WorldWideScience

Sample records for spain descriptive study

  1. [Giant-cell arteritis: a descriptive study in southwestern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Magro Ledesma, D; Ramos Salado, J L; Bureo Dacal, J C; de Dios Arrebola García, J; Bureo Dacal, P; Pérez Miranda, M

    2000-02-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory features of a series of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) or temporal arteritis in south-western Spain (Extremadura). Retrospective study of 25 patients with GCA diagnosed by temporal artery biopsy between 1990 and 1998. Nine patients were males and 16 (64%) females. Sixteen cases (64%) presented polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Other clinical findings were: fever/febricula (64%), constitutional syndrome (64%), new headache (96%), visual symptoms (48%), jaw claudication (17%) and abnormal temporal arteries (17%). All patients had an ESR of more than 50 mm/hour and a raised C-reactive protein. Thirteen patients (52%) had anemia (hemoglobin level < 12 g/dl). Eleven cases (44%) presented a platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3. Four patients (16%) had an elevated AST and/or ALT levels and 8 patients (32%) had an elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase levels. In patients with PMR, there was a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome (81 vs 33%, p = 0.02). In females, there was a higher frequency of anemia (75 vs 11%, p < 0.01), platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3 (75 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated AST and/or ALT (25 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase (50 vs 0%, p < 0.01) levels. The clinical and laboratory features of GCA in our series of patients in south-western Spain are similar to that described in other spanish populations, with the exception of a slightly higher frequency of PMR and a lower frequency of jaw claudication and abnormal temporal arteries. In our study, the clinical picture of GCA was more severe in patients with PMR and in females.

  2. Informational Literacy and Information and Communication Technologies Use by Secondary Education Students in Spain: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Ma. José Rodríguez; Migueláñez, Susana Olmos; Molina, María Pinto; Abad, Fernando Martínez; Riaza, Blanca García

    2011-01-01

    Informational literacy and the use of technologies by Secondary Education students in Spain: A descriptive study. The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), together with their application to research carried out on educational areas, are factors which contribute to the promotion of a new educative model constructed on…

  3. Analysis of and reflection on bachelor thesis in nursing students: A descriptive study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Judith; Gros, Silvia; Canet, Olga

    2018-06-11

    The bachelor thesis, a final year subject to obtain a nursing degree, presents an ideal opportunity for the development and assessment of professional competencies. Thus, it is necessary to specify that the structure of the bachelor thesis works as an element of review and reflection from both a pedagogical and professional perspective. To analyse the main elements of the bachelor thesis in the nursing degree 2015-16 in Spain. A transversal descriptive study was conducted using a quantitative documentary analysis via study guides or grade reports. The variables were the main academic elements of the bachelor thesis subject (credits, competencies, learning outcomes, contents, methodologies, training activities and assessment). A probabilistic sample of 66 institutions was studied using descriptive statistics with statistical measures of central tendency and measures of variability. The results showed a maximum range of 12 and a minimum of 6 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System. The definition and number of competencies to be developed varied and the learning outcomes were formulated in only 40.9% of the guides consulted. The most widely used teaching methodologies and training activities were academic supervision (87.9%) and autonomous work (80.3%). Regarding types of work, basic investigation (34.8%), care plans (33.3%) and literature review (30,3%) ranked highest. No specific descriptors could be linked to the contents. Finally, two main assessment tools were found: process and product. The rubric is presented as a main element of the assessment. The bachelor thesis is conceived as autonomous, personal and original academic work. But no homogeneity was observed in the key development elements such as competencies, teaching strategies, or type of bachelor thesis. Therefore, the findings from the analysis and the bibliographic review are presented as recommendations as regards the outcome, structure and/or teaching elements linked to the bachelor thesis

  4. [What is researched in Spain on childhood accidents and poisonings? A descriptive study of the last 11 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Pérez, I; Colmenar Revuelta, J; Gascón Pérez, E; Colmenar Revuelta, C

    1987-04-01

    Situation of research done in childhood accidents an accidental poisoning in Spain must be known to plan future studies. Authors studied 131 publications obtained from IME (Indice Medico Español) data bank (1974-1984). Only 62 of them were epidemiological studies or reviews. Most of them were based on hospital data. Authors were mainly pediatricians who lived in big cities and had articles published in pediatric journals. They conclude that there are few studies on epidemiology of accidents in general populations and on how to prevent them.

  5. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  6. [Nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century: a descriptive bibliometric study of the journal Anales de Bromatologia (1949-1993)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Mestre, J; Ureña Alberola, M T; Esplugues Pellicer, J X; Trescastro-López, E M; Galiana-Sánchez, M E; Castelló Botía, I

    2012-11-01

    To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka's law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain.

  7. What does the media say about palliative care? A descriptive study of news coverage in written media in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miriam; Navas, Alejandro; Olza, Inés; Gómez-Baceiredo, Beatriz; Pujol, Francesc; Garralda, Eduardo; Centeno, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The goal of palliative care (PC) is to improve the quality of life of terminal stage patients and their families. The subject frequently appears in the mass-media and this helps create a socially accepted identity. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PC related news items appeared in the Spanish written media. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. Considering diffusion, scope and the range in editorial policy criteria, four printed newspapers (PN) were selected, together with four exclusively digital media sources (DM). Through Mynews, a newspaper content depository, and the search tool for each DM website, articles published between 2009 and 2014 which included the terms "palliative care" and "palliative medicine" were sought. A questionnaire was created to characterise each article identified and a descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results A total of 627 articles were identified, of which 359 (57%) were published in PN (42% in the printed editions -PE- 16% in their online editions -OE-) and 268 (43%) in DM. In general, they appeared mainly in sections concerning Health (23%), Culture and Society (18%) and General/Home News (15%). In PE, just 2% were found in the Health section and nearly 70% in Culture and Society and General/Home News. Most of the articles were informative in nature and contained socio-political messages (90%). Statements by PC professionals were found in 35% of the articles and by politicians in 32%. The most frequent content was related to facing end of life (74%) and patient quality of life (70%). Conclusions The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC. Nevertheless, messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients. Content more in line with the clinical practice might help contribute to the development of this new area of medicine. PMID:28968433

  8. What does the media say about palliative care? A descriptive study of news coverage in written media in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Carrasco

    Full Text Available The goal of palliative care (PC is to improve the quality of life of terminal stage patients and their families. The subject frequently appears in the mass-media and this helps create a socially accepted identity. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PC related news items appeared in the Spanish written media.A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. Considering diffusion, scope and the range in editorial policy criteria, four printed newspapers (PN were selected, together with four exclusively digital media sources (DM. Through Mynews, a newspaper content depository, and the search tool for each DM website, articles published between 2009 and 2014 which included the terms "palliative care" and "palliative medicine" were sought. A questionnaire was created to characterise each article identified and a descriptive analysis was undertaken.A total of 627 articles were identified, of which 359 (57% were published in PN (42% in the printed editions -PE- 16% in their online editions -OE- and 268 (43% in DM. In general, they appeared mainly in sections concerning Health (23%, Culture and Society (18% and General/Home News (15%. In PE, just 2% were found in the Health section and nearly 70% in Culture and Society and General/Home News. Most of the articles were informative in nature and contained socio-political messages (90%. Statements by PC professionals were found in 35% of the articles and by politicians in 32%. The most frequent content was related to facing end of life (74% and patient quality of life (70%.The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC. Nevertheless, messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients. Content more in line with the clinical practice might help contribute to the development of this new area of medicine.

  9. What does the media say about palliative care? A descriptive study of news coverage in written media in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José Miguel; García, Miriam; Navas, Alejandro; Olza, Inés; Gómez-Baceiredo, Beatriz; Pujol, Francesc; Garralda, Eduardo; Centeno, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The goal of palliative care (PC) is to improve the quality of life of terminal stage patients and their families. The subject frequently appears in the mass-media and this helps create a socially accepted identity. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PC related news items appeared in the Spanish written media. A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. Considering diffusion, scope and the range in editorial policy criteria, four printed newspapers (PN) were selected, together with four exclusively digital media sources (DM). Through Mynews, a newspaper content depository, and the search tool for each DM website, articles published between 2009 and 2014 which included the terms "palliative care" and "palliative medicine" were sought. A questionnaire was created to characterise each article identified and a descriptive analysis was undertaken. A total of 627 articles were identified, of which 359 (57%) were published in PN (42% in the printed editions -PE- 16% in their online editions -OE-) and 268 (43%) in DM. In general, they appeared mainly in sections concerning Health (23%), Culture and Society (18%) and General/Home News (15%). In PE, just 2% were found in the Health section and nearly 70% in Culture and Society and General/Home News. Most of the articles were informative in nature and contained socio-political messages (90%). Statements by PC professionals were found in 35% of the articles and by politicians in 32%. The most frequent content was related to facing end of life (74%) and patient quality of life (70%). The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC. Nevertheless, messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients. Content more in line with the clinical practice might help contribute to the development of this new area of medicine.

  10. [Communication skills in the curriculum of Medical students from Spain (1990-2014): From the Primary Health Care to the Bologna Plan. A descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Padilla, Guillermo; Ferrández Antón, Teresa; Baleriola Júlvez, José; Almeida Cabrera, Rut

    2015-01-01

    Analyse the currently situation of teaching in communication skills in the Spanish Medical Schools (MS) and the grade of implementation from the recommended by the National Agency of Evaluation of the Quality and Accreditation. Descriptive-comparative, transversal and quantitative-qualitative study. University teaching field. The whole population of MS in Spain. teaching during the academic year 2013-2014 the Degree in Medicine homologated by the National Agency of Evaluation of the Quality and Accreditation and offering information of their educational plans and teaching guides (online, telephonic or e-mail). 1) Existence of courses about communication skills; 2) type of teaching; 3) format of the course; 4) credits; 5) length, and 6) grade. They were analysed with descriptive parameters and the Cohen's coefficient (d). Forty-two MS: 10 privates and 32 publics. Thirty MS (71.43%) presented at least one course of communication skills. The 78.12% of the public MS contained this kind of teaching as an entire course versus the 50.00% of the private MS. The national average by MS was 2.77 (σ=2.41), lower than the 5.0 credits recommended by the the National Agency of Evaluation of the Quality and Accreditation (relevant difference: d=1.63>0,8). The 63.63% contained this teaching over the second cycle (mode: second degree). The course loads in terms of credits destined to this skills has increased considerably from 1990 to 2014 (d= 1,43>0,8). However, it has not been completely established yet the recommendations about this aspect in most of the Spanish MS. The public universities seem to be more aware of this teaching. Furthermore, it would be interesting strengthen this skills in the sixth grade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  12. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  13. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  14. Q fever in Spain: Description of a new series, and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alende-Castro, Vanesa; Macía-Rodríguez, Cristina; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; García-Fernández, Xana; Treviño-Castellano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Fernández, Sergio; González-Quintela, Arturo

    2018-03-01

    Forms of presentation of Q fever vary widely across Spain, with differences between the north and south. In the absence of reported case series from Galicia (north-west Spain), this study sought to describe a Q-fever case series in this region for the first time, and conduct a systematic review to analyse all available data on the disease in Spain. Patients with positive serum antibodies to Coxiella burnetii from a single institution over a 5-year period (January 2011-December 2015) were included. Patients with phase II titres above 1/128 (or documented seroconversion) and compatible clinical criterial were considered as having Q fever. Patients with clinical suspicion of chronic Q-fever and IgG antibodies to phase I-antigen of over 1/1024, or persistently high levels six months after treatment were considered to be cases of probable chronic Q-fever. Systematic review: We conducted a search of the Pubmed/Medline database using the terms: Q Fever OR Coxiella burnetii AND Spain. Our search yielded a total of 318 studies: 244 were excluded because they failed to match the main criteria, and 41 were discarded due to methodological problems, incomplete information or duplication. Finally, 33 studies were included. A total of 155 patients, all of them from Galicia, with positive serological determination were located during the study period; 116 (75%) were deemed to be serologically positive patients without Q fever and the remaining 39 (25%) were diagnosed with Q fever. A potential exposure risk was found in 2 patients (5%). The most frequent form of presentation was pneumonia (87%), followed by isolated fever (5%), diarrhoea (5%) and endocarditis (3%). The main symptoms were headache (100%), cough (77%) and fever (69%). A trend to a paucisymptomatic illness was observed in women. Hospital admission was required in 37 cases, and 6 patients died while in hospital. Only 2 patients developed chronic Q-fever. Systematic review: Most cases were sporadic, mainly presented

  15. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  16. Core optimization studies at JEN-Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Alonso, M.

