining which databases to subscribe to (UpToDate, EMBASE, Ovid EBMR, CINAHL, or ECRI). After identifying the information needs, a list of resources was proposed that would best cover these needs and, of these, subscription to the following was proposed: Scopus, Ovid EBMR, Clinical Evidence, DynaMed, ECRI, and Hayes. There are differences in the way that HTA agencies and units access the different resources of biomedical information. Combined subscription to several resources for documentation services was suggested as a way of resolving these differences.

  14. [Networks of experiences on community health as an information system in health promotion: lessons learned in Aragon (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego-Diéguez, Javier; Aliaga Traín, Pilar; Benedé Azagra, Carmen Belén; Bueno Franco, Manuel; Ferrer Gracia, Elisa; Ipiéns Sarrate, José Ramón; Muñoz Nadal, Pilar; Plumed Parrilla, Manuela; Vilches Urrutia, Begoña

    2016-11-01

    Networks of community health experiences promote interaction and knowledge management in health promotion among their participants. These networks integrate both professionals and social agents who work directly on the ground in small environments, with defined objectives and inclusion criteria and voluntary participation. In this article, networks in Aragon (Spain) are reviewed in order to analyse their role as an information system. The Health Promotion Projects Network of Aragon (Red Aragonesa de Proyectos de Promoción de la Salud, RAPPS) was launched in 1996 and currently includes 73 projects. The average duration of projects is 12.7 years. RAPPS interdisciplinary teams involve 701 people, of which 89.6% are professionals and 10.6% are social agents. The Aragon Health Promoting Schools Network (Red Aragonesa de Escuelas Promotoras de Salud, RAEPS) integrates 134 schools (24.9% of Aragon). The schools teams involve 829 teachers and members of the school community, students (35.2%), families (26.2%) and primary care health professionals (9.8%). Experiences Networks boost citizen participation, have an influence in changing social determinants and contribute to the formulation of plans and regional strategies. Networks can provide indicators for a health promotion information and monitoring system on: capacity building services in the territory, identifying assets and models of good practice, cross-sectoral and equity initiatives. Experiences Networks represent an opportunity to create a health promotion information system, systematising available information and establishing quality criteria for initiatives. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk-informed local action planning against flooding: lessons learnt and way forward for a case study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Rodríguez J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After 29 years of the largest flood event in modern times (with the highest recorded rainfall rate at the Iberian Peninsula with 817 mm in 24 hours, the municipality of Oliva faces the challenge of mitigating flood risk through the development and implementation of a local action plan, in line with other existent and ongoing structural measures for flood risk reduction. Located 65 km from Valencia, on the South-Eastern coast of Spain, Oliva is affected by pluvial, river and coastal flooding and it is characterized by a complex and wide-ranging geography and high seasonal variation in population. A quantitative flood risk analysis has been performed to support the definition of flood risk management strategies. This paper shows how hazard, exposure and vulnerability analyses provide valuable information for the development of a local action plan against flooding, for example by identifying areas with highest societal and economic risk levels. It is concluded that flood risk management actions, such as flood warning and monitoring or evacuation, should not be applied homogenously at local scale, but instead actions should be adapted based on spatial clustering. Implications about the impact of education and training on flood risk reduction are also addressed and discusse

  16. La investigación sobre la educación intercultural en España. The Research on Intercultural Education in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rodríguez Izquierdo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo revisa la literatura científica de carácter cuantitativo o cualitativo referidas a diversos ámbitos de la educación intercultural en España desde los años noventa hasta ahora. Los temas más relevantes hallados en la bibliografía se refieren a los siguientes aspectos: 1 escolarización de los inmigrantes y minorías étnicas, 2 modelos de intervención y propuestas educativas, 3 bilingüismo y diversidad lingüística en la escuela, 4 actitudes ante otras culturas, y 5 ciudadanía intercultural e identidad intercultural. Finalmente, se indican los nuevos campos abiertos o las lagunas que se detectan en estas investigaciones y se proponen ideas y estrategias para profundizar la investigación intercultural en un futuro inmediato. This paper reviews the scientific literature, both quantitative and qualitative, referred to several aspects of intercultural education in Spain from 1990 until 2008. The core themes found in the literature are the following: 1 schooling of immigrants and ethnic minorities, 2 models of intervention and educative proposals, 3 bilingual and linguistic diversity, 4 attitudes towards other cultures, and 5 intercultural citizenship and intercultural identity. Finally, it shows new open fields or gaps that are identified in the literature reviewed, and suggests ideas and strategies to strengthen intercultural research in the near future.

  17. [Current situation on fertility preservation in cancer patients in Spain: Level of knowledge, information, and professional involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Colino, Carmen; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Vazquez, María Ángeles; Echevarria, Aizpea; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Andión, Maitane; Berlanga, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The estimated risks of infertility in childhood cancer due to radiation, chemotherapy and surgery are well known. The involvement of professionals and advances in the different methods of preservation are increasing. However, many patients do not receive information or perform any method of preservation. Questionnaires to paediatric onco-haematology institutions throughout Spain. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions assessing their usual practices and knowledge about fertility preservation. Fifty members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, representing 24 of 43 centres, responded. These represented 82% of centres that treated higher numbers of patients. The effect of treatment on fertility was known by 78% of those who responded, with 76% admitting not knowing any guideline on fertility in children or adolescents. As for the ideal time and place to inform the patient and/or family, only 14% thought it should be done in the same cancer diagnosis interview. In clinical practice, 12% of those surveyed never referred patients to Human Reproduction Units, another 12% only did so if the patients showed interest, and 38% only refer patients in puberty. Just over one-third (34%) of those referrals were going to receive highly gonadotoxic treatment. There are clear differences between pre-puberty and puberty patients. The frequency with which some method of fertility preservation is performed in patients is low. All respondents believe that the existence of national guidelines on the matter would be of interest. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. 2010 Eurobarometer on Science and Technology. The Position of Spain in the European Context; Eurobarometro 2010 sobre Ciencia y Tecnologia. La situacion de Espana en el contexto europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, E.

    2011-05-13

    The 2010 S and T Eurobarometer represents an important endeavour, which contains significant changes with respect to previous surveys, though aiming to make comparisons with previous results. The scope of the enquire extends through six chapters, running from the science interest to the assessment of the European research policies, passing through the images, the decision making responsibilities, the citizenship attitudes, and the involvement of youth and women, all in regard to science and technology developments. The survey has been realized in 32 countries, the 27 European member states plus Croatia, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. The results are complex and not too easy to analyze. A main issue is the European heterogeneity emerging from the responses, while the answers mix opinions, perceptions, knowledge, values, and aspects related to political management, with respect to science and technology. In a context of certain contradiction and paradoxes, it is worth to underline the highly equilibrated position of Spanish citizenship, showing a high percentage of responses within the European average, a result that seems in agreement with the intermediate country position in the science and technology world. However, Spain leads in issues embodied in her cultural tradition (support for health research, for use of animals in health experiments, for Europe R and D policy.). It is also important to highlight the European citizens compromise to give high support to the scientists in the decision making process on science and technology managerial issues as well as to express opinions on research priorities in European research. The citizenship is making a strong bet for promoting research on common goods such as health, energy and environment. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. «Más piedad que improperios»: un informe pericial del Dr. Egas Moniz sobre homosexualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A principios del siglo XX, Egas Moniz, insigne neurólogo y Premio Nobel portugués, emitió un informe pericial sobre homosexualidad para un caso de anulación matrimonial que constituye un material de gran valor como ejemplo de aplicación efectiva del conocimiento sexológico disponible en la época. En este mismo periodo la flamante legislación republicana estableció la anulación del matrimonio contemplando causas de carácter médico y se tipificaron penalmente las relaciones entre personas del m...

  20. Informe Especial sobre el Manejo de los Residuos Sólidos en Panamá. Panamá,

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    La Defensoría del Pueblo, atenta al mandato consagrado en la Ley No. 7 de 5 de febrero de 1997, reformada por la Ley No. 41 de 1 de diciembre de 2005, ha elaborado este informe especial sobre la creciente problemática de los residuos sólidos en la República de Panamá y cuya finalidad es proporcionar elementos que faciliten la toma de decisiones gubernamentales relacionadas con su manejo. El inadecuado manejo y disposición final de los residuos sólidos, que en su mayoría son depositados dentro...

  1. El pasado vivo de Chile en el año del Informe sobre la Tortura

    OpenAIRE

    Pérotin-Dumon, Anne

    2005-01-01

    El pasado reciente de Chile, el de la dictadura (1973-1990), es como una sombra tendida sobre el presente. Ese pasado está saturado de la experiencia de quienes lo vivieron y lo recuerdan. El espacio en el cual nos movemos está habitado por las cosas ocurridas entonces y develadas de manera incidental, al azar de una conversación o una lectura. Dicho esto, desde 1993, fecha en que nos instalamos en Chile, fuimos testigos de un cambio considerable en la memoria social de la dictadura. La gente...

  2. Informe sobre el Tercer Congreso Sudamericano de Neurocirugía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jiménez Arango

    1949-07-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá, abril 16 de 1949. Señor Profesor Dr. Jorge Bejarano, Ministro de Higiene. E.S.D. Señor Ministro: De conformidad con el Decreto No 540 de 2 de marzo del presente año, por el cual tuve el honor de ser nombrado Delegado de Colombia ad honorem al tercer Congreso Sudamericano de Neurocirugía que se reumo en Buenos Aires del 2 al 9 de los presentes, me permito informar a S. S. sobre el origen, desarrollo y acuerdos de dicho congreso.

  3. [The users of centers for AIDS information and prevention in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain: a study based on cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aracil, J; Ruiz Pérez, I; Aviñó Rico, M J; Hernández Aguado, I

    1999-01-01

    To measure the usefulness of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis applied to the epidemiological research of HIV infection. The specific are to explore the relationships between the different variables that characterize the users of the AIDS Information and Prevention Center (CIPS) and to identify clusters of characteristics which in terms of the attendance to these centers, could be considered similar. The clinical history the CIPS in the Valencian region in Spain was used as data source. The target population target were intravenous drug users (IDUSs) attending these centers between 1987 and 1994 (n = 6211). Information about socio-demographic and HIV type I infection-related variables (drug use and sexual behaviour) was collected by means of a semistructured questionnaire. A MCA was carried out to obtain a group of quantitative factors that were used in a cluster analysis. A 44.8% HIV type I prevalence was found. Five factors were detected by MCA that explain 51.14% of the total variability, of which sex, age and the usual sexual partner were the variables best explained. Cluster analysis allowed to describe 5 different subgroups of CIPS users according to their socio-demographics characteristics, risk behaviours and serologic status. It is necessary to highlight the categories 1 and 2, which collect the serologic status and the most relevant characteristics of HIV infection. Category I contains users with a negative serology and characterized by being mainly single adolescent men, with a low educational level; they stated that they have no steady sexual partner, do not share syringes and have been intravenous drug users between 3 and 10 years. They mainly come from the city of Alicante. Category 2 contains mainly people that are HIV positive and older. They also share syringes and have been intravenous drug users for a longer time; they have a higher education level and most of them come from the city of Valencia. The proposed method of

  4. The parliamentary political agenda: a tool for policy analysis of diabetes priorities in Spain La agenda política parlamentaria: una herramienta para el análisis político sobre las prioridades sobre diabetes en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés A. Agudelo-Suárez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the political agenda on diabetes in Spain under democracy by considering the frequency and content of initiatives in the Spanish parliament. Methods: A systematic search of parliamentary interventions (1979-2010 reported on the Spanish Congress of Deputies' web page was carried out using the key word "diabetes". A descriptive study of the frequency of interventions was performed, followed by a content analysis, according to the priorities of the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Diabetes Federation and the Spanish Diabetes Federation. Other study variables were the year of presentation, legislature, type of initiative and whether a political decision was taken (yes/no. Results: There were 59 interventions: 22% were related to the first international initiatives and 44.1% took place in the last two legislatures in response to the WHO's program Diabetes Action Now. A total of 32.2% of the initiatives addressed educational and social programs, while 23.7% addressed access to resources and health services. Most initiatives (74.6% consisted of parliamentary questions to the government, which only required a response. Of the 15 initiatives requiring a decision to be taken, only eight were approved. Conclusions: Spanish legislators aim to comply with international standards. Nevertheless, political decision-making has sometimes been slow. Importantly, most of the political responsibilities related to health have been transferred to the autonomous regions. The updated National Diabetes Strategy in Spain will need to strengthen public health policies according to established international priorities. Monitoring parliamentary interventions has proven to be a valid tool for evaluating patterns of political debate and decisions on diabetes.Objetivo: Analizar la agenda política sobre diabetes en el periodo democrático español, considerando la frecuencia y el contenido de las iniciativas parlamentarias. M

  5. Renewable energy in Spain: balance and projects for the year 2000: updated information at 31st December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This book presents: 1) The renewable program under th energy saving and efficiency plan 2) The current position of renewable energy in Spain. 3) Different renewable energies and their status: small hydropower, biomass, wind solar thermal, photovoltaic, geothermal energy. 4) Projects developed during 1991,1992,1993,1994

  6. Algunas notas en perspectiva comparada sobre formación de maestros: el caso de España y Finlandia / Some notes on comparative perspective on teacher training: the case of Spain and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García Perales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Son muchos los factores que influyen en las valoraciones de un sistema educativo: social y cultural, económico, capacitación del profesorado, inestabilidad política, visión de la sociedad en general de la labor educativa, centralización y/o descentralización de la educación. Este estudio pretende dar una imagen global de la situación de España frente a Finlandia, centrándonos en la formación del profesorado como eje principal de unidad comparativa. La formación del profesorado es para muchos la piedra angular sobre la que se asienta el éxito o fracaso de los sistemas educativos. Es el referente, la mano de obra necesaria para conseguir la calidad educativa, ya que lejos de los despachos donde se redactan las leyes existe la realidad del día a día en las aulas; y son los profesores los que se enfrentan directamente al complejo reto de educar.Abstract: There are many factors that influence the ratings of an education system: social and cultural, economic, educational training, political instability, vision of society in general educational work, centralization or decentralization of education. This study aims to provide an overall picture of the situation in Spain versus Finland, focusing on teacher training as the main focus of comparative unit. Teacher training is for many the cornerstone on which the success or failure of educational systems rests. It is the reference, the labor necessary to achieve educational quality, because far from the offices where the laws are written there is the reality of everyday life in classrooms, and teachers are directly facing the complex challenge of educating.

  7. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  8. Conocimientos sobre alfabetización informacional en profesionales de la salud Knowledge about information literacy in health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara García Hernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la alfabetización informacional es importante para aprovechar las ventajas de la investigación disponible en diferentes formatos. Objetivo: determinar el conocimiento que tienen los profesionales de la salud sobre la alfabetización informacional. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico «Eusebio Hernández», entre el primero de septiembre y el 31 de diciembre de 2011, con un total de 120 profesionales. Los mismos se seleccionaron mediante muestreo aleatorio, a partir de los conocimientos sobre competencias en información necesarios para su desarrollo profesional, precisando las siguientes informaciones: uso de búsqueda de información, aprendizaje, conocimiento sobre los buscadores, opciones de búsqueda de avanzada y su uso en el trabajo diario. La recolección de los datos estuvo basada en la aplicación de un cuestionario anónimo, que constó de tres preguntas para definir las necesidades de aprendizaje a partir del programa de desarrollo de Competencias Informacionales en Salud que está llevando a cabo INFOMED. Resultados: la mayor cantidad de encuestados refirió que utilizó la búsqueda bibliográfica para la realización de trabajos académicos; el modo en que aprendieron fue de forma independiente; el mayor porcentaje conocía y usaba los buscadores de información, pero no así las opciones de búsqueda de avanzada. Conclusiones: en nuestro trabajo se pudo constatar la falta de competencias en el manejo y uso de la información científico-técnica por parte de los profesionales estudiados, lo cual representa un reto importante tanto para los técnicos de la información como para los propios profesionales de la salud.Background: information Literacy is an important aspect because it gives you the opportunity to take advantage of the benefits of research which is available in different formats. Objectives: to determine the level of awareness among

  9. ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO SOBRE APRENDIZAJE NO FORMAL E INFORMAL DE ESTUDIANTES Y EGRESADOS UNIVERSITARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Rosario; Jadue, Fabiola; Letelier, Mario; Oliva, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Existe consenso en que el aprendizaje no formal e informal debe ser reconocido por su impacto en los conocimientos y habilidades adquiridas. Este estudio pretende aportar al conocimiento del aprendizaje no formal e informal universitario, para ello se utilizó una metodología mixta, se analizaron factores que lo impulsan, y su uso y contribución al logro de resultados de aprendizaje en una universidad de nuestro país. A partir de los hallazgos del estudio, se elaboran una serie de sugerencias ...

  10. Informe de la comisión sobre el texto de jeometría

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Carta al señor Rector de la Escuela de Literatura y filosofía que contiene el informe del señor Bond donde propone el libro "Elementos de Jeometría" de M. Legendre, con adiciones i modificaciones de M. Blanchet, como texto de un curso general obligatorio de Jeometría.

  11. Transcripción revisada del informe de Pedro de Ayala de 1498 sobre las expediciones inglesas de descubrimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Macías, Luis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The report sent by Pedro de Ayala to the Catholic Monarchs from London in 1498 is one of the main sources on the earliest English expeditions to North America. The history of its deciphering, interpretation and translation is presented and, as none of the transcriptions carried out up to now is found to be entirely satisfactory, a new one is proposed based on a literal deciphering of the document, along with translations into French and English. Furthermore, some particularly difficult parts of the text are discussed in detail that, having been misunderstood in earlier editions of the report, led to probably erroneous conclusions about the biography of John Cabot, the itinerary of his voyage of 1497, and the name of the monk who went with him on his expedition of 1498.El informe enviado por Pedro de Ayala a los Reyes Católicos desde Londres en 1498 es una de las fuentes fundamentales sobre las primeras expediciones inglesas a Norteamérica. En este estudio se presenta la historia de su descifrado, interpretación y traducción y, constatando que ninguna de las transcripciones realizadas hasta ahora es completamente exacta, se propone una nueva basada en un descifrado literal del documento, acompañada de traducciones al francés y al inglés. Se discuten asimismo en detalle algunas frases particularmente difíciles del texto que, debido a su malinterpretación en ediciones anteriores, condujeron a conclusiones probablemente erróneas sobre la biografía de Juan Caboto, el itinerario de su viaje de 1497 y el nombre del religioso que fue con él en su expedición de 1498.

  12. Dissertações e teses de enfermagem sobre o cuidador informal do idoso, Brasil, 1979 a 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiany Plácido de Brito Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico con el objetivo de describir la producción científica brasileña sobre el cuidador informal de ancianos, en las tesinas y tesis de enfermería, de 1979 a 2007; identificar los objetivos, temas y modelos teóricos de estas producciones, y relatar el concepto de cuidador que es utilizado para describir social y demográficamente a esos cuidadores. Los datos fueron recolectados en 27 resúmenes de tesis y tesinas del Centro de Estudios e Investigación en Enfermería, lo que resulta en 15 artículos completos. Los resultados mostraron 18 disertaciones cualitativas y 15 teóricas, del Sur y Sudeste de Brasil. En la mayoría de los estudios se trató de entender la atención desde la perspectiva de los cuidadores y el cuidado familiar que se ofrece a los ancianos con enfermedades crónicas degenerativas. La mayoría de los cuidadores eran mujeres, hijas o esposas, de 40 a 60 años de edad, casadas, con poca escolaridad y amas de casa. El estudio mostró la preocupación de la enfermería por conocer el cuidador familiar desde su propia vivencia como cuidador, y a pesar del incremento de estudios científicos sobre este tema, se constató la necesidad de nuevas investigaciones en esa área.

  13. Report on TENORM. National and international situation; Informe sobre TENORM. Situacion nacional e internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoba, Analia C; Gnoni, Gabriela

    2005-07-01

    In the present report, the situation of TENORM materials around the world is analyzed in order to plan future steps regarding this subject in our country. The different regulatory criteria adopted are presented and the national situation is analyzed from the legal point of view. The report is fundamentally focused on petroleum and gas industry, due to, as it was exposed in a preliminary report, this industry would have the most important TENORM content. (author) [Spanish] En el presente informe se analiza la situacion de los materiales TENORM en el mundo con el fin de delinear las acciones a seguir frente al tema en nuestro pais. Se presentan los distintos criterios regulatorios adoptados y se analiza la situacion nacional desde el punto de vista legal. El informe se enfoca fundamentalmente en la industria del gas y del petroleo, ya que de acuerdo a lo expuesto en un informe preliminar, esta industria seria la mas significativa desde el punto de vista de su contenido en TENORM. (autor)

  14. Liderazgo informal en las organizaciones: Análisis sobre su impacto e influencia en la productividad y competitividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Jesús Viloria-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar, a partir de diversos aportes teóricos y dialógicos, las influencias e impactos del liderazgo informal en la productividad y competitividad de las organizaciones. Para lo cual, se utilizó un enfoque hermenéutico reflexivo de la investigación bibliográfica, que permitió la comprensión e interpretación de investigaciones consultadas en bibliotecas y bases de datos electrónicas de reconocimiento mundial. Además, se consultó la opinión de expertos académicos del campo administrativo  en Colombia para recopilar las voces y percepciones sobre el tema. Los principales resultados evidencian que el liderazgo informal, como una dinámica propia de los grupos informales, al vincularla al factor humano de la organización, puede influir de manera positiva o negativa en la productividad y competitividad. Se concluye que la gestión administrativa de este fenómeno organizacional se convierte en una herramienta para lograr ventajas competitivas en las organizaciones a través del mejoramiento de las variables funcionales de la empresa y el establecimiento de relaciones sociales más eficientes.

  15. Informe de un funcionario norteamericano sobre la huelga de Barrancabermeja 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Archila Neira

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Carta enviada por el representante de la Tropical Oil C al embajador de Bogotá a raíz de la huelga de Barrancabermeja. En ella se muestra la posición de la compañía frente a obreros, a veces con tintes racistas, sus contradicciones con el gobierno y la posición arrogante de la multinacional frente a los mismos. También en el informe se deja ver el contenido social del movimiento y las formas de organización de los obreros.

  16. Informe Olivenza 2015, sobre la discapacidad en España

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, A.

    2015-01-01

    El informe Olivenza 2015 aborda los siguientes contenidos: - Cambios en el marco normativo de la discapacidad. - Medición estadística, análisis demográfico e inclusión social de la discapacidad a partir de diversas fuentes y siguiendo el Sistema de Indicadores propio desarrollado por el OED. - Mercado laboral y discapacidad, con el apoyo de ODISMET. - Gasto público en discapacidad. - Discapacidad y uso de TIC, con el apoyo de la Fundación VODAFONE. - Población con discapaci...

  17. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  18. The presence of blogs in the field of Library and Information Sciences in Spain: Can we talk about the existence of a “Biblogsfera”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Vera Baceta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blog phenomenon has meant a natural way of grouping and establishing communication amongst those who have similar concerns. This has happened the same way in the field of science, thus creating communities of special interest in a context in which blogs are consolidating as sources of information and extra tools for research. While the authors’ freedom to organise and offer their contents may be considered one of the main advantages and a trigger for the success of blogs, it is also one of their main drawbacks. The contents and communities of blogs are not easy to identify, classify and quantify, so that they constitute a vague concept under the name of “blogosphere”. This article is meant to identify the blogs related to the field of Library and Information Sciences in Spain, their authorship, their contents and their connections in order to clarify if we can really talk about the existence of a “Biblogsfera”.

  19. Informe sobre ciegos:de la narración de Ernesto Sabato a la alucinación gráfica de Alberto Breccia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia De Sarlo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Breccia has been one of the fathers of twentieth century graphic narrative. Author of key works as El Eternauta (1969, his forays into the world of literature have been frequent since his début. At the end of his life, Breccia turned into comic the Informe sobre ciegos, central and autonomous chapter of Sobre héroes y tumbas (1961 by Ernesto Sabato. This work will analyse the dialogue that the graphic genius of Breccia establishes with the tormented Sabato’s voice, enriching the meaning of one of the most controversial passages of recent Latin American literature.

  20. Knowledge of the Andalusian legislation on dignified death and perception on the formation in attention to terminally ill patients of health sciences students at Universidad de Granada, Spain Conocimiento sobre la ley andaluza de muerte digna y percepción sobre la formación en la atención a enfermos terminales del alumnado de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada, España Conhecimento sobre a lei andaluza de morte digna e percepção sobre a formação no atendimento a enfermos terminais do corpo discente de ciências da saúde da Universidade de Granada, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia María Morales-Martín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the knowledge of the Andalusian ''Legislation of Rights and Guarantees of the Dignity of Individuals during the Death Process'' and perception of the formation on attention to terminally ill patients by students of health sciences at Universidad de Granada, Spain. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in 2010, with the participation of 572 students from the Nursing, Physical Therapy, and Occupational Therapy careers of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Universidad de Granada. A questionnaire including 19 variables was used. The data gathered was analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 program. Results. Half of the participants know of this Legislation. A total of 86.7% of the students did not know that the limitation of the therapeutic effort is a legal practice throughout Spain; 97.9% did not know either that the limitation of vital support measures is a legal practice. 64.2% of the students feel capable of addressing this issue with terminally ill patients and their families. 83.3% of those surveyed report not having sufficient knowledge to provide information about the ''Living testament''. Nursing students have greater knowledge of the Legislation studied; likewise, those who took the Palliative Care course obtained better results than students who did not. Conclusion. Students do not have adequate knowledge of the Andalusian legislation of dignified death. Although the participants do not feel prepared academically to deal with these types of patients, they do consider themselves capable of doing so.Objetivo. Determinar el conocimiento sobre ''Ley de Derechos y Garantías de la Dignidad de la Persona en el Proceso de la Muerte'' y percepción sobre la formación en la atención a enfermos terminales del alumnado de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada, España. Metodología. Estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal, realizado en 2010, en el que participaron 572 alumnos de las titulaciones de

  1. Un informe reservado sobre los trabajos de la expedición botánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-06-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la Corte Española conocía por los informes del Arzobispo Virrey, D. Antonio Caballero y Góngora, los motivos de orden patriótico y económico que lo habían movido a fundar en 1783 el glorioso instituto que él había bautizado con el título de Expedición Botánica en el Virreinato de la Nueva Granada, y conocía también de sobra los merecimientos que adornaban la personalidad del Dr. José Celestino Mutis, colocado como Director de la misma con el título de Botánico y Astrónomo de Su Majestad, había alguna preocupación por saber en las altas esferas del Estado cuál era el curso de los trabajos en diez años de ejercicio y si ellos correspondían a los gastos expedidos para sostenerla.

  2. [Infobarris: an interactive tool to monitor and disseminate information on health and its determinants in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llimona, Pere; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Novoa, Ana M; Espelt, Albert; García de Olalla, Patricia; Borrell, Carme

    In order to know about the health of the population, it is necessary to perform a systematic and continuous analysis of their health status and social and economic health determinants. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of the Infobarris tool, which allows to visualize a wide battery of indicators and social determinants of health by neighbourhoods in the city of Barcelona (Spain). For the development of the Infobarris tool, we used an agile methodology that allows the development of a project in iterative and incremental stages, which are the following: selection of indicators, design of the prototype, development of the tool, data loading, and tool review and improvements. Infobarris displays 64 indicators of health and its determinants through graphics, maps and tables, in a friendly, interactive and attractive way, which facilitates health surveillance in the neighbourhoods of Barcelona. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Informe provisional: Seminario sobre ”La investigación de la comunicación en America Latina”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Del 17 al 22 de septiembre de 1973 se realizó en el Campus La Catalina, Costa Rica, el Seminario sobre "Investigación de la Comunicación en América Latina" que fuera organizado por CIESPAL, contando con el financiamiento de la Fundación Friedrich Ebert y los auspicios de CEDAL (Centro de Estudios Democráticos para América Latina. CIESPAL convocó el Seminario para abordar una de las materias de mayor importancia en el área de la comunicación, cual es el relativo a analizar el estado de la invesiigación en América Latina y precisar pautas, aunque fueren tentativas, respecto a su orientación en el futuro. El Seminario trabajó intensamente a base de los documentos que fueron elaborados por CIESPAL, a través de sus respectivos departamentos. El presente documento contiene el informe de dicho Seminario.

  4. Informe Tebeosfera 2015. La industria de la historieta en España en 2015

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    Manuel Barrero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Informe anual de la Asociación Cultural Tebeosfera (ACyT sobre la industria española del cómic, realizado con los datos del Gran catálogo de la historieta, sobre los tebeos distribuidos en España en 2015. Anual report of the Tebeosfera Cultural Association (ACyT about the Spanish comics industry, based on the data from the Gran catálogo de la historieta (the main comics catalog in Spain for all the titles distributed in Spain in 2015.

  5. Revelation of the voluntary information about Human Capital in the Annual Reports Revelación de la información voluntaria sobre el capital humano en los informes anuales

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    Miguel Angel Villacorta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Financial Accounting impedes the registration on behalf of the information on the intangible of the different companies. To attenuate this situation, many companies offer voluntary data on them in the accounting documentation. This work analyzes the voluntary information of the Spanish companies about the intangible, impacting in the place that they occupy inside the Annual Report. The main conclusion of the investigation is that the companies offer the voluntary information that more it interests them for their own motivations and, however, the users of the Financial Accounting need a wider and more comparable information on the Human Capital.La normalización contable actual impide el registro de parte de la información sobre los intangibles de las diferentes empresas. Para atenuar esta situación, muchas empresas ofrecen datos voluntarios sobre ellos en la documentación contable que ofrecen a terceros. Este trabajo analiza la información voluntaria que exponen las empresas españolas cotizadas sobre los intangibles no reconocidos en el Balance, incidiendo en el lugar que ocupan dentro del Informe Anual. La principal conclusión de la investigación es que las empresas ofrecen la información voluntaria que más les interesa para sus propias motivaciones y, sin embargo, los usuarios de la Contabilidad Financiera necesitan una información más amplia y comparable sobre el Capital Humano.

  6. Gender and socio-economic inequalities in health and living conditions among co-resident informal caregivers: a nationwide survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajo, María; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Salvador, María; Borrell, Carme

    2017-03-01

    To explore the associations between social determinants, caregiver's network support, burden of care and their consequences in health and living conditions of informal caregivers. The socio-demographic trends regarding population ageing and changes in family models trigger an increased demand for care. Cross-sectional study based on the 2008 edition of the National Disability, Independence and Dependency Situations Survey (DIDSS-2008) conducted by the National Statistics Institute in Spain. Analyses focused on persons identified as primary caregivers who co-reside with the dependent person. The associations between social determinants of caregivers, burden of care, support network and problems attributed to informal care (impaired health, depression, professional, economic and personal issues) were estimated by fitting robust Poisson regression models. Analyses were conducted separately for women and men. The study sample included 6923 caregivers, 73% of women and 27% of men. Gender and socio-economic inequalities were found in assumption of responsibilities and burden of caring for dependents, which tend to fall more on women and persons of lower socio-economic level, who in turn have less access to formal support. These aspects translate into a higher prevalence of health, professional, economic and personal problems. The study highlights gender and socio-economic inequalities in informal caregiving and its negative consequences. These findings may be useful in the design of policies and support programmes targeting the most affected groups of informal caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Condiciones de trabajo y salud en inmigrantes (Proyecto ITSAL: entrevistas a informantes clave Occupational health of immigrant workers in Spain [ITSAL Project]: key informants survey

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    Ana M. García

    2009-04-01

    health situation of immigrant workers in Spain through key informants. Method: We performed a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study using indepth interviews carried out in 2006. Organizations and associations working with immigrant collectives in Alicante, Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia were identified and the most representative and accessible entities in each location were selected. Fortythree interviews were performed with key informants from 34 different organisms. A narrative content analysis was performed. Results: Informants described difficulties in having health problems recognized as workrelated, due to irregular and precarious employment, employers' and insurance companies' reluctance, and immigrants' lack of knowledge. Informants coincided in reporting that the occupational risks for immigrant workers did not differ from those affecting Spanish workers in the same occupations and circumstances. However, exposure to occupational risks was exacerbated in immigrants because of their greater presence in unqualified jobs and their economic need to prolong working hours. Immigrants had little knowledge of their occupational health and safetyrelated rights, although some informants detected an increase in empowerment in this area, mostly through greater participation in trade unions. Conclusions: This first step allowed us to identify some of the general factors influencing the health and safety of immigrant workers in Spain. This information will be used in a longterm, ongoing research project [Project Immigration, Work and Health (Proyecto Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL], which aims to evaluate occupational health problems in inmigrants working in Spain through both qualitative and quantitative methods.

  8. Extensión de taxonomía y tratamiento de valores faltantes sobre un repositorio de incidentes de seguridad informática

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    Carlos Javier Carvajal Montealegre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se detalla el proceso de estimación de datos faltantes mediante el teorema de Bayes, sobre un repositorio de incidentes de seguridad informática compuesto por datos de tipo categórico. Así mismo, se hace uso de una taxonomía, ampliada y redefinida para acoplarse a los incidentes encontrados.

  9. [Information needs of the health and diseases in users of healthcare services in Primary Care at Salamanca, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad Vallés, Mercedes; Maderuelo Fernández, José Ángel; Moreno González, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    To learn, interpret and understand the information needs of health and disease in users of the healthcare services of the urban Primary Care of Salamanca. Qualitative research corresponding an exploratory qualitative/structural perspective. Primary Care. Urban area, Salamanca in 2007. Ten discussion groups, 2 composed of members of health-related associations and 8 primary care users, involved a total of 83 people. The structural variables considered are: gender, age, educational level and membership or not associations. Generate information to achieve information saturation in the discussion groups. Upon obtaining their informed consent, all subjects in the study participated in videotaped conversations, which were transcribed verbatim. Four researchers categorized the content, intentionality of discourse and developed the concept map. After categorization, triangulation and coding, content obtained was analysed with the NudistQ6 program. Informative content suggest four information needs: health and prevention, early diagnosis, first aid and disease. Different intentions (information needs, watching, claim and improvement) and needs profiles are detected as structural variables. Major information needs are relate to diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options. There is agreement between the groups that the information transmitted to the patient must be intelligible, updated and coordinated among the different professionals and care levels. Participants require information of a clinical nature to exercise their right to autonomy translating tendency to empower users as part of the social change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. University digital libraries in Spain and TIC as paradigms of the information needs for teachers and students

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    Carlos Oliva Marañón

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The university digital libraries have experienced an improvement in recent years, allowing easy retrieval of information in different media. The objectives of this research are to verify the suitability of online catalogs to meet the information needs of teachers and students in the area of Library and Information by evaluating a sample of 23 University digital libraries, and raise the necessary improvements. The results verify the suitability of online catalogs to solve the information needs of teachers, researchers and students, being the University libraries of Barcelona, Granada and Sevilla the most relevant in the area of documentation, as well as the professionalism of librarians to heed the needs of users. Among other improvements, raised teacher education and students in using electronic resources and the creation of online help to improve user interfaces-Web in order to retrieve information quickly and efficiently.

  11. Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia Informe sobre reptiles colombianos. III: investigaciones sobre la anatomía craneal; distribución geográfica y ecología de Crocodylus Intermedius (Graves en Colombia

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    Medem Fred

    1958-09-01

    the Amazon. In Venezuela he ranges as far as San Fernando de Atabapo in the upper Orinoco area. For unexplainable reasons he does not enter the Amazon, by the comunicatron of the Orinoco-Casiquiare-Río Negro.                                  7. Numerous ecological observations were made on habitat, size, alimentation, parasites, reproduction and behavior. The "record" in size is apparently shown by an old male, which, according to Humboldt was 22 feet 3 inches long (6.78 meters. As far as known the females do not grow larger than 4 to 4.50 meters.  The 4 fetus were between 22.4 cm. and 23.7 cm. long. The food of intermedius consists mainly of fish: in the stomach specimens a great amount of small stones were found ranging from 440 gr. to 920 gr.  The egg laying period takes place mainly in January and the juveniles hatch in March. The eggs are white; their average size is about 8 em. long and 5 cm. wide. Up to 70 eggs were found in a nest.  March 3, 1957 a nest 43 cm. deep and 51 cm. wide at the base, was found in the Río Guaviare. It was situated on a, sand-bank, about 40 meters from the river. The first eggs were found in a depth of 27 cm.  The temperature in the nest, measured before the eggs were taken out, was slightly higher than outside. The shell of the eggs was quite elastic while still in the nest, but became hard soon after being taken out.  Of the 57 eggs found in the nest, 54 contained fetus, the remaining 3 were rotten.  The fetus already moved; but still had a well developed vitelline sack. The female, a specimen a about 3 meters long, remained in the water, splashing furiously. Cr. intermedius undergoes an aestivation the dry season in the Llanos Orientales (Rivers Arauca, Meta, Vichada but no information is available from the Guaviare area. The Orinoco Crocodile of the Guaviare area digs no subterranean caves as does Cr. acutus from the Magdalena region and other rivers of northern Colombia.  Due to excessive

  12. Informe

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    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  13. Costs and Burden Associated with Loss of Labor Productivity in Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: Results from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Kostov, Belchin; Haro, Josep Maria; Cabrera, Esther; Risco, Ester; Alvira, MCarmen; Miguel, Susana; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2017-11-13

    We analyzed indirect costs related to loss of labor productivity (LLP) in informal caregivers (ICs) of people with dementia (PwD) and the associated caregiver burden and patients' clinical variables. Multicenter cohort study of PwD and their ICs (n = 287) focused on two groups: (1) home care and (2) institutional long-term care. The costs of LLP were assessed using the Resource Utilization Dementia instrument and a human capital approach. The cost for LLP was 378&OV0556;/month or 4.536&OV0556;/year. Greater disease severity increased the likelihood of reducing working hours and missing a working day. There was a significant association between partial absenteeism and burden in employed informal caregiver in both the home and institutional setting. Cognitive impairment contributes to the cost of LLP in IC especially in home-care. LLP has a negative impact on IC burden.

  14. Revisitando uma carta em português sobre Sabbatai Zvi

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    Rodrigues da Silva Tavim, José Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the Iberian context of the production-translation of a text in Portuguese language about Shabbatai Zevi, in 1666. We refer the production of similar texts and the information about the adherents in Spain, mostly in Malaga. We reflect on the various messsianic currents that crossed the different social groups in Portugal. We present a text that proves the spreading of news about Shabbatai in Portuguese Lands, and the interest kindled among the Portuguese Conversos. And we place the hypothesis that this text to the movement of Shabbatai, could have different readings, among them one that could be convenient to the conversos.

    Este artículo aborda el contexto de la producción-traducción de un texto en portugués sobre Sabetay Sebí, en 1666. Se alude a la producción de otros textos similares y a la información sobre los adeptos del movimiento en España, sobre todo en Málaga. Se reflexiona sobre las varias corrrientes mesiánicas que cruzaban los diferentes grupos sociales en Portugal. Se presenta un texto que prueba la divulgación de noticias sobre Sabetay, en tierras portuguesas y del interés desperttado entre los medios conversos sobre el movimiento. Y se plantea la hipótesis de que este texto contrario al movimiento de Sabbatai pudiera tener varias lecturas, entre ellas una que debería ser conveniente para los conversos.