    1983-01-01

    The JEN-1 is a 3-MW reactor which uses flat-plate fuel elements. It was originally fueled with 20%-enriched uranium but more recently with 90%-enriched fuel. It now appears that it will have to be converted back to using 20%- enriched fuel. Progress is presently being made in fuel fabrication. Plates with meat thicknesses of up to 1.5 mm have been fabricated. Plates are being tested with 40 wt % uranium in the fuel meat. Progress is also being made in reactor design in collaboration with atomic energy commissions of other countries for swimming pool reactors being designed or under construction in Chile, Ecuador, and Spain itself. The design studies address core optimization, safety analysis report updating, irradiation facilities, etc. Core optimization is specifically addressed in this paper. A common swimming-pool-type reactor such as the JEN-1 served as an example. The philosophy adopted in this study is not to try to match the high enrichment core, but rather to treat the design as new and try to optimize it using simplified neutronic/thermal hydraulic/economic models. This philosophy appears to be somewhat original. As many as possible of the fuel parameters are constrained to remain constant

  17. Chemical quality of tap water in Madrid: multicase control cancer study in Spain (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Villanueva, Cristina M; García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Rantakokko, Panu; García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas. Tap water samples were collected from 34 sampling points in 7 towns in the Madrid region (19-29 April 2010), and 23 contaminants (metals, nitrates, disinfection by-product and Mutagen X levels) were quantified. We undertook a descriptive analysis of the contaminant concentrations in the water and compared them between the two water supply areas (Wilcoxon test). We created maps representing the distribution of the concentrations observed at water sampling points and assessed the correlations (Spearman's coefficient) between the different parameters measured. The concentrations of the contaminants were below guideline values. There were differences between the two supply areas in concentration of nitrates (p value = 0.0051) and certain disinfection by-products. While there were positive correlations (rho >0.70) among some disinfection by-products, no correlations were found in metals or nitrates. The differences in nitrate levels could be linked to differences in farming/industrial activities in the catchment areas and in disinfection by-products might be related to the existence of different treatment systems or bromine content in source waters.

  18. Morphological description and comparison of the dental remains from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically "more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Descriptive studies of Purepecha: Introductory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vázquez Rojas Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven papers in this volume are the result of a collective project of linguistic description. This introduction offers a general background for such enterprise. It provides information about some sociolinguistic and grammatical aspects of the Purepecha language, a list of some recent studies on the language, it describes the orthographic conventions employed. We also provide details about the elicitation methodology and the demographic information of the language consultants.

  20. Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cañavate, Antonio; Larios-Suárez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and current situation of postgraduate studies in Librarianship and Information Science (LIS) at the university level in Spain before and after the development of the Bologna Process's European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It contextualizes the historical development of these studies, describing how official…

  1. Information systems outsourcing: a Delphi study from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramírez, María Reyes; Gascó Gascó, José Luis; Llopis Taverner, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The widespread growth of information systems (IS) outsourcing on an international scale contrasts sharply with the somewhat limited development of this practice in Spain. The purpose of this paper is to deal with the situation of IS outsourcing in this country. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, the paper has used the opinions and comments of those in charge of IS departments at the largest Spanish firms through a normative Delphi study. Findings – Outsourcing makes it ...

  2. Gastronomy, Tourism and Destination Differentiation: A Case Study in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tom¨¢s L¨®pez-Guzm¨¢n; Sandra S¨¢nchez-Ca?izares

    2012-01-01

    Gastronomy is becoming a key factor in the competitiveness of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of food tourism in the city of Cordoba (Spain) and its relation with the motivation. Similarly, the paper shows the connection between local cuisine and the satisfaction of tourists. The main results of this study reflect the high level of education of this kind of travelers, the importance of gastronomy for visiting this city and the satisfaction with both the l...

  3. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diez Mediavilla, Montserrat; Alonso Tristán, Cristina; Rodríguez Amigo, María del Carmen; Garcia Calderon, Teofilo

    2010-01-01

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authoriti...

  4. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Mediavilla, M.; Alonso-Tristan, C. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain); Rodriguez-Amigo, M.C.; Garcia-Calderon, T. [Dpto. Matematicas y Computacion Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  5. A qualitative study about immigrant workers' perceptions of their working conditions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, E Q; Porthé, V; Vázquez, M L; García, A M; López-Jacob, M J; Ruiz-Frutos, C; Ronda-Pérez, E; Benach, J; Benavides, F G

    2009-11-01

    Spain has recently become an inward migration country. Little is known about the occupational health of immigrant workers. This study aimed to explore the perceptions that immigrant workers in Spain had of their working conditions. Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Criterion sampling. Data collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews, with a topic guide. One hundred and fifty-eight immigrant workers (90 men/68 women) from Colombia (n = 21), Morocco (n = 39), sub-Saharan Africa (n = 29), Romania (n = 44) and Ecuador (n = 25), who were authorised (documented) or unauthorised (undocumented) residents in five medium to large cities in Spain. Participants described poor working conditions, low pay and health hazards. Perception of hazards appeared to be related to gender and job sector. Informants were highly segregated into jobs by sex, however, so this issue will need further exploration. Undocumented workers described poorer conditions than documented workers, which they attributed to their documentation status. Documented participants also felt vulnerable because of their immigrant status. Informants believed that deficient language skills, non-transferability of their education and training and, most of all, their immigrant status and economic need left them with little choice but to work under poor conditions. The occupational health needs of immigrant workers must be addressed at the job level, while improving the enforcement of existing health and safety regulations. The roles that documentation status and economic need played in these informants' work experiences should be considered and how these may influence health outcomes.

  6. Description of HIV-1 Group M Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance Prevalence in Equatorial Guinea from Migrants in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, Gonzalo; de Mulder, Miguel; Holguín, África

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic is increasing in Equatorial Guinea (GQ), West Central Africa, but few studies have reported its HIV molecular epidemiology. We aimed to describe the HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) variants and drug-resistance mutations in GQ using sequences sampled in this country and in Spain, a frequent destination of Equatoguinean migrants. Methods We collected 195 HIV-1M pol sequences from Equatoguinean subjects attending Spanish clinics during 1997-2011, and 83 additional sequences sampled in GQ in 1997 and 2008 from GenBank. All (n = 278) were re-classified using phylogeny and tested for drug-resistance mutations. To evaluate the origin of CRF02_AG in GQ, we analyzed 2,562 CRF02_AG sequences and applied Bayesian MCMC inference (BEAST program). Results Most Equatoguinean patients recruited in Spain were women (61.1%) or heterosexuals (87.7%). In the 278 sequences, the variants found were CRF02_AG (47.8%), A (13.7%), B (7.2%), C (5.8%), G (5.4%) and others (20.1%). We found 6 CRF02_AG clusters emerged from 1983.9 to 2002.5 with origin in GQ (5.5 sequences/cluster). Transmitted drug-resistance (TDR) rate among naïve patients attended in Spain (n = 144) was 4.7%: 3.4% for PI (all with M46IL), 1.8% for NRTI (all with M184V) and 0.9% for NNRTI (Y188L). Among pre-treated patients, 9/31 (29%) presented any resistance, mainly affecting NNRTI (27.8%). Conclusions We report a low (HIV-1M variant and entered GQ through independent introductions at least since the early 1980s. PMID:23717585

  7. On the Tayassuid affinities of Xenohyus Ginsburg, 1980, and the description of new fossils from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Ginsburg created the new genus Xenobyus for a large suiform artiodactyl which he considered to belong to the family Suidae. Among the distinguishing characters of the genus, Ginsburg cited the enlarged, strongly curved and inflated central upper incisors possessing a distal accessory cusplet, the shortened muzzle, the enlarged lower first and second incisors, and the c10se packing of the entire tooth row (i.e. reduced to absent diastemata. These and other characters, such as the vertically implanted mandibular canines, the sympbyseal morphology, and the shape of the third upper incisor, suggest that Xenobyus belongs instead to the family Tayassuidae, subfamily Doliochoerinae. Whereas Ginsburg suggested that Xenobyus had an unknown ancestry and that it represented an immigrant into Europe at about the beginning of zone MN2b, it now seems more likely that it represents a late doliochoere of the sort represented by Doliochoerus quercyi which occurs in late Stampian deposits (Ginsburg, 1974. In many ways it is merely an enlarged version of this species, but there are sufficient morphological differences to warrant retention of the genus Xenobyus. Viewed within a tayassuid framework, Xenobyus is not seen to be unusual and not to run counter to evolutionary trends in the Suidae, the latter view being a necessity following its identifiation as a suid. Sorne fundamental similarities between tbe molars of Xenobyus and Kenyapotamus could provide a link between late doliochoeres and early hippopotamids, an hypothesis already mentioned by Pickford (1983. Newly discovered fossils from Loranca, Cuenca, Spain belong to two different species of Xenobyus, X venitor and an undescribed larger species. Nuevos fósiles, descubiertos en Loranca (Cuenca, España, pertenecientes a dos diferentes especies de Xenobyus; X vemtor y Xenobyus sp. de talla mayor que el anterior, son también descritos en este trabajo.Ginsburg (1980 creó un nuevo género Xenobyus

  8. Prescribing Habits for Androgenic Alopecia Among Dermatologists in Spain in 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindado-Ortega, C; Saceda-Corralo, D; Buendía-Castaño, D; Fernández-González, P; Moreno-Arrones, Ó M; Fonda-Pascual, P; Alegre-Sánchez, A; Rodrigues-Barata, A R; Vañó-Galván, S