  15. [Medical prescription and informed consent for the use of physical restraints in nursing homes in the Canary Islands (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J; Fariña-López, Emilio; Penelo, Eva

    To identify the frequency of completion of informed consent and medical prescription in the clinical records of older patients subject to physical restraint, and to analyse the association between patient characteristics and the absence of such documentation. A cross-sectional and descriptive multicentre study with direct observation and review of clinical records was conducted in nine public nursing homes, comprising 1,058 beds. 274 residents were physically restrained. Informed consent was not included in 82.5% of cases and was incomplete in a further 13.9%. There was no medical prescription in 68.3% of cases and it was incomplete in a further 12.0%. The only statistical association found was between the lack of prescription and the patients' advanced age (PR=1.03; p <0.005). Failure to produce this documentation contravenes the law. Organisational characteristics, ignorance of the legal requirements or the fact that some professionals may consider physical restraint to be a risk-free procedure may explain these results. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Informe sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en Villacastín (Segovia) el 12 de abril de 1956

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Informe cuantitativo sobre la alimentación de Tyto alba (Lechuza común) en Villacastín (Segovia) el 12 de abril de 1956, a partir de diverso material encontrado en el desván de la iglesia del pueblo. Se observaron restos de insectos (fundamentalmente coleópteros y ortópteros), ranas, los siguientes mamíferos: Apodemus sp. (Ratón), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Crocidura sp. (Musaraña) y "Pytimis" (llamado así por el autor, siendo posiblemente el actual géne...

  17. Impact of three decades of urban growth on soil resources in Elche (Alicante, Spain Impacto en el suelo como recurso depués de tres décadas de crecimiento urbano en Elche (Alicante, España Impacto sobre o recurso solo após três décadas de crescimento urbano em Elche (Alicante, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarro Pedreño

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article analyses the impact of soil sealing associated with three decades of urban growth in the Mediterranean coastal municipality of Elche (Alicante, Spain on local soil resources. Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing (RS techniques were used to obtain and analyse different types of thematic information relating to urban growth and soil resources (soil class, land use capability, and physiographic classes. Map algebra techniques were employed to assess patterns of land occupation by urban growth and to compare maps of urban areas obtained from satellite imagery in 1978, 1992, 2001 and 2005 with thematic maps showing ancillary soil resources. Three different patterns of land occupation were identified in Elche: concentric growth outwards from the city of Elche (1978-1992, dispersed urban growth onto highly productive agricultural soils (1992- 2001, and coastal urbanization (2001-2005. Soils with high land capacity for agricultural use were the ones most severely affected by soil sealing as a result of urban growth. Land use planning should therefore adopt measures to minimize the impact of soil sealing in agricultural areas in orsure the complete environmental functionality of the soil and guarantee food production.

    Este trabajo analiza el crecimiento urbano durante tres décadas del municipio costero mediterráneo de Elche (Alicante, España, con la finalidad de evaluar el impacto sobre el recurso suelo que ha tenido el sellado del suelo por el crecimiento urbano. Para llevar a cabo el estudio se emplearon métodos combinando un sistema de información geográfica y teledetección para obtener y analizar diferentes fuentes de información temática relativa al crecimiento urbano y al recurso suelo, tales como: clase de suelo, capacidad de usos y clases fisiográficas. Se emplearon técnicas de álgebra de mapas para detectar patrones de ocupación del territorio por el crecimiento urbano, comparando mapas de

  18. Comparing the application of Health Information Technology in primary care in Denmark and Andalucía, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Denis; Johansen, Ib; Perez-Torres, Francisco

    2009-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Denmark is one, if not the, leading country in terms of the use of information technology by its primary care physicians. Other countries, notably excluding the United States and Canada, are also advanced in terms of electronic medical records in general practitioner offices and clinics. This paper compares the status of primary care physician office computing in Andalucía to that of Denmark by contrasting the functionality of electronic medical records (EMRs) and the ability to electronically communicate clinical information in both jurisdictions. A novel scoring system has been developed based on data gathered from databases held by the respective jurisdictional programs, and interviews with individuals involved in the deployment of the systems. The scoring methodology was applied for the first time in a comparison of the degree of automation in primary care physician offices in Denmark and the province of Alberta in Canada. It was also used to compare Denmark and New Zealand. This paper is the third offering of this method of scoring the adoption of electronic medical records in primary care office settings which hopefully may be applicable to other health jurisdictions at national, state, or provincial levels. Although similar in many respects, there are significant differences between these two relatively autonomous health systems which have led to the rates of uptake of physician office computing. Particularly notable is the reality that the Danish primary care physicians have individual "Electronic Medical Records" while in Andalucía, the primary care physicians share a common record which when secondary care is fully implemented will indeed be an "Electronic Health Record". It is clear that the diffusion of technology, within the primary care physician sector of the health care market, is subject to historical, financial, legal, cultural, and social factors. This tale of two places illustrates the issues, and different

  19. Revisión crítica de los informes sobre el uso de las nuevas tecnologías y sus efectos socioeducativos

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    Juan Bautista Martinez Rodriguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios acerca del crecimiento en la utilización de las TIC se difunden a través de observatorios, informes o foros de diferentes entidades que configuran una singular representación social de la implantación mediática. Este trabajo realiza una revisión crítica sobre tales informes y sus sistemas de indicadores con el fin de identificar su papel preformativo y sus efectos en la alfabetización multimedia de la ciudadanía y el acceso a los diferentes dispositivos. Los supuestos teóricos se fundamentan en las categorías de apropiación tecnológica, performatividad y representación social aplicadas a la selección de treinta informes publicados desde 2009. Los resultados muestran: a un énfasis reduccionista e instrumental de los indicadores utilizados cuya finalidad se orienta al incremento de la demanda de los equipamientos, provocada por las entidades dedicadas a su comercialización, b la ausencia de indicadores que muestren la apropiación social de las tecnologías o el significado de los valores atribuidos por los grupos sociales invisibilizados, y c el uso de estereotipos sobre la juventud, que se corresponde con el uso diferenciado de las redes sociales. Se concluye la necesidad de indicadores de significado que reconozcan las prácticas de apropiación y reorienten las representaciones sociales para el acceso equitativo de las TIC.

  20. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Bastida, Julio; Boronat, Mauro; Moreno, Juan Oliva; Schurer, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results ...

  1. Estudio de las publicaciones sobre contabilidad de gestión en Brasil y España Study of published articles on management accounting in Brazil and Spain

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    Rogério João Lunkes

    2013-04-01

    research methods, dedicated journals, and especially multidisciplinary studies. These changes have been detected in articles published in leading journals. In this context, the following research question arises: what is the profile of management accounting research in Spain and Brazil? Thus, the objective of this study is to identify and analyze the topics and research methods applied in management accounting studies in Spain and Brazil; to explain how these studies are important to further developing the field of management accounting; and to compare them with studies conducted by Hesford, Lee, Van Der Stede, and Young (2007 with respect to articles published in English-language journals. We first selected seven Spanish accounting journals listed in the IN-RECS database (Índice de Impacto de Revistas Españolas de Ciencias Sociales [Impact Factor of Spanish Social Science Journals] and found 421 articles published between 2001 and 2010. Second, we found 321 articles by selecting 29 Brazilian accounting, administration, management, finance, and business journals evaluated by Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçcoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior. The results show that management accounting studies have not figured prominently in the articles that were reviewed. Planning and control are among the most important subjects that emphasize performance measurement and evaluation. The existing studies are largely focused on case studies and surveys in Brazil as well as case studies and reviews in Spain.

  2. Informe Ana Libertad Baratti de la Cuadra : Informe de Radio Universidad Nacional de La Plata sobre la recuperación de la nieta número 115, por Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeau, Nora; Barnes de Carlotto, Estela; Lovazzano, Eduardo; Velazco, Luis; Cuadra, Estela de la; Cardoso, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Informe de Radio Universidad Nacional de La Plata sobre el hallazgo de la nieta número 115, recuperada por Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo: Ana Libertad Baratti de la Cuadra. El 22 de agosto de 2014 la ciudad de La Plata y el país entero celebró el encuentro de la nieta de la co-fundadora y primera presidenta de la Asociación Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo, Alicia “Licha” Zubasnabar de De la Cuadra: apareció Ana Libertad Baratti de la Cuadra. Héctor Carlos Baratti y de Elena de la Cuadra fueron se...

  3. Is the population properly informed about sleep disorders? A população está devidamente informada sobre os distúrbios do sono?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleida Pereira Camargo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the prior knowledge about sleep disorders and patient's ability to report their problems adequately to health professionals. METHODS: We analyzed 208 patient's records and extracted the following information: date of birth, gender, medical diagnostic hypotheses, patient's primary complaint in their words, considering the most appropriated semantic approximation to the perceptual phenomena, either by their own or by reasoning information from the partner. We compared the agreement (Kappa's test between patient's complaint and medical diagnosis. The 95% confidence interval was used to analyze proportions. RESULTS: We found strong correlations for bruxism; moderate for snoring, insomnia, nightmares, somniloquy, and restless legs syndrome; fair for excessive movement during sleep (EMDS and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA. CONCLUSIONS: The observed correlations were heterogeneous, but important diseases such as OSA and EMDS in children showed fair and weak correlations. This suggests an unsatisfactory knowledge level among the population about these disorders, despite their high prevalence and impact on patient's overall health.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento da população investigada sobre os distúrbios do sono e sua capacidade de reportá-los adequadamente aos profissionais de saúde. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados ​​208 prontuários de pacientes, dos quais foram extraídos os seguintes dados: data de nascimento, sexo, hipótese diagnóstica médica e queixa principal do paciente. Foram comparadas as queixas e as hipóteses diagnósticas, considerando-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% para as proporções entre estas variáveis, determinando-se sua concordância por meio do teste Kappa. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas concordâncias acentuadas em relação ao bruxismo; moderadas para ronco, insônia, pesadelos, sonilóquio e síndrome das pernas inquietas; concordância regular para movimentação excessiva durante o

  4. Is the population properly informed about sleep disorders? A população está devidamente informada sobre os distúrbios do sono?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleida Pereira Camargo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the prior knowledge about sleep disorders and patient's ability to report their problems adequately to health professionals. METHODS: We analyzed 208 patient's records and extracted the following information: date of birth, gender, medical diagnostic hypotheses, patient's primary complaint in their words, considering the most appropriated semantic approximation to the perceptual phenomena, either by their own or by reasoning information from the partner. We compared the agreement (Kappa's test between patient's complaint and medical diagnosis. The 95% confidence interval was used to analyze proportions. RESULTS: We found strong correlations for bruxism; moderate for snoring, insomnia, nightmares, somniloquy, and restless legs syndrome; fair for excessive movement during sleep (EMDS and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA. CONCLUSIONS: The observed correlations were heterogeneous, but important diseases such as OSA and EMDS in children showed fair and weak correlations. This suggests an unsatisfactory knowledge level among the population about these disorders, despite their high prevalence and impact on patient's overall health.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento da população investigada sobre os distúrbios do sono e sua capacidade de reportá-los adequadamente aos profissionais de saúde. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados ​​208 prontuários de pacientes, dos quais foram extraídos os seguintes dados: data de nascimento, sexo, hipótese diagnóstica médica e queixa principal do paciente. Foram comparadas as queixas e as hipóteses diagnósticas, considerando-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% para as proporções entre estas variáveis, determinando-se sua concordância por meio do teste Kappa. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas concordâncias acentuadas em relação ao bruxismo; moderadas para ronco, insônia, pesadelos, sonilóquio e síndrome das pernas inquietas; concordância regular para movimentação excessiva durante o

  5. Phytotoponymy and Synphytotoponymy in Western Granada Province (Andalusia, Spain

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    Benítez Cruz, Guillermo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project on the ethnobotany of the western section of the province of Granada, in southern Spain, a detailed study was made of place names derived from names related to plants (phytotoponyms and synphytotoponyms. The information —gathered from the Territorial Land Registry of Granada, the Regional Government of Andalusia and field work— has been included in a database written with the Microsoft Excel program. References to a total of 98 plant species were found in as many as 593 place names of the area. The authors comment on the environmental, paleophytogeographic and ethnobotanical significance of the species represented in the place names.

    En el marco de la investigación etnobotánica desarrollada en el poniente granadino, se ha realizado un estudio sobre la toponimia de la comarca con atención a los apelativos de origen vegetal (fitotopónimos y sinfitotopónimos. La información —obtenida de la Gerencia Territorial del Catastro de Granada, de la Junta de Andalucía y de nuestro trabajo de campo— se ha incluido en una base de datos con el programa Microsoft Excell®. Un total de 98 especies vegetales se encuentran representadas en la toponimia local, dando nombre a 593 lugares del territorio. Se aportan comentarios sobre el significado ecológico, paleofitogeográfico y etnobotánico de las especies reflejadas en la toponimia.

  6. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  7. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  8. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  9. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  10. Preferencias de los pacientes sobre la información de su enfermedad Patients' preferences for information in health care decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A Borracci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a pacientes que concurrían a servicios de cardiología para conocer cómo preferían ser informados sobre su estado de salud, y las características sociodemográficas asociadas con estas preferencias, considerando los siguientes ítems: conocimiento sobre la enfermedad, información sobre opciones terapéuticas y toma de decisiones. De 770 encuestados, 738 (95.8% respondieron completamente el formulario. Se observó una tendencia a confiar sólo en el médico para obtener información (81.7%, a querer conocer las opciones de tratamiento y poder opinar (85.9% y en menor medida, a la participación de la familia en las decisiones (63.2%. El 9.6% deseaba recibir la información mínima necesaria o "no saber nada" sobre una presunta enfermedad grave. Los varones fueron menos proclives a solicitar opciones y dar opinión (OR: 0.64, dando menos libertad a la participación familiar (OR: 1.31. Los de menor nivel socioeconómico reclamaron menos opciones (OR: 0.48 y dieron menor participación familiar (OR: 1.79. Los provenientes de otros países de Sudamérica tuvieron una menor tendencia a reclamar opciones y manifestar opinión (OR: 0.60; y los de menor nivel educativo confiaron menos en el conocimiento del médico (OR: 1.81, exigieron menos opciones (OR: 0.45 y prefirieron no conocer la gravedad de la enfermedad (OR: 0.56. El análisis de las variables demográficas permitió definir distintas preferencias de información asociadas a la edad, sexo, procedencia, educación, religión y estado de salud. Se concluye que, aunque es imperativo promover la autonomía del paciente, se deben conocer las preferencias individuales antes de informar y comprometer al paciente en el proceso de toma de decisiones sobre su enfermedad.A survey was carried out among patients who concurred to cardiologic services to know how patients preferred to be informed about their health status, and the demographic characteristics associated to these

  11. The Augustan poets and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Curchin, Leonard A.

    2002-01-01

    Los poetas augusteos tuvieron a su disposición abundantes informes históricos y geográficos sobre Hispania. Sin embargo, se diferencian mucho entre sí en su utilización de tales datos. Así, Virgilio, Ovidio y Propercio se contentan con repetir viejos temas de origen griego o republicano, tales como el ganado de Gerión y la puesta del sol en el océano ibérico. Solo Horacio trata sobre la Península Ibérica de manera innovadora. Entre sus referencias a los productos de Hispania, hallamos como pr...

  12. La religiosidad popular de los vallisoletanos en el siglo XVIII: El informe sobre las cofradías de la provincia de Valladolid de 1773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando MANZANO LEDESMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stvdia histórica: Historia Moderna, 2007, vol. 29, pp.279-305 José Ignacio RUIZ-RODRÍGUEZ confesionalización; historiografía; edad moderna=Confessionalization; Historiography; Modern Age 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} En el año 1773 el Intendente de Valladolid don Ángel de Bustamante remitió al Consejo de Castilla el Informe sobre las cofradías existentes en la capital y en los distintos partidos de su extensa provincia. De esta manera daba respuesta a la Orden Circular del Presidente del Consejo de septiembre de 1769, en que se le demandaba noticia exacta de todas las hermandades, cofradías, congregaciones, gremios y qualesquiera otra especie de gentes colegiadas que celebre una o más fiestas en el año. El presente artículo se propone realizar un acercamiento cuantitativo y cualitativo a la geografía cofrade de los vallisoletanos en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, valiéndonos para ello del valioso Informe sobre las cofradías de Valladolid y su provincia. La gestación, tramitación y resultados del denominado Expediente General de Cofradías, así como su inserción en el contexto religioso y político de la época, han sido ampliamente tratados en la bibliografía especializada sobre el tema. Sin embargo, el Informe elaborado por el

  13. Sobre la auditoría informática y LOPD desde la experiencia personal y profesional

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Rodríguez, Germán

    2009-01-01

    El libro que tiene en sus manos muestra las bases de la auditoría informática, haciendo una importante referencia a la ley de protección de datos vigente en el territorio español, partiremos desde su concepto, sus productos, sus tipos, sus aplicaciones e incluso llegaremos a ver como abordarla, como sé que todo esto es poco para un comité de dirección incluyo las bases de la protección de datos en España a día de hoy, y la demostración a un nivel muy básico de un programa qu...

  14. La producción científica internacional sobre competencias informacionales e informáticas: tendencias e interrelaciones The international scientific production about information and informatic competencies: trends and interrelationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se consideran en forma de dos clúster, los términos que mejor representan la formación en competencias informacionales e informáticas los últimos 30 años ("information literacy", "information skills" y "library skills" / "computer literacy", "internet literacy", "digital literacy" y "technological literacy". Se ha realizado una labor de análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo sobre una base documental sobre estas temáticas tras la consulta a tres bases de datos especializadas (LISA, LISTA, ERIC y tres multidisciplinares (ISI, FRANCIS y CINDOC, considerando en una primera etapa, el período 1997-2007 y en una segunda etapa de actualización, el período 2008-2009. El análisis ha permitido identificar la importancia, cada vez mayor, que tiene la formación y adquisición de competencias informacionales e informáticas, dado el volumen creciente de este tipo de publicaciones. No obstante, al realizar el análisis por clúster, que amplía y actualiza trabajos anteriores, se constata cómo en los distintos momentos hay una mayor preferencia por determinados términos o por determinadas competencias. Igualmente, este tipo de análisis evidencia que, aunque hay distintos trabajos que han definido, diferenciado y clasificado las competencias informacionales e informáticas, presentando como nivel complementario y precedente las segundas, en muchas áreas de conocimiento, esta diferenciación no es tan clara y hay un menor énfasis en las competencias informacionales desde la perspectiva actual ("information literacy" y/o "information skills", lo cual implica, para los profesionales de la información, seguir trabajando por el posicionamiento, tanto a nivel educativo como empresarial, de la necesidad de una formación continua en las competencias informacionales como elemento fundamental para el aprendizaje para toda la vida.In this work, the terms that best represent the training in information and computer competencies the last 30

  15. Desarrollo didáctico de aplicaciones fotogramétricas sobre soporte informático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier GÓMEZ LAHOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se llama la atención acerca de la escasez de reflexiones realmente pedagógicas tanto en la enseñanza de las disciplinas técnicas como en el empleo de los soportes informáticos para, a continuación, acometer una serie de reflexiones teóricas que permitan fundamentar una línea de actuación, tan heurística como didáctica, encaminada a desarrollar software docente en la enseñanza técnica y, en concreto, en las titulaciones de Ingeniero Técnico en Topografía e Ingeniero Superior en Geodesia y Cartografía impartidas en la E.P.S. de Ávila de la Universidad de Salamanca. Estas consideraciones van acompañadas de los resultados obtenidos por un desarrollo concreto en la línea mencionada aplicado en la docencia de la asignatura Fotogrametría III durante el curso 1998/99.ABSTRACT: This paper points out the fact that there is a lack of true pedagogic discussion on the teaching of the engineering curriculums and on the use of computers. Some ideas are put forward on the aim of establishing the fundamentáis of a teaching/learning software developing project. This software should be proficient in the technological teaching environment and, more concisely, in the Surveyor Engineer and Geodestic and Cartographic Engineer curriculums, both implemented at the Superior Engineering School of Ávila belonging to the Salamanca University. These considerations are supported by the results obtained on the application of a computer aided course covering the main program of the Photogrammetry III matter in the pastyear 1998/99.

  16. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  17. Representaciones socio-culturales sobre la menopausia: Vivencias del proceso en mujeres residentes en Albacete (España Socio-cultural representations about menopause: Experiences of the process in resident women in Albacete, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Gómez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Acercamiento a las representaciones sociales constitutivas de un fenómeno biológico-biográfico denominado climaterio, mediante los significados atribuidos por medio de los saberes, actitudes y comportamientos socioculturales de las mujeres en este periodo de su vida. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo mediante siete grupos focales (37 mujeres. Población de estudio: mujeres entre 45-55 años, residentes en la ciudad de Albacete. Resultados: proceso identificado con la edad biológica de las mujeres, con atributos negativos por su relación con el envejecimiento. Se relaciona también con la imagen social de la mujer y los roles socioculturales asignados clásicamente a este colectivo. Esta combinación de factores las conduce hacia un periodo de su vida tildado como "edad crítica", construcción en la que priman elementos biográficos sobre biológicos. Conclusión: Reconocer la "Variabilidad" de la vivencia del proceso. Esto entraría en conflicto con la actual tendencia biomédica, de protocolizar ciertas etapas relacionadas con el ciclo vital de las personas, intentando generar adscripciones unitarias basadas en entidades médicas construidas con fines operativos e instrumentales. Reconocer la "Vulnerabilidad" que supone la confluencia de diversas circunstancias, que las conducen, no sólo a enfrentarse con cambios físicos, emocionales y socioculturales, propios de esta etapa, sino a la realización de una evaluación retrospectiva crítica y profunda de la experiencia de vida, de la autobiografía.Objective: Approach to the social representations constituent of a biological-biographical phenomenon denominated climacteric, by means of the meanings attributed through socio-cultural knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the woman in this period of their life. Methodology: Qualitative study by means of seven focal groups (37 women. Population of study: women between 45-55 years, residents in the city of Albacete. Results: Process

  18. Impacto das atividades esportivas, informática e música sobre a vida de alunos de escola com educação em tempo integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daianne Pedrosa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2012v24n39p142 O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar qualitativamente o impacto social da educação integral em alunos da Escola Classe 08 de Taguatinga Norte–DF. Foi colhida uma amostra de 175 alunos do ensino fundamental, entre 6 e 12 anos, praticantes de atividades desportivas da educação em tempo integral como a ginástica rítmica, dança, handebol e futsal, além de música e informática, nos turnos matutino e vespertino. Foi utilizado um questionário contendo 15 perguntas e três alternativas como possibilidade de resposta. As crianças submetidas a educação integral apresentaram melhoras em relação à socialização, organização e disciplina, alimentação, e ampliação do conhecimento sobre novas modalidades esportivas.

  19. INFORME SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS Y EL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL HUMANITARIO EN EL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesa de derechos humanos y protección humanitaria del Oriente Antioqueño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe sobre la situación de Derechos Humanos y Derecho Internacional Humanitario en el Oriente del Departamento de Antioquia (Colombia es el producto del trabajo de la Mesa de Derechos Humanos y Protección Humanitaria del Oriente Antioqueño. Acompañados en la fundamentación y presentación por el equipo de profesionales de los proyectos Unidad Móvil de Derechos Humanos y Observatorio de Paz del Oriente Antioqueño, como apoyo técnico y en terreno a su labor. Se promueve como evidencia del compromiso de la Mesa en la defensa y promoción de los Derechos Humanos y de su fortalecimiento como escenario de articulación interinstitucional. Confluyen en ella organismos de carácter gubernamental y ciudadano de orden local, departamental e internacional querealizan el seguimiento a una de las crisis humanitarias de mayor dimensión en la geografía nacional a través de actividades como sesiones permanentes de observación y análisis a la situación social y política de la región, jornadas de acompañamiento a comunidades vulneradas o en riesgo, seguimiento en situaciones de emergencia mediante misiones a terreno, asesoría jurídica a las víctimas y fortalecimiento a la institucionalidad pública.

  20. Spanish report to the framework convention of United Nations on the Climatic Change. Informe de Espana a la Convencion Marco de las Naciones UNidas sobre el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has the following chapters: 1.- Synthesis of national report: main aspect of Spanish report. 2.- Reference frame: Spanish situation, the factors of risk, Spanish contribution to the CO[sub 2] emissions. 3.- Estimations of future climate. 4.- International engagements assumed by Spain. 5.- Evaluation and control of greenhouse gases

  1. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  2. Information to the public on risk prevention arising from energy production in nuclear power plants; Informacion al publico sobre prevencion de riesgos en la produccion de energia nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannangeli, C A; Bermudez, L A; Sanchez, R A [Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-12-31

    Full text: The lack of knowledge about ionizing radiation and the fear connected with their pacific applications, is a matchless fact, which is relevant in our society, promoting and important controversy. Several origin lines meet in this point: non pacific uses of nuclear energy, Chernobyl accident, final disposal of radioactive wastes, and manipulation of information against nuclear power. They are based on emotional strategies, producing a detriment in the value of impartial information, which lays in a secondary place. The aim of this paper is to analyze the conditions of a communication process, to transmit objective information about radiation, in different levels of reception, and present guide lines to socially relevant institutions, including physicians and health stations as well as public in general, in terms of training and contacts with groups closely related with radiation knowledge. To do this, a survey in a radius of 50 km around the nuclear stations to determine the factors affecting the perception of radiation risks was carried out. The results showed three outstanding factors: `fear`, `ignorance` and `exposed population` with different points of view related to the social context and individual characteristics of surveyed people. Within this framework, a health system for radiological events in three level of organization, as well as training programs and evaluation of the systems to face such events, is published. (author) [Espanol] Texto completo: El desconocimiento en torno a las radiaciones ionizantes y el temor que genera su uso pacifico, es un hecho incontrastable y evidenciable en nuestra sociedad, provocando un debate relevante. Convergen en este punto varias lineas de causalidad: la utilizacion belica de la energia nuclear, el accidente de Chernobyl, el destino de los residuos radiactivos, y la manipulacion de la informacion basada en una estrategia emocional, produciendose un detrimento en el valor de la informacion imparcial, que

  3. Adherencia a las guías de informe sobre investigaciones en revistas biomédicas en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demián Glujovsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento que los editores de las revistas indizadas en la base de datos LILACS tienen acerca de las Guías para informar y publicar sobre investigaciones -promovidas por la Red EQUATOR (Enhancing Quality and Transparency of Health Research-, los requisitos de las revistas para su uso y el conocimiento de los editores sobre los motivos de la baja tasa de uso. MÉTODOS: Se encuestó por correo electrónico a editores de LILACS sobre las Guías y su disponibilidad en el sitio web de EQUATOR y los requerimientos y dificultades para su uso. RESULTADOS: De los 802 editores, 16,4% respondieron la encuesta, más de la mitad dijeron no conocer las Guías (en especial STROBE y PRISMA y 30% tenían conocimiento sobre la Red EQUATOR. CONCLUSIONES: El primer estudio en América Latina y el Caribe sobre el conocimiento que tienen los editores de LILACS sobre las Guías revela que más de la mitad no conoce las Guías ni la Red EQUATOR.

  4. Informe Tebeosfera. La industria de la historieta en España en 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Barrero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Informe anual de la Asociación Cultural Tebeosfera (ACyT sobre la industria española del cómic, realizado con los datos del Gran catálogo de la historieta, sobre los tebeos distribuidos en España en 2016. / Anual report of the Tebeosfera Cultural Association (ACyT about the Spanish comics industry, based on the data from the Gran Catálogo de la Historieta (Spanish greatest comics catalog for all the titles distributed in Spain in 2016.

  5. Informe Tebeosfera 2014. La industria de la historieta en España en 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Barrero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Informe anual de la Asociación Cultural Tebeosfera (ACyT sobre la industria española del cómic, realizado con los datos del Gran catálogo de la historieta, sobre los tebeos distribuidos en España en 2014. Anual report of the Tebeosfera Cultural Association (ACyT about the Spanish comics industry, based on the data from the Gran Catálogo de la Historieta (Spanish greatest comics catalog for all the titles distributed in Spain in 2014.

  6. Informe Tebeosfera. La industria de la historieta en España en 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Barrero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Informe anual de la Asociación Cultural Tebeosfera (ACyT sobre la industria española del cómic, realizado con los datos del Gran catálogo de la historieta, sobre los tebeos distribuidos en España en 2017. / Anual report of the Tebeosfera Cultural Association (ACyT about the Spanish comics industry, based on the data from the Gran Catálogo de la Historieta (Spanish greatest comics catalog for all the titles distributed in Spain in 2017.

  7. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  8. Reforma fiscal con criterios ambientales: cómo puede estimular la creación de empleo / How Green Fiscal reform in Spain Could Stimulate Job Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2014-01-01

    burden. The document notes that Spain is the country of the European Union (EU) where environmental taxation has a lower percentage of relationship between environmental taxes and GDP: 1.6% compared to the EU average of 2.4%. A change in the tax distribution would mean that taxes related to energy...... of climate change, renewable energy and move towards a low carbon economy efficiency”. Español: Hay margen para incrementar la fiscalidad ambiental en el Estado español, según un estudio promovido por el IEB Un informe sobre fiscalidad ambiental encargado por el Instituto de Economía de Barcelona (IEB...

  9. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People Informe Bellagio sobre la actividad agropecuaria y la nutrición para la salud de las personas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.El Informe Bellagio sobre la actividad agropecuaria y la nutrición para la salud de las personas es el resultado de la reunión celebrada del 30 de octubre al 1 de noviembre del 2012 en el Centro Bellagio de la Fundación Rockefeller, ubicado a orillas del lago de Como (Italia. La reunión se basó en datos científicos, pero estuvo orientada a cuestiones de política. Se trataron ampliamente los temas de la función y la cantidad de las grasas saludables y las grasas poco saludables en los

  10. Impactos da tecnologia de informação sobre o trabalho de "colarinho branco" Impacts of information technology on "white collar" work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões Borges

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Grandes investimentos em tecnologia de informação (TI vêm sendo canalizados para a melhoria dos processos empresariais. Esses investimentos limitam-se, em geral, à automação pura e simples dos processos já existentes na companhia, os quais continuam sendo realiza-dos pelos mesmos profissionais e regidos pelos mesmos princípios anteriores à TI. Um corolário deste tipo de automação é o pequeno ganho de produtividade do trabalho de colarinho branco. Uma alternativa para este problema é a reengenharia de processos, que por meio do uso criativo da TI e da gestão por processos procura estabelecer novas formas muito mais eficientes de realizar o trabalho. Entretanto, tais formas alteram, freqüente e fundamentalmente, o perfil do profissional e a natureza de seu trabalho. É sobre estes impactos que estaremos discorrendo ao longo deste artigo.Huge investiments in information technology (IT have been directed to business process improvements. Generally, such investments are limited to the sole automation of already existing processes, which continue to be performed according to the same rules and by the same professionals prior to IT. A consequence of this kind of automation is the low producti-vity increase in white collar work. An alternative to this problem is business process reengi-neering, which, via the creative use of IT, strives to establish much more effective ways of performing work. However, very often such new ways affect the professional skills and the nature of the work. This paper discusses the impacts of IT on white collar work.

  11. La modernización del discurso jurídico español impulsada por el Ministerio de Justicia. Presentación y principales aportaciones del Informe sobre el lenguaje escrito

    OpenAIRE

    Montolío Durán, Estrella

    2012-01-01

    En los tres primeros apartados, este artículo presenta el propósito y el contenido del Informe de la Comisión de modernización del lenguaje jurídico, elaborado por la Comisión interministerial constituida por acuerdo del Consejo de Ministros de 30 de diciembre de 2009. Más concretamente, este trabajo describe las principales aportaciones de uno (el más amplio) de los seis trabajos de campo que fundamentan dicho informe: el Informe sobre el lenguaje escrito, elaborado por el grupo de investiga...

  12. "Sistema de Información Sanitaria sobre Lesionados de Tráfico" (SISLET: Fuentes de información Information Sources of a Health Information System on Traffic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ricart i de Mesones

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un sistema de información sanitaria sobre lesionados de tráfico. Los objetivos de este sistema de información son: conocer las características del grupo susceptible de lesionarse por accidente de trafico; saber la dimensión del problema; conocer las necesidades de recursos sanitarios; difundir los resultados en vistas a desarrollar campañas preventivas. Descripción de las medidas utilizadas y de los indicadores más importantes. Descripción y limitaciones de las fuentes de información adecuadas para un SISLET y de las fases de ejecución del sistema.Description of a system of sanitary information on injured persons of traffic. The aims(lenses are: to know the characteristics of the group capable of getting hurt for traffic accident; to know the dimension of the problem; to know the needs of sanitary resources; to spread the results in conference to developing preventive campaigns. Description of the used measurements and of the most important indicators. Description and limitations of the sources(fountains of information suitable(adapted for a SISLET and of the phases of execution of the system.

  13. Informação sobre contracepção e sexualidade entre adolescentes que vivenciaram uma gravidez Información sobre anticoncepción y sexualidad entre adolescentes que vivenciaron un embarazo Information about contraception and sexuality among adolescents who experienced a pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Norberta Bezerra de Moura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as fontes de informação sobre sexualidade e contracepção utilizadas por adolescentes que vivenciaram uma gravidez. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo realizado por meio de entrevistas com aplicação de formulário em amostra de 285 adolescentes, durante internação, para tratamento clínico ou resolução de gravidez, em quatro maternidades de Teresina-PI, no período de janeiro a março de 2006. RESULTADOS: Antes de engravidar, 89,5% das adolescentes possuíam informações sobre contracepção e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e 55% tinham alguém com quem se sentiam seguras para conversar sobre sexo e gravidez, sendo as amigas (36,6% a fonte de informação mais citada. Após a gestação, 75,5% delas receberam informações sobre contracepção e sexualidade, sendo o serviço de pré-natal (70,3% a principal fonte citada. CONCLUSÃO: Detectou-se mudança nas fontes de informação, após a gestação, caracterizada pela procura por fontes com embasamento científico.OBJETIVO: Describir las fuentes de información sobre sexualidad y anticoncepción utilizadas por adolescentes que vivenciaron un embarazo. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo realizado por medio de entrevistas con la aplicación de un formulario en una muestra de 285 adolescentes, durante su internamiento, para tratamiento clínico o resolución de problemas del embarazo, en cuatro maternidades de Teresina-PI, en el período de enero a marzo del 2006. RESULTADOS: Antes de quedar embarazadas el 89,5% de las adolescentes poseían informaciones sobre anticoncepción y enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles y el 55% tenían alguien con quien se sentían seguras para conversar sobre sexo y embarazo, siendo las amigas (36,6% la fuente de información más citada. Después de la gestación el 75,5% de ellas recibieron informaciones sobre anticoncepción y sexualidad, siendo el servicio de pre-natal (70,3% la principal fuente citada. CONCLUSIÓN: Se detectó cambios en

  14. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  15. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  16. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  17. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  18. Programas e intervenciones de apoyo a los cuidadores informales en España Supporting programs and interventions for informal care providers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Torres Egea

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuidar a personas con dependencia es una responsabilidad que implica a los familiares más directos. El cuidado individualizado suele recaer en una persona a quien se identifica como el cuidador principal. La sobrecarga que genera el cuidado continuado hace preciso que este cuidador reciba un soporte de los profesionales del ámbito sanitario y/o social. Desde el sector formal se realizan diversos programas e intervenciones, individuales o grupales, para dar soporte a los cuidadores de personas con dependencia. El presente trabajo analiza las publicaciones científicas, aparecidas en los últimos diez años, que tratan sobre diferentes programas e intervenciones de soporte a los cuidadores informales, y que surgen de la preocupación de diferentes profesionales por la calidad de vida y la salud de los cuidadores.Taking care of dependent people is a task the performance of which involves the family members. Individualized care burden is normally borne on only one person, who is identified as the main caregiver. The burden that these care activities generate makes necessary that care provider receives professional assistance from healthcare and social experts. From the formal area some programs and interventions, from both individuals and groups, are conducted to support care providers for dependent people. This work analyzes scientific publications, appeared in the last ten years, which focus on some programs and interventions to support non-professional caregivers and which arise out of some professionals worries for care providers health and quality of life.

  19. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  20. Economic crisis and nursing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.

  1. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  2. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  3. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  4. The Impact of Information Behavior in Academic Library Service Quality: A Case Study of the Science and Technology Area in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Fernandez-Marcial, Viviana; Gomez-Camarero, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the extent of service quality in Spanish university science and technology libraries, based on the expectations and perceptions of their users: faculty and researchers. Users' information behavior is analyzed with the specially designed BiQual tool, which reveals specific needs such as the greater importance of electronic…

  5. Influence of Irrigation Rate and Soil Type on the Vertical Migration of Iron and Manganese in the Soils of South-East Spain; Influencia de la Cantidad de Riego y Tipo de Suelo sobre la Emigracion Vertical de Hierro y Manganeso en Suelos del Sureste Espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.; Carpena, O. [Instituto Nacional de Edafologia y Agrobiologia, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, Murcia (Spain); Esparraguera, I.; Ortin, N.; Del Val, M.; La Cruz, F. de; Cellini, R. F. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-11-15

    The citrus plantations in south-east Spain, situated largely on calcareous soils which are submitted to intensive cultivation, are investigating nutritional changes caused mainly by deficiencies of trace elements, especially iron and manganese, which result in a lower yield and premature exhaustion of the trees. The paper deals with a radioactive tracer study of the behaviour of these ions in soils and with the factors influencing their migration to the root zone; the object of the work is to develop a rational and economic fertilization policy. The work has been based on two types of soil, representing extreme situations encountered in practice; one soil is calcareous and the other non-calcareous. A set of columnsiwas assembled, each column having a length of 1 m and a cross-section of 32 cm{sup 2} ; solutions of {sup 59}Fe and {sup 54}Mn were added to these columns both in sulphate and chelate form. A definite amount of water, proportional to the requirements .of citrus plantations, was intermittently passed through these columns. Soil samples were taken periodically and the total activity and the activity of the assimilable and non-assimilable fractions of the elements being studied were measured. At the same time an apparatus involving a collimated scintillation detector was developed to follow the vertical migration of these ions in soils; the water drained from the columns after each irrigation was analysed radiochemically for the same purpose. (author) [Spanish] Las plantaciones citrfcolas del sureste espanol, radicadas en gran parte sobre suelos calizos y sometidos a cultivos intensivos, experimentan con el tiempo alteraciones de orden nutritivo debido principalmente a deficiencias de oligoelementos, especialmente hierro y manganeso, que se traduce en una menor produccion y en un agotamiento prematuro de los arboles. En la presente comunicacion se estudia, mediante trazadores radiactivos, el comportamiento de estos iones en los suelos, asi como los factores

  6. Tangible fixed assets For SME: Portuguese and Spain evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria Lúcia; Abreu, Rute; Pérez-López, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this research is the application level of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SMEs provide by SME in Portugal and Spain. Indeed, the purpose of the research is comparing the accounting framework of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SME in Portugal and Spain. Also, it considers the information disclosure, conduct annually by the SME in both countries, comparing their similarities and differences. The methodology a used descriptive, pilot and explanatory a...

  7. ATON - Informe sobre el estado del arte de la FV integrada en edificación, y productos y tecnologías FV actuales con enfoque en la tecnología de capa fina

    OpenAIRE

    Masseck, Torsten; Fonseca Casas, Antoni; Godoy Muñoz, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Informe sobre el estado del arte de la FV integrada en edificación en el marco del projecto ATON (CENIT-E), convenio UPC-ACCIONA Instalaciones El proyecto ATON en su Actividad 10: Integración arquitectónica persigue la búsqueda de conceptos innovadores para la integración de sistemas fotovoltaicos de lámina delgada o Thin-film en entornos urbanos, con énfasis en edificios. En colaboración con Acciona, el equipo de trabajo de la UPC ha realizado estudios de integraciones singulares de in...

  8. Influencia de los factores emocionales sobre el informe de síntomas somáticos en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica: relevancia de la ansiedad

    OpenAIRE

    Perales-Montilla, Carmen M.; Duschek, Stefan; Reyes-del Paso, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de distintos tipos de síntomas somáticos en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica en comparación con un grupo control y analizar la capacidad predictiva de algunas variables psicológicas (ansiedad, depresión, apoyo social, autoeficacia y estrategias de afrontamiento) sobre el informe de estos síntomas. Método: Cuarenta y seis pacientes en tratamiento con diálisis y 30 personas sin enfermedad relevante equiparadas en variables sociodemográficas fueron evaluadas med...

  9. The siting of a research centre on clean coal combustion and CO{sub 2} capture in Spain: Some notes on the relationship between trust and lack of public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Espluga, J.; Real, M.; Sola, R. [University of Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims to gain a better understanding of the role played by trust in the context of scarcity of public information, vis-a-vis the installation of a Centre for Investigation in Advanced Technologies (Centro de Investigacion de Tecnologias Avanzadas, CITA) to be located in a coal-rich region of Spain. Data from semi-structured interviews (n = 15), a questionnaire survey (n = 400) and focus group sessions (2) are drawn together to reveal how the local community perceives the proposed CITA scheme, and how this relates to the level of trust placed in the project promoters. Results illustrate how a lay community gives meaning to an unknown technological project, trying to place it within its appropriate economic, social and political context, and relating it to prior knowledge and experiences. Results also show that, in contrast to certain risk communication theories, the public is able to place trust in a technological activity and their promoters despite a general lack of knowledge on either.

  10. Las Tecnologías de la Informacióny la Comunicación y los Indicadores de EvaluaciónUniversitaria en España. The Information Technology & Communication and University Evaluation Indicators in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cardona Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde todas las instituciones se proclama la importancia de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC en la educación, pero ¿se tiene esto en cuenta a la hora de evaluar las universidades?, ¿se recoge en los indicadores de evaluación? En España, al igual que en el resto de países de su entorno, las universidades están inmersas en un proceso de evaluación institucional. El catálogo de indicadores es parte fundamental del proceso evaluador. En este trabajo hacemos un breve análisis del catálogo de indicadores propuesto por el Consejo de Coordinación Universitaria en relación con su capacidad para medir la incorporación de las TIC en las universidades. Since all institutions are reaffirming the importance of Information Technology and Communication (ICT in education, but did you have this in mind when evaluating universities, Is reflected in the indicators for evaluation In Spain, as in other neighboring countries, universities are undergoing an institutional evaluation process. The catalog of indicators is a fundamental part of the assessment process. This paper is a brief analysis of the catalog of indicators proposed by the University Coordination Council in relation to its ability to measure the incorporation of ICT in universities.

  11. Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA) annual report 2006. Information about electricity activities; Asociacion Espanola de la Industria Electrica UNESA 2006 memoria estadistica. Informe sobre las actividades electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The annual report of UNESA, the industrial grouping of major power companies in Spain, gives statistical data relating to power generation, transmission and distribution and a summary of achievements during 2006. Power is generated from fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydro power. Cooperation of UNESA with international organizations is reported. Detailed figures are given for electricity production during the year. A summary of the report is available in English and Spanish on the website www.unesa.es.

  12. BAELO CLAUDIA Y POLLENTIA: NUEVAS EVIDENCIAS SOBRE LAS FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS EN LA HISPANIA ROMANA DE LOS SIGLOS I-II D. C. (Baelo Claudia and Pollentia: new evidence on the economic fluctuations in Roman Spain during the first and second centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La revisión cronológica de la necrópolis sureste de Baelo Claudia (Bolonia-Tarifa, Cádiz y la de Can Fanals, en Pollentia (Alcudia, Mallorca, ha permitido ampliar el conocimiento sobre las fluctuaciones económicas en la Hispania romana de los siglos I y II de nuestra era y los cambios sociales asociados a las mismas. Se ha obtenido una nueva confirmación del impacto de la gran crisis de tiempos de Tiberio en los registros funerarios de Baelo Claudia y Pollentia, detectada previamente en Ampurias o Emporiae (Gerona. La bonanza de la época de Claudio se puede comprobar en Baelo Claudia de forma más elocuente que en Emporiae. Ahora bien, esta coincidencia en el devenir económico se rompe a lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo I d. C., en concreto durante el periodo comprendido entre Nerón y principios de los Flavios. Es entonces cuando, frente a la decadente Ampurias, una pujante Pollentia sigue los pasos de la opulenta Baelo mostrando su mayor prosperidad. Sin embargo, esas tres ciudades romanas de Hispania mantienen un claro nexo basado en la exhibición durante ese periodo de su máxima complejidad social. Siempre se da una proporción directa entre la acumulación económica amortizada en los ajuares y la diferenciación entre los individuos, salvo en dos casos excepcionales. Uno, ya conocido, se refiere a la Ampurias de la segunda mitad del siglo I d. C., donde el empobrecimiento que la caracteriza se asocia con un incremento de la distancia social. Y, el otro, corresponde al extraño fenómeno documentado en la Pollentia del siglo II d. C. En esta sigue creciendo el gasto funerario, pero la diferenciación social medida desciende durante la primera mitad hasta caer abruptamente a lo largo de la segunda parte de dicha centuria. No obstante, lo más importante es que, por ahora, se detecta la misma evolución de la diferenciación social en Emporiae, Baelo Claudia y Pollentia desde la época de Tiberio hasta la primera mitad del

  13. Protocol between the Nuclear Protection and Safety Bureau of Portugal and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Spain on Technical Information concerning Nuclear Installations in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Protocol was concluded under the Agreement of the same date on the safety of nuclear installations in border areas. Its purpose is to prescribe the type of information referred to in the Agreement. It lays down in detail all the documents to be supplied concerning the siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, including the geological, seismological, meteorological, hydrological and ecological aspects of the sites concerned, for purposes of environmental protection; the characteristics of the projected installations and emergency plans must also be provided. Similarly to the Agreement, this Protocol will remain in force for a period of ten years. (NEA) [fr

  14. A falta de informação sobre os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados no Brasil The lack of information on Genetically Modified Organisms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Geoffroy Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre a rotulagem de produtos que apresentem em sua composição Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGM, também denominados de transgênicos. São abordadas as convenções, as leis e as normas referentes a esses produtos dispostos no mercado, a adequação dos mesmos às normas vigentes e sua aceitação pela sociedade. Dispõe também sobre a importância do princípio da precaução na avaliação da aplicação de novas tecnologias ou de tecnologias das quais não se conhece ou existam conhecimentos científicos relevantes quanto aos seus potenciais riscos ao meio ambiente, à saúde humana e à sociedade.This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO, also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  15. A survey on consumers' attitude towards storing and end of life strategies of small information and communication technology devices in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Juan, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses the current habits and practices towards the store, repair and second-hand purchase of small electrical and electronic devices belonging to the category of information and communication technology (ICT). To this end, a survey was designed and conducted with a representative sample size of 400 individuals through telephone interviews for the following categories: MP3/MP4, video camera, photo camera, mobile phone, tablet, e-book, laptop, hard disk drive, navigator-GPS, radio/radio alarm clock. According to the results obtained, there is a tendency to store disused small ICT devices at home. On average for all the small ICT categories analysed, 73.91% of the respondents store disused small ICT devices at home. Related to the habits towards the repair and second-hand purchase of small ICT devices, 65.5% and 87.6% of the respondents have never taken to repair and have never purchased second-hand, respectively, small ICT devices. This paper provides useful and hitherto unavailable information about the current habits of discarding and reusing ICT devices. It can be concluded that there is a need to implement awareness-raising campaigns to encourage these practices, which are necessary to reach the minimum goals established regarding preparation for reuse set out in the Directive 2012/19/EU for the category small electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Desigualdades en longevidad y calidad de vida entre Andalucía y España Inequalities in longevity and quality of life between Adalusia and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Ramos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El aumento experimentado en la esperanza de vida durante siglo xx hace más necesario el uso de indicadores que proporcionen información sobre la calidad de vida y su distribución en diferentes zonas geográficas. Para ello se describe, junto a la esperanza de vida (EV, la esperanza de vida sin discapacidad (EVSD por sexo y edad, y se estima la magnitud de sus desigualdades entre Andalucía y España. Material y método: Con los datos de mortalidad del Movimiento Natural de la Población, la Encuesta sobre Discapacidades, Deficiencias y Estado de Salud y las poblaciones del Instituto Nacional de Estadística del 1999 para Andalucía y España, se han construido las tablas de vida abreviadas, y a partir de ellas se ha calculado las EVSD mediante el método de Sullivan y se han obtenido la EV y la EVSD por edad y sexo de Andalucía y España. Resultados: La esperanza de vida fue menor en Andalucía que en España en todas las edades en varones y mujeres: al nacer fue de 73,9 y 80,9 años para varones y mujeres en Andalucía y de 75,0 y 82,1 años en España. Las desigualdades entre Andalucía y España en la EVSD fueron mayores a todas las edades, tanto en varones como en mujeres: 66,0 y 69,0 años para varones y mujeres de Andalucía al nacer y de 68,3 y 72,0 en España. Conclusiones: Andalucía tiene una menor longevidad y una peor calidad de vida que la media española, sobre todo en las mujeres mayores.Background: Because of the increase in life expectancy (LE throughout the twentieth century, indicators providing information on quality of life and its distribution in distinct geographical areas are required. We describe LE and life expectancy without disability (LEWD by age and sex and estimate the magnitude of inequalities between Andalusia and Spain. Material and method: Mortality data from the Natural Population Movement, the Survey of Disabilities, Deficiencies and Health Status, and the populations of the National Institute

  17. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  18. Patients' satisfaction with information on disease and morbidity La satisfacción del paciente con la información ofrecida sobre su enfermedad y morbilidad Satisfação do doente com a informação sobre a doença e morbidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Amado Martins

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study aimed to evaluate the relation between patients' satisfaction with information they have about their disease and its morbidity. A questionnaire was applied in two samples: 235 individuals with recent experience of illness (network sampling and 254 hospitalized cancer patients post-surgery (consecutive sampling. The Escala de Conhecimentos sobre a Doença(12 [Patients' Satisfaction with Information Questionnaire - PSIQ] and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist were used. Results show that participants were dissatisfied with information received and this dissatisfaction was more pronounced in hospitalized patients. An inverse statistically significant correlation (pOBJETIVO: el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la relación entre la satisfacción de los pacientes con la información sobre la enfermedad y su morbilidad. Metodología: se trata de un estudio descriptivo y de correlación resultante de la aplicación de un cuestionario a dos muestras; siendo una de 235 personas con experiencia reciente de enfermedad (muestra en redes y la otra de 254 pacientes hospitalizados después de una cirugía de cáncer (muestra consecutiva. Fue utilizada la Escala de Conocimientos sobre la Enfermedad y el Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. RESULTADOS: los encuestados se muestran insatisfechos con la información, y esta insatisfacción es más pronunciada en los pacientes hospitalizados. Existe una correlación inversa estadísticamente significativa (pO estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre a satisfação dos doentes com a informação sobre a doença e a sua morbidade. É um estudo descritivo-correlacional, resultante da aplicação de questionário a duas amostras: 235 indivíduos com experiência recente de doença (amostra em redes e 254 doentes oncológicos, internados pós-cirurgia (amostra consecutiva. Utilizada a Escala de Conhecimentos sobre a Doença e a Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Os resultados mostram que os

  19. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  20. Informe sobre la Situación Patológica de los Cacaotales en los Departamentos de Valle y Cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés O. Carlos

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available Tengo a honor informar al señor Ministro de Economía Nacional sobre el resultado de la Comisión que se me confirió para estudiar las enfermedades del cacao en los Departamentos del Valle y del Cauca. Es natural que por el relativo corto tiempo de que dispuse, el reconocimiento de las enfermedades dichas no sea completo, pero sí es base para algunas importantes observaciones que espero sirvan para dar a conocer en parte la lamentable situación en que se encuentra un cultivo que debe ser todo un programa del desarrollo agrícola del país.

  1. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  3. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  5. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  6. Reliability of information on varicella history in preschool children Confiabilidade da informação sobre antecedente de varicela em crianças pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Ferro Bricks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify how reliable is the information provided by parents about the history of varicella in their children. METHODS: 204 parents of previously healthy children attending two municipal day-care centers of São Paulo city were interviewed between August 2003 and September 2005. A standardized form was filled out with information regarding age, sex, history of varicella and other diseases, drug use and antecedent of immunization, After medical history, physical examination and checking of immunization records, 5 ml of blood were collected for ELISA (in house varicella test. Exclusion criteria were: age less than 1 year or more than 60 months, previous immunization against chickenpox, presence of co-morbidities or recent use of immunosuppressive drugs. Data were filed in a data bank using the Excel 2003 Microsoft Office Program and stored in a PC computer. The exact Fisher test was employed to calculate sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of history of varicella informed by children's parents. RESULTS: The age of the children varied from 12 to 54 months (median, 26 months; 49 (24% children had positive history of varicella, 155 (76% a negative or doubtful history. The predictive positive and negative values of the information were 90% and 93%, respectively (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of reliability of information about history of varicella informed by parents of children attending day care centers was high and useful to establish recommendations on varicella blocking immunization in day-care centers.OBJETIVOS: Verificar o grau de confiabilidade da informação fornecida pelos pais de crianças atendidas em creches sobre o antecedente de varicela. MÉTODOS: Os pais de 204 crianças previamente saudáveis matriculadas em duas creches da cidade de São Paulo foram entrevistados entre Agosto de 2003 e Setembro de 2005 para preenchimento de um questionário padronizado com informações sobre idade

  7. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-01-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO 2 emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO 2 emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV radiation during daily cycles on photosynthesis and two key enzymes involved in carbon incorporation, the carbonic anhydrase, and in inorganic nitrogen reduction, the nitrate reductase, of macroalgae from southern Spain are presented. During daily cycles, photoinhibition in several intertidal macroalgae, expressed as decrease in the effective quantum yield from the morning to noon time, was linearly dependent on the daily integrated irradiance. However, recovery, expressed as the increase in the effective quantum yield from noon to the afternoon, presented a different pattern; full recovery was found below daily integrated irradiance of 1.0 x10(4 kJ m-2. However, recovery reached only 50 % at higher irradiances. The existence of daily photoinhibition and full recovery in intertidal algae suggests that photoinhibition is a photoprotective mechanism against high solar radiation as in higher plants, and that patterns of photoinhibition and recovery are affected by accumulative doses. Activities of carbonic anhidrase and nitrate reductase were determined in three marine macroalgae (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis under full (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and excluded UV solar radiation (PAR. Under PAR + UV-A + UV-B, peaks of enzyme activity were found in P. cartilagineum during the evening, and accordingly to data previously published for other red macroalgae. This situation was modified by the absence of UV radiation since the increase in the activities was delayed several hours. In the three macroalgae and under full solar radiation, a significant and negative correlation was found only when data from nitrate reductase activity was shifted in time during at least four hours. This correlation is lost in Ulva rigida when UV radiation is excluded. The existence of these daily variations with a negative correlation of both enzyme activities could reflect a complex regulatory link between carbon and

  9. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  10. Digital signage sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Casademont Filella, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  11. New Strategies in Library Services Organization: Consortia University Libraries in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Duarte Barrionuevo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New political, economic, and technological developments, as well as the growth of information markets, in Spain have created a foundation for the creation of library consortia. The author describes the process by which different regions in Spain have organized university library consortia.

  12. Extracción de reglas de clasificación sobre repositorio de incidentes de seguridad informática mediante programación genética

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Montealegre, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se describe la obtención de reglas de clasificación sobre una colección de datos de incidentes de seguridad informática en un proceso de minería de datos, detallando el uso de la programación genética como un medio para modelar el comportamiento de los incidentes y representar las reglas en árboles de decisión. El proceso de extracción descrito incluye varios puntos, como la evaluación del enfoque de programación genética, la forma de representar a los individuos y la afinaci...

  13. Docencia sobre las fuentes comerciales de información de medicamentos y opinión de los estudiantes de medicina Teaching on the commercial drug information and medical students opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vallano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la opinión de los estudiantes sobre un seminario que enseña la interacción de los médicos con las fuentes comerciales de información de los medicamentos. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta a los estudiantes de tercero de medicina sobre un seminario que trataba de las fuentes comerciales de información de medicamentos. El seminario incluyó una videograbación de un representante comercial de una empresa farmacéutica que presentaba un nuevo medicamento a un médico, y ejemplos de información sobre medicamentos incluida en el catálogo comercial Vademécum Internacional y en los anuncios publicitarios. Se preguntó a los estudiantes el grado de interés y de satisfacción con el seminario y qué nivel de utilidad creían que podían tener las actividades desarrolladas en el seminario en su futuro profesional. En la valoración de la opinión se utilizó una escala de Likert (de 0 a 10 puntos. Resultados. De 107 estudiantes que asistieron a los seminarios, 101 (94% participaron en la encuesta. La edad media de los estudiantes fue de 21 años (desviación estándar -DE-: 2,2 años y 75 fueron mujeres (74%. La puntuación media del grado de interés fue de 7,4 (DE: 1,5, del grado de satisfacción de 7,5 (DE: 1,6 y del grado de potencial utilidad de 7,6 (1,6. Conclusión. Los estudiantes de medicina están interesados en las actividades docentes sobre las fuentes de información comercial, y consideran que pueden ser potencialmente útiles para su futuro profesional. Es necesario formar y preparar a los estudiantes de medicina para la interacción con las fuentes comerciales de medicamentos.Aim. To know the opinion of the students about the teaching activities carried out in a seminar about the interaction of physicians with the drug information sources from pharmaceutical companies. Subjects and methods. A survey was carried out to know the opinions from third year medical students after a seminar about drug

  14. Crisis económica al inicio del siglo xxi y mortalidad en España. Tendencia e impacto sobre las desigualdades sociales. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la actual crisis económica en la evolución de la mortalidad en España y sus efectos sobre las desigualdades sociales en la mortalidad en Andalucía. Se han utilizado las defunciones procedentes de las estadísticas vitales del Instituto Nacional de Estadística para los años 1999 a 2011, así como la población correspondiente del padrón municipal de habitantes. Se calcularon tasas ajustadas de mortalidad general y específica por sexo y edad. Para estimar las tasas de mortalidad general y las razones de tasas según el nivel de estudios, entre 2002 y 2010 se utilizó la Base de Datos Longitudinal de Población de Andalucía (cohorte censal del 2001. Los porcentajes de cambio anuales y las tendencias se calcularon mediante regresión joinpoint. En España no se observa ningún cambio de tendencia significativo en la mortalidad a partir de 2008. Desde 1999 se mantiene una tendencia descendente, en ambos sexos y por todas las causas, excepto en las enfermedades del sistema nervioso. La mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico acelera su decrecimiento desde 2003. Los suicidios no modifican su tendencia negativa a lo largo del periodo. En Andalucía, las desigualdades sociales en la mortalidad general aumentaron en los hombres desde el inicio de la crisis, en el año 2008, fundamentalmente por un mayor descenso en la mortalidad en los de mayor nivel de estudios que en el resto, en un contexto de descenso de la mortalidad. En las mujeres no se observan cambios en el patrón de desigualdad.

  15. Educando para la salud: conocimiento y fuente de información sobre Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida o SIDA Health education: knowledge and information sources on AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Bittencourt Westrupp

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Fueron aplicados 151 cuestionarios a los alumnos de una Escuela Estatal que enseña primaria, secundaria preparatoria (Níveles básicos de Educación, con edades entre 10 y 19 años, en Florianópolis en el Estado de Santa Catarina - Brasil. El objetivo era identificar: fuentes de información; mecanismos de transmisión; formas de prevención y el interés en obtener nuevos conocimientos sobre HIV/SIDA de los alumnos. Dentro de las respuestas, se descubrió que el 90.06% escucharon sobre SIDA a través de la televisión, el 29.13% conocían el tema por el profesor. Se observó también que los padres fueron citados 45.03% como fuente de referencia para complementar la información y los profesores 9.93%.Questionnaires were answered by 151 students, 10 to 19 years old, from an elementary, Jr. and Senior - high State School in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina -Brazil. The objectives were: to identify information sources; transmission mechanisms; prevention forms and the interest shown by students in acquiring new knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Based on the responses, author found out that 90,06% of the students had heard about AIDS on TV, 29, 13% had been informed about the theme through a teacher. It was also observed that 45,03% would seek for orientation from their parents, and 9,93% from their teachers.

  16. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  17. Reflexiones sobre el impacto de la crisis en la salud y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Vázquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la crisis económica, España continúa albergando un importante volumen de población extranjera, 5,7 millones (11,4%. Esta población, cuyas necesidades en salud son comparables a las de la población general, suele ser más vulnerable por su exposición a peores determinantes sociales (condiciones de vida, trabajo y riesgo de exclusión de los servicios sociales. En este artículo analizamos cómo la crisis económica afecta o puede afectar a la salud de la población inmigrante en España, a partir de los distintos factores poblacionales o institucionales que influyen en las consecuencias de la crisis y de los datos disponibles. Aunque la evidencia es limitada, se identifica en primer lugar un empeoramiento de algunos determinantes sociales, como mayores tasas de desempleo y peores condiciones laborales, que harían esperar un empeoramiento de la salud en esta población, como ya se ha descrito para la salud mental o se ha estimado para patologías infecciosas. En segundo lugar, ha habido un impacto directo de las decisiones políticas, que han excluido del derecho a la atención, con algunas excepciones, a la población en situación irregular. Finalmente, una reducción en la prioridad concedida a la adaptación de los servicios de salud a las características específicas de la población inmigrante (que en su inmensa mayoría se encuentra en situación regular, que junto a la introducción de nuevas barreras se traduce o traducirá en un peor acceso a los servicios de salud. Por tanto, se espera un mayor impacto de la crisis económica sobre la salud de la población inmigrante.

  18. La perspectiva de las cuidadoras informales sobre la atención domiciliaria: un estudio cualitativo con ayuda de un programa informático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rodríguez Mª Ángeles

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Existe en nuestro país un vivo debate sobre los modelos de atención domiciliaria que se deben desarrollar. Este estudio pretende conocer cómo perciben la calidad de la atención domiciliaria los cuidadores familiares de pacientes con cáncer en fase terminal, ancianos con demencia y personas intervenidas en programadas de cirugía mayor ambulatoria. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo de tipo fenomenológico basado en grupos de discusión (9, grupos triangulares (5 y entrevistas en profundidad (22. El estudio se realizó en Andalucía, durante los años 1999 y 2000. Los sujetos del estudio son los cuidadores principales de los pacientes que reciben atención domiciliaria desde los centros de salud. La información se ha analizado mediante análisis de contenido apoyado por el software NUDIST- 4. Las variables de análisis han sido las del modelo SERVQUAL. Resultados. Para las cuidadoras de pacientes con cáncer las dimensiones más importantes de la calidad de la atención domiciliaria son la Capacidad de Respuesta y la Accesibilidad. Elementos negativos que perjudican la accesibilidad son: la falta de cobertura de atención domiciliaria fuera del horario normal, la dificultad de contactar por teléfono, la tardanza en acudir y las visitas sólo a demanda. Las cuidadoras de pacientes intervenidos en cirugía mayor ambulatoria quieren Seguridad y la Fiabilidad. Las cuidadoras de ancianos con demencia consideran prioritario que se les proporcionen los materiales que necesitan para cuidar al enfermo. Conclusiones: Las expectativas de cuidadores y pacientes varían en función del problema de salud. Por lo tanto, las características de la atención domiciliaria tendrán que variar también en función de ello. Se hace necesario un modelo flexible que sea capaz de adaptarse a las necesidades de los diferentes tipos de pacientes y las circunstancias también distintas de sus cuidadores familiares.

  19. Apuntes sobre esporotricosis

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Se hace una breve reseña histórica de las primeras comunicaciones sobre esporotricosis. Se destaca la amplia difusión de la enfermedad en nuestro país. 3. Se hace notar la no existencia de datos bibliográficos sobre formas extracutáneas. 4. Se llama la atención sobre la eficaz ayuda de la intradermo-reacción con esporotriquina en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. 5- Se comunica un caso de esporotricosis verrugosa tratado con anfotericin B, con excelentes resultados

  20. Apuntes sobre esporotricosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Londoño

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una breve reseña histórica de las primeras comunicaciones sobre esporotricosis. Se destaca la amplia difusión de la enfermedad en nuestro país. 3. Se hace notar la no existencia de datos bibliográficos sobre formas extracutáneas. 4. Se llama la atención sobre la eficaz ayuda de la intradermo-reacción con esporotriquina en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. 5- Se comunica un caso de esporotricosis verrugosa tratado con anfotericin B, con excelentes resultados

  1. Inteligência artificial, tecnologias informacionais e seus possíveis impactos sobre as Ciências Sociais Artificial intelligence, informational technologies and their potential impacts on Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Dwyer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa algumas possibilidades de transformação das Ciências Sociais e, de maneira mais específica, na Sociologia, levantadas a partir do desenvolvimento e uso, nessas ciências, de tecnologias informacionais. Nas sociedades contemporâneas o aprofundamento do uso destas novas tecnologias pode trazer importantes conseqüências para as Ciências Sociais afetando, potencialmente, o ensino, a pesquisa e a construção de teoria. No Brasil podemos ver que um número crescente de informações é disponível em formato eletrônico, e estas podem ser analisadas para aumentar nossos conhecimentos sobre a sociedade. De fundamental importância é que o crescente recurso a tecnologias informacionais seja acompanhado por avanços na capacidade de teorização.This article examines some possibilities for change in Social Sciences and more specifically, on Sociology derived from development and use of informational technologies within that field. In contemporary societies, the growing use of those technologies may bring about important consequences for social sciences, potentially affecting teaching, research and theory building. In Brazil, there is more and more information available in electronic format, which could be analyzed to enlarge our knowledge about society. It is extremely important that the growing resorting to informational technologies is followed by advances in theorization abilities.

  2. Informática na educação: um olhar sobre a utilização das novas tecnologias no processo de ensino-aprendizagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Oliveira Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the new information and communication technologies (ICT in the educational process as an auxiliary tool in learning. It was identified the role of technologies in education, the necessary demands for the use of Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching-learning process, the importance of using technological tools such as the computer in school and the influence of ICT in pedagogical practice In the classroom. The data collected in the case study show some positive and negative impacts in relation to the application of ICT in Education as well as its influence in the construction of differentiated methods for use in the teaching and learning process. Finally, in this work, we present the contribution of the use of information and communication technologies in teaching and, consequently, in schools.

  3. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  4. Report of detailed prospection in Las Canas district[Study of Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Informe sobre la prospeccion detallada del Distrito Las Canas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, P; Bellon, F; Califra, A; Coronel, N; Massa, E

    1979-07-01

    The present report has like an objective a synthesis of the developed activities in the district Las Canas between the 10 of August of 1978 and the 16 of June of 1979, the methodology used, obtained results, as well as a valuation of the realised one, makes possible the global and fast visualization of information on the prospection of uranium minerals in the country.

  5. Radioactive waste communication policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1993-01-01

    ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are developed following a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. As in most countries, Spanish public opinion is concerned with the most activities related to radioactivity or rad-waste management due to different facts but mainly to a lack of information on the matter. This situation provides misuse of information on it by some politicians, green groups and media which increases distrust of public on responsible companies and institutions. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop long-term information policy, due to the fact that results in communication are reached in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out a Communication Plan (CP) which has been implemented in a continuous way with success around the area of the disposal site of low and intermediate level wastes as well as around an old uranium mill factory in which remedial actions are being implemented. The implantation of CP at a national level is being done stepwise. The more relevant issues related to the radioactive waste situation in Spain, as well as the communication actions are explained in this document

  6. Estrategia teórico metodológica subyacente en el Informe sobre el Estado de las Clases Obreras Argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mendizábal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No es usual realizar el abordaje teórico metodológico del Informe elaborado por Juan Bialet Massé en 1904. El propósito es llenar ese vacío y difundir el compromiso del autor con esta obra que aún hoy sorprende a los investigadores en ciencias sociales del trabajo. El interrogante fundamental, ¿cuál es la estrategia teórico metodológica que subyace en el Informe? Especial hincapié se hará en el aspecto metodológico, destacando el uso precursor de los métodos mixtos -mixed methods- y la integración de ambos estilos. Desde el punto de vista teórico se destaca el abordaje interdisciplinario al estudio del trabajo obrero subrayando la similitud con la intervención ergonómica francesa

  7. Informática Educacional: uma Análise sobre sua Difusão em Escolas Municipais do Ensino Fundamental I em Guaratinguetá - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Airton Ferreira da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma questão sempre discutida nas políticas educacionais é a da formação inicial e continuada dos professores, o que constitui um dos pilares do Plano de Desenvolvimento da Educação (PDE. Surgiram os primeiros projetos, com destaque para o EDUCOM, projeto público que trata da informática educacional. A pesquisa realizada teve o objetivo principal de verificar a difusão e a didática nas escolas municipais de Guaratinguetá. Verificou-se que neste município foi realizada licitação para escolha da empresa responsável pela implantação da informática educacional. A Futura Educacional, por meio do Planeta Educação, possui um projeto pedagógico multidisciplinar e uma estrutura planejada capaz de trazer bons resultados a médio e longo prazo. Os resultados de uma pesquisa de satisfação feita pela parceria demonstraram que o projeto está no caminho certo e, embora ainda seja uma novidade no meio educativo, comunidade, alunos e professores observam a relevância da informática no ambiente educacional.

  8. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  9. Naval Assistance to Spain and the Triple Entente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I Spain rendered military support to the Triple Entente, avoiding the regime of neutrality. Five trawlers, converted into minesweepers were sold to Russia and eight – to Italy. Data, concerning France, vary. There is information about no less than 27 trawlers. But probably 243 watercrafts were sold to France and 14 were contracted to build.

  10. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  11. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  12. Development of an informative system on aspects of radiological protection in the medical practices; Desarrollo de un sistema informativo sobre aspectos de proteccion radiologica en las practicas medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Gonzalez R, N.; Hernandez A, R.; Valdes R, M.; Cardenas H, J.; Zaldivar H, W. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Diaz B, M.; Machado T, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Today in day is difficult to imagine the development of the medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse illnesses without the use of the ionizing radiations. In spite of the diffusion and application of these practices, the patients and the public in general don't have full conscience of like the procedures are carried out and the risks that these involve. For it diverse international and national organizations in the last years recommend to include in the programs of radiological protection, all the information that should be given to the patients and the one public that attend as users to the medical institutions to undergo to procedures that imply the use of the ionizing radiations. In Cuba a growing and quick tendency exists to the introduction of nuclear techniques for medical ends, however paradoxically the relative aspects to the communication to the patients and the public in general about the risks of the procedures to that they will be subjected and in consequence on the measures to minimize them is not adequate. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned, specialists of national centers linked to the control and consultant ship in the topics of radiological protection in the medical practices that use ionizing radiations, they worked in the country in the design of an information system that should contribute to elevate the population's culture before the mentioned aspects. The present work describes the structure of this system in function of the different medical attention levels of our national health system. Additionally it exposes the development of a package of varied informative and training tools among those that are folding, posters, guides, instructions, CD Show that its approach general and specific aspects of the uses and risks of medical practices in nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy directed so much to health professionals, patients as public in general. (Author)

  13. Trabalho informal e território : aportes sobre o comércio ambulante na área central do Recife-PE

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, João Gabriel Nascimento de

    2014-01-01

    A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo central analisar os territórios do trabalho informal da área central da cidade do Recife, mais especificamente o universo da informalidade dos trabalhadores ambulantes, atividade que atua como subterfúgio para minorar as agruras oriundas da exclusão dos postos de trabalho que é submetida parcela da mão de obra urbana. Para tanto, reconstitui-se os processos sociais que originaram e condicionaram esta modalidade de trabalho. Realizou-se uma breve discussão ...

  14. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  15. Costes asociados a las horas de cuidado informal de los mayores dependientes en un ámbito rural Costs associated to informal caregiving hours for older people living in rural communities [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moya Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el coste asociado a las variables que mejor predicen las horas de cuidado informal (CI en mayores residentes en su domicilio con algún grado de dependencia para las actividades de la vida diaria (AVD.Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal en 241 personas mayores de 64 años, de ámbito rural y de ambos sexos (un 37,8% hombres y un 62,2% mujeres. La media (desviación estándar de edad fue de 81,07 (7,01 años. Mediante el cuestionario RAI-HC (Resident Assessment Instrument Home Care se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, dependencia en AVD y horas de CI recibido. Se empleó el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple para determinar la relación existente entre la variable dependiente horas de CI y el total de variables independientes, sociodemográficas, de las actividades básicas de la vida diaria e instrumentales.Resultados: Las variables que mejor explican las horas de Cl son vivir solo, la necesidad de ayuda para comer, preparar comidas, moverse en la cama y salir a la calle, que representan el 46,3% de la variabilidad en la necesidad de horas de CI. Los coeficientes estandarizados mayores corresponden a las variables dependencia para comer (0,272 y para preparar las comidas (0,205. Ser dependiente para comer supone un incremento de 275 h de CI anual y un coste incremental asociado de 2.406,15 €/año. La dependencia para la preparación de comidas supone un incremento de 307,2h anuales y un coste incremental asociado de 2.688,18 €/año. La dependencia en función de las AVD tiene un coste de entre 4.972,72 y 21.479,15 € por año.Conclusiones: Casi la mitad del coste de las horas de CI que precisa una persona mayor con algún grado de dependencia se puede atribuir a vivir solo y a la necesidad de ayuda para un reducido grupo de AVD fáciles de evaluar, como comer, cocinar, moverse en la cama y salir a la calle.Objectives: To determine the costs associated with the variables that best predict hours of

  16. Avaliação das informações sobre rinite alérgica em sites brasileiros na rede mundial de computadores (Internet Evaluation of Brazilian web site information on allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Victor España Rueda Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A rede mundial de computadores (Internet é, atualmente, fonte de informação sobre saúde para leigos e profissionais da área médica. A Rinite Alérgica é uma doença muito prevalente que chega a atingir mais de 10% da população geral, causando queda da qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os princípios éticos de sites brasileiros que divulgam informações a respeito do tema "rinite alérgica". FORMA DE ESTUDO: revisional. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi feita avaliação de 173 sites brasileiros encontrados através de quatro mecanismos de busca (Google, Yahoo, Altavista e Radar Uol. Os sites foram avaliados de acordo com o Manual de Princípios Éticos para Sites de Medicina e Saúde do CREMESP (Conselho Regional de Medicina do Estado de São Paulo, de acordo com os itens transparência, honestidade, qualidade, consentimento livre e esclarecido, privacidade, ética médica, responsabilidade e procedência. RESULTADOS: Entre os sites analisados, 149 (86,1% não estavam de acordo como Manual de Princípios Éticos para Sites de Medicina e Saúde do CREMESP. As proporções de irregularidades entre os itens avaliados foram: qualidade (84,4%, privacidade (46,2% honestidade (18,5%, consentimento livre e esclarecido (15,6%, responsabilidade (13,9%, transparência (12,1%, ética médica (2,3%. Havia informações inexatas em 24,3% dos sites analisados. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos sites estudados contendo informações sobre rinite alérgica fere os princípios éticos para sites do CREMESP. Tanto a qualidade em geral de grande parte dos sites brasileiros que abordam o tema "rinite alérgica", quanto à qualidade das informações por eles divulgadas, são insuficientes para satisfazer a médicos e pacientes.Nowadays, the World Wide Web (Internet is an information source for non-experts and physicians. AIM: To evaluate, based on ethical principles, Brazilian web sites information about "allergic rhinitis". Allergic rhinitis is a very common disease

  17. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  18. Información sobre las secuelas y futuros riesgos para los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma Information on late effects and future risks for retinoblastoma survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schwartz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de sobrevida de los pacientes con cáncer en la infancia han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Se observan secuelas como consecuencia de esta enfermedad y su tratamiento. Los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma presentan efectos adversos como consecuencia de la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia. Las formas bilaterales irradiadas presentan un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar un segundo cáncer. Tanto los casos que presentaron retinoblastoma unilateral o bilateral pueden transmitir esta enfermedad a su descendencia. El diagnóstico de este tumor es excepcional después de los 4 años de edad y no se sabe claramente qué conocimiento tienen estos sobrevivientes del diagnóstico, del tratamiento y de los futuros riesgos. El consentimiento informado y el posterior resumen de historia clínica no aclaran demasiado a los padres. Los pacientes curados de retinoblastoma se verían beneficiados con un seguimiento prolongado en las instituciones en que fueron tratados, ya que les permitiría recibir información acerca de lo padecido, del tratamiento, de los riesgos y se podrían identificar las consecuencias posteriores de la enfermedad y su tratamiento.The survival rates of childhood cancer have increased in the past few decades. Late consequences related to the cancer and the treatment are observed. The late effects in retinoblastoma survivors are related to the surgery, the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy. Patients with irradiated bilateral retinoblastoma are at high risk to develop a second cancer. Survivors of bilateral or unilateral forms could transmit this disease to their offspring. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma is exceptional after 4 years of age, and it is not clear whether these survivors have knowledge of their diagnosis, treatment and future risks. The informed consent and the summary of the clinical histories do not help to clarify the situation. It will be of great benefit for the patients cured of retinoblastoma

  19. Espacio público informal. Apreciaciones sobre la infraestructura y los espacios de uso colectivo en el campamento de Pudeto Bajo de Ancud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Una dimensión de los espacios públicos poco abordada, es la presente en los asentamientos urbanos informales, campamentos o barriadas. Aquí, el espacio público se presenta como un lugar socialmente compartido pero además, como una infraestructura funcional a los mecanismos de sobrevivencia. En el caso del campamento de Pudeto Bajo en Ancud se puede apreciar claramente la dimensión operativa de estos espacios públicos vinculados a las actividades laborales u oficios, tales como la pesca artesanal, accesos compartidos a las viviendas, lugares de acopio de materias primas o herramientas de pesca o como simples patios de juego o traspaso. Al mismo tiempo los espacios públicos de mayor escala se presentan en los bordes, como fronteras entre el campamento y la ciudad actuando como amortiguadores de una relación urbana muchas veces compleja e incluso conflictiva. El rol de estas categorías espaciales es fundamental para el desarrollo del asentamiento: por una parte los espacios públicos interiores vinculados al trabajo evita la generación de espacios en desuso y abandono, y por otra parte los espacios públicos de frontera median la tensión inherente entre las formas de producción urbana informal y la ciudad formal o planificada.

  20. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  2. Social perception and public information in the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The investigation in perception of the risk, the studies on perception of the nuclear risk in Spain and Public Information and the social acceptance of nuclear energy in Spain are discussed in this paper

  3. Informe sobre la fiebre amarilla silvestre en la región del Meta, desde julio 1934 hasta diciembre de 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell Manrique

    1938-02-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de 1934 el Padre Francisco Savary, misionero de la Compañía Montfort, da la voz de alarma acerca de unos casos de fiebres que se han presentado en unas veredas del vecindario de Restrepo y cuyo cuadro clínico corresponde al descrito en el capítulo de fiebre amarilla de su Manual de Misionero. Se practica una primera investigación encontrando, en efecto, manifestaciones mórbidas que sugieren fiebre amarilla. El brote presenta una característica extraña que confunde a primera vista la investigación, en un momento en que la noción de la fiebre silvestre, o sea sin Aedes aegypti, no está aún generalizada. No se encuentra tal zancudo en la región. A consecuencia de un informe de la Dirección Nacional de Higiene, el Dr. E. R. Rickard, médico de la Fundación Rockefeller, baja a Villavicencio y me deja instrucciones precisas, con elementos de investigación. En esta época el autor era Director Intendencial de Higiene. Se toman 30 muestras de sangre distribuídas entre personas convalecientes de ataques de la enfermedad, entre personas que moraban en las casas en que habían ocurrido casos y entre compañeros de trabajo de personas atacadas. De las muestras sometidas a la prueba de inmunidad para fiebre amarilla, 20 resultaron positivas, 2 inconclusivas y 8 negativas. Estos resultados traen por consecuencia el establecimiento de una comisión de investigación epidemiológica en la región de Restrepo.