    2018-04-12

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride are the only drugs approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Spain. However, the management of this condition is highly variable because numerous treatments are used off-label. The main aim of this study was to describe the prescribing habits of dermatologists in Spain for male AGA (MAGA) and female AGA (FAGA). Descriptive cross-sectional study using online questionnaires completed by dermatologists working in Spain. The responses of 241 dermatologists were analyzed. The most common treatments prescribed for MAGA were minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (96%), nutricosmetics (44%), topical finasteride (37%), oral dutasteride (33%), platelet-rich plasma (14%), and low-level laser therapy (8%). For premenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments were topical minoxidil (98%), oral contraceptives (81%), nutricosmetics (72%), cyproterone acetate (58%), oral finasteride (39%), topical finasteride (39%), spironolactone (27%), platelet-rich plasma (20%), oral dutasteride (20%), oral flutamide (18%), and low-level laser therapy (7%). Finally, for postmenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments prescribed were topical minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (84%), nutricosmetics (68%), topical finasteride (50%), oral dutasteride (35%), platelet-rich plasma (21%), spironolactone (16%), cyproterone acetate (16%), oral flutamide (9%), and low-level laser therapy (9%). A limitation of our study is that we did not analyze novel AGA treatments such as oral minoxidil and dutasteride mesotherapy. The most common treatments prescribed for AGA by dermatologists in Spain are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and nutricosmetics for MAGA and postmenopausal FAGA and topical minoxidil, oral contraceptives, and nutricosmetics for premenopausal FAGA. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Pakistanis in Spain: a study based on the community living in the city of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Solé Aubia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of Spain becoming a country of immigration is the greater protagonism that some countries have acquired which had not traditionally been a major source of migration movements towards Spain. Such is the case of Pakistan, whose nationals living in Spain have considerably increased in recent years, mainly in the area of Barcelona. This study seeks to undertake a research line in order to get to know more deeply the reality of this community.

  11. Adherence to the "Mediterranean Diet" in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Alemán, José; Zafrilla Rentero, María Pilar; Montoro-García, Silvia; Mulero, Juana; Pérez Garrido, Alfonso; Leal, Mariano; Guerrero, Lucía; Ramos, Elena; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2016-10-28

    Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0-10) was also applied. Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension ( p = 0.018). A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  12. Politeness in Brazil and Spain: a comparative case study

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    Enrique Huelva Unterbäumen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some results of a comparative study between the politeness strategies that two Spanish and two Brazilian professors would use, both in Portuguese and Spanish, in twelve hypothetical situations presented on a social behavior questionnaire. This work is based on a previous study published by Piatti (2003 in Argentina, where the author observed some pragmatic differences between a group of students of Spanish as a foreign language and a group of native speakers of the language. With her hypotheses as a starting point, the scope was moved to a small group of people with high communicative competence in both languages, in order to give a different insight on of the pragmatic differences that exist between Brazilians and the Spanish. Based on the findings, we have tried to establish some intercultural differences among the politeness strategies used in Brazil and in Spain.

  13. [Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain), 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Baranda, Lucía; López, M José; Nebot, Manel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops...) ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises) usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

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    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  15. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.F.; Jørgensen, L.C.; Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    importance to dyspnoea/polypnoea and C-reactive protein levels >50mg/L. None of the other typical symptoms of pneumonia had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GPs' diagnostic criteria for pneumonia differ substantially between Denmark and Spain. The high prevalence of pneumonia...... and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2......,698 patients with LRTI were included. RESULTS: In Denmark, 47% of the patients with LRTI were classified with a diagnosis of pneumonia compared with 11% in Spain. In Spain, fever and a positive x-ray weighted significantly more in the diagnosis of pneumonia than in Denmark. Danish GPs, however, attached more...

  16. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Rubio, Carmen; Andrés Díaz, José Ramón de

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  17. Gender Dysphoria and Social Anxiety: An Exploratory Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero-Miguel, Trinidad; García-Encinas, María A; Villena-Jimena, Amelia; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Guzman-Parra, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Social anxiety in gender dysphoria is still under investigation. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of social anxiety in a sample of individuals with gender dysphoria. A cross-sectional design was used in a clinical sample attending a public gender identity unit in Spain. The sample consisted of 210 individuals (48% trans female and 52% trans male). Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, Structured Clinical Interview, Exposure to Violence Questionnaire (EVQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC-11). Of the total sample, 31.4% had social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder was highly correlated with age (r = -0.181; CI = 0.061-0.264; P = .009) and depression (r = 0.345; CI = 0.213-0.468; P social anxiety disorder. This study highlights the necessity of implementing actions to prevent and treat social anxiety in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  19. The burden of hospital malnutrition in Spain: methods and development of the PREDyCES® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas Vila, M; Álvarez Hernández, J; García de Lorenzo, A; Celaya Pérez, S; León Sanz, M; García-Lorda, P; Brosa, M

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that hospital malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition associated to increase morbidity and mortality as well as related healthcare costs. Although previous studies have already measured the prevalence and/or costs of hospital nutrition in our country, their local focus (at regional or even hospital level) make that the true prevalence and economic impact of hospital malnutrition for the National Health System remain unknown in Spain. The PREDyCES® (Prevalence of hospital malnutrition and associated costs in Spain) study was aimed to assess the prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Spain and to estimate related costs. Some aspects made this study unique: a) It was the first study in a representative sample of hospitals of Spain; b) different measures to assess hospital malnutrition (NRS2002, MNA as well as anthropometric and biochemical markers) where used both at admission and discharge and, c) the economic consequences of malnutrition where estimated using the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.

  20. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  1. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish populatio...

  2. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U 3 O 8 ). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in

  4. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  5. [Descriptive study of transexuality in Navarre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, V; Ruiz, R; Toni, M; Rebolé, A; Pérez de Mendiola, Y; Forga, L

    2012-01-01

    Transexuality has been recognized in Navarre as a clinical entity that must be attended to in a multidisciplinary form in the Navarre Health Service. An analysis was made of the epidemiological data of 35 subjects who have attended the Navarre Transexual and Intersex Unit (UNATI - Unidad Navarra de Transexuales e Intersexos) since April 2011. The variables related to socio-demographic parameters, transexuality and treatment were collected. The average age was 37.3 years. Sixty-five point seven percent of the subjects were born in Spain. Seventy-one point four percent of the users are feminine transsexuals. At present 62.9% of the subjects are receiving hormonal treatment. Amongst the feminine transexuals 20% have had a mamoplasty, 4% have had a vaginoplasty and 20% have had both operations. Ten percent of the masculine transsexuals have had a mastectomy, 10% have had a hysterectomy with double anexectomy and 10% have had both operations. The majority of the transsexuals in Navarre are being evaluated in the UNATI. More feminine transsexuals have attended than masculine ones. The feminine transsexuals more frequently have reassignation surgery, while the masculine ones have extirpative surgery.

  6. Prospective Multicentre Study on the Epidemiology and Current Therapeutic Management of Severe Bronchiolitis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Flores-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the epidemiology and therapeutic management of patients with severe acute bronchiolitis (AB admitted to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs in Spain. Design. Descriptive, prospective, multicentre study. Setting. Sixteen Spanish PICUs. Patients. Patients with severe AB who required admission to any of the participating PICUs over 1 year. Interventions. Both epidemiological variables and medical treatment received were recorded. Results. A total of 262 patients were recruited; 143 were male (54.6%, with median age of 1 month (0–23. Median stay in the PICU was 7 days (1–46. Sixty patients (23% received no nebuliser treatment, while the rest received a combination of inhalation therapies. One-quarter of patients (24.8% received corticosteroids and 56.5% antibiotic therapy. High-flow oxygen therapy was used in 14.3% and noninvasive ventilation (NIV was used in 75.6%. Endotracheal intubation was required in 24.4% of patients. Younger age, antibiotic therapy, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV were risk factors that significantly increased the stay in the PICU. Conclusions. Spanish PICUs continue to routinely use nebulised bronchodilator treatment and corticosteroid therapy. Despite NIV being widely used in this condition, intubation was required in one-quarter of cases. Younger age, antibiotic therapy, and IMV were associated with a longer stay in the PICU.

  7. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers in implementing research among registered nurses working in the care of the elderly: a multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Cobo, C M; Sarabia-Cobo, A B; Pérez, V; Hermosilla, C; Nuñez, M J; de Lorena, P

    2015-11-01

    This study identified barriers to the utilization of research results perceived by nurses who work in nursing homes in Spain. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, and multicentre study was conducted in 126 nursing homes in different Spanish cities. The BARRIERS to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS scale) was used to identify barriers. A total of 756 nurses responded (92.48%). BARRIERS scale variables with the highest scores included Characteristics of the organization (mean=24.89, SD=4.37), followed by Professional features (mean=21.87, SD=4.85). The specific barriers that were rated the highest included "not enough time on the job to implement new ideas" (mean=3.89, SD=0.98), followed by "unknown nursing research" (mean=2.75; SD=1.22) and "Doctors do not cooperate in the implementation" (mean=3.01, SD=1.85). Geriatric nurses perceive time as the main barrier to implementing the results of research in practice. The number and nature of the barriers are consistent with studies from other countries. Knowledge of the barriers is crucial for institutions and educators to instigate measures that improve the implementation of nursing research, especially in an area like elderly care. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted among geriatric nurses in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Volunteers in Palliative Care - A Comparison of Seven European Countries: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Radbruch, Lukas; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris

    2015-07-01

    In Europe, volunteers have an important role in the delivery of palliative care. As part of the EU co-funded Europall project, 4 aspects of volunteering in palliative care were studied for 7 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain). These included (1) involvement of volunteers in palliative care, (2) organization of palliative care volunteering, (3) legal regulations concerning volunteering, and (4) education and training of palliative care volunteering. A literature search combined with an interview study. Information from the scientific literature, and country-specific policy documents were obtained and completed, along with data of consecutive semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of palliative care in the participating countries. In all countries, volunteers appeared to be involved in palliative care, yet their involvement across health care settings differed per country. England, for example, has the highest number of volunteers whereas Spain has the lowest number. Volunteering is embedded in law and regulations in all participating countries except for England and the Netherlands. In all participating countries, training programs are available and volunteers are organized, both on a national and a regional level. This study provides a descriptive overview of volunteer work in palliative care in 7 European countries, with a focus on the organizational aspects. Further research should concentrate on the roles and responsibilities of volunteers in the care for the terminally ill in different European health systems. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Adherence to the “Mediterranean Diet” in Spain and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk (DIMERICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abellán Alemán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional studies focus on traditional cultural models and lifestyles in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, life habits, and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among people living in different geographical regions in Spain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in each region. The sampling scheme consisted of a random three-stage stratified sampling program according to geographic region, age, and gender. A total of 1732 subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and exercise. A diet score that assesses the adherence of participants to the Mediterranean diet (range 0–10 was also applied. Results: Southeastern Spain had the lowest score for adherence to the Mediterranean diet because of the low consumption of fish and plant products. A lower adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was strongly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.018. Conclusions: A low level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is accompanied by a high prevalence of hypertension and, therefore, a raised cardiovascular risk in the country. The adherence score could help identify individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.