  4. A produção sobre aprendizagem informal nas organizações no Brasil: mapeando o terreno e rastreando possibilidades futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Reatto

    Full Text Available A aprendizagem informal é entendida como aquela baseada na experiência intencional, mas não formalmente estruturada; induzida por um processo de reflexão crítica, ação, pró-atividade e criatividade; incrustada no contexto organizacional e nas práticas cotidianas. Pode ser planejada ou não, embora envolva algum grau de consciência de quem aprende. Sua relevância para o ambiente de trabalho tem sido atestada por vários autores. Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar, descrever e analisar a produção a respeito dessa temática no Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2012. O conjunto de 21 artigos selecionados para fazer parte desta revisão reúne estudos teóricos e empíricos publicados em periódicos nacionais da área de Administração e avaliados com conceito B2 ou superior pelo WebQualis da CAPES. O estudo envolveu duas etapas. Numa primeira etapa definiram-se as fontes de dados e amostra a ser trabalhada. Uma segunda etapa consistiu na análise dos artigos a partir das seguintes dimensões: foco dos estudos (origem, tema e objetivos, nível de aprendizagem, autores referenciados, perspectivas teóricas, posicionamentos epistemológicos, tipos de pesquisa, dados de contexto da produção e principais achados. Os resultados mostram uma produção dispersa que ainda precisa ser aprimorada em relação aos arcabouços teóricos tomados como referência para o aprofundamento do tema.

  5. Estudio sobre la corriente migratoria contemporánea en españa: desarrollo económico e integración socio-afectiva Study Of The Migratory Movement In Contemporary Spain: Economic Development And Socio-Emotional Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido indagar sobre la situación laboral y el grado de integración socio-afectiva de la población migratoria latina en la Región de Castilla La Mancha-España en las condiciones de un mundo crecientemente globalizado. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo sobre la base de dos encuestas, utilizando un Diseño Exploratorio. Una, la principal, a los inmigrantes latinoamericanos que viven en municipios de Castilla-La Mancha y la otra, a sus familias residentes en los países de origen - en esta fase sólo con los residentes en Argentina-. Para aplicar el cuestionario a la población inmigrante en Castilla-La Mancha se trabajó con una muestra no probabilística, intencional, de 206 casos. Los resultados muestran que esta población ha obtenido una rápida inserción laboral y sobre esa base ha generado una actitud favorable para con la integración hacia la sociedad receptora y en suma un cierto optimismo para con su proyecto migratorio en ese país.This research was conducted on the basis of two surveys, using an Exploratory Design. One, the main, Latin American immigrants living in towns of Castilla-La Mancha and the other, their families residing in the countries of origin - at this stage only residents in Argentina. To implement the questionnaire to the immigrant population in Castilla-La Mancha was worked with a sample, intentional, with 206 cases. The results show that this population has obtained a rapid entry into the labour market and on that basis has created a favourable attitude towards integration into the host society and a certain amount of optimism for his proposed immigration in this country.

  6. Obesidade: atualização sobre sua etiologia, morbidade e tratamento Obesity: updated information about its etiology, morbidity and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pamfilio Prado de FRANCISCHI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As tendências de transição nutricional ocorridas neste século direcionam para uma dieta mais ocidentalizada, a qual, aliada à diminuição progressiva da atividade física, converge para o aumento no número de casos de obesidade em todo o mundo. Isso representa aumento na morbidade e na mortalidade associadas à obesidade, já que esta é fator de risco para várias doenças como diabetes tipo II, hipertensão, doenças cardiovasculares e cálculo na vesícula biliar. A obesidade se apresenta não apenas como problema científico e de saúde pública, porém como grande indústria que envolve o desenvolvimento de fármacos, de alimentos modificados e estratégias governamentais estimulando a prática regular de atividade física e a orientação alimentar a fim de promover melhores hábitos. Assim, o conhecimento das causas e estratégias preventivas da obesidade é o objeto de estudo de pesquisadores de diferentes centros. Esse artigo tem como objetivo rever esses estudos, abordando o aumento na prevalência e incidência da obesidade, doenças relacionadas ao excesso de peso e os tratamentos para redução da gordura corporal.The trend in nutritional transition in this century leads to an occidentalized diet, which, allied to a decrease in physical activity, results in increasing of obesity all over the world. It raises the risk of morbidity and mortality, since obesity is the first step to several diseases such as Diabetes type II, hypertension, cardiovascular and gallbladder diseases. Obesity is not only a scientific and public health problem, but also an industry of pharmacos, special foods and governmental strategies to encourage people to be more active and to provide more food information in order to promote better habits. Several studies all around the world discuss the causes and treatments for obesity. In this way, this paper summarizes these researches, approaching the elements associated with higher obesity incidence and

  7. INFORME SOBRE EL X CONGRESO DE FORMACIÓN DEL PROFESORADO: LA FORMACIÓN DEL PROFESORADO ANTE EL FENÓMENO DE LA VIOLENCIA Y CONVIVENCIA ESCOLAR (Cuenca, 3, 4, 5 y 6 de junio de 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio Palomero Pescador

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento es un informe detallado sobre el «X Congreso de Formación del Profesorado: la Formación del Profesorado ante el Fenómeno de la Violencia y la Convivencia Escolar», celebrado en el Teatro Auditorio de Cuenca (España los día 3,4,5 y 6 de junio de 2002. En él se señalan los antecedentes del mismo; su justificación y objetivos; el programa desarrollado; las instituciones organizadoras, patrocinadoras y colaboradoras que hicieron posible su puesta en escena; el nombre de los miembros de sus comités organizador y científico y del conjunto de los congresistas; la procedencia de todos ellos por países, ciudades, universidades u otras instituciones; las conclusiones del mismo (La Declaración de Cuenca; la valoración que de él hicieron los propios congresistas; y finalmente, las referencias bibliográficas de las ponencias y comunicaciones presentadas en el citado Congreso, más de 150 documentos en total.

  8. Informe sobre el "XI Congreso de Formación del Profesorado: Europa y calidad docente ¿convergencia o reforma educativa?". Segovia, 17, 18 y 19 de febrero de 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio PALOMERO PESCADOR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento contiene un informe detallado sobre el "XI Congreso de Formación del Profesorado: Europa y Calidad Docente ¿Convergencia o Reforma Educativa?", celebrado en la Escuela Universitaria de Magisterio de Segovia los días 17, 18 y 19 de febrero de 2005. En él se señalan los antecedentes del mismo; su justificación y objetivos; el programa desarrollado; las instituciones organizadoras, patrocinadoras y colaboradoras que hicieron posible su puesta en escena. Se referencian las ponencias (18 y las comunicaciones (80, presentadas al mismo. Se deja también constancia de "La declaración de Segovia", es decir, de las conclusiones de este congreso, que ofrecen un perfil constructivo y crítico. Finalmente, se hace una valoración de dicho encuentro y se concluye con un texto que pretende reflejar la línea de trabajo y la intencionalidad del mismo.

  9. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    OpenAIRE

    Sira M. Allende; Carlos N. Bouza

    2002-01-01

    El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el anal...

  10. Sobre software libre

    OpenAIRE

    Matellán Olivera, Vicente; González Barahona, Jesús; Heras Quirós, Pedro de las; Robles Martínez, Gregorio

    2004-01-01

    220 p. "Sobre software libre" reune casi una treintena de ensayos sobre temas de candente actualidad relacionados con el software libre (del cual Linux es su ex- ponente más conocido). Los ensayos que el lector encontrará están divididos en bloques temáticos que van desde la propiedad intelectual o las cuestiones económicas y sociales de este modelo hasta su uso en la educación y las administraciones publicas, pasando por alguno que repasa la historia del software libre en l...

  11. Rhabditid species (Nematoda, Rhabditida recorded in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolafia, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.

    Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.

  12. The Journal of A. v. Humboldt in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner, Ulrike

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish diary can surprisingly not be found in his bounded diaries from his American travels, but in a separate folder of his legacy in Berlin, where Humboldt collected material which he wanted to use for his publication about Spain. So it remained undiscovered until recently. Humboldt’s notes contain geognostic descriptions as well as his observations about climate, vegetation, electricity of the atmosphere, etc. The comparison with Humboldt’s publication of 1825 facilitates to gain insight into his scientific methods.

    El diario español de Humboldt se encuentra sorprendentemente en una carpeta de su legado en Berlín, donde el mismo recopiló los materiales para su publicación sobre la meseta española en la revista Hertha, y no en sus diarios encuadernados del viaje americano. Esto explica que no se hubieran descubierto hasta hace poco tiempo. El manuscrito contiene descripciones geognósticas, observaciones sobre el clima, la vegetación, la electricidad de la atmósfera, etc. La comparación con lo publicado de Humboldt en 1825 sobre la meseta española que realizamos en las notas de esta edición facilitará al lector una aproximación a los métodos cientificos típicos de Humboldt.

  13. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  14. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  15. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  16. A literatura sobre necessidades de informação: uma análise a partir de artigos publicados no BrasilThe literature on information needs: an analysis from articles published in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Hyodo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa os artigos publicados na revista “Ciência da Informação” nos últimos dez anos, através dos trabalhos que abordaram o tema “necessidades de informação dos usuários”, visando identificar a literatura que subsidiou pesquisas aplicadas bibliotecas e serviços de informação. O universo de estudo foi constituído de nove trabalhos publicados no periódico, e desses, foram analisadas as citações de quatro artigos, dentro do recorte proposto. As citações foram classificadas em quatro variáveis (tipologia, temporalidade, idioma e origem geográfica; destacam-se os documentos citados que abordavam temas relacionado ao assunto sobre “necessidades de informação”. Os resultados mostraram que as pesquisas publicadas no período se desenvolveram em torno dos usuários dos serviços de informação, acompanhando a mudança de paradigma ocorrida na área há pouco mais de 20 anos. A análise das citações demonstra uma alta utilização de literatura estrangeira, sobretudo de artigos publicados em periódicos americanos. Houve predomínio de citação a autores que abordaram as necessidades de informação com pesquisas aplicadas, através da realização de estudo de usuários de bibliotecas / serviços de informação especializados.It analyses the articles published in the scientific journal “Ciência da Informação” over the last ten years, through papers that addressed the issue “users information needs”. It aimed to identify the literature that subsidized applied research in libraries and information services. The universe of study was composed of nine articles published in the journal, and these were considered the citations of four articles within the proposed cut. The citations were classified into four variables (typology, temporality, language and geographical origin. It is cited documents that discuss issues related to the subject “information needs”. The results showed that researches published in

  17. Acurácia de informações sobre classes de medicamentos obtidas com questionário postal aplicado a idosos - Rio de Janeiro, RJ Accuracy of drug class information obtained from a postal questionnaire to elderly respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estrella L. Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a confiabilidade e a validade das informações sobre medicamentos obtidas em questionário postal, respondido por idosos, sendo a entrevista face a face o padrão-ouro. MÉTODOS: estudo seccional (Perfil de Utilização de Medicamentos por Aposentados Brasileiros, onde foram utilizadas duas abordagens (postal e domiciliar para coleta de informações de aposentados pelo Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS com sessenta anos de idade ou mais. Foram utilizadas também as estatísticas kappa (simples (k, ajustado (PABAK e ponderado, índices de correlação intra-classe, indicadores de sensibilidade e especificidade, e o gráfico de Luiz et al. RESULTADOS: 234 idosos (M = 42%; F = 58% responderam às duas abordagens (média = 71,7 anos. A concordância entre postal e entrevista domiciliar foi excelente (k = 0,94 para hipoglicemiantes; muito boa (k = 0,83-0,82 para inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e anti-hipertensivos; boa (k = 0,71 para diuréticos; e razoável (k = 0,47 para antiinflamatórios não esteróides. A concordância foi boa (k = 0,61 para o número total de medicamentos usados. A validade da abordagem postal foi elevada, às vezes total, para os fármacos empregados no tratamento do diabetes (sensibilidade e especificidade = 100%, seguidos dos anti-hipertensivos. Os menores valores obtidos foram para antiinflamatórios não esteróides (sensibilidade = 64%; especificidade = 88%. CONCLUSÃO: a abordagem postal pode ser usada para se obter informações acuradas sobre classes de medicamentos usados por população com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, considerando idosos com perfil social semelhante ao dos beneficiários do INSS.OBJECTIVES: to determine the reproducibility and validity of information on medication obtained in a postal questionnaire, with face-to-face interviews providing the gold standard. METHODS: cross-sectional study (Perfil de Utilização de Medicamentos por Aposentados

  18. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives; Energie solaire thermique en Espagne. Etat actuel et objectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-07-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO{sub 2} emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Información sobre la lactancia materna de las gestantes en su tercer trimestre Information on breast feeding found in pregnant women in their third trimester of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Rafael Gorrita Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: son universalmente reconocidas las virtudes de la lactancia materna -y es obvio que la mujer está dotada fisiológicamente para el amamantamiento y en un gran número de organizaciones internacionales de salud de diferentes países se han diseñado políticas con el objetivo de promover adecuadamente esta inigualable práctica- pero aún son múltiples los obstáculos que se presentan a su establecimiento exitoso, y los resultados, a largo plazo, no son satisfactorios. Objetivo: evaluar la información que, sobre lactancia materna, poseen las gestantes en el tercer trimestre de su embarazo, que pertenecen al Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", del municipio San José de las Lajas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, para conocer el nivel de información sobre lactancia materna, en el tercer trimestre, de 114 gestantes del Policlínico "Mártires del 9 de Abril", de San José de las Lajas. Se valoraron sus historias de salud individual y familiar, y se les aplicó un cuestionario con 22 preguntas que se evaluó cualitativa y cuantitativamente. Resultados: solo la quinta parte de las gestantes poseía la información suficiente sobre lactancia materna, aunque la mayoría había asumido que sí los tenía. Más de la mitad de los 17 aspectos explorados, eran deficientes en más del 50 % de las encuestadas. Los errores más frecuentes fueron: momento de dar agua al niño con lactancia materna exclusiva, cuándo brindar otro alimento, hasta cuándo mantener la lactancia materna, cómo debe ser la dieta de la madre, el alternamiento y el aseo de los pechos, y los impedimentos de la madre para la lactancia. Conclusiones: gran número de gestantes evidencian desconocimientos o actitudes equivocadas de diversa índole en relación con la lactancia materna exclusiva, aunque creen tener dominio del tema. Se deben explorar otros aspectos, además de los conocimientos sobre la lactancia, que, sin duda, atentan

  20. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  1. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Spain on 12 March 2002 concerning adoption of the Euro by the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 12 March 2002 the Director General received a letter from the Permanent Representative of Spain, on behalf of the European Union, attaching a memorandum on the adoption of the Euro by the Agency. The letter from the Permanent Representative of Spain and, as requested, its attachment are herewith distributed for the information of Member States

  2. [Health and the media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  3. Nationalcatholicism and education in the postwar Spain. Notes about a reading and a A. Mayordomo 's preliminary study Nacional-catolicismo y educación en la España de posguerra. Notas sobre una antología de textos y un estudio preliminar de A. Mayordomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminio BARREIRO RODRIGUEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More than ever, history is today a subject which must be proyected towards the most realistic comprehension of our roots and to a better knowledge of the world where we live. In that sense, what Spain urgently needs is an holistic criticism of Franco's dictatorship and its consequences. It is important to exhumate texts. But to do it in a critical way is important too. From the perspective of classical historial studies —although not enough in number and quality— this paper tries to determine the main steps of Franco's period from an educational historical point of viewLa Historia es hoy, más que nunca, una disciplina que debe proyectarse hacia la comprensión más cabal de nuestras raíces y en el mejor conocimiento del mundo en que vivimos. Por eso resulta de suma importancia, en España, una crítica omnilateral del franquismo y sus consecuencias. Exhumar textos es importante. Como también lo es hacerlo críticamente. Partiendo de los estudios históricos clásicos —aunque todavía insuficientes— se acomete en este estudio —crítica de una crítica— un intento de determinación de las principales fases del franquismo —periodización—, desde el punto de vista histórico-educativo.

  4. Conocimiento sobre el VIH y las infecciones de transmisión sexual en inmigrantes latinoamericanos y magrebíes en Cataluña Knowledge of HIV and sexually-transmitted diseases in Latin American and Maghrebi immigrants in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ríos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y comparar el grado de conocimiento sobre el VIH/sida con el uso del preservativo por la población inmigrante. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante encuesta semiestructurada y entrevista personal realizada en centros asistenciales de las regiones sanitarias de Barcelona y Barcelonés Norte y Maresme a 238 usuarios latinoamericanos y magrebíes en 2003. El cuestionario incluía variables sociodemográficas, de conducta sexual, de conocimientos generales sobre VIH/sida, y sobre la transmisión y la prevención. Para identificar determinantes del "conocimiento inadecuado del VIH/sida" se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: El 53,8% de los encuestados tenían un conocimiento inadecuado del VIH/sida. En el análisis univariado se asociaban con este desconocimiento los magrebíes, los que no vivían en Barcelona, los que no tenían trabajo y los que no tenían estudios; en el multivariado se asociaban los magrebíes con una situación más desfavorecida respecto a los latinoamericanos [odds ratio (OR=4,99; intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95%: 2,73-9,10] y los inmigrantes sin trabajo (OR=2,59; IC 95%: 1,42-4,73. El uso del preservativo fue valorado como un método de prevención eficaz, pero el 42,1% de los encuestados no lo utilizaba en sus relaciones ocasionales. Conclusiones: Es necesario mejorar el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos de transmisión del VIH/sida y eliminar concepciones erróneas de la infección entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos y magrebíes. La población inmigrante es vulnerable y prioritaria para impulsar intervenciones preventivas, adaptadas a sus especificidades lingüísticas y culturales. Monitorizar la falta de información, las concepciones erróneas y sus conductas sexuales es esencial para evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones efectuadas.Objectives: To describe and compare levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and condom use in the immigrant population. Method: We

  5. Knowledge of the Andalusian legislation on dignified death and perception on the formation in attention to terminally ill patients of health sciences students at Universidad de Granada, Spain Conocimiento sobre la ley andaluza de muerte digna y percepción sobre la formación en la atención a enfermos terminales del alumnado de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada, España Conhecimento sobre a lei andaluza de morte digna e percepção sobre a formação no atendimento a enfermos terminais do corpo discente de ciências da saúde da Universidade de Granada, Espanha

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia María Morales-Martín; Jacqueline Schmidt-Riovalle; Inmaculada García-García

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the knowledge of the Andalusian ''Legislation of Rights and Guarantees of the Dignity of Individuals during the Death Process'' and perception of the formation on attention to terminally ill patients by students of health sciences at Universidad de Granada, Spain. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in 2010, with the participation of 572 students from the Nursing, Physical Therapy, and Occupational Therapy careers of the Faculty of Health Sciences...

  6. Contextual effects of socioeconomic level on academic achievement in obligatory secondary education in the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain. Differential study about socioeconomic level of families and school centers. El efecto contextual del nivel socioeconómico sobre el rendimiento académico en la educación secundaria obligatoria en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (España. Estudio diferencial del nivel socioeconómico familiar y el del centro escolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lizasoain

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the contextual effect of the socioeconomic status (SES on the academic achievement in Mathematics and Language in Compulsory Secondary Education at the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain. We have carried out a differential study taking into account family SES and school SES in a multi-level study context. First, via tested hierarchical models, the hypothesis of the contextual effects (i.e., double jeopardy is accepted, showing that the academic achievement of students from low SES families tend to worsen when they attend low SES schools. In order to illustrate the different effect of both SES, a new variable is generated so that, for each student, it combines the values of the previously categorized family and school SES. Using statistical segmentation techniques (regression and classification trees, CART, the present study has found that low family SES students attending high SES schools obtain the best academic achievement results, only outperformed by high family SES students who are studying at high SES schools, and also, even better than the sample subgroups who were expected to get much better scores. The study ends with some explanatory hypotheses about the findings and with some suggestions for further research. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto contextual del nivel socioeconómico (SES sobre el rendimiento académico en Matemáticas y Lengua en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (España, realizando un estudio diferencial del nivel socioeconómico familiar (SESF y el del centro escolar (SESC. Para ello, en primer lugar, se verifica dicho efecto contextual mediante modelos jerárquicos lineales y se acepta la hipótesis de doble riesgo en el sentido de que los estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico familiar bajo obtienen un rendimiento académico aún más bajo cuando estudian en centros escolares de nivel socioeconómico bajo. Para estudiar con m

  7. Dificuldades para obter informações da população de mulheres sobre aborto ilegal Difficulties encountered in gathering information on illegal abortion of women population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José D. Osis

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualquer tentativa de se investigar a prática de abortos ilegais deve lidar com o problema de estar perguntando às mulheres acerca de um tema delicado, sensível, com implicações múltiplas, o que leva a dificuldades para se obter informações verazes. O estudo realizado enfoca principalmente aspectos metodológicos de uma pesquisa realizada junto a uma população de mulheres de 15 a 49 anos de idade, com o objetivo de verificar a freqüência e as condições em que era feito o aborto provocado em uma região do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Foram entrevistadas, em seus domicílios, 1.955 mulheres. Utilizou-se um questionário estruturado e pré-testado. A maioria das entrevistadas declarou nunca ter abortado nem pensado em fazê-lo, enquanto 4% referiram alguma vez ter feito aborto; 16,7% disseram que, pelo menos uma vez, tomaram chá/remédio para menstruar. Entre as que acreditaram estar grávidas na ocasião, a maioria informou nunca ter abortado, apesar de terem menstruado quando ingeriram chá/remédio. Os resultados permitiram concluir que as mulheres tendem a omitir a informação sobre a prática de aborto quando perguntadas diretamente sobre isso. Especialmente aquelas que o induzem por ingestão de substâncias parecem não reconhecer esse ato como sendo uma forma de interromper a gestação.Any attempt to study the practice of illegal abortion faces the problem of asking women about a delicate, sensitive issue that has many implications. This may make it difficult to obtain truthful information on the subject. Results related to methodological aspects are emphasized and their possible association with variables included in a cross-sectional study carried out among 1.955 women, of 15 to 49 years of age is analysed. The frequency and conditions under which induced abortion was performed in a region of S. Paulo State are investigated. The women were interviewed at home using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Most of the

  8. Información sobre anticoncepción y métodos anticonceptivos en adolecentes del municipio "La Lisa" Information about contraception and contraceptive methods in adolescents in "La Lisa" Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Fernández García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el control de la natalidad en la adolescencia y la prevención de las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS, han sido una preocupación de nuestro Sistema Nacional de Salud, que ha realizado numerosos esfuerzos en aras de lograrlo. Objetivo: caracterizar la información que tienen sobre anticoncepción y métodos anticonceptivos un grupo de adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. El universo fue de 87 alumnos matriculados en la escuela y se trabajó con 78 de ellos, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta de manera anónima, con preguntas cerradas y validadas por criterios de expertos. Resultados: en ambos sexos se identificaron correctamente los métodos anticonceptivos. Los padres fueron la fuente de información más frecuente y predominaron aquellos que no reconocen la posibilidad de un embarazo con la práctica de algunos juegos sexuales. Conclusiones: el conocimiento por parte de los y las adolescentes de la importancia de la anticoncepción y los métodos anticonceptivos resulta aún insuficiente. Los programas de educación sexual para adolescentes deben reforzar estos aspectos. El protagonismo de los educadores debe ser mayor pues en estas edades se necesita que los transmisores de la información tengan una adecuada preparación que en ocasiones falta en los padres.Background: birth control in adolescence and the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI have been a great concern for our National Health System, which has made many efforts in the interest of achieving it. Objective: to characterize the information that a group of adolescents have about contraception and contraceptive methods. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The sample was composed of 87 students enrolled at school. To 78 of them, an anonymous inquiry was applied which included closed questions and was also validated by experts´ criteria. Results: in both sexes, the

  9. Las empresas latinoamericanas del sector del petróleo y gas ante la información sobre sostenibilidad. Latin American oil and gas corporations and the sustainability information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Haro de Rosario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El sector del petróleo y gas es un sector económico estratégico con repercusiones a escala global. Sin embargo, una de las principales limitaciones de esta industria radica en las características de las regiones en las que opera, ya que a menudo se trata de zonas geográficas de elevada importancia bioclimática, zonas con poblaciones indígenas o sectores rurales sumidos en la pobreza. Esto ha generado que los stakeholders presten cada vez más atención a las implicaciones sociales, naturales y económicas de las actividades del sector del petróleo y gas. Así las cosas, teniendo en cuenta que los países latinoamericanos cuentan con las mayores reservas convencionales mundiales de petróleo, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo cuantificar la información voluntaria sobre sostenibilidad que divulgan las empresas petroleras y gasíferas que operan en Latinoamérica.   Abstract:  The oil and gas sector is a strategic area of the economy with global repercussions. This industry faces a major handicap, namely the characteristics of the regions in which it operates, which are often geographic areas of great bioclimatic importance, or inhabited by indigenous populations, or comprised of very low income rural sectors. In response, stakeholders are paying ever greater attention to the social, natural and economic consequences of oil and gas sector activities. Taking into consideration that Latin American countries possess the largest conventional oil reserves in the world, this paper aims to quantify the sustainability information disclosed voluntarily by oil and gas companies operating in Latin America.

  10. Implantación de guías de buenas prácticas en España. Programa de centros comprometidos con la excelencia en cuidados / Best Practice Guidelines Implementation in Spain. Best Practice Spotlight Organizations / Implementação de manuais sobre boas práticas na Espanha. Programa dos Centros comprometidos com a excelência no atendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Albornos-Muñoz, BS.

    2015-03-01

    centros comprometidos con la excelencia en cuidados. MedUNAB 2015; 17 (3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The Best Practice Guidelines Implementation Programme, called in Spain “Centros Comprometidos con la Excelencia en Cuidados®”, started in 2010 thanks to the collaboration between the Nursing and Healthcare Research Unit (Investén-isciii, in Spain, the Spanish Collaborating Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute for evidence based healthcare, and the Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (RNAO, Canada. It is based on the same fundaments of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations (BPSO® Program, initiated by RNAO, in 1999, in Canada. Objective: To describe the implementation of Best Practice Guidelines developed by RNAO in the context of Centros Comprometidos con la Excelencia en Cuidados® Program. The program aims to promote, facilitate and support the implementation, evaluation and sustainability of nursing best practices, for the period 2012-2014. Methodology and Results: Eight healthcare institutions and one university were selected to implement RNAO Best Practice Guidelines aligned with their needs. Twenty-four months into the implementation Programme healthcare professionals have been trained, work teams have been established, nursing care protocols and records have been developed or updated, and process and patient results have been systematically evaluated. Also, all main achievements of the Programme have been actively disseminated. Conclusions: Candidates centers committed to excellence in cuidados® are working hard and the results are starting to show positive, with a growing culture of evidence-based care, and the promotion of research and the start of work collaborative networking. [Albornos-Muñoz L, González-María E, Moreno-Casbas T. Best Practice Guidelines Implementation in Spain. Best Practice Spotlight Organizations. MedUNAB 2015; 17 (3: xx-xx]. Introdução: O programa para implementar Manuais de Boas Práticas, chamados na Espanha de Centros

  11. Media Speech about Youth in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the media treatment of young people in Spain. Besides, we offer some tools to help media editors and journalists to be more impartial in information about youth. The research held a media content analysis (three months in 2006, for newspapers, radio and TV and a qualitative speech analysis (for a reduce number of news in newspapers, radio and TV. From first analysis, we noticed that most news about youth are related with difficult, problematic and controversial circumstances. The main recommendation of this study is for the responsible of media: to understand young people in diversity, with functions and capabilities to change social life.

  12. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  13. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  14. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  15. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  16. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  18. El maestro fuera de la escuela: apuntes para una investigación sobre la vida cotidiana del «maestro nacional» (España: 1939-1975 The teacher out of school. Notes for a research about the dayly life of «el maestro nacional» (Spain: 1939-1975 (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María NIEVES GÓMEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es la primera parte de un trabajo más amplio que intenta el estudio de la relación entre la vida cotidiana y el trabajo profesional de los maestros nacionales en España (1939-1975. Después de especificar los conceptos de «vida cotidiana» y maestro nacional se analizan los diferentes Planes de Estudio que regulan la formación de estos maestros, en distintos tipos de escuelas donde enseñaron y la opinión que la sociedad en general tenía de su función, para concluir con una hipótesis objeto de la futura segunda parte de nuestro trabajo: la vida cotidiana de los maestros nacionales ha determinado diferentes modelos de acción en el aula, incluso con más intensidad que la formación recibida.This article is the first part of a wider work which tries to study the relationship between everyday life and pofessional work of nationl teachers in Spain (1939-1975. After specifying the concepts of 'everyday life5 and 'national teacher', we analyze the different curricula that regulated the training of those teachers, the different schools where they taugh, and the opinion that society in general had of their function. To finish whit a hypothesis that will be subject of the future second part of our work: everyday life national teachers has determined different models of action in the class, even more strongly than the very training received.

  19. Sobre los modos de visibilización mediático-política de la violencia de género en España: consideraciones críticas para su reformulación (Regarding how gender violence has been made visible in media-political terms in Spain: a critique towards its reconceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Gámez Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo situar discusiones recientes que han focalizado en la visibilización mediática de la violencia de género en España atendiendo a presentarlas en relación, por un lado, a los ejes discursivos del marco de reconocimiento establecido y, por otro, a las implicaciones teórico-políticas de este. Nuestra hipótesis es que la forma de visibilizar la violencia de género, en particular respecto de la judicialización como estrategia mediatizadora, no solo desactiva las posibilidades de transformarla sino que reproduce marcos de reconocimiento donde las mujeres no son sujetos agentes. El sujeto mujer configurado como víctima denunciante se encuentra supeditado al saber y control judicial y, por tanto, desprovisto de agencia. Para contribuir a la transformación de esta configuración, apuntaremos vías de intervención basadas en la innovación representacional. | This paper aims at revising recent debates in Spain on how gender violence has been made visible by placing them within the context of the analysis of, on the one hand, the variables that sustain how the problem has been discursively configured and, on the other, the theoretical and political implications that result from it. Our hypothesis is that the mode of visibilisation, particularly with respect to the use of judicialisation as mediatising strategy, not only deactivates the possibilities to transform the problem but it also reproduces frames of recognition that place women in positions devoid of agency. Since the solution to their ordeal is construed on the basis of filing a complaint, this, in turn, makes them subject to judicial power and control. In order to transform the problem, modes of intervention through representational innovation will be proposed.

  20. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Cort?s, Maria Guadalupe; Fern?ndez-Garc?a, Jos? Luis; Habela Mart?nez-Est?llez, Miguel ?ngel

    2017-01-01

    Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence anti...

  1. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  2. O campo da ciência da informação e o patrimônio cultural: reflexões iniciais para novas discussões sobre os limites da área The field of information science and the cultural heritage: initial reflections for new discussions on the limits of the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Eduardo Righini de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se da noção de campo apresentada por Pierre Bourdieu, pretende-se refletir sobre a inserção de pesquisas sobre patrimônio cultural no universo da Ciência da Informação. Para isto, torna-se necessário conhecer o que é produzido sobre o tema nas publicações consideradas da CI, saber quem são os agentes que falam do patrimônio cultural, refletir sobre a visibilidade e prestígio destes agentes e a inclusão do assunto nas instituições e principais eventos da CI.Using the concept of field by Pierre Bourdieu, it is intended to make a reflection on the insertion of research on cultural heritage in the world of Information Science. For this, it is necessary to know what is produced in publications on the subject in the IS, who are the agents that speak of cultural heritage, to make a reflection on the visibility of these agents and the insersation of the issue in the institutions and events of IS.

  3. Cement: Administrative tender specifications and standards in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, in chronological order, the different competent Authorities in Spain and the documents issued by them regarding Cement Regulations and Standards. The origin of the early cement quality Rules is referred to, the issuing of Regulations by the Public Bodies and finally the adoption of National Standards on the one hand, as well as the first initiatives to establish International Standards, especially motivated by the export boom after the Second World War, on the other. The second part of the paper offers a brief synthesis of the terms and conditions for cement in Administrative Tender Specifications from 1919 to date regarding definitions, classifications and specifications. Finally the present state of the art is outlined in a series of Tables describing the cement standards in force in Spain.

    Se empieza exponiendo, en orden cronológico, los organismos españoles y documentos elaborados por los mismos relativos a Reglamentos y Normas sobre cementos. Se justifica el origen de las primeras reglas para establecer la calidad de los cementos, la aparición de reglamentos por parte de las Administraciones públicas y la elaboración de normas a nivel nacional, en primer término, y los inicios de normas internacionales con motivo del auge de las exportaciones acabada la 2ª Guerra Mundial, en segundo lugar. A continuación se hace un breve resumen de la evolución de los Pliegos de Cemento en España desde 1919 hasta nuestros días, en lo que se refiere a Definiciones, Clasificación, Nomenclatura y Especificaciones. Finalmente, se incluye en forma tabulada la situación actual de las normas sobre cementos en España.

  4. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  5. La opinión de los consumidores españoles sobre los alimentos transgénicos y su seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Múñoz, Emilio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the public perception of food safety issues and transgenic foods among Spanish citizens. The results show two distinct types of behavior with respect to the acquisition of a product based on a new technology (like biotechnology: the behavior as consumers of a product, and the behavior as citizen and user of this technology. One of the reasons for this schism is the difference between the relatively high level of (general information and the low level of (specific knowledge with respect to this technology. People in Spain perceive transgenic foods as similar to existing industrial foodstuffs. This leads a majority of them to reject purchasing those products. These attitudes are in line with the responses given in relation to the introduction of regulation (labeling of transgenic foodstuffs.

    El presente artículo resume los resultados de una encuesta a ciudadanos españoles sobre su percepción de la seguridad alimentaria, especialmente en el área de los productos transgénicos. Los resultados indican que las personas se comportan de dos maneras distintas en el momento de comprar un producto: por un lado, como consumidores de un determinado producto y, por el otro, como usuarios (o ciudadanos-usuarios de tecnología. En ello influye que existe un alto nivel de información general sobre la biotecnología, pero todavía hay poco conocimiento sobre los aspectos específicos de los productos. La tecnología de los alimentos transgénicos se percibe en claves parecidas a los alimentos industriales existentes, lo que influye en las actitudes de compra (mayoritariamente de rechazo. Estas actitudes guardan relación con las respuestas aducidas para justificar el establecimiento de regulaciones (etiquetado sobre la comercialización de los alimentos modificados genéticamente.

  6. Efecto de la escorrentía sobre la carga de sedimentos en sus­pensión y fósforo en un arroyo de cabecera de una cuenca ru­ral (NO España Effect of runoff on suspended sediment and phosphorus loading in a headwater stream of a rural catchment (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Rodríguez-Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la carga de sedimentos en suspensión (SS y fósforo (P durante even­tos de lluvia-escorrentía en un arroyo de ca­becera, que drena una cuenca rural ubicada en Galicia (NO España. Asimismo, se trató de conocer las principales fuentes de SS y P exportados. Se observaron acusadas dife­rencias en la carga de SS y P entre eventos, lo cual se asocia con el volumen de esco­rrentía, así como con el desarrollo de surcos y cárcavas efímeras en parcelas de cultivo bien conectadas con la red de drenaje. La carga de SS osciló entre 0,8 y 21,0 t mientras que la de P varió entre 2,5 y 20,0 kg. El fósforo parti­culado (PP mostró relaciones significativas con los SS, lo que indica el origen erosivo de una parte importante de P, especialmente considerando que el PP supone más de un 80% del P exportado en cada evento.This work examines the suspended sedi­ment (SS and phosphorus (P load during rainfall-runoff events in a headwater stream which drains a rural catchment located in Galicia (NW Spain. Another objective is to know the major sources of SS and P ex­ported. Important differences in the SS and P load between events were found, which is associated with the runoff volume, as well as to develop of rills and ephemeral gullies in cultivated fields well connected to the drainage network. The SS load ranged be­tween 0.8 and 21.0 t, while the P load varied between 2.5 and 20.0 kg. The particulate phosphorus (PP showed significant rela­tionship with SS, which indicates the ero­sive origin of P, especially considering that PP means more 80% of P exported each event.