  11. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  12. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  13. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  14. A prospective descriptive study of the management of miscarriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the current management of incomplete miscarriage at Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitals and to determine the proportion of patients with incomplete miscarriage managed with Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA), sharp curettage or medical evacuation. Design: A prospective descriptive study.

  15. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part Two: Interdisciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of interdisciplinary environmental studies courses. Topic areas of these courses include: environmental sociology; human ecology (politics, institutions, and the environment); humans and the environment in historical perspective; environmental management; humans, hazards, and disasters; and other…

  16. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  17. Socializing Agents for Sport and Physical Activities in Teenage Students: Comparative Studies in Samples From Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juan, Francisco; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze a set of socializing agents for sport and physical activities and to establish their relationship with leisure time sport and physical activities behaviors and practice patterns in samples of teenage students with different sociocultural backgrounds. The sample included 2168 students in their first year of secondary education, 423 of them being from Costa Rica, 408 from Mexico, and 1337 from Spain (1052 male students, 1037 female students, and 79 students who did not specify gender) aged 11-16 years old ( M = 12.49; SD = .81). A validated questionnaire with questions about leisure time sport and physical activities and socializing agents was used. Descriptive, inferential, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out with SPSS 17.0 to compare all three countries. Costa Rica had the most active students, best friends' inactivity, and unsupportive parents being the agents predicting inactivity and a low level of sport and physical activities. Mexico has a high dropout rate and inactive students exceed active ones; no agent predicts inactivity or sport and physical activities pattern. Spain has the highest level of sport and physical activities practice, and parents, siblings, and friends are predicting agents of inactivity together with unsupportive parents and friends.

  18. Status of the structure, process and outcoms of pharmaceutical care to HIV patient in Spain. Origen study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morillo-Verdugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the structure, process and outcomes with which hospital pharmacist performs health care activity, teaching and research about Pharmaceutical Care (PC in HIV patients in Spain. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study carried out between November 2011-February 2012 in spanish hospitals. The inclusion criteria were: hospitals pharmacy services that dispensed antiretroviral medication to HIV patients. The questionnaire had 41 questions structured in 9 groups: hospital type and person conducting the survey, structure and resources, health care activities, interventions, communication with the rest of the multidisciplinary team, adherence, and quality records, management and pharmacoeconomy and teaching and research. Descriptive analysis was performed. To analyze the existence of statistically significant relationships, we applied fisher test, chi-square or logistic regression Results: 86 hospitals completed the survey. In 93%, PC consultation was not classified by pathologies. 27.9% provided continuing PC to all patients. Adherence was determined regularly or when pharmacist suspected poor adherence (57.5 %. 20% of hospital s teaching had a program that allowed a high level of training in PC to HIV patient. 52,3% of participating centers had published scientific articles related to HIV. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care to HIV patients in Spain need to adapt to a new situation. For this, hospital pharmacists have to consider several issues such as chronicity, comorbidity, incorporation of new technologies and the stratification of patients in order to make it more efficient.

  19. Factors associated with self-medication in Spain: a cross-sectional study in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclós, Gracia; Olivar, Teresa; Rodilla, Vicent

    2018-06-01

    The identification of factors which may influence a patient's decision to self-medicate. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of the adult population (at least 16 years old), using data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey in Spain, which included 22 188 subjects. Logistic regression models enabled us to estimate the effect of each analysed variable on self-medication. In total, 14 863 (67%) individuals reported using medication (prescribed and non-prescribed) and 3274 (22.0%) of them self-medicated. Using logistic regression and stratifying by age, four different models have been constructed. Our results include different variables in each of the models to explain self-medication, but the one that appears on all four models is education level. Age is the other important factor which influences self-medication. Self-medication is strongly associated with factors related to socio-demographic, such as sex, educational level or age, as well as several health factors such as long-standing illness or physical activity. When our data are compared to those from previous Spanish surveys carried out in 2003 and 2006, we can conclude that self-medication is increasing in Spain. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. A descriptive study of consent documentation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the error rate in the consent process of a university hospital and to illicit the opinions of the consenting doctors on the process. A prospective observational review of theatre consent forms was performed along with an anonymous survey of non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHD\\'s). No potential risks were documented in 95.3% of the 64 scrutinized consents and late alterations were required in 9%. Respondents to the NCHD survey estimated that they were unsure of the procedure or risks involved in an average of 29% of occasions. Interns admitted to being unsure of the details of the procedure in almost a third (32%) of cases, making them less well informed than their senior colleagues (p=0.024). This study highlights the difficulties encountered by consenting doctors, an issue which may lead to patient dissatisfaction, threaten the efficient running of a surgical unit and potentially expose its staff to avoidable litigation. It also recommends the use of multimedia adjuncts to facilitate both patient and doctor education in the consent process.

  1. Why Do Tertiary Education Graduates Regret Their Study Program? A Comparison between Spain and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…

  2. Dysphagia in Rett Syndrome: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzedimi, Chiara; Livi, Walter; De Felice, Claudio; Cocca, Serena

    2017-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the second major cause of mental retardation in females. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing problems of RS patients by endoscopic assessment and compile a list of suggestions for managing feeding and preventing complications. The sample consisted of 61 female patients (mean age = 13.6 years, range, 2-33 years) admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry, where they had previously been diagnosed with RS. Speech evaluation associated with observation during mealtimes was useful to formulate suggestions for caregivers. Progressive deterioration of feeding was commonly noted by caregivers. Fifty-four patients had a history of recurrent episodes of bronchitis. Oral apraxia, dyskinetic tongue movements, prolonged oral stage, and poor bolus formation were the most common findings in all patients. Dysphagia was primarily limited to oral preparatory phases, while the pharyngeal phase was normal in most patients. The high percentage of dysphagia suggests the need to accurately monitor the feeding capability of RS children. It is critical to correctly inform caregivers about safe swallowing procedures to reduce the incidence of fatal complications.

  3. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of liberalization process of passengers railway market in Spain and England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Morote, G.; Ortuño Padilla, A.; Fernandez Aracil, P.

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the privatization of railway passengers market in Spain through a background to the most relevant cases studies in Europe, particularly the liberalization process in England. The English case study is a paradigmatic example to assess how the liberalization process was developed and its effect in the present. This assessment has been undertaken to analyse the railway franchise structure, ticketing measures, role of national and regional authorities, etc. and possible analogies to be adapted to the case of Spain. Firstly, this article reviews the origin of the privatization of the railway market in both Spain and England, describing every phase of the liberalization and the success of every stage. Secondly, a critical approach assessment exposes those market failures of the liberalization process in England that caused negative impacts on society. In addition, the role of the Government is analysed to measure their implication in order to solve that situation. Furthermore, the paper expounds a wide analysis of the rail ticketing in England, its effects on increased passenger number. Finally, this article proposes some measures to be followed on the privatization of passenger rail market in Spain, as well as some key concepts to guarantee its success as taken from the case studies that have been reviewed. (Author)

  5. Webs sites of women`s studies universitary centers in spain: selection and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Torres Ramírez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction about the level of development of Women’s Studies in Spain and a list of their parent university institutions, Women’s Studies Web sites are assessed by measuring their usability. The aim is to improve use and accessibility of existing Web sites and, above all, provide encouragement and a model to follow by future Web sites in this area.

  6. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. UAV archaeological reconstruction: The study case of Chamartin Hillfort (Avila, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Nieto, A. L.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Gonzales-Aguilera, D.; Fernandez-Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Lahoz, J.; Picon-Cabrera, I.; Herrero-Pascual, J. S.; Hernandez-Lopez, D.

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a common technique for 3D modelling in a low-cost way. This technique is becoming essential to analyse the cultural heritage, e.g. historical buildings, monuments and archaeological remains in order not only to preserve them, but for disseminate accurate graphic information. The study case of Chamartin hillfort (Ávila, Spain) provided us the opportunity to apply automation techniques to generate geomatic products with high metric ...

  8. Geomorphological criteria applied to the study of the neotectonic of the internal areas of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Elorza, M.; Pena, J.L.; Rodriguez Vidal, J.; Simon Gomez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some geomorphological criteria, based on the study of erosion surfaces, glacis, terraces and slopes, after a brief discussion of the geomorphological methodology, are here applied in several internal areas of NE. Spain, specially in the Iberian Cordillera. Several episodes of neotectonic activity are recognised within this Cordillera: a more intense one at the base of Villafranchian times, a second one at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transitional levels, and a latent, more sporadic, intraquaternary activity. (author)

  9. Profile of osteopathic practice in Spain: results from a standardized data collection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Bustins, Gerard; López Plaza, Pedro-Victor; Carvajal, Sonia Roura

    2018-04-11

    There is limited research regarding patients' profiles and consumer attitudes and habits of osteopathy in Spain. The purpose of this study was to profile patients who regularly receive osteopathic care in Spain using an internationally developed standardized data collection tool. During the period between April 2014 and December 2015, a UK-developed standardized data collection tool was distributed to Spanish osteopaths who voluntarily agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-six osteopaths participated in this study and returned a total of 314 completed datasets. Of 314 patients, 61% were women and 39% were men, with a mean age of 40 years (SD 17.02 years, range 0 to 83 years). Forty-four percent were full-time salaried workers, and in 78% of cases, receiving osteopathic treatment was the patient's own choice. Chronic spinal pain presentations were the most frequent reasons for consultation. Seventy-five percent of patients presented with a coexisting condition, mainly gastrointestinal disorders and headaches. The main treatment approach consisted of mobilization techniques, followed by soft tissue, cranial and high velocity thrust techniques. Improvement or resolution of the complaint was experienced by 93% of patients after a small number of sessions. Adverse events were minor and occurred in 7% of all cases. This is the first study carried out in Spain analyzing the profile of patients who receive osteopathic care. The typical patient who receives osteopathic care in Spain is middle-aged, presents mainly with chronic spinal pain, and voluntarily seeks osteopathic treatment. Osteopathic treatment produces a significant improvement in the majority of cases with a low rate of minor adverse events reported.

  10. CHESS BOOKS IN SPAIN (1900-1939: A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHIC DIRECTORY AND A BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Brasó Rius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a description and analysis of chess books in Spain in the period 1900 to 1939. The tools used have been the main database of the Spanish libraries, along with bibliographical indexes of the subject matter. This has been contextualized with secondary sources. This allows us to locate the works analyzed in the social context of the time. Subsequently, a bibliometric statistical analysis used to assess and interpret issues of authorship, place of publication, publishers, years of increased circulation of works or controlling specific contents of the contributions. The results are useful to check that Barcelona and Madrid topped the printing of books. Also it manifests high Spanish and foreign production around the year 30. Other data is remarkable the informative function that had the most publications.