  7. Efectos de los extremos térmicos sobre la mortalidad diaria en Castilla-La Mancha: evolución temporal 1975-2003 Effects of temperature extremes on daily mortality in Castile-La Mancha (Spain: trends from 1975 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro J. Mirón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la evolución y la distribución geográfica de la temperatura umbral de disparo de la mortalidad por extremos térmicos en Castilla-La Mancha entre 1975 y 2003. Métodos: El análisis se divide en tres periodos (1975-1984, 1985-1994 y 1995-2003 para cada provincia de la región. Se modeliza la mortalidad diaria por causas orgánicas (variable dependiente utilizando procedimientos ARIMA. Los residuos diarios de mortalidad resultantes se relacionan con las temperaturas máximas diarias agrupadas en intervalos de 2ºC, obteniendo una temperatura umbral por frío o por calor si esos residuos aumentan de forma significativa (pObjectives: To determine time trends and the geographical distribution of mortality trigger temperature thresholds due to extreme temperatures in Castile-La Mancha (central Spain between 1975 and 2003. Methods: The analysis was divided into three periods (1975-1984, 1985-1994 and 1995-2003 for each province of the region. Daily mortality due to organic causes (dependent variable was modelled using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA procedures. The resulting residual series was related to the maximum temperature series grouped in 2ºC intervals to obtain a threshold temperature for cold or heat when the residuals rose significantly (p<0,05 above the mean residual mortality value of the corresponding study period. Results: Mortality trigger temperature thresholds decreased over time in Castile- La Mancha. In Toledo, the trigger temperature diminished from 40ºC to 38ºC. In Cuenca and Guadalajara, threshold temperatures for heat events were obtained in the last few decades but not in the first. These thresholds varied from the 92nd percentile in Cuenca to the 98th percentile in Albacete in the last decade. No threshold temperatures for cold spells were observed in any province or period. Conclusions: Castile-La Mancha registered an upward trend in the relationship between high temperatures and

  8. Nuclear safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    1988-01-01

    Control and monitoring of all Spanish nuclear facilities was first carried out by the Department of Nuclear Safety of the Junta de Energia Nuclear established by the Nuclear Energy Act in 1964. Later, following the example of other Western countries, it was concluded that regulations and monitoring of nuclear energy on one hand and its promotion and development on the other should not be done by the same national body. Therefore, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) was created in 1980, as the sole national body responsible for controlling the safety of nuclear installations, and radiological protection. The CSN has five members, one chairman and four comissioners, required to be independent and therefore with politically objective criteria, internationally acknowledged technical capability, and free from other duties and responsibilities. For this purpose the Chairman has been given the status of Minister and the commissioners that of Secretary of State. They serve for six years, after being accepted by Parliament by a majority of at least 3/5 of the votes, and are called upon to report to Parliament at least twice a year on nuclear safety and radiological protection in the country. A complete report on those issues is presented to Parliament, becoming a politic document as from that moment. To prepare that report (basically a summary of CSN activities) and, in general, to fulfill all its tasks, the CSN has a staff of some 300, about 50% being technical. CSN activities cover: 1. Standards; 2. Licences; 3. Research; 4. Environment; 5. Information; and 6. International Relations

  9. Centro de informação sobre medicamentos: contribuição para o uso racional de fármacos Drug information centre: contribution for rational use of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléber Domingos Cunha da Silva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o primeiro ano de atividades do Centro de Informação sobre Medicamentos da Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza, Brasil. O CIM faz parte do GPUIM (Grupo de Prevenção ao Uso Indevido de Medicamentos, do Departamento de Farmácia, sendo operacionalizado por farmacêuticos especializados. O serviço atende à comunidade em geral e aos profissionais da saúde em particular. De dezembro de 1994 a novembro de 1995, 246 pessoas telefonaram ao CIM-UFC, das quais 39% eram usuários de medicamentos, 32% farmacêuticos, 17% parentes e/ou amigos dos usuários, 4,5% estudantes de Farmácia e/ou de Medicina, 4% médicos, 0,8% enfermeiras e 2,8% outros. Os temas mais abordados foram Reações Adversas (28% Indicações (28% e Eficácia (18%, sendo os grupos de fármacos mais freqüentes: Vitaminas, Analgésicos e Agentes Antiinflamatórios. O número de solicitações vem aumentando regularmente, variando com a divulgação do serviço através da mídia local e de publicações específicas. Nesse período, o Centro vem esboçando o perfil de um serviço que pode preencher lacunas importantes não só do Sistema de Saúde, como também da formação e prática de médicos e farmacêuticos. Além disso, o Centro está se firmando como uma fonte segura de informações auxiliares nas decisões das pessoas leigas no que diz respeito à automedicação.This paper describes the first year experience of a Drug Information Center directed to the community, and managed by pharmacysts and pharmacy students from the Department of Pharmacy-UFC, in Fortaleza, Brazil. This pioneer experience recieves technical assistance from the "Centro Regionali di Informazione sul Farmaco-CRIF (Mario Negri Institute Milan-Italy. Those who consult us are registered on a codified formullary while individual information, questions and prepared answers are introduced on a database. From December 1994 to November 1995, 246 persons telephoned CIM-UFC for drug

  10. Estado actual de la investigación sobre madera estructural en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Herrero, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to show the current state of the research about structural timber in Spain. An ample compilation of information from people and institutions has been carried out. Information received has been so extensive that a hard work of synthesis has been necesary in order to offer a general and objective vision of the subject.In a few years a new legislative and normative frame has been implanted in Spain, defi ned by the Law of Arrangement of the Construction, the Construction Technical Code and the European Construction Products Directive. In this frame some challenges for the sector arise from the construction and the timber. It is the fi rst time that structural timber is framed within a norm of forced fulfillment, which it supposes not only a challenge but the putting in value of all its potential like structural material.In this frame research necessities have been increased, as well as development and innovation, and it is demostrated by several research iniciatives started in our country, with a clear vocation to respond to the necessities arisen in the sector and to satisfy the raised requirements of security in the norm. In this work, using the compiled information, the research lines on structural timber at the moment in Spain are summarized, as well as their presence in means of national or international diffusion or their direct applications in the industry.Este artículo pretende dibujar un panorama sobre el estado actual de la investigación en torno a la madera estructural desarrollada actualmente en España. Se ha realizado una amplia recopilación de información entre personas e instituciones. La información recibida ha sido tan extensa que ha sido necesaria una difícil labor de síntesis para ofrecer una visión general y objetiva.En poco tiempo ha sido implantado en España un nuevo marco legislativo y normativo defi nido por la Ley de Ordenación de la Edifi cación, el Código Técnico de la Edificación y la

  11. Análisis bibliométrico y de redes sociales en tesis doctorales españolas sobre televisión (1976/2007 Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis Applied to Television Dissertations Presented in Spain (1976/2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Repiso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un análisis de la estructura productiva de la investigación española sobre televisión a través de los datos extraídos de las tesis doctorales sobre televisión en España en el período 1976/2007. Para ello se utilizan dos metodologías diferentes; el análisis bibliométrico y el análisis de redes sociales. Para localizar las tesis doctorales se ha utilizado la base de datos bibliográfica Teseo. Los resultados describen la producción según quinquenios, universidades, directores y evaluadores. Se generan redes sociales para identificar grupos académicos que caracterizaron el período estudiado y tendencias de selección en tribunales según director y universidad. El número total de tesis producidas en el período estudiado es de 404 títulos. La tendencia general indica un incremento constante en todos los períodos con un crecimiento exponencial en los últimos 15 años. Son las universidades históricas de Comunicación las que destacan en la producción, siendo la Universidad Complutense la que capitaliza el mayor número de tesis leídas. El análisis estructural demuestra que solamente la Universidad Complutense, la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, la Universidad de Navarra y la Universidad de la Laguna generan grupos propios. A través del análisis de redes sociales se localiza a los profesores que estructuran el sistema de investigación español en televisión. Las posiciones predominantes dentro de la estructura de la red son ocupadas principalmente por catedráticos de Comunicación de la Universidad Complutense y Autónoma de Barcelona.This paper analyses the productive structure in Spanish television research. Data from theses about Spanish television which had been defended in this country over the period 1976/2007 was extracted. Two methodologies are used within this analysis: a bibliometric analysis and Social Network Analysis (SNA. Results show the production of theses by time period

  12. Terraplenes sobre suelos colapsables

    OpenAIRE

    Arnedo Gaute, Diego

    2004-01-01

    Esta tesina está motivada por el diseño y construcción del Canal Segarra-Garrigues. El trazado del canal atraviesa varios pequeños valles de fondo llano mediante terraplenes sobre los cuales circula el canal. En estas vaguadas se encuentran suelos limo-arcillosos de baja densidad cuya potencia puede llegar a ser de varios metros. Estos materiales, debido a su estructura abierta, son potencialmente colapsables una vez cargados si experimentan incrementos de humedad. Las deformacion...

  13. DISCUTINDO SOBRE SEXTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Conceição de Barros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Na contemporaneidade, os sujeitos vêm se utilizando das diversas tecnologias digitais, para exporem e compartilharem sua intimidade, com intuito de seduzirem e tornarem-se visíveis. Esse fenômeno vem sendo chamado de sexting, e vem sendo aderido por sujeitos de várias faixas etárias. Assim, leitor/a, convido você a pensar sobre o sexting e o que a escola tem a ver com essa prática?

  14. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    OpenAIRE

    Palma,Alexandre; Vilaça,Murilo Mariano; Assis,Monique Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferent...

  15. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  16. Avaliação da informação sobre drogas e sua relação com o consumo de substâncias entre escolares Information about drugs and its relation to drug abuse among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Borges Pavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção dos adolescentes sobre os programas de prevenção ao uso de drogas, e com quem eles aprendem e conversam sobre as drogas. Relacionar o consumo de drogas com essas informações. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com questionário anônimo autoaplicado em uma amostra proporcional de 1041 alunos do ensino médio no município de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: 89,2% dos alunos receberam orientação sobre drogas na escola. Os meios selecionados para a realização de programas de prevenção contra o uso de drogas foram: palestras 83,1%, televisão 72%, jornal 33,7%, cursos 29,3%, cartazes 27,8% e rádio 25,8%. Os meios que permitem diálogo e questionamento foram mais bem avaliados, enquanto os apenas informativos foram criticados. Os alunos conversariam sobre drogas principalmente com os próprios pais (56,6% e os amigos (50,5%, seguidos de profissionais especializados e professores (30,4% e 22,7%, respectivamente. Eles relataram ter aprendido sobre drogas com os pais (66,5%, seguidos dos professores (60%. As revistas e jornais foram selecionados por 51% dos escolares, e os amigos por 41,4%. Foram relacionados a menor taxa de consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas no último mês, o relato de ter recebido orientação sobre drogas na escola, e ter aprendido sobre drogas com pais ou professores. CONCLUSÃO: Os adolescentes consideram os pais e professores suas fontes de conhecimento sobre drogas, porém preferem conversar a respeito com os pais e amigos. A escola é um local oportuno para abordar o assunto, utilizando para isso estratégias que permitam a reflexão.OBJECTIVE: To find the perception high school students have of drug abuse prevention programs, from whom they learned and with whom they talk about drugs; to relate drug consumption to this information. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. A self

  17. Sobre historia mundial hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Weiler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de globalización son una realidad; su enorme impacto sobre la vida humana los ha convertido en un tema recurrente sobre el que se escribe y se comenta a diario también en Colombia. Los libros que de ellos tratan, ante todo los que 10 hacen en tono crítico, baten records en la industria editorial en todo el mundo. Las expectativas que acerca del futuro abrigan cientos de millones de personas se relacionan con 10 que ellas esperan, para bien o para mal, de la globalización. Las posturas que los gobernantes ocupan al respecto en el mundo son, cuando menos de aceptación, generalmente de activa participación en pos de la globalización. Por un lado, crece la preocupación y se multiplican las protestas; por el otro, dominan los razonamientos de los especialistas en materia de maximización de los rendimientos de los capitales que presentan la globalización, al estilo que se viene imponiendo, como el camino ineludible del gobierno universal de la eficiencia. ¿Tienen que decir algo los historiadores frente a todo esto?.

  18. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The author continues the development of the subject «Modern Timber Formwork», by summing up the comparative examination —already carried out in Part III of this Study— of the different types of glued timber existing on the market. In addition, the loads and stresses allowable for coniferous timber and the proposal for establishing Regulations for the Timber Section of the Research and Experimental Forestry Institute of Spain are given. In part V of the author's Study, published in this article, the important subject of the glues used for joining timber, a truly vital point in order to obtain louvered timber beams which are simply glued together, is approached.

    El autor continúa el desarrollo del tema sobre «Encofrados de madera modernos», resumiendo el estudio comparativo —ya hecho en la Parte III de este Estudio— de las diferentes vigas de madera encolada existentes en el mercado dando, además, las cargas y tensiones admisibles para maderas coníferas y la propuesta de Reglamentación de la Sección de Maderas del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias de España. En la parte V del Estudio del autor, publicada en este articulo, se aborda el importante tema de las colas empleadas para las uniones de madera, algo realmente vital para la obtención de vigas de madera en celosía simplemente encoladas.

  19. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  1. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  2. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  3. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  4. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  5. Toward healthy offspring: Some origins of prenatal testing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with prenatal diagnosis practices in Spain. For pursuing this aim it reviews both literature on the origins of these practices in foreign countries as well as some of the early publications by Spanish practitioners. Those publications appeared to be connected to previous genetic testing in children such as the case of Down syndrome. Socio-political norms and values of Franco’s regime together with clinicians’ interests on introducing new testing techniques resulted in the stabilization of these practices associated to a reconceptualisation of pregnancy. Although prenatal diagnosis techniques made the body of pregnant women invisible, women’s bodies remained at the core of the technicalisation of contemporary reproductive options.

    Este trabajo reflexiona sobre las prácticas de diagnóstico prenatal en España. Con este fin se manejan tanto bibliografía sobre los orígenes de estas prácticas en otros países como datos encontrados en las primeras publicaciones al respecto de especialistas de nuestro país. Estas publicaciones se relacionan también con algunas previas sobre diagnóstico genético en la clínica en el caso del síndrome de Down. Se sugiere que las normas sociopolíticas propias de la dictadura de Franco se combinaron con la difusión de técnicas desarrolladas en el extranjero para estabilizar prácticas médicas asociadas a una reconceptualización del embarazo. Las técnicas de diagnóstico prenatal, pese a invisibilizar el cuerpo de las mujeres, mantienen a este en el centro de la tecnificación de las opciones reproductivas contemporáneas.

  6. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  7. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  8. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  10. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  11. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  12. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  13. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  14. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  15. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  16. Nurse prescribing in Spain: The law and the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Collado, Angel; Raurell-Torreda, Marta; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Rascon-Hernan, Carolina; Homs-Romero, Erica

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explored course content related to pharmacology and/or healthcare products and supplies in all nursing degree programs in Spain. Changes in nurse-prescribing legislation in Spain require that nurses take a certification course before prescribing over-the-counter products and medications. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, between July and September 2014, the degree programs of all centers that offer a degree in nursing in Spain were examined, selecting those with course information available online. All centers offered at least one pharmacology course. One-third of the required courses had content related to pharmacology and healthcare products/supplies. The analysis showed that the course content and training received during the current nursing degree program provides the knowledge and skills needed to prescribe healthcare products/supplies and medications that do not now require a doctor's prescription, without the need for additional training and certification. It is essential that government regulation of nursing education be aligned with nursing competencies, curriculum standards, clinical practice, and evidence-based research to provide the maximum level of confidence for nursing professionals and their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Seguridad en redes y sistemas : Técnicas y conceptos sobre hacking y pentesting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Jiménez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente documento trata sobre seguridad informática. Se detallarán técnicas y conceptos sobre seguridad en redes y sistemas, pentesting y auditorías de seguridad. El següent document tracta sobre seguretat informàtica. Es detallaran tècniques i conceptes sobre seguretat en xarxes i sistemes, pentesting i auditories de seguretat. The following document is about computer security. Techniques and network security concepts and systems, pentesting and safety practices will be described....

  18. Sobre la muerte voluntaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Álvarez-Cienfuegos Fidalgo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El problema de cómo morir en nuestra sociedad se ha convertido en una inquietud para los ciudadanos y la reflexión moral. Especialmcnte por dos razones: por el desarrollo de la tecnología médica y por el hecho de que la mayor parte de los fallecimientos tienen lugar fuera del hogar, donde tradicionalmente ocurra el deceso. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo acercarse a esta cuestión. Para ello, se parte de la autonomía del ciudadano, con derecho a decidir sobre lo que considera cuál sea su manera de vivir y de morir. A tal fin, se hace una breve introducción sobre el dolor, el suicidio y la muerte, desde un punto de vista antropológico, pasando, después, a mostrar las cuestiones relacionadas con el problema de la eutanasia, donde la atención se dirigirá, ante todo, al enjuiciamiento crítico del tenso equilibrio en el que se mantienen dos principios fundamentales de la bioética: el de no maleficencia y el de autonomía del ciudadano.The problem of how to die in modern society has become a concern for both the citizen and moral reflection for two reasons in particular: due to developments in medical technology, and because most deaths occur outside the honre, where they traditionaÍlY took place. This paper addresses this issue, starting from citizen autonomy, the right to decide on what s/he considers to be his or her way of living and dying. To this end, a brief introduction considers pain, suicide and death from an anthropological viewpoint. Questions related to the problem of euthanasia are then exposed, with particular attention to, above all the critical judgement of the tense balance in which two fundamental principies of bioethics are held, the principle of non-maleficence and that of citizen autonomy.

  19. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  20. Sobre el nombre "Quechua"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los primeros problemas con el que a menudo tropiezael estudioso de los idiomas ágrafos, como es el caso de las lenguasaborígenes de América, es el de su denominación (glotónimo.En la medida ,en que, por razones históricas, las noticias sobretales lenguas, y por consiguiente los primeros estudios sobre lasmismas, surgen a partir del contacto con los miembros de la civilización occidental, los nombres de los distintos idiomas, así comode los grupos étnicos que los manejan, son el resultado casi siempre arbitrario cie designaciones fortuitas hechas por viajeros, misiioneros y exploradores, quienes por lo general se basan, para ello, bien en descripciones físicas de los grupo étnicos, en ciertos indios geográficos que constituyen el habitat de los mismos, e incluso en prejuicios que se nutren de un marcado europocentrismo.

  1. [Social perception of biomedicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sedeño, Eulalia; Miranda Suárez, María José

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern that studies of public understanding of science, especially biomedicine, should be expected to bring shared frameworks to European and national policies. The present article aims to provide a critical overview of the most recent studies of public understanding of biomedicine in Spain. Specifically, this essay reviews the similarities and differences in the latest European and Spanish surveys. Throughout this article we compare the Third National Survey of Social Perception of Science and Technology produced by the Spanish National Science and Technology Foundation, focusing on issues related to biomedicine, and the Medical and Health Research. A special Eurobarometer Public Survey published by the European Commission. The two surveys were compared attending to the three main common items of science, technology and biomedicine: the level of interest, the level of information and political attitudes. Some discrepancies in the results of the two studies, such as public interest in these subjects, may partly be due to the different methodologies used in the survey designs. Further national studies exploring public understanding of science, technology and biomedicine at the national level, as well as the use of European standards, would be of great help in other cross-national studies and policies. Improving qualitative studies would also be useful to strengthen relations among science, technology and society.

  2. [Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel; Monge, Diana

    2012-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due its association with healthcare and its impact on morbidity and mortality in the elderly. During the last few years there has been a growing increase in the number of published studies on the incidence, changes on the clinical presentation and on the epidemiology, with the description of new risk factors. The frequency of CDI in Spain is not sufficiently characterised. The available data indicates that incidence is within the range of that of surrounding countries but increasing. Furthermore, the high and growing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, both in our hospitals and in the community setting, are factors that favour the increase of the disease. The hyper-virulent ribotype 027 has not spread in our hospitals. We need to know with enhanced validity and accuracy the incidence of CDI, both community and healthcare-associated, the information on outbreaks, the incidence on certain population groups, the characterisation of circulating ribotypes and the impact of the disease in terms of mortality and health costs. We need to implement programs for the improvement of antibiotic therapy in the hospital, as well as in the community. Furthermore, the knowledge and the performance of standard precautions need to be improved, particularly hand hygiene, and the specific measures to limit the transmission of C. difficile among the healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  4. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  5. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  6. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  7. Uso do sistema de informação sobre mortalidade para identificar subnotificação de casos de tuberculose no Brasil Mortality information system for identifying underreported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Pinto de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar a subnotificação dos óbitos por tuberculose (TB no Brasil, assim como verificar o impacto que esses casos causariam na taxa de notificação de casos novos e proporção de óbitos por TB em 2006. Foram analisados os óbitos registrados no Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM no ano de 2006 e todas as notificações de TB do país no período de 2001 a 2006. As variáveis utilizadas para o relacionamento foram: número da notificação, município e UF de residência, nome do paciente, data, ano de nascimento, sexo, nome da mãe e endereço. Foram realizados seis passos de blocagem. Os escores superiores a 12,4 foram considerados pares, enquanto os inferiores a - 9,7, não-pares. Ao final de cada passo, foi realizada a revisão manual dos pares duvidosos. O Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan dispunha de 547.589 notificações, enquanto o SIM tinha 6.924 registros. Desses, 39,4% (n = 2.727 não foram encontrados no Sinan no período avaliado. Observou-se que 64,5% (2.707 dos óbitos foram notificados em 2006 e, ao analisar a proporção de óbitos subnotificados por região e unidades federadas, verificou-se que o maior percentual foi na região Norte, seguida das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste. O acréscimo dos óbitos que não foram relacionados à base de dados do Sinan eleva a taxa de notificação de casos novos em 3,7%. Quanto à proporção de óbitos por TB, essa inclusão foi responsável pelo aumento em 60,7% desse indicador. O relacionamento entre bases de dados configura-se como uma estratégia importante para a melhoria da qualidade do sistema de vigilância da TB.The aim of the study was to analyze the underreporting of deaths from tuberculosis (TB in Brazil, as well as to assess the impact these cases would cause in the reporting rate and proportion of TB deaths in 2006. We ana-lyzed the deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System (SIM in 2006 and all

  8. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  9. Algunos apuntes sobre comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pérez Cárdenas

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunidad es, entre los temas de estudio del curriculum de los residentes en Medicina General Integral, uno de aquellos en las que mayores dificultades encontramos para poderlo impartir, pues la bibliografía sobre el tema está un tanto dispersa. Es un aspecto que los propios residentes no evalúan con justeza; sin embargo es de sumo interés que como profesionales de la salud no obviemos que nuestro trabajo de promoción, prevención y tratamiento, debe darse a nivel de individuo, pero también en las familias y en la comunidad como un todo, y por lo tanto debamos incorporar, al menos, nociones de lo que es una comunidad y qué es participación comunitaria para tener idea de cómo fomentarla, única vía para que nuestras acciones de salud sean más efectivasCommunity is one of the most difficult subjects to be taught among those included in the curriculum of General Comprehensive Medicine residents, since bibliography on this topic is a bit dispersed. This aspect, which is not properly evaluated by residents, is very important for health professionals to do our work of promotion, prevention and treatment not only at the level of the individual, but also at the level of the family and of the community as a whole. Therefore, we need to have some notions about community and community participation to be able to promote them, as the only way to make our health actions more effective

  10. Review. Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.; Domingo, R.; Castel, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    Water has become the most precious of natural resources in many areas of Spain and, since agriculture is the major consumer of water, improvements in water use efficiency are increasingly sought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is an irrigation strategy based on applying only a fraction of the plant water requirements during certain periods of plant development. The paper reviews the available information on RDI strategies, in woody tree crops and vines based on studies by Spanish research groups. Both the promising results obtained and the drawbacks are covered. (Author) 130 refs.

  11. Performance pay and the gender wage gap : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rica, Sara de la; Dolado, Juan José; Vegas Sánchez, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses detailed information from a large wage survey in 2006 to analyze the gender wage gap in the performance-pay (PP) component of total hourly wages and its contribution to the overall gender gap in Spain. Under the assumption that PP is determined in a more competitive fashion than the other wage components, one would expect, in principle, to find a low gender gap in PP. However, this is not what we find. After controlling for observable differences in individual and job characte...

  12. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The author continues the development of the subject «Modern Timber Formwork», by summing up the comparative examination —already carried out in Part III of this Study— of the different types of glued timber existing on the market. In addition, the loads and stresses allovk/able for coniferous timber and the proposal for establishing Regulations for the Timber Section of the Research and Experimental Forestry Institute of Spain are given. In part V of the author's Study, published in this article, the important subject of the glues used for joining timber, a truly vital point in order to obtain louvered timber beams which are simply glued together, is approached.

    El autor continúa el desarrollo del tema sobre «Encofrados de madera modernos», resumiendo el estudio comparativo —ya hecho en la Parte III de este Estudio— de las diferentes vigas de madera encolada existentes en el mercado dando, además, las cargas y tensiones admisibles para maderas coníferas y la propuesta de Reglamentación de la Sección de Maderas del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias de España. En la parte V del Estudio del autor, publicada en este artículo, se aborda el importante tema de las colas empleadas para las uniones de madera, algo realmente vital para la obtención de vigas de madera en celosía simplemente encoladas.

  13. Spain and the Hamas government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the restoration of democracy, Spain’s successive governments have been noted for their favourable stance toward the issue of Palestine and their support for the creation of a sovereign independent state in the territories that Israel occupied during the Six-Day War. Yasser Arafat’s visit to Spain in the time of the UCD, the holding of the Madrid Conference during the term of government of the PSOE and the designation of Miguel Ángel Moratinos as the EU’s special envoy for the Peace Process during the Partido Popular’s term of government are some of the landmarks that have expressed this exemplary relationship between the Spanish State and the Palestine question. However, the victory of Hamas in the legislative elections of 25 January 2006 radically changed the situation, as it led to Rodríguez Zapatero’s government joining the international boycott of the new Islamist executive; even so, the Spanish government clearly maintained its support for restarting the Peace Process, in the form of its backing for Mahmud Abbas, the President of the Palestine Authority. The armed conflict in Gaza in June 2007 which led to the Islamists retaking the Gaza Strip and the formation of a new government in the West Bank led by the technocrat Salam Fayad served to normalise the situation, given that it encouraged the raising of international sanctions and a return to normality in Spanish-Palestine relations.

  14. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  15. Quality and safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  16. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  17. Adoption of Double Entry Bookkeeping in Mexico and Spain Adopción de la partida doble en México y España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting and even contradictory claims as to when exactly double entry bookkeeping arrived to New Spain as well as its diffusion during the colonial era. Although we fail to present evidence from Mexican private enterprise, we address the apparent contradictions while putting forward the idea that the history of "modern" accounting practice in Latin America should be framed by developments in its former colonial power. Our conclusion is that the history of Latin American accounting should be wary of extrapolating everyday practice by interpreting bibliographic material and proceed to pay greater attention to the appropriation of accounting technology through the examination of surviving company documents as well as informal educational practices amongst organizations based in Spain and its colonies.Las fuentes y la información disponible son contradictorias respecto al origen y difusión de la partida doble durante la colonización española y tras la independencia. Aunque no ofrecemos evidencia sobre actividades en el ámbito de la empresa privada, este artículo se propone acotar dicho debate y obtener nuevas conclusiones al proponer que la historia de la contabilidad "moderna" en América Latina debería estar enmarcada por los acontecimientos en la metrópoli. Nuestra conclusión es que la historia de la contabilidad en América Latina debe proceder con el examen de fuentes y prácticas de las organizaciones y no llegar a conclusiones únicamente basadas en el examen de libros de texto.

  18. Adolescentes y tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en España (Teenagers and the information and communication technologies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martínez Gras

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este artículo es analizar la relación entre las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC y los adolescentes españoles. Concretamente, se estudia, a través de metodología cualitativa, los usos que hacen los adolescentes de los dispositivos tecnológicos, así como el acceso a los mismos. Por otra parte, también se analizan las finalidades por las cuales utilizan las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, destacando su íntima relación con la comunicación entre iguales y el entretenimiento, mientras se observa una infrautilización de las tecnologías para el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.ABSTRACTThe main objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between Information and Communication Technologies and Spanish adolescents. Specifically, we have studied, through qualitative methodology, the characteristics of teenagers’ access and uses of technological devices. We have also analyzed the purposes that motivate the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies, highlighting a close relationship between technologies and peer communication and entertainment. On the contrary, there is an under-utilization of all these devices for teaching and learning purposes.

  19. Burden and direct costs of non infectious uveitis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adán-Civera, Alfredo Manuel; Benítez-Del-Castillo, José Manuel; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Pato-Cour, Esperanza; Sellas-Fernández, Agustí; Bañares-Cañizares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is no updated information on epidemiology and cost of management of non infectious uveitis (NIU) in Spain. This study assessed the frequency of various types of uveítis as well as associated costs of resources used in their management. NIU epidemiological data and direct costs were collected from a literature search. This was complemented with consensus information from 2 expert panel meetings and data from questionnaires to ophthalmologists and rheumatologists, experts on these conditions. Healthcare resources costs were obtained from the Oblikue database, from a medical society and from approved drug prices in Spain. During 2011 the estimate number of NIU was 9,398 (45% male, 70% aged 16-65 years). Incidence per type of uveitis was: acute anterior uveitis (AAU) 55%; posterior uveitis (PU) and pan-uveitis (PanU) 15% each; adult chronic anterior uveitis, paediatric chronic anterior uveitis and intermediate uveitis 5% each. Among total costs (77,834,282.10€), initial drug therapy was the highest (43,602,359.29€), followed by surgical treatment of complications (8,367,420.43€). With respect to types of uveitis, PanU (26,692,948.29€), PU (22,283,330.50€) and AAU (14,336,755.38€) showed the highest associated costs. Non infectious uveitis is associated to high costs in Spain, both in its diagnosis and in its treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment should allow for substantial savings for the National Health System. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of trihalomethanes according to Koppën climatological classification and Lang's index, on mortality associated with stomach and bladder cancer by geographic areas in Spain Influencia de los trihalometanos según la clasificación climatológica de Koppën y el índice de Lang, sobre la mortalidad asociada al cáncer de estómago y vejiga por áreas geográficas en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Llopis González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the levels of trihalomethanes (THMs in drinking water from different Spanish cities, and assess whether the temperature and rainfall influence them. Also assess the possible association of THM to mortality from stomach cancer and bladder. For this we took water samples from 49 cities in 2002, 2005 and 2006, which were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry obtaining THM levels. Climatic classifications were made according Koppën Lang and index the data of temperature and precipitation, and finally death rates from cancer of the stomach and bladder were standardized by sex and age. We found a decrease in the levels of THMs in Spain over time, managing to be below the limits established by Royal Decree 140/2003, but three cities studied. The results indicate that climatic classifications most of the Spanish territory has a temperate climate type - Wet. However it was found that different climatic zones exhibit an influence on the levels of THMs. Nor was significant correlation of the levels of THM with cancer of stomach and bladder, but is significant between stomach cancer and Köppen climate classification. It should continue with studies that include other variables allow clarifying and / or strengthening these results.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer los niveles de trihalometanos (THM en el agua potable de diferentes ciudades españolas y evaluar si la temperatura y las precipitaciones influyen sobre ellos. También, valorar la posible asociación de los THM con la mortalidad por cáncer de estómago y vejiga. Para esto, se tomaron muestras de agua de 49 ciudades en el 2002, 2005 y 2006, las cuales se analizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas, obteniendo los niveles de THM. Se realizaron las clasificaciones climáticas según Koppën y el índice de Lang con los datos de temperatura y precipitación y, por último, las tasas de

  1. Population doses in Spain. Contribution of the project dopoes a dose Datamed 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Canete Hidalgo, S.; Perez Martinez, M.; Pola, A.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Alvarez, C.; Gil, M.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency and effective dose values are of the order of the reported in the publication Radiation Protection 154 by neighbouring countries. Spain participated actively in the project DDM2 by sending all the required information and this has served test to ensure the correct development of the DOPOES project, which is ongoing. (Author)

  2. ICT in EMI Programmes at Tertiary Level in Spain: A Holistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Nanclares, Nuria; Jimenez-Munoz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in Spain has increased the number of degrees taught through English, although secondary schools do not ensure an appropriate set of linguistic skills for bilingual degrees. A holistic, accountable model for Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-supported learning can give students the adequate…

  3. Travel and Tourism Students' Needs in Valencia (Spain): Meeting their Professional Requirements in the ESP Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the basic findings obtained as a result of the implementation of two projects of Computer and Information Technologies held in Valencia (Spain) between 2002 and 2003 with 92 second year university students enrolled in English as a foreign language to find out their ICT and foreign language needs both…

  4. Retirement migration, the 'other' story: caring for frail elderly British citizens in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelly; Hardill, Irene

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growth in research on retirement/lifestyle migration to Spain, however this has tended to focus on the reasons for moving, as well as the lifestyles adopted as part of a healthy and active retirement. However, ageing in Spain can bring challenges as a person's resources for independent living diminish. This paper draws on narrative interviews with vulnerable older British people in Spain, focusing on those who have encountered a severe decline in health, are frail and in need of care. It looks at the formal and informal networks and agencies that support these individuals, in particular the resources and strategies they employ to access care. Drawing on a framework of care provision developed by Glucksmann and Lyons, four broad modes of provision for old age care used by older British people in Spain are identified: state/public, family/community, voluntary/not-for-profit and market/for-profit. The paper argues that there are language, cultural, spatial and financial barriers when accessing care in Spain as an older British citizen. It is concluded that there are some frail, vulnerable people that may fall through a support gap, whereby they are no longer the responsibility of UK welfare services, yet not fully recognised in their new country of residence, and asks if more should be done to support this population.

  5. Convergences and Divergences between Financial Reporting Systems of Romania and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laptes R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to perform a comparative study regarding the theory and practice of financial statements in Romania and Spain. To achieve this goal, we performed a documentary research of the main papers of this area and of the applicable accounting regulations from Romania and Spain, research that allowed us to identify convergences and divergences about financial statements in both countries. The main conclusion of this study is that, while Romania experiences improving its financial reporting system by conformism, respectively by assigning through legislation forms adapted to European accounting regulations, Spain chooses a flexible development, trying to realize a complete presentation of the accounting information published in the annual financial statements.

  6. 'A Photographic Scramble through Spain': El papel del libro de Charles Clifford en la divulgación de una imagen de España / An image of Spain in Charles Clifford’s book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bullough

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Al fotógrafo británico, Charles Clifford (1819-1863 se le conoce como uno de los pioneros de la fotografía comercial en España. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, poco se sabe sobre el papel que jugó su libro A Photographic Scramble through Spain como complemento a sus fotografías. Este trabajo analiza el uso del libro, no sólo como herramienta comercial, sino en su papel de proyectar la imagen de España que Clifford deseaba mostrar a sus clientes y lectores en el Reino Unido.The British photographer, Charles Clifford (1819-1863 is best known as one of the pioneers of commercial photography in Spain. However, until now, little has been said about the role of his book, A Photographic Scramble through Spain as a complement to his photographs. This study will show how Clifford not only used the book as a commercial instrument but also as a means to convey the image of Spain that he wished to show to his potential buyers and readers in the United Kingdom 

  7. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  8. Internet Use and the Political Knowledge Gap in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anduiza, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Media availability and fragmentation and the resulting possibilities of content selection have risen dramatically with the expansion of new digital media. Previous research has found that this may increase knowledge gaps among citizens with different resources and motivations. This article analyses how Internet use affects political knowledge gaps due to education and to political interest in Spain. As expected, frequent Internet users are more knowledgeable about politics than non-users. Furthermore, Internet use increases knowledge more for the highly educated than for citizens with lower levels of education. Thus, the political knowledge gap related to education seems to be growing with the introduction of new media. However, the knowledge gap between citizens with high and low levels of political interest is smaller for frequent Internet users than for non-users. These findings provide a complex picture and partially contradict the pessimistic theory about the impact of increasing media choice on political knowledge.

    La disponibilidad y fragmentación de medios de comunicación y las posibilidades de elegir contenidos han aumentado en gran medida a raíz de la expansión de los medios digitales. Éstos pueden, según investigaciones anteriores, incrementar las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento entre ciudadanos con distintas características. En este artículo se analiza cómo el uso de Internet afecta a las diferencias en el conocimiento político según el nivel educativo y el interés por la política en España. Los usuarios frecuentes de Internet saben más sobre política que los no usuarios, como era de esperar. Además, el uso de Internet incrementa el conocimiento político de manera más intensa para los usuarios con niveles educativos más elevados. Por tanto, parece que las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento pueden estar creciendo con la expansión de los medios digitales. Sin embargo, las diferencias

  9. Eastern immigrants strategies in spain during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viruela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession, which began in late 2007, is manifested primarily as employment crisis and mainly affects the immigrant population. Most immigrants have decided to remain in Spain, and to mitigate the effects of the crisis, several strategies have been deployed in the productive and reproductive spheres. One response to the progressive degradation of the labor market has been the internal and transnational geographical mobility, which takes various strategies: return to the country of origin, migration to a third country, and circular migration. The information used in this article comes from in-depth interviews to 64 citizens of Romania and Bulgaria residing in Spain, as well as from and 32 other interviews to family members and returnees, which took place in their countries. To the information coming from the emigrants we add socioeconomic data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and the Ministry of Employment.

  10. Qualidade das informações sobre aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar em sites brasileiros de profissionais de saúde disponíveis na internet The quality of information on maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding on Brazilian internet sites available for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Quirino da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as informações de sites da internet sobre o aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar de acordo com a adequação às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. MÉTODOS: realizado estudo transversal, com amostra de 103 sites de profissionais de saúde. Analisaram-se informações sobre aleitamento materno (AM e alimentação complementar (AC. As informações foram quantificadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: as recomendações relativas ao AM foram: exclusivo até 6º mês (64,1%; sem água e chá (31,1%; duração de dois anos ou mais (36,9%; e não utilizar mamadeira e chupeta (33%. Para a AC foi utilizada a terminologia desmame (30,1%, recomendada a introdução alimentar no 6º mês (47,9%, introdução da primeira papa com fruta (11,6% ou suco (9,7%; e a oferta de sopa (14,6% como refeição. Na análise qualitativa, entre as informações incorretas, constavam recomendações de consumo de carne no 12º mês, horários regulares para refeições, introdução de alimentos no 7º mês e consumo de leite de vaca no 6º mês. CONCLUSÕES: a maior parte das informações sobre aleitamento materno está de acordo com o preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde, mas são insuficientes para estimular a prática do aleitamento materno. Já as informações sobre alimentação complementar na sua maioria divergem do recomendado.OBJECTIVES: to analyze the information available on internet sites regarding maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out using a sample of 103 sites for professional healthcare workers. Information was analyzed on maternal breast feeding (MB and complementary feeding (CF. The information was quantified and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: the recommendations for MB were: that it should be exclusive up to the 6th month of life (64.1%; that no water or tea

  11. Ensaios sobre economia do empreendorismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielito Rauter Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Esta tese é composta por três ensaios sobre Economia do Empreendedorismo. O primeiro deles trata sobre os determinantes do empreendedorismo no Brasil a partir de modelos de escolha ocupacional, usando os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra por Domicílios (PNAD) do ano de 2012. A estratégia empírica adotada empregou os modelos de escolha discreta na estimação da escolha ocupacional. Os resultados demonstraram que existem efeitos significativos para as variáveis: anos de estudos iniciai...

  12. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  13. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  14. Nuevos documentos sobre Rojas Zorrilla y su teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madroñal, Abraham

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains twelve unpublished documents on Rojas Zorrilla, related to his biography and literary works (comedias and autos sacramentales. The majority are handwritten by the poet himself, and they provide new information relevant to our knowledge of his life and to the understanding of his works.Se publican una docena de documentos inéditos sobre Rojas Zorrilla referidos a su biografía y a algunas comedias y autos. En buena parte dichos documentos son autógrafos del poeta y añaden o matizan informaciones concretas sobre él y sus obras.

  15. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  16. La colaboración hispano-latinoamericana en los orígenes y desarrollo del movimiento documental europeo contemporáneo (1900-1920 Spain and latin america collaboration in the starting point and further development of the european contemporaneous trends in information sciences (1900-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Olagüe de Ros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XX España y las repúblicas latinoamericanas participaron de forma activa en los primeros proyectos documentales contemporáneos. En este trabajo se estudian las iniciativas españolas, en colaboración con Latinoamérica, por crear instrumentos documentales en ciencias recurriendo a la lengua española como elemento de cohesión. Se analizan la Unión Médica Hispano-Americana (1900, que promovió la elaboración de un Diccionario Tecnológico Médico Hispano-Americano (1903, y la Unión Internacional de Bibliografía y Tecnología Científicas (1910, que fue auspiciada por la Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid.A notorious collaboration between Spain and some Latin American Republics was developed in the beginings of the XXth Century in frame of the European contemporaneous trends in information sciences. The aim of this paper is analyze some of the Spanish enterprises in which the Spanish language was a basic instrument of cohesion. From this point view are considered the Unión Médica Hispano-Americana (1900, the Diccionario Tecnológico Médico Hispano-Americano (1903, and the Unión Internacional de Bibliografía y Tecnología Científicas (1910, promoved by the Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid.

  17. Trends in the International Academic Migration: A Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mihi-Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyses how undergraduate students’ mobility has changed after the last economics recession. Research Design & Methods: The study analysed the last data about public and private Universities of higher education system of Spain comparing it at international level in order to find the problems and challenges of the last few years. Findings: The results showed significant imbalances in mobile students’ trends by home and host region, especially after a deep restructuration of the higher education system of Spain due to the last crisis. In particular there are substantial differences in tuition fees, scholarships, number of teachers and their skills according to the region and type of university. Consequently international inflows and international study programs and agreements became very important. Implications & Recommendations: A growing number of students who study abroad, especially after the economic collapse of 2008, represents an excellent opportunity for the host countries due to an incomes growth and recruitment opportunities of highly skilled workers. Therefore to adapt the academic offer taking in account the language, needs and diversity of mobile students would increase their number. Also to increase the highly skilled teachers could help to attract these mobile students, and it would improve the quality of higher education system too. Contribution & Value Added: This research provided a value information to understand the current problems, challenges, changes and opportunities of the higher education mobility through the analysis of the case of Spain and international comparisons.

  18. Preventing erosive risks after wildfire in Spain: advances and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José A.; Fontúrbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is one of the most wildfire-affected areas in Western Europe and where the highest soil losses following fire are recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade, mitigation of hydrological and erosive risk has been an important objective for researchers and forest managers. For this reason, research carried out has focused on three main issues: i) the development of operational tools to prioritize post-fire soil stabilization actions, based on soil burn severity indicators and remote sensed information, and testing of their ability to reflect degradation risk in relevant soil properties and subsequent soil erosion, ii) the development and testing of different soil stabilization treatments and their effectiveness for reducing erosion, following their application at broad scale, under the specific environmental conditions of Galicia and iii) the assessment of the performance of current erosion models as well as the development of empirical models to predict post-fire soil losses. On the other hand, the use of forest resources is an essential component of the regional incomes in NW Spain and consequently there is a pressing necessity for investigation on techniques suitable for reconciling soil conservation and sustainable use of those resources. In the framework of wildfire impacts this involve many and complex challenges. This scenario contrast with most of the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean influence where salvage logging is not a priority. As in other regions, post-fire hydrologic and erosive risk modeling, including threatened resources vulnerability evaluation is also a capital research need, particularly in a climate change context where dramatic changes in drivers such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and fire regime are expected. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de

  19. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  20. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  2. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  3. Conversaciones sobre el litoral cordillerano

    OpenAIRE

    Browne,Enrique; Browne,Tomás

    2009-01-01

    Dos arquitectos dialogan sobre los Andes desde su propia vivencia. El territorio de Chile se entiende como límite natural entre mar y cordillera, donde suceden apretadamente una serie de eventos particulares: fallas geológicas, cerros que penetran en las ciudades y torrentes que bajan al mar caracterizan y diferencian sus paisajes.

  4. Sobre Humanismo y Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta disertación sobre “Humanismo y Medicina”, título del libro que tuve ocasión de publicar hace un par de años, destacaré algunas de las relaciones que existen entre la medicina y las bellas artes, concretamente la música y la pintura. La Medicina tiene como objeto de su acción al Hombre. Definida como la ciencia y el arte de prevenir, curar o aliviar la enfermedad, no tiene como meta la simple prolongación de la vida biológica.

    Su tarea consiste en postergar la muerte, prevenir o reducir los padecimientos y las deformidades, curar las enfermedades, ampliar las capacidades biológicas y psicológicas de los seres humanos y ocuparse de los sufrimientos de las personas. Para Tristam Engelhardt, es la Medicina de las personas.

    Se concibe a la persona humana como el individuo de conciencia reflexiva normal que es a la vez miembro pleno de la comunidad, con los deberes y derechos que presuponen su pertenencia a ella. A esta acepción de carácter moral de la persona humana, que corresponde a lo que se llama persona “en sentido estricto”, se agrega la acepción social, que hace relación con aquellas personas a las que se otorgan prácticamente los mismos derechos, como es el caso de los niños, de los individuos que perdieron el carácter de personas por padecer de lesiones cerebrales o demencia, y de aquellos que nunca llegarán a serlo como los retrasados mentales profundos.

    Al sostener que no todos los seres humanos son personas “en sentido estricto”, la Bioética que expone Engelhardt impone, sin embargo, como obligación moral, tratar a estos últimos con pleno respeto y comprensión. Lo que es importante acerca de nosotros mismos como seres humanos, es el hecho real de que seamos personas; no simplemente nuestra pertenencia al género Horno sapiens como tal.

    Para Víctor Frankl, la persona humana es de carácter espiritual y en tal virtud, es diferente del organismo psicofísico cuya

  5. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  7. [Health Campaigns Against Malaria in Spain through the Specialized Journalism in Spain (1929-1954)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Cano, Natalia; Mosquera Gordillo, Miguel Armando; Ballester Añón, Rosa

    2016-06-07

    Malaria was one of the most important public health problems of the Colonial Medicine and, for this reason, the subject was reflected in the Spanish medical journalism. The aim of the paper was to reconstruct the Spanish contributions to international health during the first half of the twentieth century. The primary sources of information on malaria were the medical journals Medicina de los Países Cálidos and Medicina Colonial, between 1929 and 1954. The documents were classified according to the sections of the magazine and its contents were studied, framing them in the history of international public health. In primary sources were found 466 documents. Malaria was one of the major diseases of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Guinea, favoured by the occupation of the Spanish army. Antimalaria campaigns included strategies such as the use of Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, preventive education and massive quininización. Malariology in the specialized journalism, experienced a growing boom. The most outstanding authors in magazines analyzed were Gustavo Pittaluga, Sadí de Buen, Eliseo de Buen and Juan Gil-Collado. The Spanish specialized journalism provides the importance e interaction in antimalaria campaigns in Spain and Spanish African colonies of scientific, professional, political and military factors. The colonial situation was negative and marked differences between metropolis and colonies in terms of the effort, efficiency and the different temporal sequence of the measures undertaken.

  8. Web measurement - a tool to achieve reliable information on custody transfer measurement systems in pipeline operations; Web medicao - uma ferramenta de consolidacao de informacoes sobre sistemas de medicao para transferencia de custodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Eliane Areas; Freitas, Surama de Oliveitra [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva; Dias, Gerson Vieira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The prompt and organized information about measurement systems is essential for custody transfer in the pipeline transportation business. This organized information can serve as a basis for operational, maintenance and commercial groups in pipeline transportation companies. This information can also help management in planning future improvements in hardware for custody transfer measurements. In nation-wide companies, like TRANSPETRO, information about custody transfer measurement systems, if not organized, will be scattered geographically and organizationally. In organizing this kind of information, distributed systems have a big advantage, with information maintained by operational groups and centralized in the headquarters of the company. This paper describes the implementation of a system for consolidating and updating company information about custody transfer measurement systems for liquid and gas. The system has been implemented on the Intranet, allowing initial data entry in a distributed way, and a centralized validation by the headquarters engineering group. The new methodology has sharply increased the reliability in the information of custody transfer measurement systems in the company. (author)

  9. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  10. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  11. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    determinaron diferencias culturales en cuanto a conocimientos, prácticas y actitudes. Se utilizó un cuestionario clasificado según su contenido semántico en categorías de transmisión y prácticas preventivas; las respuestas se evaluaron como "errores" y "aciertos". Los datos se tabularon y analizaron usando EPIINFO 6.4, y las respuestas abiertas se clasificaron de acuerdo con el contenido semántico. La comparación de las frecuencias de las respuestas entre las ciudades se hizo mediante ji cuadrada. RESULTADOS: En 837 respuestas en la categoría transmisión y 771 en prevención, la comida y el agua fueron las más frecuentemente citadas (40%. En transmisión, las respuestas subsecuentes fueron, en orden de frecuencia: transfusión de sangre (16%, conocimiento inadecuado (9%, causas posibles de enfermedades hepáticas (9% y transmisión sexual (7%. En prevención, las respuestas subsecuentes fueron, en orden de frecuencia: aspectos generales de prevención (13%, inmunización (9%, calidad de los servicios de salud (8% y prevención sexual (5%. El número de "aciertos" sobre mecanismos de transmisión y prácticas de prevención varió entre 0 y 80%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que se debe invertir más en la difusión de conocimientos sobre hepatitis viral, su transmisión sexual y por el uso de drogas inyectables.

  12. De la razón jurídica hacia una ética peculiar. A propósito del informe mundial sobre el derecho a la educación de personas con discapacidad De la razón jurídica hacia una ética peculiar. A propósito del informe mundial sobre el derecho a la educación de personas con discapacidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Skliar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se plantea una relectura ética acerca del derecho a la educación de las personas con discapacidades, con un énfasis prioritario de la situación en América Latina. A partir de considerar los sistemas jurídicos, los modos de financiamiento políticos, los porcentajes de inclusión y los programas de seguimiento de la población con discapacidad en edad escolar, se deriva toda una serie de discusiones sobre la idea de formación educativa, el estar junto a otros y las responsabilidades éticas en la tarea de educar.This paper raises the need of an ethical re interpretation of the right to education of people with disabilities, with a strong emphasis in Latin America. By considering juridical systems, political fundings, inclusion percentages and monitoring programmes focused on people with dissabilities in school age, a series of discussions is proposed: about the idea of educational training, about living and being with others and about the ethical responsabilities in the task of teaching.

  13. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  14. THE ACTIVE FUTURE OF THE AGED PEOPLE IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO GUTIÉRREZ RESA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the following article we try to establish the foundations that support “the active future of the aged people in Spain”. We base our work on data from the National Institute of Statistics (INE, the Statistics Annuary of Spain, the Information System of the System for Autonomy and Dependency Caring (SISAAD and the Aged People Observatory-Institute of Aged People and Social Services (IMSERSO. Actually, one can notice that, if human beings are linked to production and utility, after 65–70 years of age, the possibilities of happiness can be accomplished now. We try to show that, with the number of people aged over 65 (8 million people in Spain increasing more than any other group and in acceptable health conditions, the context is more reasonable and facilitates an active future of the aged people. That is, the development of a process of optimization of health, participation and security opportunities, aiming at bettering the quality of life according as people age. We maintain that aging is not necessarily negative, the chronological age being a more and more unsatisfactory criterion. In the following pages we show the undeniable reality that we are going to live longer and probably in better conditions. Nevertheless, according to our data, it is convenient to distinguish from now on between people of 65 to 79 years and people of 80 and more. This stems, above all, from the domination of the dependency situations which go unsolved in Spain, despite the Law No. 6 of 2006. The article presents those services (IMSERSO which promote the active ageing: nurseries and clubs, vacations and thermal therapy, universities for aged people, accessibility programs and telealarms. Also presented are those services of familial solidarity promotion and maintaining: home help, residences, day nurseries and familial support services. The available data show the insufficiency of the aforementioned services in Spain. Therefore, we can say that the clearly pro

  15. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  16. Wind turbines in Spain: la vuelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.; Trancart, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years ago it was just the beginning of the wind industry in Spain. Today it takes the third place in Europe and the fourth in the world. The pilot regions are the Galicia and the Navarre. (A.L.B.)

  17. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  18. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  19. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  20. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  1. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  3. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  4. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  5. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  6. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diéguez, F.J.; Cerviño, M.; Yus, E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Diéguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genetic diversity in Spain: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diéguez, F.J.; Cerviño, M.; Yus, E.

    2017-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, causes significant losses in cattle farming worldwide because of reduced milk production, increased mortality of young animals and reproductive, respiratory and intestinal problems. The virus is characterized by an important genetic, and consequently antigenic and pathogenic diversity. Knowing the variability of viral strains present in a population provides valuable information, particularly relevant for control programs development, vaccination recommendations and even identification of likely infection sources. Such information is therefore important at both local and regional levels. This review focuses on the genetic diversity of BVDV isolates infecting cattle in Spain over the last years. According to the published data, the most prevalent BVDV group in Spain was 1b, and to a lesser extent 1d, 1e and 1f. Besides, BVDV-2 has also been found in Spain with several ratified isolates. The studies carried out in Spain also showed increased genetic heterogeneity of BVDV strains, possibly due to a more intensive use of analytical tools available, presenting studies with increasingly greater sample sizes.

  10. Evaluating mental health care and policy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Costa-Font, Joan; Cabases, Juan; McDaid, David; Alonso, Jordi

    2010-06-01

    The reform and expansion of mental health care (MHC) systems is a key health policy target worldwide. Evidence informed policy aims to make use of a wide range of relevant data, taking into account past experience and local culture and context. To discuss the organisation, provision and financing of MHC in Spain visa vis the goals of recent psychiatric reforms. We draw upon existing literature, reports and empirical data from regional and national health plans, as well as European reports pertinent to Spain. In addition we have made use of iterative discussion by an expert panel on the features of Spanish MHC services, namely its history, characteristics and determinants in comparison to reforms in other European health systems. In contrast to most other European health systems, the Spanish case reveals that political regional devolution leads to a greater heterogeneity in MHC systems, with some of the 17 autonomous communities (ACs) or region states that make up the country moving more rapidly to full de-institutionalisation alongside coverage expansion and policy innovation. There remains a lack of specific earmarked budgets for MHC at a time of under-funding. There has been an imbalance in MHC reforms, with more focus on the principles underpinning the process of de-institutionalisation and less on the actual development of alternative community based mental health services. Moreover there has been a lack of monitoring of the reform process. Common to other countries, attempts to develop a more informed evidence policy have been hampered by a dislocation between the production of research evidence and the timing of actual policy reform implementation. Much of the focus of policy attention is on how to improve coordination within and across sectors, tackle socioeconomic inequalities and thus reduce the gap between perceived and observed need while monitoring any trends suggesting trans-institutionalisation. Other issues include developing and strengthening

  11. [Health services utilization by the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Sanz, Belén; Pascual, Cruz; Lostao, Lourdes; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Díaz Olalla, José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To compare health services utilization between the immigrant and indigenous populations in Spain. We used information provided by the following four health surveys carried out around 2005: Catalonia 2005; city of Madrid 2005, Canary Islands 2004 and the Autonomous Community of Valencia 2005. The health services studied were general practice, specialist services, emergency services, hospitalization, and two preventive services: pap smear test and mammography. In general, most health services were less frequently used by the immigrant population than by the Spanish population. The health services showing the least differences between the two populations were general practice and hospitalization, while the greatest differences were found in the use of specialist and preventive services. The most heterogeneous results were found in general practice and hospitalization, since some immigrant groups showed a relatively high frequency of use in some geographical areas and a relatively low frequency in other areas. The results of the present study reproduce those found in other studies carried out in countries with similar social and economic characteristics to Spain. Like previous results, the present results are difficult to explain. Future research should aim to use other study designs and to test hypotheses not put forward by the scientific community to date.

  12. Quality of environmental impact statements in Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canelas, Leonel; Almansa, P.; Merchan, M.; Cifuentes, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    One of the key steps of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, defined by Directive 337/85 'on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects' is the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a Project. The quality of the EIS is of great importance to properly inform the public and the decision makers about the significant environmental effects of the project. Using the 'Guidance on EIA-EIS Review' 2001 report, produced with the support of the European Commission, this paper analyses the overall quality of 46 recently elaborated EIS from Portugal and Spain (1998-2003). It also analyses the quality of the various chapters of the EIS and the Non-Technical Summary. A comparison is made between the quality of the EIS from Portugal and from Spain. The results for Portugal are also compared with those of other European countries (Ireland and United Kingdom) in similar periods. Finally it presents overall conclusions and suggestions for improvement

  13. Current use of Social Media in Neurosurgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Gómez, Jacinto; Gilete-Tejero, Ignacio Javier; Rico-Cotelo, María; Royano-Sánchez, Manuel; Ortega-Martínez, Marta

    To analyze the current situation in Spain of the use of Social Media in Neurosurgery. We made an observational transversal study between February and March 2017, with a systematic search of the Facebook, Twitter and Youtube accounts from public and private neurosurgical units, scientific societies, peer-reviewed publications and patients groups in relation with Neurosurgical pathologies. We rank them according their popularity. According of our search only 5 public neurosurgical services have social media accounts, being their popularity inferior to the private units accounts. In relation with the scientific societies and neurosurgical publications their presence in social media is marginal, even more in comparison to the accounts of other medical specialities. The popularity of associations of patients and supporting groups is high, especially among patients, finding there more information about their disease. The use in Spain of Social Media about Neurosurgery is low in comparison to other medical specialities. There is a huge field to improve the popularity of the accounts, making in them promotion of health and extend the diffusion of the scientific society and the peer-reviewed publication Neurocirugía. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  15. Modeling soil organic carbon stocks and changes in Spain using the GEFSOC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Easter, Mark; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Paustian, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Currently, there is little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Spain. To date the effects of land-use and soil management on SOC stocks in Spain have been evaluated in experimental fields under certain soil and climate conditions. However, these field experiments do not account for the spatial variability in management, cropping systems and soil and climate characteristics that exist in the whole territory. More realistic approaches like ecosystem-level dynamic simulation systems linked to geographic information systems (GIS) allow better assessments of SOC stocks at a regional or national level. The Global Environmental Facility Soil Organic Carbon (GEFSOC) system was recently built for this purpose (Milne et al., 2007) and it incorporates three widely used models for estimating SOC dynamics: (a) the Century ecosystem model; (b) the RothC soil C decomposition model; and (c) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method for assessing soil C at regional scales. We modeled 9.5 Mha in northeast Spain using the GEFSOC system to predict SOC stocks and changes comprising: pasture, forest, cereal-fallow, cereal monoculture, orchards, rice, irrigated land and grapes and olives. The spatial distribution of the different land use categories and their change over time was obtained from the European Corine database and from Spanish census data on land use from 1926 to 2007. At the same time, current and historical management information was collected from different sources in order to have a fairly well picture of changes in land use and management for this area. Soil parameters needed by the system were obtained from the European soil map (1 km x 1 km) and climate data was produced by the Meteorology State Agency (Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Environs of Spain). The SOC stocks simulated were validated with SOC values from the European SOC map and from other national studies. Modeled SOC results suggested that spatial

  16. Los registros de salud personal: el caso de la Carpeta Personal de Salud de Cataluña Personal health records: the case of the Personal Health Folder of Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Saigí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las posibilidades de la Carpeta Personal de Salud e identifica la brecha entre el potencial de esta herramienta y las aplicaciones que ofrece a través de Internet. Se presenta la Carpeta Personal de Salud, un proyecto vinculado a la Historia Clínica Compartida de Cataluña, que ofrece un punto de acceso a la información sobre la propia salud que es seguro, personalizado y soportado por las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. La experiencia, realizada íntegramente por la Consejería de Salud de la Generalitat de Cataluña, escogió una metodología mediante encuesta anónima. Los resultados han sido de gran relevancia para obtener información sobre la idoneidad de los datos publicados y las expectativas de una herramienta dirigida a la población en general.The aims of this study were to explore the possibilities of the Personal Health Folder and to identify the gap between the potential applications of this tool and what it offers through the Internet. The Personal Health Folder is presented, a project linked to the Shared Medical Record of Catalonia (Spain, which provides citizens with an access point to information about their health insurance, customized and supported by information and communication technologies. The project was carried out by the Ministry of Health of the Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya and data were gathered through an anonymous survey. The results were critical to obtain information on the suitability of the published data and on the expectations of a tool aimed at the general population.

  17. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  18. 7. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 10: Information Services; 7. Seminario IIE-ININ-IMP sobre especialidades tecnologicas. Mesa 10. Servicios de informacion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document includes 10 papers presented at the 7. Seminar of the IIE-IMP-ININ (Mexico) on technological specialities in the field of information services (Topic 10). Three items were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them.

  19. Building Friendship Networks and Intercultural Spaces: The Case of Japanese Women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Avila Tapies

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associationism of Japanese women living in Spain who are members of the Tanpopo-no-kai/Sociedad Tanpopo, and their intercultural experiences through their written personal narratives. This associationism has resulted in attempts to create a social network and space for intercultural communication at a national level between Hispanic-Japanese families and Japanese residents in Spain. The research is based on numerical data and narrative data, however Japanese narratives from the quarterly association bulletins provide the main source of information. By using the narrative analysis method in the form of questions we have been able to study the writings in order to explore issues such as: their transcultural experiences, their processes of adapting to life in Spain, the evolution of their identity, their interpretation of the social reality around them and the passing on of their social and cultural heritage to their children, among others. The study of the Tanpopo association has demonstrated a close-knit and relaxed transcultural and female space for intraethnic communication. It reveals a joint strategy of emotional and instrumental support to overcome the isolation, the loss of social networks and the geographical separation from their own cultural region, resulting from the immigration through marriage of Japanese women living in Spain.

  20. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  1. Courses and syllabus: the situation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation covering radioactive and nuclear installations classifies workers operating such installations as operators or supervisors. Operators are persons who, working directly under a supervisor, handle the installation operational equipment and which have a bearing on nuclear safety or protection against radiation. Supervisors are persons directing the operations of a radioactive or nuclear installation and operator activities. The study deals with the courses given in Spain which qualify operators and supervisors in industrial radioactive installations as permit holders, as well as the courses currently being run for persons engaged in the transport of radioactive materials. Spain regulations covering transport of dangerous goods are based on separate Royal Decrees dealing with road and air transport respectively

  2. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  4. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  6. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  7. Caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease patients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease constitutes one of the leading causes of burden of disease, and it is the third leading disease in terms of economic and social costs. To analyze the burden and problems borne by informal caregivers of patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease in Spain. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Autonomy and Dependency to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled people with Alzheimer's disease and the individuals who provide them with personal care. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses using probit models were performed to analyze the burden placed on caregivers in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social aspects. 46% of informal caregivers suffered from health-related problems as a result of providing care, 90% had leisure-related problems, and 75% of caregivers under 65 years old admitted to suffering from problems related to their professional lives. The probability of a problem arising for an informal caregiver was positively associated with the degree of dependency of the person cared for. In the case of caring for a greatly dependent person, the probability of suffering from health-related problems was 22% higher, the probability of professional problems was 18% higher, and there was a 10% greater probability of suffering from leisure-related problems compared to non-dependents. The results show a part of the large hidden cost for society in terms of problems related to the burden lessened by the caregivers. This information should be a useful tool for designing policies focused toward supporting caregivers and improving their welfare.

  8. Concordância entre informações do Cartão da Gestante e da memória materna sobre assistência pré-natal Agreement between information from the Pregnant Card and the mother's memory of antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Theodoro dos Santos Neto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo seccional objetivou verificar a concordância entre as informações prestadas por puérperas e as registradas nos cartões das gestantes sobre assistência pré-natal no Sistema Único de Saúde da Região Metropolitana da Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Considerou-se uma população de estudo de 1.035 puérperas, entrevistadas em oito maternidades, onde os cartões foram copiados. A representatividade da amostra foi garantida pela estratificação segundo a proporção de nascidos vivos. Informações foram coletadas, processadas e submetidas aos testes de kappa e McNemar. Os níveis de concordância sobre assistência pré-natal foram predominantemente ruins (kappa This cross-sectional study aimed to verify agreement between information given by mothers after delivery and data recorded on Pregnant Cards about antenatal care under the Brazilian Unified National Health System in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The study considered a population of 1,035 postpartum mothers interviewed in eight hospitals, where the cards were copied. The representativeness of the sample was guaranteedby stratification according to the proportion of births. Kappa and McNemar tests were carried out with the collected and processed information. Agreement levels regarding antenatal care were predominantly poor (kappa < 0.20. Mothers tend to: overestimate the number of antenatal visits (McNemar = 51.73; p-value = 0.001; affirm diseases during pregnancy, such as diabetes, anemia, hypertension and urinary infections; report the performance of laboratory tests; report the carrying out of clinical examinations. Results suggest the need to reflect on the type of data used for planning and implementing maternal and child public health polices, since data varies depending on the information source.

  9. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  10. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  12. The dilemmas of nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranzadi, C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the economic basis of some controversial political choices concerning the future of nuclear energy in Spain: authorisation or refusal of existing nuclear power plants life extension and investment in new ones. These decisions are to be taken in an environment characterised by a reluctant public opinion that feel uninformed and whose risk perception differs deeply from experts assessment, but prefers not to be consulted. (Author) 19 refs

  13. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lessons learned from Spain's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs

  15. [Recommendations on vitamin D and calcium supplements for adults in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigueira García, Ana Isabel

    2012-10-01

    Calcium supplements and vitamin D are involved in current debates of health, as cardiovascular safety of calcium, and correction of vitamin levels. The aim is to review the possibilities of making better use of supplements marketed in Spain, depending on their availability, information and related epidemiology. Analysis of comercial offer and available information about pharmacological aspects of Spanish medicinal supplements in data-sheets (39), guides and reports current institutional and professional, with additional search of this information and epidemiological data related Spanish in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ®, PubMed ® (tool "Clinical Queries"), Dialnet database and hand search of Spanish journals directly related. There is no uniformity in terms of indication, expression of content, dosages, precautions and safety in data sheets or technical reports. The literature search found more recent publications volume for vitamin D than calcium, No evidence was found to establish appropriate dosing regimens indisputable or universal, or cholecalciferol bioavailability tests with aqueous vehiculización. In Spain nutritional situation is found generally suitable for the calcium but a status mostly unsuitable for vitamin D with several references for insufficiency and vitamin deficiency in adults. Corrective treatments primarily affect calcium supplements. There is an ample supply of calcium and vitamin D in Spain, whose drug design should rethink because don't respond to the needs identified or correction possibilities currently recommended. It should also improve and update their information, with particular interest in health status related to hypovitaminosis D.

  16. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  17. Small hydro: Policy and potential in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Spain, the benefits of small-scale (less than 10 MW) hydro are apparently rarely appreciated and there is little support from European institutions. The article suggests that small hydro technology can make a significant contribution to the country's energy requirements and create employment, provided certain obstacles can be removed. Data on the number of small hydros in Spain, and of recent installations are given; the share of hydro in Spain's total energy production is 2.5%. The low environmental impact of hydro is extolled, and the conclusions of a recent study of 'environmental impacts of the production of electricity' are listed. There are said to be unreasonable administrative obstacles; for example, it is more difficult to obtain permission to refurbish a 100 kW hydro plant in Castilla y Leon than it is to install a 30,000 kW gas plant. Some details relating to the affect of hydro on aquatic ecosystems, noise levels, and water quality, are given

  18. Información sobre antimicrobianos en una muestra de profesionales de la salud en el Instituto de Oncología Information on presence of antimicrobial agents in a cohort of health professionals in Oncology Institute

    OpenAIRE

    María Antonieta Arbesú Michelena; Maritza Ramos Fernández; Rogelio Fernández Arguelles; Laritza Planché Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    En el éxito de un tratamiento antimicrobiano influyen diversos factores objetivos y subjetivos que en los distintos informes del Comité de Farmacia y Terapéutica del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, durante el 2006, se describieron problemas relacionados con el cumplimiento de la política de antibióticos, lo cual ha sido justificado, por parte del personal afectado, por la imposibilidad de utilización de las técnicas de la microbiología. De igual forma, estos profesionales pla...

  19. Caracterización del nivel de información sobre ITS/VIH/sida en adolescentes de la escuela secundaria básica "José Luis Arruñada" Characterization of the information level on sexual transmission infection (STI/HIV/aids in adolescents of the "José Luis Arruñada" basic secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fadragas Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba, el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el VIH/sida, se inició desde 1986, con el objetivo fundamental de evitar que el proceso de la infección-enfermedad, se convirtiera en un importante problema de salud para la población cubana. Objetivo: caracterizar el nivel de información que sobre las ITS/VIH/sida, tienen los adolescentes que pertenecen a la escuela secundaria básica "José Luis Arruñada", correspondiente al municipio Plaza de la Revolución, en el año 2009. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, en un grupo de adolescentes. De un universo de 180 de ellos, se aplicó el estudio a una muestra constituida por 121 participantes, para saber el nivel de información que tenían sobre las enfermedades estudiadas, mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario. Resultados: tenían nociones sobre las infecciones de transmisión sexual, 115 adolescentes para un 95,04 %, las fuentes de obtención de la información más reconocidas fueron la familia en 112 para un 92,56 %, y la escuela en 75 para un 61,98 %. Las infecciones de transmisión sexual más identificadas por ellos fueron: el VIH/sida 116 para un 95,86 %, la gonorrea 108 para un 89,25 % y la sífilis 101, para un 83,47 %; fueron menos reconocidas la gardella vaginal 4, chancro blando 11, clamidiasis 13, moniliasis 19 y la trichomoniasis 26 para un 3,30 %, 9,09 %, 10,74 %, 15,70 % y un 21,48 % respectivamente. De los adolescentes encuestados, 51 consideró que las posibilidades de contagio de las infecciones de transmisión sexual, son grandes en el sexo oral para un 42,14 %, 119 encuestados refirieron tener nociones sobre sexo seguro para un 98,34 %, y dentro de las variantes se identificó el uso del condón. Conclusiones: los adolescentes tenían un adecuado nivel de información sobre algunas de las enfermedades estudiadas.Introduction: in Cuba, the National Program

  20. Sobre aprendizaje escolar y neurociencias

    OpenAIRE

    Terigi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    En el marco de una creciente difusión de los discursos de y sobre las neurociencias en el campo educativo en Argentina, donde enunciados extraídos del discurso neurocientífico comienzan a transformarse en emblemas de política pública, este trabajo, escrito desde el punto de vista de la educación escolar, se propone situar los alcances y límites de los aportes de estas disciplinas para comprender el aprendizaje escolar. En él se postula que la aparición rutilante de las neurociencias en educac...

  1. Polinomios perfectos sobre F2

    OpenAIRE

    Cely Rojas, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra el status de los números perfectos y el análogo de los números perfectos en los anillos de polinomios. Además, se presentan las demostraciones de algunas propiedades de los polinomios perfectos sobre F2 de forma comprensible, basadas en el trabajo realizado por los profesores Luis Gallardo y Oliver Rahavandrainy. / Abstract. This work shows the status artis of perfect numbers and their analogue in the rings of polynomials. Proofs of some properties of perfect polynomials ...

  2. Contabilidad del impuesto sobre beneficios

    OpenAIRE

    Luceño Martínez, Haizea

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado pretende dar una explicación al tratamiento contable del Impuesto de Sociedades. Siendo un impuesto que hay que contabilizar, pero que se calcula siguiendo criterios fiscales, lleva a tener que realizar ajustes que tendrán su repercusión contable. El punto de partida no es otra que la norma de registro y valoración 13ª del PGC, que versa sobre cómo hay que proceder a contabilizar el Gasto por Impuesto de Sociedades, que se compone tanto del Gasto por Impuesto Co...

  3. Oil and Gas Information Center of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey; Criacao do Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Francisco; Serrao, Marcio; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Silva, Jose Otavio da; Chaves, Hernani [Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas Information Center (CIPEG) of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey concentrates data of oil and natural gas (O and G) industry in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and meet a specialist staff to work with this data. The CIPEG works in partnership with the Geology School of Rio de Janeiro State University. Its creation was motivated by the government necessity to dominate the techniques to calculate the Government take for the production of O and G front the RJ position in the national oil industry. In 2007, the Rio de Janeiro was responsible for 84% of domestic production of oil and of 91 municipalities, 86 received royalties. These resources represent substantial share in the budget of municipalities and the State, and any variation, could be bring deep impact on the economy of these counties and the State. The products of CIPEG are: a map of O and G industry in Rio de Janeiro, a Database, a GIS and a Timing of Predicting Production of O and G. These products are available through a Internet page with accompanying by graphs of the production of O and G or royalties and Web map for viewing the information in the GIS. (author)

  4. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  5. UAV archaeological reconstruction: The study case of Chamartin Hillfort (Avila, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Nieto, A. L.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Gonzales-Aguilera, D.; Fernandez-Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Lahoz, J.; Picon-Cabrera, I.; Herrero-Pascual, J. S.; Hernandez-Lopez, D.

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a common technique for 3D modelling in a low-cost way. This technique is becoming essential to analyse the cultural heritage, e.g. historical buildings, monuments and archaeological remains in order not only to preserve them, but for disseminate accurate graphic information. The study case of Chamartin hillfort (Ávila, Spain) provided us the opportunity to apply automation techniques to generate geomatic products with high metric ...

  6. Open Data as a key factor for developing expert systems: a perspective from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Andrea Rodríguez Rojas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The open data movement is relatively new but very significant, and potentially powerful. The overall intention is to make local, regional and national data available in a form that allows for direct manipulation. This paper is based on analyzing the current context of the Open Data initiative in Spain, from its origins and concepts, the legal framework, current initiatives and challenges that must be addressed for effective reuse of public sector information.

  7. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 10 February 1977 between the Agency, Canada and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-05

    The text of the Agreement of 10 February 1977 between the Agency, Canada and Spain for the application of safeguards in relation to the Agreement of 7 July 1975 between the two Governments for the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 34, on 10 February 1977.

  8. Alcanzando los objetivos de desarrollo del milenio en Guatemala: Informe final sobre el diseño de modelos de predicción del cumplimiento de los objetivos del milenio en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Arlette Beltrán; Juan Francisco Castro; Enrique Vásquez; Gustavo Yamada

    2005-01-01

    Este documento fue comisionado por la Red de Reducción de la Pobreza y Protección Social del Diálogo Regional de Política para la 8a Reunión Hemisférica celebrada los días 24 y 25 de abril de 2005. El informe presenta las políticas costo eficientes para alcanzar los ODMs con base en modelos estadísticos de pronóstico y costeo. Concluye que Guatemala podría alcanzar la mayoría de ODM sociales si combina políticas sociales sectoriales, de crecimiento económico y de redistribución de ingresos, f...

  9. La organización contable en la constitución del Banco de San Carlos en 1783. Los informes sobre los libros de cuentas, personal y sistemas de contabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    informes que se elaboraron en 1783 para dotar al establecimiento, acordes con el diseño organizativo previsto en su norma fundacional, de la infraestructura necesaria para cubrir los aspectos contables que abarcan, desde los libros de cuentas, hasta el sistema a seguir por partida doble o simple, o el perfil, sueldo y personas que llevarían la contabilidad. Finalmente, sería el órgano colegiado de la Junta de Dirección el que decidiría tales aspectos, pero supeditando a la Junta General de Accionistas, al término de ese primer ejercicio, la resolución o confirmación de algunas cuestiones.

  10. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic

  11. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SPAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Волосюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of trade relations between Russia and Spain during the reign of two Spanish kings: Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. The author’s attention is focused on the agency of diplomats, who made a big advance in the formation of trading relations between the two countries. The author concentrates on Ivan Muravyov-Apostol, the Russian ambassador to Spain (1802-1805, his Spanish partner Gaspar Maria de la Nava y Álvarez de Noroña (1802-1807, and on the consuls of Spain Antoni de Colombí (St. Petersburg and Francisco de Baguer y Ribas (Odessa. Based on their reports, which are located in both Rus-sian and Spanish archives, it is possible to trace the dependence of commercial relations from the political situation in the world, established in Europe in the era of Napoleonic wars. Their information also allows revealing the main stages of development in trading during these years and the future, observe the merchantry on the Baltic Sea and in the area of the Black Sea. Ana-lyzing these materials, conclusions about the cause of diminishing of the commercial activity between Russia and Spain during the reign of Ferdinand VII can be made. The attention of the author is also paid to the conditions, which were established for the trade of Spain´s main export product to Russia - wine, and trading of grain through the area of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, which received special progress in the beginning of the 19th century.

  12. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between global severity of patients with Alzheimer's disease and costs of care in Spain; results from the co-dependence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, J; Kaskens, L; Lacey, L

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' global severity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of global severity measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale on these costs for patients in Spain. The Codep-EA study is an 18-multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients (343) with AD according to the CDR score and their caregivers in Spain. The data obtained included (in addition to clinical measures) also socio-demographic data concerning the patient and its caregiver. Cost analyses were based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the resource utilization in dementia (RUD). Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of global severity and other socio-demographic and clinical variables on cost of care. The mean (standard deviation) costs per patient over 6 months for direct medical, social care, indirect and informal care costs, were estimated at €1,028.1 (1,655.0), €843.8 (2,684.8), €464.2 (1,639.0) and €33,232.2 (30,898.9), respectively. Dementia severity, as having a CDR score 0.5, 2, or 3 with CDR score 1 being the reference group were all independently and significantly associated with informal care costs. Whereas having a CDR score of 2 was also significantly related with social care costs, a CDR score of 3 was associated with most cost components including direct medical, social care, and total costs, all compared to the reference group. The costs of care for patients with AD in Spain are substantial, with informal care accounting for the greatest part. Dementia severity, measured by CDR score, showed that with increasing severity of the disease, direct medical, social care, informal care and total costs augmented.

  14. Pudor, honor, and autoridad: the evolving patient-physician relationship in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R M; Borrell i Carrió, F

    2001-10-01

    The expression of emotion and the sharing of information are determined by cultural factors, consultation time, and the structure of the health care system. Two emblematic situations in Spain - the expression of aggression in the patient-physician encounter, and the withholding of diagnostic information from the patient - have not been well-described in their sociocultural context. To explore these, the authors observed and participated in clinical practice and teaching in several settings throughout Spain and analyzed field notes using qualitative methods. In this paper, we explore three central constructs - modesty (pudor), dignity (honor), and authority (autoridad) - and their expressions in patient-physician encounters. We define two types of emotions in clinical settings - public, extroverted expressions of anger and exuberance; and private, deeply held feelings of fear and grief that tend to be expressed through the arts and religion. Premature reassurance and withholding of information are interpreted as attempts to reconstruct the honor and pudor of the patient. Physician authority and perceived loyalty to the government-run health care system generate conflict and aggression in the patient-physician relationship. These clinical behaviors are contextualized within cultural definitions of effective communication, an ideal patient-physician relationship, the role of the family, and ethical behavior. Despite agreement on the goals of medicine, the behavioral manifestations of empathy and caring in Spain contrast substantially with northern European and North American cultures.

  15. A qualitative study about immigrant workers' perceptions of their working conditions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, E Q; Porthé, V; Vázquez, M L; García, A M; López-Jacob, M J; Ruiz-Frutos, C; Ronda-Pérez, E; Benach, J; Benavides, F G

    2009-11-01

    Spain has recently become an inward migration country. Little is known about the occupational health of immigrant workers. This study aimed to explore the perceptions that immigrant workers in Spain had of their working conditions. Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Criterion sampling. Data collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews, with a topic guide. One hundred and fifty-eight immigrant workers (90 men/68 women) from Colombia (n = 21), Morocco (n = 39), sub-Saharan Africa (n = 29), Romania (n = 44) and Ecuador (n = 25), who were authorised (documented) or unauthorised (undocumented) residents in five medium to large cities in Spain. Participants described poor working conditions, low pay and health hazards. Perception of hazards appeared to be related to gender and job sector. Informants were highly segregated into jobs by sex, however, so this issue will need further exploration. Undocumented workers described poorer conditions than documented workers, which they attributed to their documentation status. Documented participants also felt vulnerable because of their immigrant status. Informants believed that deficient language skills, non-transferability of their education and training and, most of all, their immigrant status and economic need left them with little choice but to work under poor conditions. The occupational health needs of immigrant workers must be addressed at the job level, while improving the enforcement of existing health and safety regulations. The roles that documentation status and economic need played in these informants' work experiences should be considered and how these may influence health outcomes.

  16. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-01-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  17. Reviews of Educational Policy Regarding One Laptop per Child: "Escuela 2.0" Program in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-López, José-Manuel; Rodriguez-Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the attitudes and practices of teachers in relation to the national program Escuela 2.0 in Spain, implemented in 2009. The study analyzes attitudes and needs of 424 teachers and it assesses teaching practices developed with Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Data is analyzed through mixed methods with…

  18. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  19. Safety of radioactive waste management: International conference in Spain seeks board platform of consensus among experts and regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives short information about the Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (13-17 March 2000, Cordoba, Spain) organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the European Commission, the World Health Organization, and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

  20. Analysis of economic and social costs of adverse events associated with blood transfusions in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Ribed-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate, for the first time, the direct and social costs of transfusion-related adverse events in order to include them in the National Healthcare System's budget, calculation and studies. In Spain more than 1,500 patients yearly are diagnosed with such adverse events. Method: Blood transfusion-related adverse events recorded yearly in Spanish haemovigilance reports were studied retrospectively (2010-2015. The adverse events were coded according to the classification of Diagnosis-Related Groups. The direct healthcare costs were obtained from public information sources. The productivity loss (social cost associated with adverse events was calculated using the human capital and hedonic salary methodologies. Results: In 2015, 1,588 patients had adverse events that resulted in direct health care costs (4,568,914€ and social costs due to hospitalization (200,724€. Three adverse reactions resulted in patient death (at a social cost of 1,364,805€. In total, the cost of blood transfusion-related adverse events was 6,134,443€ in Spain. For the period 2010-2015: the trends show a reduction in the total amount of transfusions (2 vs. 1.91 M€; -4.4%. The number of adverse events increased (822 vs. 1,588; +93%, as well as their related direct healthcare cost (3.22 vs. 4.57M€; +42% and the social cost of hospitalization (110 vs 200M€; +83%. Mortality costs decreased (2.65 vs. 1.36M€; -48%. Discussion: This is the first time that the costs of post-transfusion adverse events have been calculated in Spain. These new figures and trends should be taken into consideration in any cost-effectiveness study or trial of new surgical techniques or sanitary policies that influence blood transfusion activities. Resumen: Objetivo: Calcular por primera vez los costes económicos y sociales relacionados con las reacciones adversas postransfusionales para actualizar estudios e incluirlos en los presupuestos del Sistema Nacional de Salud. En Espa

  1. Entre o Planejamento Estratégico Formal e Informal: um Estudo de Caso Exploratório sobre a Prática de Estratégia nas Organizações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Motta Luiz de Souza

    Full Text Available Most studies on strategy formation have a constitutive contingency element that defines variables through which one could sort organizations into a certain order to indicate what type of strategy formation is more suitable for each (e.g. Mintzberg & McHugh, 1985. This almost prescriptive ordinance concerning the content, process and practice of strategy in organizations can lead one to the perception that it is possible to determine the pattern of strategy of formation in organizations through the simple analysis of some predetermined variables. Guided by the strategy-as-practice approach (Jarzabkowski, 2005, 2008; Whittington, 1996, 2006, this paper explores the practice of strategic planning based on an exploratory single case study in a project-based organization, through which it was possible to identify change processes that shaped different stages of the strategic planning practice over the years with distinct characteristics regarding its (informality. These processes were analyzed using an approach inspired on the structuration theory (Giddens, 1984, indicating that the adequate level of strategic planning formalization should be defined by the structuration of practice in its social dynamic.