  11. The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description, baseline findings and implications. Stephen M Tollman, Kobus Herbst, Michel Garenne, John S.S. Gear, KathJeen Kahn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Social exclusion and high speed rail: The case study of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliara, F.; Menicocci, F.; Vassallo, J.M.; Gomez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Very few contributions in the literature have dealt with the issue of social exclusion related to High Speed Rail systems. The objective of this manuscript is to understand what are the factors excluding users from choosing High Speed Rail services considering as case study Spain. For this purpose, a Revealed Preference survey was employed in November and December 2015. A questionnaire was submitted to users of the Spanish transport systems travelling for long distance-journeys. The aim was that of investigating their perception of High Speed Rail system and the factors inhibiting passengers or excluding them from its use. Data about their socioeconomic characteristics were collected as well. The main result of the survey has been that a relationship between social exclusion and High Speed Rail in Spain is present, especially in terms of geographical exclusion. (Author)

  13. Project description and crowdfunding success: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi Jamie; Lu, Baozhou; Fan, Weiguo Patrick; Wang, G Alan

    2018-01-01

    Existing research on antecedent of funding success mainly focuses on basic project properties such as funding goal, duration, and project category. In this study, we view the process by which project owners raise funds from backers as a persuasion process through project descriptions. Guided by the unimodel theory of persuasion, this study identifies three exemplary antecedents (length, readability, and tone) from the content of project descriptions and two antecedents (past experience and past expertise) from the trustworthy cue of project descriptions. We then investigate their impacts on funding success. Using data collected from Kickstarter, a popular crowdfunding platform, we find that these antecedents are significantly associated with funding success. Empirical results show that the proposed model that incorporated these antecedents can achieve an accuracy of 73 % (70 % in F-measure). The result represents an improvement of roughly 14 percentage points over the baseline model based on informed guessing and 4 percentage points improvement over the mainstream model based on basic project properties (or 44 % improvement of mainstream's performance over informed guessing). The proposed model also has superior true positive and true negative rates. We also investigate the timeliness of project data and find that old project data is gradually becoming less relevant and losing predictive power to newly created projects. Overall, this study provides evidence that antecedents identified from project descriptions have incremental predictive power and can help project owners evaluate and improve the likelihood of funding success.

  14. A descriptive and quantitative approach regarding erosion and development of landforms on abandoned mine tailings: New insights and environmental implications from SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Duque, J. F.; Zapico, I.; Oyarzun, R.; López García, J. A.; Cubas, P.

    2015-06-01

    The San Cristóbal-Perules mining site in Mazarrón in southeast Spain was subjected to about a hundred years of intense mining activity for lead, silver, and zinc. Metallurgical operations (smelting, calcination, gravity concentration) carried out during the late nineteenth century-early twentieth century induced significant land transformation, and the most conspicuous wastes of this period consist of a chaotic piling of 'old' tailing deposits. Later on, during the mid-twentieth century, 'modern' tailings resulting from froth flotation were accumulated filling small valleys; these latter valley-fill tailings rose sequentially according to the upstream construction method, progressively raising the level of the dam during the process. Once abandoned, both types of tailing deposits underwent severe erosion, resulting in a mosaic of erosional and sedimentary landforms developed upon (e.g., gully formation) and within them (e.g., piping). We made an inventory and classification of these landforms. Our study shows the geomorphic work to reestablish a new steady state between the tailings deposits and the local erosive conditions. This scenario implies several hazards related to the extremely high heavy metal contents of these tailings and the geomorphic instability of the deposits. We also quantified the tailings tonnage and erosion that occurred at one of the tailings dams (El Roble). As shown by an oblique aerial photograph taken in 1968, this dam had a terraced topography, whereas in 2013 this morphology had evolved into a badland-type relief with deep parallel gullies. By recognizing and surveying specific, remnant points along the benches and outslopes of the older terraced topography, we were able to build up a first digital elevation model (DEM1) reflecting the initial topography. A second DEM, this time showing the present topography, allowed quantification of erosion via Material Loss = DEM1 - DEM2. This yields an erosion rate (1968-2009) of 151.8 Mg (MT) ha

  15. (North American Studies in Spain: between eclecticism and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Collado Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the Spanish university system does not offer any specific place for American Studies. In practical terms, this means that there is not such a thing as a degree in (North American Studies for undergraduate students. The study of the history and culture of the United States of America is mostly disseminated all over the country in a number of departments of English, English—and English literature—still being the main subject of study in the only BA degree somehow related to our fie...

  16. Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Márquez-Rodas

    Full Text Available Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain.An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments.In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6% fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma. Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%. Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups.Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior.

  17. Enhanced On-Site Waste Management of Plasterboard in Construction Works: A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Rivero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On-site management of construction waste commonly determines its destination. In the case of plasterboard (PB, on-site segregation becomes crucial for closed-loop recycling. However, PB is commonly mixed with other wastes in Spain. In this context, the involvement of stakeholders that can contribute to reversing this current situation is needed. This paper analyzes on-site waste management of PB in Spain through a pilot study of a construction site, with the main objective of identifying best practices to increase waste prevention, waste minimization, and the recyclability of the waste. On-site visits and structured interviews were conducted. The results show five management stages: PB distribution (I; PB installation (II; Construction waste storage at the installation area (III; PB waste segregation at the installation area (IV and PB waste transfer to the PB container and storage (V. The proposed practices refer to each stage and include the merging of Stages III and IV. This measure would avoid the mixing of waste fractions in Stage III, maximizing the recyclability of PB. In addition, two requisites for achieving enhanced management are analyzed: ‘Training and commitment’ and ‘fulfilling the requirements established by the current regulation’. The results show that foremen adopted a more pessimistic attitude than installers towards a joint commitment for waste management. Moreover, not all supervisors valued the importance of a site waste management plan, regulated by the Royal Decree 105/2008 in Spain.

  18. Cattle mortality due to poisoning in Spain: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arroyo, R.; Míguez, M.P.; Hevia, M.L.; Quiles, A.

    2015-07-01

    The lack of nationwide public databases on poisoning in cattle makes it difficult to investigate this issue. Hence, we conducted an epidemiological study using the data on cattle poisoning provided by an insurance company (2000-2005), to determine the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain and to assess the influence of the following variables: type of farming, age, sex, time of year, year and region. We observed a mortality rate of 23.25 per 100,000 animals in Spain with a higher rate in beef than dairy cattle (32.14 vs. 4.51 per 100,000 animals). There were also differences in the mortality rate between breeding cattle and future breeders, affecting dairy and beef cattle in a different way. In dairy cattle, we found differences between the years analysed. In beef cattle, the time of year with highest risk of poisoning was the last quarter (19.45 per 100,000 animals), while the lowest mortality rate was observed in the first quarter (1.33 per 100,000). There were pronounced differences between regions in beef cattle, differences being non-significant in dairy cattle. Lastly, in beef cattle, no differences were found between sexes. In summary, the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain is low, and the risk of poisoning is determined by the farming system, animals’ stage of development, time of year and region. (Author)

  19. Work, family and social environment in patients with Fibromyalgia in Spain: an epidemiological study: EPIFFAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Antonio; Gomez, Emili; Coscolla, Rosa; Sunyol, Ruth; Solé, Emília; Rivera, Javier; Altarriba, Emília; Carbonell, Jordi; Castells, Xavier

    2014-11-11

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition characterized by widespread pain, estimated to affect 2.4% of the Spanish population. Nowadays, there are no consistent epidemiological studies on the actual impact of the disease on work and family of these patients in a representative manner; therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the impact on family, employment and social environment in a representative sample of patients with FM attending Primary Public Care Centers in Spain. We carried out an epidemiological study, with a probability sampling procedure, stratified, relative to the municipality size and the number of health centres, seeking territorial representation. The survey was conducted using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A sample of 325 patients with FM was studied in 35 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs). The sample is composed of 96.6% of women, 51.9 (8) years of mean (standard deviation- sd) age. Ninety-three percent of the patients have worked throughout their life. Mean (sd) age onset of symptoms was 37 (11) years and diagnosis of FM was established 6.6 (8) years later. Family Environment: Fifty-nine percent of patients have difficulties with their partner. Forty-four percent of the patients report to be fairly or totally dependent on a family member in household chores. The household income decreased a mean (sd) of 708 (504) Euros/month in 65% of the patients. In 81% of the patients, there was an increase in extra expenses related to the disease with a mean (sd) of 230 (192) Euros/month. Working environment: At the moment of the study, 45% of the patients had work activity (34% were working and 11% were at sick leave), 13% were unemployed seeking job and 42% were not in the labor force. Twenty-three percent of patients had some degree of permanent work disability pension. Social Environment: The degree of satisfaction with health care professionals was low and twenty-six percent of the patients were members of specific patients

  20. Oral cancer awareness in Spain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, P; Estany-Gestal, A; Bugarín-González, R; Seoane-Romero, J M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the level of oral cancer knowledge and awareness in a Spanish general population. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire applied in the community to randomly selected laypersons. Sample size for the general population was determined by quota sampling, resulting in 1,041 individuals. A total of 1,707 pedestrians were approached (response: 61%). When the participants were asked about what cancers had they heard about (up to ten), oral cancer was mentioned in first place by 2% of the sample and by 22% in any order. When specifically asked about oral cancer, the percentage of interviewees who were familiar with it raised to 72%. Participants were also asked about the main signs or symptoms of oral cancer, and the most frequently (22%) mentioned as the first warning sign was a non-healing ulcer. Tobacco smoking generally was recognised as the most important (57%) risk factor for oral cancer. This pilot study revealed a low awareness of oral cancer, and a poor knowledge of its signs and symptoms and risk factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Academic dishonesty among nursing students: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeci, Ayla; Bulduk, Serap; Oruç, Deniz; Çelik, Serpil

    2011-09-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aims to evaluate academic dishonesty among university nursing students in Turkey. The study's sample included 196 students. Two instruments were used for gathering data. The first instrument, a questionnaire, which included some socio-demographic variables (age, class, gender, education, family structure, parents' attitude and educators' attitude) formed the first part. The second part included the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale developed by Eminoğlu and Nartgün. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskall Wallis, One-way Anova, t- test and Mann-Whitney U test. It was found that academic dishonesty was at medium-level (2.60-3.39) in nursing students.

  2. Necrobiosis lipoidica: a descriptive study of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoval, J; Gómez-Armayones, S; Valentí-Medina, F; Bonfill-Ortí, M; Martínez-Molina, L

    2015-06-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous disease considered to occur in association with diabetes mellitus. Data on the frequency of this association, however, are inconsistent. Our aim was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with NL at our hospital and to investigate the association with diabetes mellitus and other diseases. We performed a chart review of all patients with a clinical and histologic diagnosis of NL treated and followed in the dermatology department of Hospital de Bellvitge in Barcelona, Spain between 1987 and 2013. Thirty-five patients (6 men and 29 women with a mean age of 47.20 years) were diagnosed with NL in the study period. At the time of diagnosis, 31 patients had pretibial lesions. Thirteen patients (37%) had a single lesion at diagnosis, and the mean number of lesions was 3.37. Twenty-three patients (65.71%) had diabetes mellitus (type 1 in 10 cases and type 2 in 13). In 20 patients, onset of diabetes preceded that of NL by a mean of 135.70 months. The 2 conditions were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 patients. None of the 35 patients developed diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Six patients had hypothyroidism, and 4 of these also had type 1 diabetes. NL is frequently associated with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Although diabetes tends to develop before NL, it can occur simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. The Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study: Protocol and sample description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin

    2017-06-12

    Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodology for the Study of the Envelope Airtightness of Residential Buildings in Spain: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijó-Muñoz Jesús

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air leakage and its impact on the energy performance of dwellings has been broadly studied in countries with cold climates in Europe, US, and Canada. However, there is a lack of knowledge in this field in Mediterranean countries. Current Spanish building regulations establish ventilation rates based on ideal airtight envelopes, causing problems of over-ventilation and substantial energy losses. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology that allows the characterization of the envelope of the housing stock in Spain in order to adjust ventilation rates taking into consideration air leakage. A methodology that is easily applicable to other countries that consider studying the airtightness of the envelope and its energetic behaviour improvement is proposed. A statistical sampling method has been established to determine the dwellings to be tested, considering relevant variables concerning airtightness: climate zone, year of construction, and typology. The air leakage rate is determined using a standardized building pressurization technique according to European Standard EN 13829. A representative case study has been presented as an example of the implementation of the designed methodology and results are compared to preliminary values obtained from the database.