  2. Informe sobre Ensayo de Flexión Estática en Postes de Ciprés (Cupressus Lusitánica Miller, para Instalaciones Eléctricas y Telefónicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoheisel Hannes

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Los postes de madera utilizados para tendido de líneas eléctricas y telefónicas están sometidos a dos tipos de esfuerzos: a Esfuerzo de compresión axial, debido al peso del poste y de los hilos. b Esfuerzo de flexión debido a la acción del viento o a una tensión accidental de los hilos. Para efectos de cálculo, la compresión axial no se toma en cuenta por ser muy pequeña; pero la flexión tiene importancia y es el ensayo básico para el diseño de postes. El ensayo de postes a la flexión se realiza en postes de tamaño natural (9-10 m. . Se considera el presente informe como preliminar, debido a que no existe en este momento una clasificación de los postes en cuanto a la resistencia a la flexión. El Laboratorio de Productos Forestales de la Universidad Nacional, Sede de Medellín, tiene en su plan de trabajo un estudio de clasificación de postes con base en la resistencia a la flexión y de acuerdo con el rango de diámetros que puedan utilizarse, para correlacionar datos de resistencia de postes de diferentes tamaños.

  3. Evolution of radiation protection training programmes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica, Rodriguez Suarez; Elvira, Hernando Velasco; Javier, Menarguez; Javier, Fernandez; Susana, Falcon; Mirian, Bravo [CIEMAT - Radiation Protection Training Unit ( IEE), Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Education and training are an important tool to promote safety culture and to upgrade competence. In this sense, Radiation Protection (R.P.) training programmes are a major challenge in order to achieve occupational, public and environmental radiation protection in all applied fields of ionising radiation.The Spanish R.P. Education and Training system provides a solid and integrated educational model. The needs for a specialized training on R.P. for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. Since then, a wide variety of R.P. initial, continuous and on the job training courses has been carried out, taking into account the diverse applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international trends. C.I.E.M.A.T., through the R.P. training Unit, has been organizing and developing most of the R.P. training in Spain since 1964, becoming a reference centre. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving in order to complete and adapt all R.P. training levels. Initial training, long-life training, updating or upgrading training, as well as other innovative courses related with R.P. are being offered by C.I.E.M.A.T. each year. Another important aspect of R.P. is the information and training to stake holders. C.I.E.M.A. T. is also working in this sense. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of R.P. training processes since 1964 in Spain, in order to conclude which are the future trends and the changes required to adapt the Spanish R.P. Education and Training system to the current needs and upcoming scene. (authors)

  4. Evolution of radiation protection training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monica, Rodriguez Suarez; Elvira, Hernando Velasco; Javier, Menarguez; Javier, Fernandez; Susana, Falcon; Mirian, Bravo

    2006-01-01

    Education and training are an important tool to promote safety culture and to upgrade competence. In this sense, Radiation Protection (R.P.) training programmes are a major challenge in order to achieve occupational, public and environmental radiation protection in all applied fields of ionising radiation.The Spanish R.P. Education and Training system provides a solid and integrated educational model. The needs for a specialized training on R.P. for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. Since then, a wide variety of R.P. initial, continuous and on the job training courses has been carried out, taking into account the diverse applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international trends. C.I.E.M.A.T., through the R.P. training Unit, has been organizing and developing most of the R.P. training in Spain since 1964, becoming a reference centre. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving in order to complete and adapt all R.P. training levels. Initial training, long-life training, updating or upgrading training, as well as other innovative courses related with R.P. are being offered by C.I.E.M.A.T. each year. Another important aspect of R.P. is the information and training to stake holders. C.I.E.M.A. T. is also working in this sense. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of R.P. training processes since 1964 in Spain, in order to conclude which are the future trends and the changes required to adapt the Spanish R.P. Education and Training system to the current needs and upcoming scene. (authors)

  5. Analysis of the slaughterhouses in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Pastora M Bello; Andrade, Laura Cristóbal; de la Torre, María Agrelo; López, Rosa Torres

    2014-05-15

    In the last five years, slaughterhouses in Galicia have been producing more than 350,000 tonnes of carcass per year (Ministry of Environmental and Marine and Rural Media (MARM), 2013). The main environmental problems derived from this economic activity are the high consumption of water, the generation of waste water with a high organic load and the intensive use of energy (electricity and fuel) (European Commission, 2005). In this region of Spain, there are seventy-one slaughterhouses but only 10 to 15% of them have a carcass production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day (Casares et al., 2006), consequently needing an environmental permit according to the requirements set by the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive (European Commission, 2008). The slaughterhouses can be specialized in one livestock type, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or rabbits, or they can be polyvalent. In 2009, the most important meat productions were from porcine, poultry and bovine, as they represented 96% of total production in Spain (AICE, 2011). This paper presents a general view of this important sub-sector (according to the Spanish CNAE, National Classification of Economical Activities) of the food and drinking industry in Galicia. The work considers general information about the activity, an exhaustive description of the industrial process (including preliminary operations, processing, final and auxiliary operations), environmental aspects about consumption and emission levels, and finally a proposal of technique candidates to be BAT (best available techniques) for each process stage. This structure has permitted to obtain an inventory of pollution prevention and control techniques, as well as qualitative data of incomes and outcomes of consumptions and emissions respectively. The methodology, which has already been used in previous works (Barros et al., 2008), has been proved to be appropriate to optimize the process considering environmental factors as

  6. [Local food production for school feeding programmes in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martínez-Mián, Maria Asunción; Caballero, Pablo; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    To identify and characterize initiatives that promote the purchase of locally-sourced foods to supply schools and the school centres carrying out the initiatives. Exploratory, descriptive study based on secondary data and key informant reports. A search of governmental and non-governmental initiatives was carried out at the autonomous community level. Government initiatives were located through school feeding programmes in the different autonomous communities, their nutritional guides and representatives of the councils for education and agriculture. Non-governmental initiatives were found through their own websites and the snowball technique. Initiatives were analysed by their geographic distribution, organizational area (government vs. non-government), number of school centres carrying out the initiatives, management style and organic food purchase. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out. 12 initiatives carried out by 318 schools (2.16% of all the schools with food service in Spain) were identified. Among these, 6 are governmental initiatives with a scope of 274 schools (1.86%), and 6 are non-governmental initiatives with a scope of 44 schools (0.30%). Most of these schools have a public management system in place (n=284). All the initiatives provide for the purchase of organic food. Local food purchase initiatives in Spain have a limited reach. However, the existence of a state directive could support and strengthen the development of such initiatives, given that school commitment is greater when initiatives are driven by the public sector. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 μg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations 10 μg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 μg/L.

  8. El perfil profesional de los formadores de formación continua en España. [The professional profile of trainers working in continuous training in Spain].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaqi, Xhevrie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the professional profile of trainers working in continuous training in Spain. For this purpose we have developed a structured questionnaire was applied in person to a sample of 606 instructors nationwide. The questionnaire has provided information on aspects such as the socio-occupational status of instructors, their degree of professionalism, and the importance of professional skills. The information gathered has been analyzed by multivariate methods to determine the dominant professional profiles. The quantitative analysis includes the Categorical of Principal Components Analysis (CATPCA to analyze the skills and capabilities of the trainer and cluster analysis in two stages to get the profiles. Four dominant profiles have been deduced by the cluster analysis. The occupational variables, professional experience profiles and competences/skills produce the major discrepancies between the four profiles. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar y describir los perfiles profesionales del formador de formación continua en España. Con este propósito se ha elaborado un cuestionario estructurado que se ha aplicado de forma presencial a una muestra de 606 formadores a nivel nacional. El cuestionario ha proporcionado información sobre aspectos como el estatus socio-laboral del formador, el grado de profesionalización y la importancia de las competencias profesionales de los formadores. La información recabada ha sido analizada mediante métodos multivariantes para determinar los perfiles profesionales dominantes. El análisis cuantitativo incluye el Análisis de Componentes Principales Categóricos (CATPCA para analizar las competencias y capacidades del formador y el análisis Cluster en Dos Fases para obtener los perfiles. De los resultados obtenidos se han deducido cuatro perfiles profesionales dominantes siendo las variables ocupacionales, experiencia profesional y de las capacidades las que mayor

  9. Información sobre antimicrobianos en una muestra de profesionales de la salud en el Instituto de Oncología Information on presence of antimicrobial agents in a cohort of health professionals in Oncology Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Arbesú Michelena

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En el éxito de un tratamiento antimicrobiano influyen diversos factores objetivos y subjetivos que en los distintos informes del Comité de Farmacia y Terapéutica del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, durante el 2006, se describieron problemas relacionados con el cumplimiento de la política de antibióticos, lo cual ha sido justificado, por parte del personal afectado, por la imposibilidad de utilización de las técnicas de la microbiología. De igual forma, estos profesionales plantean que la política antimicrobiana es incorrecta por no contar con el mapa microbiológico" actualizado; sin embargo, se conoce la existencia de otros factores, como la información de cada profesional en la terapéutica a prescribir, que pueden influir en el resultado del uso de los antimicrobianos. Con el objetivo de determinar hasta donde se recuerdan los conocimientos adquiridos en la formación profesional del personal escogido, a partir de la literatura de pregrado, relacionada con la terapéutica y que pueden o no influir en la prescripción de antimicrobianos fue que se realizó el presente estudio. Se diseñó una encuesta de 5 preguntas con opción múltiple y 4 opciones, a señalar solo una, como correcta, y se validó por expertos, la cual se les aplicó a médicos y técnicos o tecnólogos de Farmacia. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron un cierto grado de olvido de algunos conceptos importantes que pueden influir negativamente en el éxito de una terapéutica antiinfecciosa en los pacientes oncológicos, fundamentalmente los que recibirán como tratamiento oncoespecífico la cirugía, por lo que se recomienda a la dirección de docencia la realización de actualizaciones al personal de la institución.Success of an antimicrobial treatment is influenced by several objective and subjective factors that in different reports from Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of National Institute of Oncology and Radiology during 2006, problems

  10. Informações sobre homicídios e sua integração com o setor saúde e segurança pública Linking of information from health and security databases on homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O aumento verificado nas taxas de homicídios aponta para a necessidade de melhorar a compreensão do problema. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi conhecer as informações adicionais acerca da mortalidade por homicídios provenientes de diferentes fontes de dados. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os dados de homicídios entre residentes do Município de São Paulo, para o segundo semestre de 2001 obtidos nas declarações de óbito, laudos de necropsia e boletins de ocorrência policial. As informações foram analisadas sob a forma de números absolutos, proporções e coeficientes. Para a verificação de diferenças estatísticas foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de homicídios foi 57,2/100.000, sendo que os valores mais altos foram encontrados entre os homens na faixa de 15 a 29 anos. O percentual do uso de armas de fogo foi 88,6%, mais alto entre homens que em mulheres. A localização anatômica de lesões mais freqüentes foi a cabeça (68,9%. Entre as vítimas que tiveram o exame toxicológico realizado, 42,5% tinham feito uso de álcool (44% para os homens e 24% nas mulheres. Há maior concentração de ocorrências nos finais de semana no horário noturno. Em 74,6% dos óbitos, as vítimas residiam próximas ou no mesmo local de ocorrência do evento. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados do estudo apontam que a integração de dados permite melhorar a qualidade da informação, contribuindo para a compreensão dos homicídios.OBJECTIVE: Increased homicide rates in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last two decades points out to the need for better understanding this subject. The purpose of the present study was to link information about homicide from different sources of data. METHODS: Homicide data from death certificates, medical examiners and police records of residents in the city of Sao Paulo was linked for the second semester of 2001. Variables about victims, risk factors and homicide

  11. First technical report about tracer applications to processes assessment in a portable water potabilizing plant; Primer informe de avance sobre ensayos con uranina de una Planta Potabilizadora Portatil de OSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Antola, R; Giosa Porley, P

    1996-03-15

    Radioactive and fluorescent tracers were applied to measure the distribution of residence times in each of the four subsystems of a portable water purifying plant: the mechanical flocculation unit, the hydraulic flocculation unit, the sedimentation unit, and the sand filter. This report begins by a revision of the physicochemical processes produced in each of the above mentioned subsystems, connected in series. Then a mathematical model of residence time distribution for each unit is constructed, with free parameters that can be estimated from the experimental results obtained with tracers. Tracer methodology for this kind of field experiment is reviewed. Their possible short comes are briefly discussed for each of the intended tracers. The tracer experiments done with rhodamine and uranine are described. The experimental results are reported and the residence time distributions obtained with different tracers were carefully compared. In order to make the field experiments, five different values of global water flow were sustained, pumping in steady state: two under the nominal (design) value, two above the design flow and one equal to the nominal water flow. The model parameters were determined using a software package, {sup D}TR{sup ,} made in France and supplied by the IAEA in the framework of the project. It was discovered that the diffuser in the sedimentation unit was not working as intended, and some guidelines for its re-design could be given to the process engineers. Also, process engineers received information about some amount of by-pass flow and death zones, as well as their variations with plant's global water flow.

  12. El eclipse de los conceptos. Sobre el debate de la violencia rebelde/franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza dos debates cen-trales en los estudios sobre la violencia rebel-de/franquista durante la Guerra Civil española y el franquismo: las tensiones conceptuales entre el exterminio y el programa de conversión forzosa en el marco de la intención aniquiladora de los perpetradores; y el debate sobre los efectos de la eugenesia franquista en la cons-trucción del “enemigo interno” y en la planifica-ción de la violencia. El autor reflexiona sobre diferentes marcos teóricos aplicados en España: genocidio, exterminio, limpieza política, etc.; y advierte de los peligros de ciertos excesos conceptuales.Palabras clave: genocidio, eugenesia, exterminio, Guerra Civil española, franquismo, violencia.________________Abstract: The article analyzes two central deba-tes in studies of rebel/francoist violence during the Spanish Civil War and the Franco dictator-ship: the conceptual tensions between extermi-nation and the forced conversion program within the framework of the perpetrators’ annihilating intentions; and the debate regar-ding the effects of Francoist eugenics in cons-tructing the "enemy" and planning violence. The author reflects on different theoretical fra-meworks applied in Spain: genocide, extermina-tion, political cleansing, etc.; and warns of the dangers of certain conceptual excesses.Keywords: Genocide, Eugenics, Extermi-nation, Spanish Civil War, Francoist Dictatorship, Violence.

  13. Media background and future expectations as well as regulations when facing digitalization in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Núria Reguero i Jiménez; nuria.reguero@uab.cat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims at describing and analyzing non profitable media background and future expectations as well as regulations when facing digitalization in Spain. The research is carried out from an inductive perspective which implies using the documentary analysis, consultations to several sources and, eventually, interviews. Additionally, this paper aims at contributing to reflect on media social role.El presente texto pretende describir y analizar la regulación de las radios y televisiones sin ánimo de lucro en España ante la digitalización, así como sus antecedentes y sus perspectivas de futuro. De igual forma también plantea un objetivo complementario: realizar un aporte a la reflexión sobre la función social que desempeñan estos medios en la sociedad. Con el propósito de describir el objeto de estudio, se ha realizado de manera inductiva una aproximación al mismo utilizando como técnicas de investigación el análisis documental, la consulta personal a diferentes fuentes y, de forma eventual, la entrevista. Como objetivo adicional, este texto pretende contribuir a la reflexión sobre la función social de los medios de proximidad.

  14. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  15. Informação sobre medicamentos na imprensa: uma contribuição para o uso racional? Information on medicines in the media: a contribution to rational use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloína Araújo Lage

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo identificar como o tema "medicamentos" é apresentado pela imprensa e verificar a contribuição deste meio de comunicação para o uso racional de medicamentos. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de artigos publicados por um jornal de grande circulação nacional disponibilizados em bancos de dados em CD-ROM e Internet. Os artigos que focalizaram temas relacionados a medicamentos foram selecionados e analisados pelo método de análise de conteúdo, com a identificação das categorias que emergiram no transcorrer do estudo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados relativos a 377 textos jornalísticos que abordaram medicamentos no contexto da "medicina e saúde", em uma amostra aleatória de 1.067 artigos. Nos textos analisados, mensagens alertando para aspectos negativos relacionados ao uso de medicamentos foram menos veiculadas do que mensagens positivas. Destaca-se a necessidade de acompanhamento e avaliação da qualidade da informação veiculada pela imprensa visando ao uso racional de medicamentos.To identify as the theme "medicines" is presented by the press and to verify the contribution of this media for a rational use of medicines. Exploratory study was accomplished in articles published in a major Brazilian newspaper. These journalistic articles have been extracted from the newspaper database, available in CD-ROM and on the Internet. The analysis of content of the selected articles led to the identification of categories that emerged in the course of the study. This work presents the results of 377 articles that focused medicines in the context of the "medicine and health", in a random sample of 1,067 articles. In the evaluated articles, messages aiming at negative aspects related to the use of medicines were less published than positive ones. This research pointed out the necessity of following-up and evaluating the quality of the information released by the press, seeking the rational use of medicines.

  16. Determinación de rasgos útiles al proceso de aprendizaje automático sobre el conjunto de datos en estudiantes de 1er y 2do año de Ingeniería Informática en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Viviana R. Toledo Rivero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La carrera de Ingeniería Informática de la Universidad de Cienfuegos confronta dificultades con los bajos resultados académicos obtenidos en la carrera, fundamentalmente en los primeros años, que constituyen asignaturas preceden­tes a las del ciclo especializado. Por tal motivo, en aras de buscar una solución para obtener mejores resultados aca­démicos se propone un modelo de predicción haciendo uso de aprendizaje automático. Como requisito previo se realiza una selección de rasgos. Para este trabajo se ha sido esco­gido el programa WEKA por las facilidades que brinda para la realización de diferentes pruebas sobre el conjunto de datos. Se emplean dos métodos de evaluación con diferen­tes métodos de búsqueda, dando como resultados nuevos conjuntos de datos reducidos. Estos conjuntos garantizan el entrenamiento eficiente de los algoritmos a utilizar para la toma de decisiones oportunas en la carrera.

  17. The quality assurance practice in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Even when the basic requirements for a Quality Assurance Program are delineated in documents such as the Code of Federal Regulations or Standards like ANSI N 45. 2, the way in which these requirements are put into practice is very dependent on the organization to which they are applied. So, in order to approach accurately the Quality Assurance practice and experience in Spain, the legal and industrial scenario must be considered. We are trying to present an outlook of the Spanish Energy Plan, Regulations and Nuclear Industry. (orig.)

  18. Country policy profile - Spain. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Spain is 20% (according to EurObserv'ER calculation the share was 14.2% in 2012). The Directive has a mandatory 10 % target for transport to be achieved by all Member States, which refers to renewable sources as a whole, not bio-fuels alone. In Spain, the main support scheme called 'Regimen Especial' (Royal Decree 661/2007) operated until the end of 2011 was suspended at the beginning of 2012. The price regulation system is currently phased out trough Real Decreto 9/2013. In the former system, operators could choose between two options: a guaranteed feed-in tariff and a guaranteed bonus (premium) paid on top of the electricity price derived on the free market. More recently, the 6 June, Spain approved a clean energy bill that introduces an entirely new subsidy system. The FiT and market price plus premium systems have effectively been abolished retroactively and replaced by a sum to be allocated based on the plant's installed capacity to compensate for investment-related financial outlay. Under the decree, generators will earn a rate of return of about 7.5 percent over their lifetimes. This rate, which may be revised every three years, is based on the average interest of a 10-year sovereign bond plus 3 percentage points. These measures will be implemented retroactively to apply from July 2013. Currently, there is no support scheme for RES-H and C in place in Spain but building must satisfy a minimal solar contribution of warm sanitary water. Approved in March 2006, through Royal Decree 314/2006 of 17 March 2006, the Building Technical Code (CTE - Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion) requires all new or renovated buildings to cover 30%-70% of the Domestic Hot Water demand with solar thermal energy. Some

  19. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  1. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  2. Recursos y enlaces sobre comunidades de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Esteban, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Obras y artículos sobre el proyecto Comunidades de Aprendizaje desarrollado en el Estado español. Tesis doctorales sobre comunidades de aprendizaje. Fundamentación teórica de las comunidades de aprendizaje. Sitios en Internet relacionados con las comunidades de aprendizaje y proyectos afines de desarrollo comunitario en contextos escolares.

  3. Efecto de las partículas de diámetro inferior a 2,5 micras (PM2,5 sobre los ingresos hospitalarios en niños menores de 10 años en Madrid Impact of particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 microns [PM2.5] on daily hospital admissions in 0-10-year-olds in Madrid. Spain [2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Linares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud establece como valor límite anual para la concentración de partículas PM2,5 en el aire el valor de 10µg/m³. No obstante, en algunas grandes ciudades, como Madrid, este valor prácticamente se duplica, con el consiguiente impacto sobre la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar y cuantificar el impacto que las PM2,5 tienen sobre los ingresos hospitalarios diarios en la ciudad de Madrid en niños menores de 10 años. Material y métodos: Se analizan los ingresos diarios en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Gregorio Marañón de Madrid, por todas las causas menos accidentes (CIE-10: A00-R99 en el período 2003-2005, tanto para menores de 10 años como de un año. La metodología de análisis es la regresión de Poisson. Se controla por contaminación atmosférica química, acústica y polínica, así como por autocorrelación, tendencias, estacionalidades, días de la semana y epidemias de gripe. Resultados: Las PM2,5 son el único contaminante primario que aparece relacionado con los ingresos hospitalarios en la modelización. El riesgo relativo asociado a un incremento de 10µg/m³ fue de 1,03 (intervalo de confianza [IC95%]: 1,00-1,05 para el grupo de menores de 10 años y de 1,03 (IC95%]: 1,00-1,06 para menores de un año. Los riesgos atribuibles fueron del 2,7 y el 2,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: Las PM2,5 son un excelente indicador de los efectos en salud de contaminantes primarios. Se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar medidas para la reducción de PM2,5 en la atmósfera de las grandes ciudades.Introduction: The last report of World Health Organization's Air Quality Guidelines establishes a value of 10µg/m³ as the annual mean particulate PM2.5 concentration. However, in large cities such as Madrid, this value is doubled and consequently an association between PM2.5 values and effects on morbidity and mortality is to be expected. Objective: To analyze and quantify the

  4. Efecto cristal. Reflexiones sobre arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arq. Carlos Pantaleón Panaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ESPEJISMO es una ilusión óptica debido a la reflexión total de la luz cuando atraviesa capas de aire de densidad distinta, con lo cual los objetos lejanos dan una imagen invertida, como si se reflejaran sobre el agua, tal como ocurre en las llanuras de los desiertos. 1 La definición de espejismo nos explica que es una ilusión, una ficción, un desvarío, un delirio. Algo que no es real ni verdadero, la apariencia engañosa de algo que no existe. ¿Pero no existe, realmente? Tal vez se pueda decir, desde algún punto de vista, que una imagen ilusoria no es real. Pero ¿podríamos afirmarlo desde el punto de vista del fenómeno de la percepción? Si lo vemos, ¿no tendríamos derecho a decir que es real? ¿Algo tiene que ser material y poder tocarse, para ser real? ¿No basta simplemente con verlo? Este artículo de reflexión trata sobre el tema de lo ilusorio, de los espejismos y apariencias engañosas que, no obstante su naturaleza falaz, existen y se perciben, y son procesados por nuestra mente como fenómenos sensoriales que conforman nuestra percepción. El hilo conductor es un viaje a través de diferentes paisajes espejados: el del azar, el de las artes y el de la arquitectura. 1Diccionario de la Real Academia Española

  5. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  6. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  7. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    2000-01-01

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  8. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  9. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  10. Implementation of the new maintenance rule in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, A. L.; Gerez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance rule involving a change in philosophy both for the facilities and regulations has been implemented in Spain nuclear power plants as from April 1st this year. The authors describe this rule and detail its fulfillment in Spain. (Author)

  11. Después de la abolición del marco: tres tendencias del cine italiano sobre arte alrededor del 1948 / After the Abolition of the Frame: Three Tendencies of Italian Cinema on Art around 1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo G. Peydró

    2016-08-01

    cinema. In regard of the quantity, Italy appears to be the main producer of films on art, and intense debates take place on the issue of how the dialogue between the cultural heritage and the new mass media should be. Art historians and filmmakers discuss on the respect towards the masterpieces, on the pertinence of their fragmentation and distortion for delivering analysis, and as soon as 1948, a key date to many events related to the film on art, they can already be found in Italy at least three tendencies clearly defined. In this paper, these paths will be analysed through three 1948 films directed by the leading authors of the Italian film on art: Luciano Emmer, Roberto Longhi / Umberto Barbaro, andCarlo L. Ragghianti. Before that, I will put in context this new awareness of the film on art with an international scenario that includes Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Spain. This paper aims to solve the lack of information in Spanish regarding this subject.Keywords: Film on Art, Emmer, Longhi, Barbaro, Ragghianti, Bazin, FIFA, UNESCO, Resnais, Storck.

  12. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  13. The costs of electricity interruptions in Spain. Are we sending the right signals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, Pedro; Rey, Luis

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of energy security is the uninterrupted physical availability of energy. However, there is limited information about how much is the cost of energy supply interruptions. This information is essential to optimize investment and operating decisions to prevent energy shortages, or, alternatively, to determine the strength of the signals to be sent to the agents so that they may invest accordingly. In this paper, we estimate the economic impact of an electricity interruption in different sectors and regions of Spain. Although there are several caveats in our analysis, we find that in 2008 the cost for the Spanish economy of one kWh of electricity not supplied was above €4 even in a conservative scenario, which is higher than the signals currently being sent as incentives to avoid these interruptions. This might result in an underinvestment in short-term energy security, particularly when we add the usual risk aversion of most consumers. - Highlights: • We calculate the costs of electricity interruptions in Spain. • We find that in 2008 the cost for the Spanish economy of one kWh of electricity not supplied was around €6. • The results imply that Spain is underinvesting in short-term energy security

  14. Grau de informação, atitudes e representações sobre o risco e a prevenção de AIDS em adolescentes pobres do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Merchán-Hamann

    1995-09-01

    ção por forças externas mais potentes. A atitude positiva à iniciação sexual não é influenciada por cogitações sobre os riscos de doença, a possibilidade de gestação, e imperativos religiosos. Uma atitude ambígua com respeito à transgressão (estereotipada na figura do "malandro" do Rio, pode ter influência na percepção do risco e da prevenção. Analisam-se as informações coletadas à luz da interpretação dos discursos dos meios de comunicação, do estudo de outros contextos e das pesquisas sobre a especificidade da construção cultural da sexualidade no Brasil. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de implementação de ações mais claras e diretas na veiculação de informação. Também busca-se uma compreensão mais abrangente da noção de risco baseada na colocação dos fenômenos relativos ao processo saúde-doença nos seus contextos sócio-econômicos e culturais, o que pode ser útil para implementar medidas de controle culturalmente adequadas mediante o redimensionamento dos símbolos da AIDS. Enfatizamos a necessidade de uma melhor compreensão dos determinantes sociais e econômicos do risco de doença, e o apoio aos discursos que conferem poder e dignidade aos adolescentes pobres por meio do reconhecimento pleno de sua cidadania.Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis-à-vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people

  15. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  16. [Professional opinion about hospitalising Latin-American immigrant children in Andalucía, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in paediatric hospital attention being provided for Latin-American immigrant patients in Spain during the recent years. This work was aimed at ascertaining professionals' opinion regarding this population's specific and differential needs concerning Latin-American immigrant children being hospitalised. The study consisted of a qualitative, phenomenological type of investigation, based on semi-structured interviews of key informers in Andalusia (Spain). The subjects of the study were professionals from paediatric services in hospital centres in Andalusia. One of the most prominent (positive) results revealed that the Latin-American immigrant population presented less difficulties regarding hospital functioning when compared to other immigrant groups. The psychological aspects which had most impact on paediatric hospitalisation would be emotional alterations, such as the presence of anxiety and stress, or other aspects, like a lack of trust when being hospitalised.

  17. [Heart failure mortality in Spain: is there an andalusian paradox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Navarro, M; Gómez-Doblas, J; Molero, E; Galván, E de Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure has a high mortality, as reflected in different clinical trials and observational studies. Spain, as other countries around the Mediterranean basin, have a relatively low rate of coronary deaths, attributed to the so-called Mediterranean lifestyle. Andalusia, in the southern most part of Spain, constitutes the paradigm of Mediterranean lifestyle. However, different reports show that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in Andalusia than in other zones of Spain. Thus the mortality rate due to heart failure in Spain in the year 2000 per 100,000 inhabitants was 27.3 in men and 28.88 in women and each one of the eight Andalusia provinces had greater rates than the national mean in both men and woman. Even in countries with a relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease as is the case in Spain, heart failure mortality seems to be parallel to local differences in IHD prevalence.

  18. A percepção pública da informação sobre os potenciais riscos dos transgênicos na cadeia alimentar The public perception of information about the potential risks of genetically modified crops in the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Chloë Furnival

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available No atual contexto da introdução dos transgênicos na cadeia alimentar brasileira, apresentamos os resultados de estudo que empregou o método qualitativo de grupos focais para levantar as interpretações do público em relação à informação disponível sobre essa inovação biotecnológica. A utilização desse método permitiu gerar resultados que revelaram as relações construídas pelos participantes da pesquisa entre essa modalidade da biotecnologia, as mudanças no meio ambiente e a produção de alimentos em geral. Os resultados apontam particularmente para o modo como os participantes identificaram a falta de informação compreensível, tanto na mídia de massa quanto nos rótulos de produtos, como principal fonte dos seus sentimentos de desconfiança em relação aos transgênicos.At a time when genetically modified (GM crops are entering the Brazilian food chain, we present the findings of a study that makes use of a qualitative technique involving focal groups to look into the public's interpretation of the information available about this biotechnological innovation. This methodology produced results that revealed the interconnections drawn by the research subjects between this form of biotechnology, changes to the environment, and food production in general. The mistrust expressed about GM crops was particularly attributed by the participants to the non-availability of comprehensible information in the mass media or on product labels.

  19. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  20. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  1. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  2. Nucleoelectric energy training programs in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nucleoelectric energy in Spain is developing very rapidly. The nuclear power installed in Spain at the present time is 1,1 GWe and it is expected to increase to 8 GWe in 1980 and to 28 GWe in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel which is estimated at approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: a) In engineering schools; b) In the Nuclear Studies Institute; and c) In the electric companies with nuclear programs. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the Country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programs. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism depending on the Nuclear Energy Commission responsible, among other subjects, of training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the Country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of the PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the personnel training programs [es

  3. Geographical distribution and evolution of deaths in hospitals in Spain, 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Puente, A; García Alegría, J

    2018-05-05

    The location where death occurs varies widely among societies. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution in the hospital mortality rate (HMR) in Spain over the course of 20years and its distribution by province during a more recent period and to explore its relationship with potential explanatory variables. This was an ecological study. The population mortality rates were obtained from the Natural Population Movement (Movimiento Natural de la Población), and the hospital mortality rates were obtained from the Specialised Care Information System (Sistema de Información en Atención Especializada), which includes information from all hospitals in Spain. We calculated the mortality rates for patients who were not surveyed and the HMR at the national level between 1996 and 2015 and for provinces between 2013 and 2015. The relationship between the provincial distribution of HMR and various demographic, socioeconomic and healthcare variables were analysed through simple and multiple linear regression. The HMR in Spain increased from 49% in 1996 to 56% in 2007, having remained stable from 1996 to 2015. The variation among provinces was 40% to 70%. The multivariate analysis showed a higher HMR in the less rural provinces and in those with a larger availability of hospital beds. There is considerable provincial heterogeneity in Spain in terms of the probability of dying in hospital or at home. This result could be partly explained by demographics (percentage of rural population) and the healthcare structure (number of hospital beds per population). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. A database about the tornadic activity in Catalonia (NE Spain) since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. E.; Arús, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Castán, S.

    2009-09-01

    Although tornadic activity is not the most important hazard in Spain, the damages that tornadoes and downburst generate are considerable in urban areas, giving place in some occasions to casualties. In Spain, the oldest systematic works collecting data about tornadoes, refer to the Balearic Islands, although some series about tornadoes in Spain have also been collected and analysed (Gayà, 2005). These series shows a positive increase that is probably more related to a change in the perception level of the population than to climatic change. In some occasions it is difficult to separate the damages produced by the tornado itself from those produced by other associated hazards like heavy rains, hail or a wind storms. It was the case of the September 2006 event, in which flash floods and tornadoes were recorded. In the same sense in some occasions, damages produced by a downsburt are confused with those that produced by a tornado. Having in mind all these facts, having a good systematic data base about tornadoes is necessary, before to obtain some conclusions not enough justified. This kind of database is not easy to obtain, because of it requires to have detailed information about damages, meteorological observations and testimonies that has to be filtered by a good quality control. After a general presentation about tornadoes and downsbursts in Mediterranean Region, this contribution presents the database that have affected Catalonia during the period 1994-2009, starting with the tornado recorded on the Espluga de Francolí the 31 August 1994.This database has been built in basis to the AEMET information, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (the insurance company of Spain for natural disasters), the newspapers and field visits to the affected places.

  5. Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Garcia, N; Serra Majem, L

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine, folic acid and vitamin D represent the past, the present and the future of public health policy measures on micronutrients in Spain. Despite of some examples, there exist a need for action. Current nutrition strategies are focused on obesity, with little room for micronutrients national measures despite of the opinion of many experts. Regardless of the several nutrients recommendations coexisting nowadays in Spain, there exist the need for a coordinated action in the field of micronutrients recommendations, fostered by the health and nutrition official authorities with financial support and clear terms of reference.

  6. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  7. Puente sobre el rio Medway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman, Fox, Ingenieros

    1963-02-01

    have been prestressed both longitudinally and transversally. Between the two circulation roadways an elastic barrier has been placed, supported on metal posts.El puente sobre el río Medway tiene la misión de salvar dicho río en el nuevo trazado de carretera necesario para aliviar el denso tráfico estival entre Dower y Londres. Está situado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Rochester. La estructura se ha construido utilizando las vías de concurso. De todos los tipos presentados se eligió una estructura de hormigón armado. La longitud total de la obra es de 1.000 m. Los tres tramos principales de la obra salvan el río. El central es de 152 m de luz, y los dos adyacentes son de 103 m cada uno. Los accesos tienen un total de 18 tramos, que arrojan una longitud de 654 m. La anchura del puente es de 34 m, y la calzada se ha subdividido en dos direcciones de tráfico de 7,30 m cada una y, además, se han dejado dos espaldones laterales de 2,40 m de anchura. En planta se puede admitir que el puente tiene una alineación recta con una ligerísima curva, y que en el plano vertical presenta una pendiente de desagüe entre las pilas 9 y 10. Los estribos son de hormigón armado: tipo celular el del este y de hormigón en masa el del oeste. Los estribos se apoyan sobre pilotes hexagonales de hormigón armado cuya circunferencia circunscrita tiene 55 cm de radio y de 12 a 20 m de longitud. Cuando el firme se hallaba a profundidades inferiores a 6 m, los estribos se cimentaban directamente sobre el firme. Las pilas constituyen pórtico y tienen una altura variable de 9 a 30 m sobre el nivel del suelo. Los tramos de acceso forman una estructura continua simplemente apoyada. Cada tramo se compone de ocho vigas longitudinales de 30 a 41 m de longitud y de 190 toneladas cada una. Estas vigas son del tipo pretensado y prefabricado. El tramo central es del tipo cantilever, constituido por dos brazos, de 30 m de longitud, formados por vigas cajón. Cada una de estas vigas consta

  8. Fuentes de información y su relación con el grado de conocimientos sobre el SIDA en adolescentes de México Sources of information and their relationship to the degree of knowledge of AIDS, in adolescents of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Caballero Hoyos

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: En México 2,1% de casos con SIDA son adolescentes. Los casos de 20 a 29 años alcanzan a 30,5% y una proporción importante pudo infectarse VIH en la adolescencia. El nivel de conocimientos de los adolescentes sobre VIH/SIDA es variable. En contextos urbanos poseen conceptos errados y mitos que podrían orientarlos a prácticas riesgosas. Los medios masivos e interpersonales son fuentes importantes de información en la construcción social del VIH/SIDA en los adolescentes. El objetivo es relacionar el grado de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA con la exposición a fuentes informativas masivas e interpersonales en los adolescentes de Guadalajara, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Encuesta a 1.410 adolescentes, varones y mujeres de 15 a 19 años, en diferentes estratos socio-económicos. Se aplicaron pruebas de significación Ji Cuadrada y BTukey, Intervalos de Confianza del 95% para proporciones y medias y ANOVA factorial simple. RESULTADO: Hay un nivel regular de conocimientos con medias favorables a los estratos alto y medio. La información de periódicos y profesores tuvo relación directa con el nivel de conocimientos controlada por la exposición a la televisión y variables socio-demográficas. CONCLUSIONES: Hay desigualdades por estratos socio-económicos en la relación de las fuentes informativas y los niveles de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA. Es necesario fortalecer y desarrollar acciones educativas por fuentes masivas e interpersonales, con énfasis en estratos bajo y marginado.INTRODUCTION: In Mexico 2.1% of the cases of AIDS are in adolescents. The cases of AIDS in the age group of 20 to 29 account for 30.5% of all the cases and an important proportion could have been infected with HIV in their adolescence, in view of the longth of the incubation period from the infection with HIV to the manifestation of the syndrome. The adolescent's knowledge of HIV/AIDS varies. In some urban contexts the adolescents have lay concepts and

  9. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedregal, D.J.; Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  10. Current status of verification practices in clinical biochemistry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Alvarez, Virtudes; Ventura, Montserrat; Alsina, M Jesús; Barba, Núria; Cortés, Mariano; Llopis, María Antonia; Martínez, Cecilia; Ibarz, Mercè

    2013-09-01

    Verification uses logical algorithms to detect potential errors before laboratory results are released to the clinician. Even though verification is one of the main processes in all laboratories, there is a lack of standardization mainly in the algorithms used and the criteria and verification limits applied. A survey in clinical laboratories in Spain was conducted in order to assess the verification process, particularly the use of autoverification. Questionnaires were sent to the laboratories involved in the External Quality Assurance Program organized by the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology. Seven common biochemical parameters were included (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, potassium, calcium, and alanine aminotransferase). Completed questionnaires were received from 85 laboratories. Nearly all the laboratories reported using the following seven verification criteria: internal quality control, instrument warnings, sample deterioration, reference limits, clinical data, concordance between parameters, and verification of results. The use of all verification criteria varied according to the type of verification (automatic, technical, or medical). Verification limits for these parameters are similar to biological reference ranges. Delta Check was used in 24% of laboratories. Most laboratories (64%) reported using autoverification systems. Autoverification use was related to laboratory size, ownership, and type of laboratory information system, but amount of use (percentage of test autoverified) was not related to laboratory size. A total of 36% of Spanish laboratories do not use autoverification, despite the general implementation of laboratory information systems, most of them, with autoverification ability. Criteria and rules for seven routine biochemical tests were obtained.

  11. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  12. Puente sobre el Oosterschelde, Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoving, H. T.

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available This new bridge, forming part of the Delta project, is made of concrete, and was built by successive overhangs. Precast units were mainly used. The bridge is 5,000 m long, and is 11.85 m wide. The main spans are 95 m in length, except one, which can be opened up to sea traffic, which is 40 m long. The free height of the bridge over the sea is 15 m, which is insufficient for large ships. This required that one of the spans, in deep water, should open up, on hinges, and provide free passage to large ships. The intermediate bridge supports are of special interest. They rest on piles which go down to 38 m. They are hollow, cylindrical, of 4.35 m external diameter, and are driven into the ground in several stages, as they penetrate through the sands at the bottom of the Oosterschelde. To drive them in, an excavating device, inside the pile, was utilised, and also a dredging and suction mechanism, to clean out the bottom, and allow the piles to sink by gravity. But when external friction did not allow this to happen, the piles were weighed down with up to 500 tons of ballast. A series of three of these piles, in a row, makes up each bridge support. A cross member over the pile heads supports, in turn, the bridge deck. The bridge was built in successive sections, overhanging from each support, and then finally connected with a central portion. Use of precast units has been very extensive, so that the bridge can be justiaflably regarded as being prefabricated.Este nuevo puente, que forma parte del Plan de obras denominadas del Delta, es de hormigón y se ha construido por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, utilizando, en su mayor parte, elementos prefabricados. Tiene una longitud total de 5.000 m; una anchura de 11,85 m; tramos principales de 95 m de luz, salvo uno, levadizo, que tiene 40 m. La altura libre sobre las ag^uas del mar es de 15 m, que es insuficiente para las naves de gran tonelaje; esto exigió que uno de sus tramos, en aguas

  13. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  14. Informe preliminar sobre un hallazgo de restos humanos en urna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drube, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el análisis de un conjunto esqueletal originariamente depositado en un ceramio con fines mortuorios. La vasija funeraria yacía superficialmente en adyacencias de un camino vecinal próximo a un antiguo afluente del río Dulce, en la región central de la provincia de Santiago del Estero. Toda el área inmediata a la zona del hallazgo conforma sitios de ocupación prehispánica, caracterizados por la presencia de cerámica Sunchituyoj. A pesar del estado sumamente fragmentario de la urna, y del deterioro parcial del contexto, se pudo rescatar todos los elementos óseos en ella depositados, los que corresponden a dos individuos, un adulto y un infante. Se aplicaron métodos convencionales, tanto escópicos como métricos, a fin de dilucidar la edad, sexo y estatura. El individuo adulto corresponde al sexo femenino y se estima en treinta años su edad a la muerte. Destaca en el mismo la presencia de osteofitosis en las vértebras y entesofitosis en los huesos largos. También se observa tejido óseo proliferativo en elementos costales y en el íleon. Asimismo puede evidenciarse caries e hipoplasia en el esmalte en algunas piezas dentales. Los componentes óseos del infante presentan un estado de conservación regular, estimándose en tres años su edad al deceso. A pesar de la destrucción parcial del contexto en el cual se encontraban los remanentes esqueletales en consideración, la información lograda a partir de los mismos es muy relevante, pues permite incrementar el conocimiento bioarqueológico para la región.

  15. Somos un envase : Discursos sobre el aborto

    OpenAIRE

    Löcher, Jennifer Irene

    2014-01-01

    No hay persona que no tenga opinión acerca del asunto y, cada vez más, la sociedad argentina debate sobre la pregunta de si se debe legalizar/despenalizar el aborto o no. Nunca antes se habló tanto sobre el tema públicamente: se publican artículos en los diarios, hay manifestaciones a favor y hay manifestaciones en contra de la legalización del aborto. El siguiente trabajo pretende relevar y analizar discursos que circulan socialmente alrededor del debate sobre el aborto. (Párrafo extraíd...

  16. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  17. El punzante pasado : sobre arte, historia y memoria en el estado español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Vicente Aliaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el texto se plantea la pregunta, y se trata de ofrecer algunas respuestas, sobre la ausencia durante muchos años de trabajos artísticos surgidos en el estado español sobre el pasado histórico, y concretamente sobre el periodo de la II República, la guerra civil y la dictadura franquista. Asimismo se propone una reflexión sobre la amnesia generada en la etapa de la transición a la democracia tras la muerte de Franco. Se estudian distintas propuestas artísticas que han abordado desde finales de los años 80 cuestiones tan lancinantes como el olvido de los represaliados por el franquismo, el papel de las mujeres durante los tiempos de guerra y el exilio, la desmemoria acerca de los campos de concentración en distintas partes de la geografía españolaThe lack of art works related or inspired by the historical past in spanish art is one of the main questions in this text. Particularly why some periods have been neglected: II Republic, Civil War and Franco Dictatorship. Amnesia has also been present in art when dealing with the recent transition to democracy after the death of Franco. Different art practices are perused in this text starting from the 80's and up to now. These art works have dealt with different issues: the oblivion republicans suffered, the role played by women in wartime and in the exile. Also the meaning of forgetfullness on the concentration camps in different regions of Spain is taken into consideration.

  18. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  19. Notas sobre publicaciones medievales portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTÍN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Contra lo que debiera suceder, la proximidad con Portugal no incita al conocimiento de su historia y son muy raros los manuales de Historia de España en los que se concede a la Edad Media Portuguesa la importancia que realmente tiene, y en los tratados de Historia Medieval Europea el espacio dedicado a Portugal es mínimo, al menos hasta la época de los Descubrimientos; por otra parte, son contados los medievalistas españoles que se interesan por la historia de Portugal. Ante estos silencios y ante la escasa presencia en las bibliotecas españolas de obras portuguesas el estudiante de historia puede pensar que el país vecino carece de medievalistas de relieve, que su historia medieval está por hacer... y nada más lejos de la realidad como intentaré probar en este breve comentario, sin ánimo exhaustivo, sobre algunas de las últimas publicaciones aparecidas en Portugal.

  20. Spain and Portugal facing Euratom. Some considerations in the access of Spain and Portugal to Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corretjer, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1985-01-01

    The access of Spain and Portugal to the European Community of Atomic Energy (EURATOM) will give rise to significative consequences and it is a subject which must be thoroughly considered as to its implications regarding the present state of nuclear development in both countries and with regard to their reciprocal relations in nuclear energy matters. To determine such consequences and implications it is necessary, first of all, to analyze what EURATOM is and how it acts, in addition to consider the situation of each of its Member States as to the utilization of nuclear energy. As well, it is necessary to explain the evolution and the present situation of nuclear development in Spain and in Portugal and their mutual relations in this field. In pursuit of such analysis we may determine the possible consequences of their access; this is made bearing in mind each of the aspects in which EURATOM acts, according to the Treaty and the ''acquis communitaire'', and dividing them into common consequences and individual ones for both countries. The whole exposition, which was studied and carried out from an exclusively technical point of view, has a result the deduction of the joint possibilities offered to Spain and Portugal to make use of EURATOM's availabilities and of the joint actions which both countries may achieve to benefit as much as possible from their access to EURATOM. (author)

  1. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  2. Sobre el Contenido de los Marcos Conceptuales Contables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Di Russo de Hauque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el análisis de los distintos marcos conceptuales vigentes en diferentes sistemas normativos contables. Paralelamente a las revisiones empíricas que dicho trabajo determina, incluye reflexiones a priori sobre el contenido de dichos marcos conceptuales. El trabajo discurre inicialmente sobre el problema de la naturaleza normativa o doctrinaria de sus contenidos tradicionales sin inclinarse definitivamente por una u otra vertiente. Respecto de los elementos que se incluirán en ellos, se justifica la inclusión de las listas de objetivos y requisitos de la información contable para definir el alcance del concepto de informe de uso externo. Además se define a favor de la inclusión, conjuntamente con las respuestas a las pregunas básicas sobre la labor contable, de contenidos ligados al proceso de obtención y de la exposición de la información contable de uso externo.

  3. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  4. Quimiotipagem do Cryptococcus neoformans. Revisão da literatura. Novos dados epidemiológicos sobre a criptococose. Nossa experiência com o emprego do meio de C.G.B. no estudo daquela levedura Biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Takahashi de Melo

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, além da revisão da literatura sobre quimiotipagem do C. neoformans, com novos dados sobre a epidemiologia da criptococose, teve por finalidade principal a caracterização das duas variedades desta levedura em pacientes com neurocriptococose, HIV + e HIV -. As variedades neoformans e gattii estão hoje bem definidas bioquimicamente, com o emprego do meio C.G.B., proposto por KWON-CHUNG et al. (1982 24. O isolamento do C. neoformans var. gattii das flores e folhas do Eucalyptus camaldulensis e do Eucalyptus tereticornis, na Austrália, através dos trabalhos de ELLIS & PFEIFFER (199016 e PFEIFFER & ELLIS (199241, possibilitou investigações epidemiológicas das mais interessantes sobre este microrganismo, levedura capsulada a qual SANFELICE50, 51, na Itália, em 1894 e 1895 despertou a atenção do meio médico. BUSSE8, em 1894, descrevia o primeiro caso de criptococose humana sob a forma de lesão óssea, simulando sarcoma. As pesquisas nacionais sobre o assunto em foco foram destacadas, seguindo-se a experiência dos Autores com o meio de C.G.B. (L - canavanina, glicina e azul de bromotimol. Foi possível, através deste meio o estudo de 50 amostras de líquor, sendo 39 procedentes de aidéticos (78% e 11 de não aidéticos (22%. De pacientes HIV+, 37 (74% foram identificados como C. neoformans var. neoformans e 2 (4% como C. neoformans var. gattii. Dos HIV- 8 ( 16% foram classificados como C. neoformans var. neoformans e 3 (6% como C. neoformans var. gattii. Através deste trabalho, evidencia-se a importância da neurocriptococose, principalmente entre os aidéticos, demonstrando-se mais uma vez o interesse do meio CGB na quimiotipagem do C. neoformans em suas duas variedades, ganhando em importância a demonstração de que duas espécies de eucalipto podem funcionar como "árvores-hospedeiras" para o Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.The purpose of this work was to collect the main information from the literature

  5. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  6. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  7. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated.

  8. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  10. Retrofit of radwaste solidification systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorcillo, R.; Virzi, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to meet current Spanish engineering criteria as well as to provide for likely future Spanish Regulatory requirements, utilities committed to a major policy change in the preferred radwaste solidification media. In the early 1970's Spanish utilities, following the United States experience, purchased inexpensive solidification systems which used urea formaldehyde (UF) as the binding matrix. By the late 1970's the Spanish utilities, seeing the deterioration of the UF position and slow progress toward its improvement, unilaterally changed their binding matrix to cement. This paper illustrates the implementation of this change at the ASCO Nuclear Plant. The problems of layout modifications, shortened delivery schedule and criteria unique for Spain are addressed. Also presented is the operating experience acquired during the pre-operational start-up of the ASCO I Radwaste System

  11. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  12. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  13. [Emergency Medical Technician profile in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, María José; Vázquez-Santamariña, David; Abella-Lorenzo, Javier; Castro Dios, Diana Josefa; Fernández García, Daniel

    2017-12-11

    The emergency medical technician plays a fundamental role and is the most important figure quantitatively in pre-hospital emergencies. The aim was to asses the socio-demographic, work-related, health characteristics and technical skills of an Emergency Medical Technician in Spain. Cross-sectional descriptive study. An ad hoc questionnaire was managed using Google Docs® that was delivered between April-June 2014 via email and social networks. A total of 705 questionnaires were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS ® 20.0 Windows version. A significance level p≤0.05 was used for all analyzes. The data analyzed show that the profile of the Emergency Medical Technician in Spain is an 39 year-old man, married or living as a couple and has a child. The average BMI is 27 kg/m2, does regular exercise, does not smoke. His seniority in the company is 10 years and has the Medium Cycle of Emergency Medical Technician. The analysis for gender shows that men have an average of 40, an average BMI of 27, 5 kg/m2 and work in an advanced life support unit; while women have an average of 36,5 years, an average BMI of 24,7 kg/m2, mainly work in Basic Life Support Unit and her seniority in the company is 6,76 years. Emergency Medical Technician profile is a overweight men, who refer to practise regular exercise, his seniority in the company is 10 years and is in possession of CMTES; differences were observed according to gender in BMI, resource where they perform their work, seniority and age.

  14. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  15. [Gender inequalities in occupational health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucía; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender inequalities in employment and working conditions, the work-life balance, and work-related health problems in a sample of the employed population in Spain in 2007, taking into account social class and the economic sector. Gender inequalities were analyzed by applying 25 indicators to the 11,054 workers interviewed for the VI edition of the National Working Conditions Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), stratifying by occupational social class and economic sector. More women than men worked without a contract (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.51-2.21) and under high-effort/low-reward conditions (1.14:1.05-1.25). Women also experienced more sexual harassment (2.85:1.75-4.62), discrimination (1.60:1.26-2.03) and musculoskeletal pain (1.38:1.19-1.59). More men than women carried out shift work (0.86:0.79-0.94), with high noise levels (0.34:0.30-0.40), and high physical demands (0.58:0.54-0.63). Men also suffered more injuries due to occupational accidents (0.67:0.59-0.76). Women white-collar-workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a temporary contract (1.34:1.09-1.63), be exposed to psychosocial hazards and discrimination (2.47:1.49-4.09) and have occupational diseases (1.91:1.28-2.83). Gender inequalities were higher in the industry sector. There are substantial gender inequalities in employment, working conditions, and work-related health problems in Spain. These gender inequalities are influenced by social class and the economic sector, and should be considered in the design of public policies in occupational health. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. [Trends of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use in Spain, 1990 through 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, F J; del Pozo, J García; del Pino, A

    2005-11-01

    To know the trends of supply, consumption and pattern of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Spain from 1990 through 2003, as well as their costs. Drug utilization study. National Health System, outpatient setting. Information on drug utilization was obtained from the ALHAQUEM database of the Spanish Ministry of Health, which contains the number of packages sold in community pharmacies and charged to the National Health System. Data were expressed in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD). NSAIDs consumption in Spain increased from 23.67 DHD in 1990 to 45.82 DHD in 2003 (a 93.6% increase). Ibuprofen was the NSAID which showed the greatest increase (15.33 DHD in 2003). The consumption of coxibs reached a maximum of 7.74 DHD in 2001, but decreased to 3.59 DHD in 2003 once prior-authorization programs were set up. Over the study period the share of NSAIDs use with a low gastrointestinal risk increased from 29% to 59%. Overall costs of NSAIDs increased from 117 million euro in 1990 to 329 million euro in 2003. Over the study period the consumption of NSAIDs in Spain has increased twofold while costs increased threefold. The pattern of use has remarkably changed showing an increasing use of NSAIDs with a better gastrointestinal profile. The impact of coxibs marketing has been moderate.

  17. Geographical and Temporal Variations in Female Breast Cancer Mortality in the Municipalities of Andalusia (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Montaño-Remacha, Carmen; Mayoral-Cortés, José María

    2016-01-01

    The last published figures have shown geographical variations in mortality with respect to female breast cancer in European countries. However, national health policies need a dynamic image of the geographical variations within the country. The aim of this paper was to describe the spatial distribution of age-specific mortality rates from female breast cancer in the municipalities of Andalusia (southern Spain) and to analyze its evolution over time from 1981 to 2012. An ecological study was devised. Two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models were estimated. One of these was used to estimate the age-specific mortality rate for each municipality, together with its time trends, and the other was used to estimate the age-specific rate ratio compared with Spain as a whole. The results showed that 98% of the municipalities exhibited a decreasing or a flat mortality trend for all the age groups. In 2012, the geographical variability of the age-specific mortality rates was small, especially for population groups below 65. In addition, more than 96.6% of the municipalities showed an age-specific mortality rate similar to the corresponding rate for Spain, and there were no identified significant clusters. This information will contribute towards a reflection on the past, present and future of breast cancer outcomes in Andalusia. PMID:27879690

  18. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  19. [Diagnostic process and management of schizophrenia in Spain: the ACEE project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca Baldomero, E; Leal Cercós, C; Varela, C; Riesgo, Y; Roca, M

    2006-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has a great impact on the health care, social and family levels, there is little epidemiological information on patients with schizophrenia, its diagnosis and treatment in Spain. The ACEE (Abordaje Clínico de la Esquizofrenia en España; Clinical Approach to Schizophrenia in Spain) study was designed with the primary objective of defining the management of schizophrenia in Spain from the perspective of current clinical practice. ACEE is a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter observational study with data collected in the setting of current clinical practice by means of a specifically designed questionnaire. A total of 1,937 patients have been studied (83% pertaining to the public sector and 17% to private one). Most subjects had paranoid schizophrenia in the stabilization phase, and did not work because of their illness. Most (96%) were receiving antipsychotic treatment and 55% also received some non-drug treatment. Negative symptoms were more frequent than positive symptoms (88% versus 63%). Significant differences were observed for type of patients and diagnostic procedures involved between the public and private health care sectors. The ACEE study shows that schizophrenic patients attending Spanish psychiatric centers are mainly single, non-working males who are living in their family setting. Treatment basically consists of antipsychotics combined with other drugs, and few complementary examinations are performed.

  20. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  1. First detection of Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Guadalupe; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Gálvez, Rosa; Mínguez, Juan José; Marino, Valentina; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-05-18

    Onchocerca lupi causes ocular pathology of varying severity in dogs from south-western United States, western Europe and northern Asia. This filarioid has also been recognized as a zoonotic agent in Tunisia, Turkey, Iran and the USA, though the information about the biology and epidemiology of this infection is largely unknown. In Europe, O. lupi has been reported in dogs from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Portugal and Romania and in a cat from Portugal. The present study was designed to establish the occurrence of O. lupi in dogs in southwestern Spain. In the present study a total of 104 dogs of different breed, sex, and age living in a shelter in Huelva (SW Spain) were examined. Skin snip samples were collected using a disposable scalpel in the forehead and inter-scapular regions and stored as aliquots in saline solution (0.5 ml) before light microscopy observation of individual sediments (20 μl) and molecular examination. Of the 104 dogs examined, 5 (4.8 %) were skin snip-positive for O. lupi: two by microscopy and three by PCR. One of the O. lupi infected dogs showed neurological signs but ocular ultrasonography and/or MRI detected no abnormalities. This first report of O. lupi infection in dogs in southern Spain expands the range of geographical distribution of this parasite and sounds an alarm bell for practitioners and physicians working in that area.

  2. Q and A. The future of nuclear energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear is the primary source of electricity in Spain. Wind is second. In the first quarter of 2017 nuclear's contribution was 25 %, but by the end of the year it will even out to more or less the same level of 2016. Nuclear is still very important for Spain's energy mix. The question is, what will happen with nuclear in the near future? NucNet spoke to Ignacio Araluce, president of Spanish industry group Foro Nuclear, about energy policy, plant shut-downs and how Spain's nuclear industry is successfully diversifying overseas.

  3. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

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    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  4. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales

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    Rosario Silva Gilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Las creaciones en la agricultura. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales. El Convenio Internacional para la protección de las obtenciones vegetales (París 1961 y sus revisiones de Ginebra 1972, 1978,1991 Objeto de la protección legal. Condiciones del cultivar. Alcance de la protección. La protección de obtenciones vegetales en el Mercosur. Los Derechos de autor en el Mercosur. El Protocolo de Armonización de normas sobre Propiedad Intelectual en el Mercosur. El Acuerdo de Cooperación y facilitación sobre la protección de las obtenciones vegetales en los Estados Partes del Mercosur.  Alcance de la normativa Mercosur. Los Derechos sobre cultivares en Uruguay. Los Derechos de autor como derechos humanos. ¿Derechos de autor vs. derecho de propiedad intelectual? Reflexión final

  5. Determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain

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    R. Vila-Candel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women is low. We investigated the acceptance, reasons for rejection and professional involvement related to vaccine information in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Methods Observational retrospective study in 200 pregnant women, 100 vaccinated and 100 unvaccinated, were interviewed during the 2014/2015 vaccination campaign. Electronic medical records, immunization registry and telephone interviews were used to determine reasons for vaccination and immunization rejection. Results 40.5% of pregnant women in the health department were vaccinated. The midwife was identified as source of information for 89% of women. The vaccine was rejected due to low perceptions of risk of influenza infection (23%, lack of information (19%, considering the vaccine as superfluous (16%, close proximity of delivery date (13% and fear of side effects (12%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Spain declined to be vaccinated due to under-estimation of the risk of contracting or being harmed by influenza, and lack of information. Interventions aiming to optimize vaccination coverage should include information addressing the safety and effectiveness of the current vaccine together with improved professional training and motivation.

  6. Structure, organisation and clinical outcomes in cancer patients of hospital support teams in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuca-Rodriguez, Albert; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Espinosa-Rojas, Jose; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Codorniu, Nuria; Porta-Sales, Josep

    2012-12-01

    To describe the structure, characteristics of patients and basic clinical outcomes in cancer patients receiving care from palliative care hospital support teams (HSTs) in Spain. A multi-centre observational two phase study. Phase I: A descriptive survey of all HSTs in Spain. Phase II: A quasi-experimental prospective cohort study to describe the clinical outcomes, symptom severity and survival. 60 HSTs in Spain met the inclusion criteria. All HSTs were multidisciplinary with wide experience (mean 6.8 years). HSTs coverage was 21.5% of all cancer deaths in Spain. A total number of 364 advanced cancer patients were included in the cohort study; 76% were classified as moderate or high complexity. Overall, 64% were male subjects and the most frequent primary cancer site was lung (26%). Half of the patients had no detailed information about cancer staging and only 19% knew their short-term prognosis. The mean length of intervention was 6.5 days (mean three visits per patient). Outcomes were: 34% deaths during the admission process; 38% were discharged home; and 28% were transferred to another medium-term-stay specialist unit. The main symptoms were pain (68%), dyspnoea (43%), vomiting (24%), anorexia (72%), asthenia (78%), insomnia (50%), anxiety (45%) and depression (35%). After the HSTs intervention, the symptom severity was significantly reduced (p<0.001) for all symptoms, except for weakness and anorexia. The mean survival from inclusion was 111 days. Palliative intervention of HSTs is characterised by being adjusted to patient needs and short duration. Their care was focused on the preterminal phase of cancer patients of moderate-high complexity.

  7. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Maite; Santurtún, Ana; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-06-05

    Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria en pacientes hospitalizados

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    Otto Guillen Lopez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria (IU en pacientes hospitalizados. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo; se entrevistó una muestra por saturación de 325 pacientes hospitalizados de 30 años a más del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH, Lima - Perú, utilizando un cuestionario de conocimientos sobre incontinencia, considerándose como adecuado conocimiento cuando había más de 50% de aciertos en él. Resultados: Solamente 35.7% tuvieron conocimiento adecuado sobre IU. Hasta 90% conocía acerca del éxito del tratamiento y posibilidad de curación de los pacientes incontinentes. Sin embargo, 75% consideraron erróneamente que la IU era consecuencia inevitable del envejecimiento, mientras menos de 50% de pacientes conocía el papel de ciertos medicamentos y ejercicios en la IU. Conclusiones: Se demostró un pobre conocimiento general sobre la IU, siendo necesaria una intervención de los profesionales de la salud en la educación de la población, sobre todo hospitalizada y con factores predisponentes para desarrollar IU, para así poder modificar las ideas erróneas que existen sobre el tema. (Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 186-194.

  9. PERSPECTIVAS INFANTILES SOBRE LA TERRITORIALIDAD

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    NOELIA ENRIZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a different approach to children's ideas about the geographical area in the particular context of the Mbyá Guarani population, from Misiones (Argentine. The territorial fragility, that is exposed to the indigenous people in Argentina aremanifested daily in several areas. Mbyá population, has been crossed by the boundaries of national states of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. The sedentary and enclosures land processes in different states, have prompted changes in the logic of subsistence, housing and community organization. In Misiones province case, bureaucratic accreditation of land titles is postponed, the state is not committed to the realization of this right.RESUMEN: En este trabajo nos proponemos un acercamiento a las diversas ideas infantiles sobre el territorio habitado, en el contexto particular de la población mbyá guaraní de Misiones. La fragilidad territorialidad a la que es expuesta la población indígena en Argentina se manifiestan cotidianamente en diversas áreas. La población mbyá, ha sido surcada por los límites de los estados nacionales de Paraguay, Brasil y Argentina. La sedentarización y los cercamientos de tierras en los diferentes estados, han impulsado transformaciones de las lógicas de subsistencia, de habitación y organización comunitaria. En el caso de la provincia de Misiones la acreditación burocrática de los títulos de tierras se encuentra aplazada, el estado no se compromete con la concreción de este derecho.

  10. Consideraciones preliminares sobre la credibilidad

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    Fernando Verdugo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A modo de introducción al Seminario Interno de Profesores de la Facultad de Teología de la PUC, el autor recuerda, en primer lugar, lo que suele entenderse por "credibilidad" y, también, algunos de los criterios generales por los cuales algo o alguien adquiere la calidad de creíble (el que sea razonable, relevante o significativo, capaz de producir gozo estético, etc.. Luego, en la parte más extensa, el autor vuelve a llamar la atención sobre la necesidad de atender a los condicionamientos culturales de la fe cristiana. La fe, al igual que toda experiencia humana, está culturalmente mediada. Tomar conciencia de ese hecho y asumir las consecuencias metodológicas es indispensable para una teología que quiere poner atención a los desafíos actuales y contribuir así a la credibilidad del cristianismoThis article reprints the introductory session to the internal seminar of lecturers from the Faculty of Theology of the UC. In the first place, the author sums up what is usually understood by `credibility' and the general criteria through which something or someone gains credibility (being reasonable, relevant or significant, capable of producing aesthetic pleasure. Then the author deals at length with the need to take notice of the cultural conditionings of the Christian faith. The faith, the same as any other human experience, is culturally mediated. It is crucial for theology to become aware of this fact and come to terms with its methodological consequences, if it wants to face current challenges and so contribute to the credibility of Christianity

  11. Urbanismo, prácticas municipales y evaluación institucional del Estado Español: la Resolución del Parlamento Europeo sobre el impacto de la urbanización extensiva en España en los derechos individuales de los ciudadanos europeos, el medio ambiente y la aplicación del Derecho comunitario

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    Ángel Sánchez Blanco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La práctica municipal y regional del urbanismo ha sido objeto del Informe del Parlamento Europeo sobre el Impacto de la Urbanización Extensiva en España, elaborado sobre las quejas ciudadanas ante la Comisión de Peticiones. El Informe evalúa las formulas convencionales de ayuntamiento y agentes urbanizadores que han marcado la dinámica del urbanismo, en menoscabo de los procedimientos de decisión, con neutralización de controles administrativos y jurisdiccionales, y con efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente, los recursos naturales y los derechos ciudadanos. El Informe solo valora de modo positivo la actividad de los Defensores del Pueblo y de los Fiscales promotores de acciones penales, y propone la revisión de la recepción por el Estado Español de los Fondos Comunitarios usados en la financiación de las infraestructuras de un urbanismo lesivo para los derechos de los ciudadanos. El artículo analiza en clave institucional este Informe. The municipal and regional practice of the urbanism has been an object of the Report of the European Parliament on the Impact of the Extensive Urbanization in Spain, elaborated on the civil complaints before the Commission of Requests. The Report evaluates the conventional formulae of town hall and property developers who have marked the dynamics of the urbanism, in damage of the procedures of decision, with neutralization of administrative and jurisdictional controls, and with effects harmful to the environment, the natural resources and the civil rights. The alone Report values in a positive way the activity of the Ombudsmen and of the Fiscal promoters of penal actions, And he proposes the review of the receipt for the Spanish State of the Community Funds used in the funding of the infrastructures of a harmful urbanism for the rights of the citizens. The article analyzes in institutional key this Report.

  12. Avaliação da notificação de óbitos infantis ao Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade: um estudo de caso Evaluation of child mortality notifications to the Information System for Infant Deaths: a case study

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    Paulo Germano de Frias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a notificação do óbito infantil ao Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM e a contribuição de outras fontes de notificação em Bom Conselho, Pernambuco,1999. MÉTODOS: estudo de caso utilizando os dados dos óbitos infantis de residentes em Bom Conselho, coletados no SIM municipal e estadual, complementados por busca ativa nos cartórios, unidades de saúde, cemitérios e comunidades, junto aos agentes de saúde e parteiras tradicionais. A investigação domiciliar foi realizada para todos os óbitos e usada para validação dos endereços. Foi calculado o percentual de subnotificação ao SIM e os óbitos agrupados segundo localização da informação e fontes notificadoras. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas subnotificação elevada (46% e grande número de óbitos em domicílio. Esse dado sugere a precariedade no acesso aos serviços de saúde como um dos aspectos mais importantes. As principais fontes de notificação foram os agentes comunitários de saúde, seguidos pelos cartórios e unidades de saúde, sendo essa última preferencial na coleta das informações, apesar do alto percentual de óbitos hospitalares não notificados ao SIM. CONCLUSÕES: a subnotificação de óbitos infantis é um problema complexo que transcende os Sistemas de Informação. A superação dos problemas relacionados ao acesso aos serviços é condição básica para enfrentar a questão.OBJECTIVES: to assess infant mortality notification to the Mortality Information System (MIS and other notification sources support in Bom Conselho, Pernambuco, PE, 1999. METHODS: case study using child mortality data from homes in Bom Conselho collected by the municipal and state databanks, complemented by an active search in civil registration offices, healthcare units, cemeteries and communities, healthcare agents and traditional midwives. Household investigations was performed for all deaths and used to validate addresses. The percentage of

  13. The cultural dialogue on the domestic dimension of care to immigrant caregivers in Spain

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    Isabel Morales-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to determine how the immigration phenomenon influences the response to informal care in the domestic level through the caregiver activity, and to analyze the cultural dialogue established in the residential area of Murcia (Spain.Method: This is an ethnographic study, conducted in 26 informal immigrant caregivers. As data collection instruments, semi-structured interviews and participant observation were employed. MAXQDA-2 assisted content analysis was also applied.Results: the immigrant caregiver is the main consumer of traditional medicines, extending these health practices to her home group. A cultural dialogue is established on informal care, characterized by interculturalism and mutual adaptation.Conclusions: cultural hybridization was identified for informal caregivers, immigrants and cultural integration: new health care practices and cultural behaviors in informal systems. There is a transformation in the roles of family members attended in domestic environments, increasing quality of life and self care. They represent an alternative to medicalization, promoting self-management of health.

  14. Qualidade da informação sobre diabéticos e hipertensos registrada no Sistema HIPERDIA em São Carlos-SP, 2002-2005 Quality of information on diabetic and hypertensive patients from the HIPERDIA System in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo State, 2002-2005

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    Aline Danielle Iezzi Jardim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade da informação sobre diabéticos e hipertensos registrada no Sistema HIPERDIA, na cidade de São Carlos, São Paulo, no período de 2002 a 2005. Foram analisados, descritiva e sequencialmente, todos os 2.662 cadastros, no Sistema HIPERDIA, realizados no período de 1º/6/2002 a 31/12/2005. Sobrepeso/obesidade foi assinalado em 63% dos cadastros, mas quando o índice de massa corporal foi calculado, estava presente em 79,4% deles. Do total, 21% dos cadastros não possuíam registro de medida da cintura. Em 34% dos cadastros havia registro apenas de glicemia capilar de jejum e em 82% destes, os valores eram > 110mg/dl. Em 48% dos cadastros havia registro apenas de glicemia capilar pós-prandial e em 67% destes, os valores eram > 140mg/dl. Doença renal, pé diabético, amputação por diabetes e doenças cardiovasculares foram assinalados em apenas 9,6%, 5,1%, 2,4% e 32,3% dos formulários, respectivamente. Não há informações relativas à retinopatia e neuropatia diabéticas, como exames de fundo de olho e de sensibilidade de membros inferiores. Adicionalmente, não há registros de hemoglobina glicosilada, excreção urinária de albumina ou eletrocardiograma. Os dados sugerem ausência, imprecisão e contradição de importantes informações sobre diabéticos e hipertensos e apontam a necessidade de capacitação profissional e de utilização de critérios clínico-laboratoriais para a caracterização das complicações crônicas decorrentes do DM e hipertensão arterial registradas no Sistema HIPERDIA. As deficiências encontradas podem levar ao subdimensionamento epidemiológico dessas doenças na população brasileira e comprometer o planejamento de estratégias destinadas à prevenção e controle dessas doenças.This paper aimed to analyze the quality of information on diabetic and hypertensive patients registered in HIPERDIA System in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo State, from

  15. Corrosion and protection of metals in the rural atmosphere of "El Pardo" Spain (PATINA / CYTED project

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    Simancas, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion tests of metallic and organic coatings on steel, zinc and aluminium have been conducted in "El Pardo" (Spain as part of the PATINA/CYTED project "Anticorrosive Protection of Metals in the Atmosphere". This is a rural atmosphere with the following ISO corrosivity categories: C2 (Fe, C2 (Zn, C3 (Cu and Cl (Al. Its average temperature and relative humidity is 13 °C and 62.8 %, respectively, and it has low SO2 and Cl- contents. Results of 42 months exposure are discussed. Atmospheric exposure tests were carried out for the following types of coatings: conventional paint coatings for steel and hot-dip galvanized steel (group 1, new painting technologies for steel and galvanized steel (group 2, zinc-base metallic coatings (group 3, aluminium-base metallic coatings (group 4, coatings on aluminium (group 5 and coil-coatings on steel, hot-dip galvanized steel and 55 % Al-Zn coated steel (group 6.

    Como parte del proyecto PATINA/CYTED "Protección anticorrosiva de metales en la atmósfera" se han llevado a cabo en la estación de ensayo de "El Pardo" (España, ensayos de corrosión atmosférica de recubrimientos metálicos y orgánicos sobre acero, zinc y aluminio. Se trata de una atmósfera rural según la clasificación ISO de grado de corrosividad: C2 (Fe, C2 (Zn, C3 (Cu y Cl (Al. La temperatura y humedad relativa media es de 13 °C y 62,8 %, respectivamente, y tiene bajos contenidos de SO2 y Cl-. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos después de 42 meses de exposición. Los ensayos de corrosión atmosférica se llevaron a cabo para tres tipos de recubrimientos: recubrimientos de pintura convencional sobre acero y acero zincado (grupo 1, nuevas tecnologías en pinturas para acero y acero galvanizado (grupo 2, recubrimientos metálicos base zinc (grupo 3, recubrimientos metálicos base aluminio (grupo 4, recubrimientos sobre aluminio (grupo 5 y recubrimientos de banda en continuo

  16. Are We Underestimating Benthic Cyanotoxins? Extensive Sampling Results from Spain

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    Enrique A. Cantoral Uriza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are potent hepatotoxins, and their presence in water bodies poses a threat to wildlife and human populations. Most of the available information refers to plankton, and much less is known about microcystins in other habitats. To broaden our understanding of the presence and environmental distribution of this group of toxins, we conducted extensive sampling throughout Spain, under a range of conditions and in distinct aquatic and terrestrial habitats. More than half of the tested strains were toxic; concentrations of the hepatotoxin were low compared with planktic communities, and the number of toxic variants identified in each sample of the Spanish strains ranged from 1–3. The presence of microcystins LF and LY (MC-LF and MC-LY in the tested samples was significant, and ranged from 21.4% to 100% of the total microcystins per strain. These strains were only detected in cyanobacteria Oscillatoriales and Nostocales. We can report, for the first time, seven new species of microcystin producers in high mountain rivers and chasmoendolithic communities. This is the first report of these species in Geitlerinema and the confirmation of Anatoxin-a in Phormidium uncinatum. Our findings show that microcystins are widespread in all habitat types, including both aerophytic and endolithic peat bogs and that it is necessary to identify all the variants of microcystins in aquatic bodies as the commonest toxins sometimes represent a very low proportion of the total.

  17. Are We Underestimating Benthic Cyanotoxins? Extensive Sampling Results from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral Uriza, Enrique A; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina

    2017-11-28

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins, and their presence in water bodies poses a threat to wildlife and human populations. Most of the available information refers to plankton, and much less is known about microcystins in other habitats. To broaden our understanding of the presence and environmental distribution of this group of toxins, we conducted extensive sampling throughout Spain, under a range of conditions and in distinct aquatic and terrestrial habitats. More than half of the tested strains were toxic; concentrations of the hepatotoxin were low compared with planktic communities, and the number of toxic variants identified in each sample of the Spanish strains ranged from 1-3. The presence of microcystins LF and LY (MC-LF and MC-LY) in the tested samples was significant, and ranged from 21.4% to 100% of the total microcystins per strain. These strains were only detected in cyanobacteria Oscillatoriales and Nostocales. We can report, for the first time, seven new species of microcystin producers in high mountain rivers and chasmoendolithic communities. This is the first report of these species in Geitlerinema and the confirmation of Anatoxin-a in Phormidium uncinatum . Our findings show that microcystins are widespread in all habitat types, including both aerophytic and endolithic peat bogs and that it is necessary to identify all the variants of microcystins in aquatic bodies as the commonest toxins sometimes represent a very low proportion of the total.

  18. BAPA Database: Linking landslide occurrence with rainfall in Asturias (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Asturias is a region in northern Spain with a temperate and humid climate. In this region, slope instability processes are very common and often cause economic losses and, sometimes, human victims. To prevent the geological risk involved, it is of great interest to predict landslide spatial and temporal occurrence. Some previous investigations have shown the importance of rainfall as a trigger factor. Despite the high incidence of these phenomena in Asturias, there are no databases of recent and actual landslides. The BAPA Project (Base de Datos de Argayos del Principado de Asturias - Principality of Asturias Landslide Database) aims to create an inventory of slope instabilities which have occurred between 1980 and 2015. The final goal is to study in detail the relationship between rainfall and slope instabilities in Asturias, establishing precipitation thresholds and soil moisture conditions necessary to instability triggering. This work presents the database progress showing its structure divided into various fields that essentially contain information related to spatial, temporal, geomorphological and damage data.

  19. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption according to workday in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Vanesa; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Arias, Lucía; Lana, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the type of working day in the Spanish population Cross-sectional study among employees residing in Spain aged >18 years (N=8,736). We took data from the National Health Survey (2011-2012). Information was collected on the type of working day (morning, afternoon, evening, part-time, reduced hours, and shift-work) and smoking and drinking habits. Demographic characteristics and health- and work-related factors were also taken into account. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated through log-binomial regressions. Among respondents, 32.1% smoked regularly, especially those working the night shift (43.5%). Moderate alcohol consumption was found in 54.8% of workers and excessive consumption in 1.5%. Most of the moderate and heavy drinkers worked part-time, with 57.6% and 1.8% respectively. The aOR of being a smoker was higher among night workers (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.01-2.46). None of the work shifts were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Night shift work was associated with regular smoking. This collective of workers should be monitored closely by occupational health services and regularly undergo programs to control tobacco consumption and smoking-related diseases. Additional research to elucidate the reasons for this association could help to achieve preventive and therapeutic success. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Solutrean Chronology & Lithic Variability in Vasco-Cantabrian Spain

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    Lawrence Guy STRAUS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Recientes excavaciones en la zona cantábrica suministran datos que apuntan a una variabilidad en las industrias del Solutrense. Basado en pruebas de radiocarbono parece evidenciarse una contemporaneidad entre el fenómeno solutrense de la España Cantábrica y el Rhone Valley. La industria de puntas diagnostican un resultado de un proceso tecnológico convergente.ABSTRACT: Recent excavations in Cantabrian cave deposits provide evidence of Solutrean industrial variability and provocative chronological information. On the basis of radiocarbon there is strong evidence for contemporeanity between the Solutrean phenomena of Cantabrian Spain and in the Rhone Valley. The stone-points diagnostic would probably be the result of convergent technology. There is considerable evidence for variability among artifacts assemblages (shown in their respective coefficients of variation. It is therefore difficult to characterize Cantabrian collections from the time range in question in a general way. It seems more fruitful to try and demonstrate the existence of functional parameters for observed artifact variability.