  5. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  6. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  7. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodological barriers to studying the association between the economic crisis and suicide in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothetical relationship between economic recession and the increase in suicides in Spain is subject to various arguments. In addition to the inherent complexity of capturing and explaining the underlining mechanisms that could describe this causal link, different points of contention have been be identified. The period of this association and its possible starting points, the socioeconomic determinants that may explain the variation in suicide rate, and the data sources available are the main focus of controversy. The present study aims to identify the phases of association between different periods of economic recession and suicide rates, and compare the effect of different social determinants of health that have been mentioned in previous studies. Methods We have used interrupted time series analyses to assess the impact of economic recession on national rates of suicide mortality provided by the Spanish Statistical Office (1980–2014. In an attempt to consider the factors that have affected the study of suicide in Spain, different data sources/periods, predictors, and regions in Spain were analysed. Results The analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship between the Great Recession and suicide rates during the second period of economic recession (2011–2014, while appeared to decrease during the first recession period. However, the first decreasing trend was not statistically significant in the global analysis of the evolution of monthly suicide rates for the entire country. Both unemployment and per capita GDP were positively related to suicide trends. Finally, the regional analysis demonstrates a similar pattern in different Spanish areas. Conclusion Although previous studies have mentioned the double-dip in the suicide rate associated with the corresponding period of double recession, our study only identify a positive relationship during the second recession period. These results points out that

  9. Methodological barriers to studying the association between the economic crisis and suicide in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salinas-Perez, Jose A; Rodero-Cosano, María Luisa; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-09-06

    The hypothetical relationship between economic recession and the increase in suicides in Spain is subject to various arguments. In addition to the inherent complexity of capturing and explaining the underlining mechanisms that could describe this causal link, different points of contention have been be identified. The period of this association and its possible starting points, the socioeconomic determinants that may explain the variation in suicide rate, and the data sources available are the main focus of controversy. The present study aims to identify the phases of association between different periods of economic recession and suicide rates, and compare the effect of different social determinants of health that have been mentioned in previous studies. We have used interrupted time series analyses to assess the impact of economic recession on national rates of suicide mortality provided by the Spanish Statistical Office (1980-2014). In an attempt to consider the factors that have affected the study of suicide in Spain, different data sources/periods, predictors, and regions in Spain were analysed. The analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship between the Great Recession and suicide rates during the second period of economic recession (2011-2014), while appeared to decrease during the first recession period. However, the first decreasing trend was not statistically significant in the global analysis of the evolution of monthly suicide rates for the entire country. Both unemployment and per capita GDP were positively related to suicide trends. Finally, the regional analysis demonstrates a similar pattern in different Spanish areas. Although previous studies have mentioned the double-dip in the suicide rate associated with the corresponding period of double recession, our study only identify a positive relationship during the second recession period. These results points out that the major impact of economic problems might have had a delayed effect

  10. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  11. Methods and scales in soil erosion studies in Spain: problems and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in some areas of Spain. Research groups have studied a variety of aspects of this problem indifferent environments, and at a range of scales using a diversity of methods, from piquettes and rainfall simulation to experimental plots, catchment and large regional areas. This has increased knowledge and identified the main problems: farmland abandonment, badlands erosion, the effects of land use changes, and the role of extreme events and erosion in certain crops (particularly vineyards). However, comparison of results among various research groups has been difficult, posing problems in developing solutions from State and Regional administrators. (Author) 73 refs.

  12. 239PU sorption by suspended matter from Hueznar reservoir (Southern Spain): experimental and modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mrabet, R.; Abril, J.M.; Barros, H.; Manjon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic transfer coefficients are important parameters to understand and reliably model the behaviour of non-conservative radionuclides in aquatic environments. This report pertains to a series of radiotracer experiments on 239 Pu uptake in natural unfiltered waters from the Hueznar reservoir (southern Spain). The experimental procedure ensures the preservation of environmental conditions and the dissolved Pu activity was measured by liquid scintillation technique. The data suggest that the main pathways for Pu uptake consist of two parallel and reversible reactions followed by a consecutive reversible reaction. We studied the effects of suspended matter concentrations and the specific surface area on the kinetic transfer coefficients. (author)

  13. Online Gambling Advertising Regulations in Spain. A Study on the Protection of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, Pilar; Solé Moratilla, Maria José; García Ruiz, Pablo

    2015-09-15

    This article examines the online gambling advertising regulations in Spain currently in effect to assess the actual protection of underage youth. In recent years, online gambling among youth has increased. Through advertising, online gambling companies incite and encourage an involvement that can be harmful for vulnerable audiences. Some studies have demonstrated that advertising influences youths' assessment of gambling by increasing its appeal. We demonstrate that the shortcomings of the legal framework in force results in effective vulnerability of minors. We claim that society should seek to implement a regulatory framework to protect children from the risk of developing an addiction.

  14. New DDT inputs after 30 years of prohibition in Spain. A case study in agricultural soils from south-western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by DDT in agricultural soils in south-western Spain. A recent use of technical DDT in at least 17% of the soils was found based on the values ( p,p ' /p,p ' =[p,p ' -DDE+p,p ' -DDD]/[p,p ' -DDT]. According to the ratio R o,p ' /p,p ' =[o,p ' -DDT]/[p,p ' -DDT], a dicofol type contamination was detected in about 27% of the soils. A wide range of concentrations was observed (0.08-11.1 ng/g d.w.) regardless of the type of crop soil. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs), based on the chiral analysis of o,p'-DDT residues differed from the racemic value (0.500) in most soils but they were not correlated with the study variables [DDTs], SOM, R p,p ' /p,p ' and R o,p ' /p,p ' . Given the health risks posed by DDT, our findings support how the environmental control of legacy pollutants such as DDT cannot be neglected. - Highlights: → Fresh technical DDT inputs detected in agricultural soils. → A Dicofol type contamination was found in agricultural soils from south-western Spain. → EFs of o,p'-DDT do not provide a good measure for overall DDT degradation. - Based on the isomeric ratio R p,p ' /p,p ' , a plausible recent input of technical DDT was found in agricultural soils from south-western Spain after more than 30 years of DDT ban.

  15. Relationship between global severity of patients with Alzheimer's disease and costs of care in Spain; results from the co-dependence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, J; Kaskens, L; Lacey, L

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' global severity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of global severity measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale on these costs for patients in Spain. The Codep-EA study is an 18-multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients (343) with AD according to the CDR score and their caregivers in Spain. The data obtained included (in addition to clinical measures) also socio-demographic data concerning the patient and its caregiver. Cost analyses were based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the resource utilization in dementia (RUD). Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of global severity and other socio-demographic and clinical variables on cost of care. The mean (standard deviation) costs per patient over 6 months for direct medical, social care, indirect and informal care costs, were estimated at €1,028.1 (1,655.0), €843.8 (2,684.8), €464.2 (1,639.0) and €33,232.2 (30,898.9), respectively. Dementia severity, as having a CDR score 0.5, 2, or 3 with CDR score 1 being the reference group were all independently and significantly associated with informal care costs. Whereas having a CDR score of 2 was also significantly related with social care costs, a CDR score of 3 was associated with most cost components including direct medical, social care, and total costs, all compared to the reference group. The costs of care for patients with AD in Spain are substantial, with informal care accounting for the greatest part. Dementia severity, measured by CDR score, showed that with increasing severity of the disease, direct medical, social care, informal care and total costs augmented.

  16. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  17. [Clinical stages of patients with Alzheimer disease treated in specialist clinics in Spain. The EACE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom Poveda, J; Baquero, M; González-Adalid Guerreiro, M

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostic paradigm of Alzheimer disease (AD) is changing; there is a trend toward diagnosing the disease in its early stages, even before the complete syndrome of dementia is apparent. The clinical stage at which AD is usually diagnosed in our area is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the clinical stages of AD patients at time of diagnosis. Multicentre, observational and cross-sectional study. Patients with probable AD according to NINCDS-ARDRA criteria, attended in specialist clinics in Spain, were included in the study. We recorded the symptom onset to evaluation and symptom onset to diagnosis intervals and clinical status of AD (based on MMSE, NPI questionnaire, and CDR scale). Participants in this study included 437 specialists representing all of Spain's autonomous communities and a total of 1,707 patients, of whom 1,694 were included in the analysis. Mean MMSE score was 17.6±4.8 (95% CI:17.4-17.9). Moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE between 10 and 20) was detected in 64% of the patients, and severe cognitive impairment (MMSEde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  19. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  20. [Descriptive study of the costs of diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Fernández, F M; Serrano-Ortega, S; Moreno-Villalonga, J J

    2009-11-01

    Every year, health expenditure in Spain increases and, with it, the resources dedicated to cancer treatment. Cutaneous melanoma is the skin cancer with the highest morbidity and mortality. We performed a descriptive study of the costs, based on a theoretical model, to determine the healthcare expenditure for patients with cutaneous melanoma; the objective was to define the overall costs (direct and indirect) of the diagnostic and treatment process of cutaneous melanoma, divided into different stages or diagnostic-therapeutic steps, and the possible variations in these costs. For this purpose, we used the Andalusian analytical accountancy program of hospitals and districts (COAN-hyd) and the total costs module of the COAN for 2007, applied to the protocol we use in the melanoma unit of our hospital. The most important conclusions were that the greatest health care expenditure was observed inpatients with more advanced melanomas, with a poor prognosis. Management of the diagnostic-therapeutic process by dermatologists, the appropriate use of complementary tests, and operations performed by dermatologists reduce costs.

  1. Algerian Immigrants to Spain: Study of Attitude to the Donation of Organs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Many Africans are emigrating to the European Economic Community from countries with little knowledge of transplantation. This population has not yet been studied. Analyze the attitude toward donation among the Algerian population living in Spain. We studied the population born in Algeria and residing in Spain, over 15 years old, and stratified by age and sex. Attitude was surveyed using a questionnaire of organ donation for transplantation ("PCID-DTO Ríos"). Support from African immigration associations was needed to advise on the location of potential respondents. The completion was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained to assist in the study. Of the 441 respondents, 27% (n = 119) were in favor of donation after death, 43% (n = 191) were against, and 30% (n = 131) were undecided. The variables associated with the attitude toward the donation were sex (P = .033), having offspring (P = .027), having commented on the subject of organ transplantation at the family level (P organ donation and transplantation (P donation of their own organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

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    Emma Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Balance (EB is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance” Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009, as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain.

  3. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzón-Alejandro, Marta; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Sánchez-Lastres, Juan Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2011-09-14

    The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain. A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) who attended primary care (n = 18) and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10), covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain). All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact. Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4%) were rotavirus positive and 170 (25%) had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation) indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70) Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8) Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5) Euros (p purchase of material. Patients with RVAGE were admitted to hospital more frequently than those with other etiologies (47.8% vs 14%, p decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.

  5. Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Lastres Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE in Spain. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE who attended primary care (n = 18 and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10, covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain. All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact. Results Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4% were rotavirus positive and 170 (25% had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70 Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8 Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5 Euros (p Conclusions Rotavirus generates a significant indirect economic burden. Our data should be considered in the decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.

  6. Epidemiological study of Paget's disease of bone in a zone of the Province of Salamanca (spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironon-Canelo, J.A.; Del Pino-Montes, J.; Vicente-Arroyo, M.; Saenz-Gonzalez, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Bone Paget's disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Spain. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of the disease in a zone situated in the northwestern sector of the Province of Salamanca (Spain) using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a stratified sampling according to the residence, age and sex of the inhabitants of the zone. A sampling error of 5% and a confidence level of 95% were considered; these afforded a sample of 378 units. Final choice of the subjects was based on a random pathway method. Data collection was accomplished with a personal interview using a 31-item questionnaire and analytical screening (AP and GGT). The field work was carried out over a one-year period. The data were input onto a calculation sheet for analysis and epidemiological interpretation. Finally, clinico-radiological confirmation of the cases deemed positive in the screening was accomplished. The prevalence of PBD in the zone studied is 5.7% (95% CI: 4.5-6.9). The highest percentage of patients lies within the age group between 70-79 years; most of these patients were women. The mean residence time in the zone was 66 years. According to the findings, this geographic zone has a high prevalence of PBD

  7. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HONORIFIC USE IN KOREAN EMAIL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.

  8. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  9. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  10. Where Sustainable School Meets the ‘Tthird Teacher’: Primary School Case Study From Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brkovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Participatory evaluation of aspiring sustainable schools and their pedagogical potential has recently come into focus. A few authors have made a significant start in examining schools as both environmentally and socially sustainable environments, which might simultaneously represent the ‘third teacher’. However, discussion around this idea is new in Spain. This paper describes a participatory post-occupancy study conducted with teachers and pupils in Fort Pienc School, Barcelona, Spain. Findings reveal the pedagogical potential of the school’s spaces and fabric, characterised as ‘sustainable’, and highlight the aspects that the research participants feel are performing and underperforming. The paper concludes that if we want sustainable schools to be a strategy for renovating the educational process and for leading us towards a better tomorrow globally and locally,  new models for exploring the pedagogical potential of sustainable schools should be developed and the efforts of all relevant parties synchronised; from architects to governments, from pupils to teachers.

  11. [The study of social inequalities in child and adolescent health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; García-Continente, Xavier; Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Ariza, Carles; Díez, Elia; García Calvente, M del Mar; Maroto, Gracia; Suárez, Mónica; Rajmil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To identify and describe studies on social inequalities in child and adolescent health conducted in Spain with special emphasis on social determinants. In July 2012, we conducted a systematic review in the PubMed, MEDES, SCOPUS and COCHRANE databases. We included studies on social inequalities in child and adolescent health in Spain published between 2000 and 2012. A total of 2147 abstracts were reviewed by two researchers and 80 manuscripts were fully reviewed by three researchers. Risk of bias was assessed. Seventy-two articles were finally included. A total of 83% of the studies were cross-sectional and the most frequently studied age group consisted of 13-15-year-olds. More than 20 individual or group determinants were identified. The most frequently analyzed determinants were the most advantaged educational level and occupation of the mother or the father. In 38% of the studies analyzing education and occupation, there was no definition of the determinant. Social inequalities were detected in dental health with all determinants and in all age groups (9% of studies with a high risk of bias). Social inequalities were also detected in obesity, physical activity and mental health with some determinants. Specific data were missing for younger children. No social inequalities were found in the use of health services, excluding dental care. Few studies analyzed immigration and 42% of them had a high risk of bias. Wide diversity was found in the measurement of social determinants, with a lack of studies in preschoolers and of studies with longitudinal designs. The results of this study confirm social inequalities in some aspects of health. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  13. Experiences of adolescents living with cancer: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Sin Hui; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Lee, Xiu Hua Hideka Tamamura; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of adolescents from Singapore, aged 10-18 years old, living with cancer and their perceptions on how their psychosocial outcomes can be improved. A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 participants from a pediatric oncology ward in a Singapore hospital. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Five major themes emerged: (1) experience of physical symptoms, (2) emotional response to their condition, (3) changes in social dynamics, and (4) falling behind in academics. The psychosocial outcomes of Singaporean adolescents with cancer could be improved by thorough pain assessments and creating a more conducive hospital environment.

  14. Computer-aided design and engineering: A study of windmills in la Mancha (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Sola, Jose Ignacio [Universidad de Jaen, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de las Lagunillas, s/n, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Gonzalez, Miguel Angel Gomez-Elvira; Martin, Enrique Perez [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agronomos, Ciudad Universitaria, 28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    This article presents a detailed study, of the Manchegan windmill. This type of windmill is a central symbol in the story of Don Quijote de la Mancha, by Cervantes, which this year celebrates its 4th centenary, and to which this article pays homage. There exist no publications dealing with the technical aspects of these windmills. Studies have been carried out on windmills in the south of Spain, but no comparison has been made between the two types of windmill. This paper studies the technological conditions of the original Manchegan windmills. We carry out a wind evaluation of the region, calculate the power and momentum of the windmills and discuss the results obtained with a comparison with the type of Southern Spanish windmill. (author)

  15. Typological analysis of social linear blocks: Spain 1950-1983. The case study of western Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guajardo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge that cities will need to face in the next few years is the regeneration of the social housing estates built during the decades of 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. One of the causes of their obsolescence is the mismatch between their hous-ing typologies and the contemporary needs. The main target of this study is to contribute to take a step forward in the un-derstanding of these typologies to be able to intervene on them efficiently. With this purpose, a study on 42 linear blocks built in Spain between 1950 and 1983 in western Andalusia has been carried out. The analysis includes three stages: 1 classification of the houses in recognizable groups; 2 an identification of the most used spatial configurations and 3 definition of their programmatic and size characteristics. As a result, a characterization of linear blocks is proposed as a reference model for future regenerative interventions.

  16. The Prediction of Training Proficiency in Firefighters: A Study of Predictive Validity in Spain

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    Alfredo Berges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides results of criterion validity in the selection of firefighters in Spain. The predictors were cognitive skills, job knowledge, and physical aptitudes, and the criterion was training proficiency. The process involves 639 candidates, but only 44 complete successfully the selection process. Our results support previous evidence showing that general cognitive ability is the best predictor of training proficiency, with an operational validity of .57. With respect to the other predictors, job knowledge presented an operational validity of .55 and physical tests of .49. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that cognitive aptitude explains 33% of the variance, but when physical aptitudes are included the explained variance increases to 50%. If we also add job knowledge, explained variance increases to 55%. Our study offers recent results of criterion validity in a barely investigated job, gathered in a country other than the one where prior research had been carried out.

  17. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  18. Gender differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics : A study in Spain and Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar

    This study examines gender differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics in two Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina and Spain). A total of 388 Spanish students and 444 Argentinean students participated in the study. First, the cross-cultural validity of a Dutch scale

  19. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of

  20. [Prevalence of hypertension in elderly long-term care residents in Spain. The Geriatric HTA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Baranera, Montserrat; Sánchez Ferrín, Pau; Armario, Pedro

    2006-11-11

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in elderly long-term care residents in Spain and to describe such population in terms of comorbidity and hypertension treatment and control. A countrywide cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2003 among long-term care residents aged 65 or more. Patients in palliative care units were excluded. Hypertension was defined in patients who fulfilled at least one of the following criteria: diagnosis of hypertension on the medical record, antihypertensive medication and/or highest blood pressure values during the previous year > or = 140/90 mmHg. Overall, 13,272 subjects - mean age (standard deviation) 82.9 (7.5) years (range: 65-106 years) - were included from 223 centres; 70.6% were women. Almost 2 thirds of patients met at least one hypertension criterion (8,242 patients, 62.1%; 95% confidence interval, 61.3-62.9%). In those patients, other frequent cardiovascular risk factors were obesity (26.3%), diabetes (25.7%) and dislipemia (23.8%). A concomitant diagnosis of dementia, peripheral vascular disease, stroke or congestive heart failure was present in 37.1%, 28.3%, 26.0% and 25.1%, respectively. The proportion of hypertensive patients receiving at least one antihypertensive drug was 69.7%. Diuretics were the most commonly used agents (46.3%), followed by angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (34.6%). The latest blood pressure measurement was < 140/90 mmHg in 60.4% of the hypertensive patients. Elderly long-term care residents in Spain showed a high prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, and a substantial degree of associated clinical conditions. The proportion of antihypertensive drug therapy was comparable to those reported in similar studies.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISTIC SERVICES THROUGH INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING. STUDY CASE: ROMANIA AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and to design the development strategies for services in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that activate in the tourism field of activity (hotels and other accommodation establishments, restaurants, passenger transport, travel agencies, cultural tourism agencies. Organizational learning is focused on the learning process in the organization which has direct influence on the goods and services produced. Learning activities, carried out individually, are not easily transferred at the organizational level. Moreover, in order to better highlight the weaknesses and the strengths of touristic services management approaches and to define recommendations, our research theme is developed as comparative study: similarities and differences within SMEs touristic services and learning organization practices in Romania and other European Union’s country members (the example of Spain was considered.

  2. In situ stresses in rock masses: methodology for its study in tunnel projects in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madirolas Perez, G.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2014-01-01

    In situ stress is one of the main factors to be taken into account in the design of tunnels, as it can cause inadmissible stresses and strains leading to high deviations in the budgets. For that reason, the stress state is directly introduced into the numerical models used for the design of tunnels. In Spain, although several tunnels have been carried out with an important overburden in tectonically relevant zones, a quantitative determination of the stresses has not been usually included in civil work projects. Therefore, it is considered necessary to implement a routine procedure of study of civil work projects involving tunnels excavated in rock, and a new detailed methodology is proposed. The challenge is that project managers, who face works in which stresses may play a determinant role, may have a practical reference enabling them to optimize available resources and to include the real stress information in the design of underground works. (Author)

  3. Professional values of Turkish nurses: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya-Uslusoy, Esin; Paslı-Gürdogan, Eylem; Aydınlı, Ayse

    2017-06-01

    Professional values improve the quality of nurses' professional lives, reduce emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, increase personal success, and help to make collaborations with the members of the healthcare team more frequent. The purpose of this study was to describe the professional values of Turkish nurses and to explore the relationships between nurses' characteristics. This was a descriptive study of a convenience sample consisting of 269 clinical nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics, and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale was applied. Ethical considerations: Permission to conduct the study was received from the hospital and the Institutional Review Boards of the Süleyman Demirel University ethic committee. The mean scale score of the participant nurses was 165.41 ± 20.79. The results of this study revealed that human dignity was the most important professional value for nurses, and the importance attached to these values showed statistically significant differences by age, length of service, educational level, marital status, position at work, and receiving relevant in-service training. Nurses' Professional Values Scale scores showed that nurses give above average and attached importance to professional values.

  4. Shift work and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Turner, Michelle C; Alonso-Aguado, Maria Henar; Martin, Vicente; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pozo, Benito Mirón; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone M; Peiro, Rosana; Tardon, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; García-Palomo, Andrés; Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan; Ierssen, Trinidad; Ederra, Maria; Amiano, Pilar; Pollan, Marina; Moreno, Victor; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Shift work that involves circadian disruption has been associated with a higher cancer risk. Most epidemiological studies to date have focused on breast cancer risk and evidence for other common tumors is limited. We evaluated the risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to shift work history in a population-based case-control study in Spain. Methods This analysis included 1626 incident CRC cases and 3378 randomly selected population controls of both sexes, enrolled in 11 regions of Spain. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was assessed in face-to-face interviews. Shift work was assessed in detail throughout lifetime occupational history. We estimated the risk of colon and rectal cancer associated with rotating and permanent shift work (ever, cumulative duration, age of first exposure) using unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Results Having ever performed rotating shift work (morning, evening and/or night) was associated with an increased risk for CRC [odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.43], as compared to day workers. Having ever worked permanent night shifts (≥3 nights/month) was not associated with CRC risk (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). OR increased with increasing lifetime cumulative duration of rotating shift work (P-value for trend 0.005) and were highest among subjects in the top quartiles of exposure (3 rd quartile, 20-34 years, OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.06-1.81; 4 th quartile, ≥35 years, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.79). Conclusions These data suggest that rotating shift work may increase the risk of CRC especially after long-term exposures.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  6. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-10-01

    Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task.The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs.Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity.Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia.

  7. Postural sway changes during pregnancy: a descriptive study using stabilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Liliam F; Vieira, Taian M M; Macedo, Adriana R; Simpson, David M; Nadal, Jurandir

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to analyse changes in body sway over the course of pregnancy. This is a descriptive study in which stabilometric tests were applied at three stages of pregnancy and with a combination of different visual conditions (eyes open/closed) and support base configuration (feet together/apart). Twenty healthy pregnant women participated in the study. Changes in postural control with pregnancy were analysed via the elliptical area of the stabilograms and spectral analysis of the displacements of the centre of pressure (COP) along the lateral and anterior/posterior directions. The elliptical area encompassing the COP significantly increased over the course of the pregnancy for the feet apart and eyes closed test protocols. The spectral analysis revealed a significant increase of COP oscillations along the anterior-posterior direction when subjects stood with the eyes open/feet together and feet apart. A reduction (significant) of the lateral oscillations of COP was observed for the eyes open/feet together protocol. Pregnancy induced significant changes in the postural control when pregnant women stood with a reduced support base or with eyes closed.

  8. Knowledge on management of anemia during pregnancy: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Baby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: The growing fetus depends entirely on its mother′s healthy body for all needs. However, sometimes it can be a time of fear of suffering and death, in case women begin pregnancy with low or absent stores of iron because of previous pregnancy, poor iron intake, substance abuse; increased fetal demands of iron leads to iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition in the world and is the eighth leading cause of death in pregnant women in developing countries leading to the low birth weight, which is in turn an important risk factor for infant mortality. Objectives: To determine the knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding management of anemia during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Non-experimental descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge of antenatal mothers from Yenepoya Medical College Hospital. A sample size consists of 50 antenatal mothers were selected through non-probability purposive sampling. The data was collected by using pretested structured knowledge questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions. Results: The majority of the antenatal mothers (54% had satisfactory knowledge, 38% had poor knowledge, and 8% had good knowledge regarding anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: The overall knowledge in the study population was 29.9%. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge of antenatal mothers on anemia during pregnancy.

  9. Opinions and beliefs held by Spanish teenagers regarding tobacco and alcohol consumption: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Palenzuela-Paniagua, Sara; Magallón-Botaya, Rosa; Jiménez-García, Celia; Fernández García, Jose Angel; Pérula de Torres, Luis Angel

    2015-01-31

    Preventive strategies are the most effective approach for dealing with issues of substance abuse, particularly in teenagers. Such strategies adapt well to this target population. Our objective was to reveal the opinions and beliefs held by teenagers about tobacco and alcohol as types of drugs, and their effects on health. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire based on the World Health Organization "Health Behaviour of School-aged Children" study. Our sample included 1,005 schoolchildren aged between 11 and 13 years, resident in the province of Córdoba in Spain. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed using a chi-squared test. Of respondents, 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.2-27.6%) and 61% (95% CI: 58.0-64.1%), respectively, did not consider tobacco or alcohol to be drugs. No relationship was found between tobacco and alcohol use, and the belief that these are drugs (p = 0.477 and p = 0.217, respectively). A total 98.2% of adolescents surveyed (95% CI: 97.3-99.1%) believed that tobacco causes physical damage, mainly to the lungs, heart, and to the developing fetus. Additionally, 92.4% (95% CI: 90.6-94.0%) believed that alcohol is detrimental to health and identified the liver as the organ most frequently damaged by alcohol consumption. The media was identified as the main source of information about these substances by 78.0% of respondents (95% CI: 75.4-80.6%). Teenagers possess an acceptable level of knowledge and information about the negative effects of tobacco and alcohol on health; however, many of them do not consider these substances to be drugs.

  10. [Spanish collaborative study: Description of usual clinical practice in infant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga Sancho, Alfonso; Palomo Atance, Enrique; Rivero Martin, María José; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis Trabazo, Rosaura; Bahíllo Curieses, María Pilar; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2018-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a high prevalence health problem. Although there are clinical guidelines for its management, there is variability in its clinical approach. The aim of this study is to describe the usual clinical practice in Paediatric Endocrinology Units in Spain and to evaluate if it resembles the recommended guidelines. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out by means of a questionnaire sent to paediatric endocrinologists of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Endocrinology. The questions were formulated based on the recommendations of "Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity" issued by the Spanish Ministry of Health. A total of 125 completed questionnaires were obtained from all Autonomous Communities. Variability was observed both in the number of patients attended and in the frequency of the visits. The majority (70%) of the paediatricians who responded did not have a dietitian, psychologist or psychiatrist, in their centre to share the treatment for obese children. As regards treatment, dietary advice is the most used, and 69% have never prescribed weight-loss drugs. Of those who have prescribed them, 52.6% did not use informed consent as a prior step to them being used. There are few centres that comply with the recommendations of the clinical practice guidelines on prevention and treatment of childhood obesity as an established quality plan. Clinical practice differs widely among the paediatric endocrinologists surveyed. There are no uniform protocols of action, and in general there is limited availability of resources for the multidisciplinary treatment required by this condition. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  12. Numerical simulation and sensitivity study of a severe hailstorm in northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortega, E.; Fita, L.; Romero, R.; López, L.; Ramis, C.; Sánchez, J. L.

    2007-02-01

    During the afternoon of August 16th 2003 a severe hail event occurred in the town of Alcañiz in the Ebro Valley (Spain). This storm brought with it intense rain and hail precipitation that caused severe floods, damaged cars and street furniture. A diagnosis, using data from ECMWF, showed the presence of a mesolow at surface level centered over the Northeast of Spain, carrying winds from the Mediterranean Sea towards the Central Ebro Valley. At medium and high levels, a trough, whose axis extended over the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, moved eastwards preceded at 500 hPa by a thermal trough that caused increasing instability before the arrival of the geopotential trough. A numerical study of this event has been carried out using the MM5 model with a double aim. On the one hand, it attempts to check whether or not the simulation reproduces the storm in Alcañiz. On the other hand, it carries out a sensitivity experiment in order to evaluate the contribution of two specific factors: topography and solar radiation. Compared with radar data, the control simulation reproduces the region affected by the storm reasonably well. The suppression of topography and/or solar radiation substantially modifies the surface mesolow and the spatial distribution of the precipitation. Neither of these factors, considered independently, reproduces the precipitation caused by the storm in Alcañiz. However, the results illustrate the importance of the synergic effect of these two factors on the spatial localization of the storm and on the intensity of the precipitation registered.

  13. Social Inequalities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in Spain: The Seniors-ENRICA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Bibiana; García-Esquinas, Esther; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    To examine the distribution of the main cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) according to socioeconomic level (SEL) among older adults in Spain. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 with 2699 individuals representative of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population aged ≥ 60 years. Socioeconomic level was assessed using educational level, occupation, and father's occupation. The CVRF included behavioral and biological factors and were measured under standardized conditions. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, higher educational level was associated with a higher frequency of moderate alcohol consumption and leisure time physical activity, and less time spent watching television. An inverse educational gradient was observed for frequency of obesity (odds ratio [OR] in university vs primary level or below education, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.33-0.57; P-trend < .01), metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.56; 95%CI, 0.43-0.71; P-trend < .01), diabetes (OR = 0.68; 95%CI, 0.49-0.95; P-trend < .05), and cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.52; 95%CI, 0.29-0.91; P-trend < .05). Compared with a nonmanual occupation, having a manual occupation was associated with a higher frequency of several CVRF; this association was stronger than that observed for father's occupation. Differences in CVRF across SELs were generally greater in women than in men. There are significant social inequalities in CVRF among older adults in Spain. Reducing these inequalities, bringing the levels of CVRF in those from lower SEL in line with the levels seen in higher SEL, could substantially reduce the prevalence of CVRF in the older adult population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A descriptive study of urethral discharge among men in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunavinaka, Lavenia; Balak, Dashika; Varman, Sumanthla; Ram, Sharan; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-10-17

    Urethral discharge is a common presentation of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in men and known pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. There are no published data of the burden of urethral discharge among men in Fiji. To evaluate urethral discharge among men to determine the incidence, the frequency of recurrence and reported at-risk behaviour. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of clinical records of all men presenting with urethral discharge to two major reproductive health clinics. Data collected included self-reported at-risk behaviours, results of abnormal syphilis serology and antibiotics prescribed. The frequency of recurrence in the following 1-2 years of initial presentation was determined along with microbiological findings from urethral swab in this group. A total of 748 males presented with urethral discharge to the clinic in one year. This represents an incidence rate of at least 295 per 100,000 adult males per year in the study population. Within the next 1-2 years of the initial presentation, 102 (14%) of these re-presented out of which 42 had urethral swab taken for etiological diagnosis. The commonest isolate was Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results of syphilis tests were available for 560 (75%) of patients and 29 (5%) were positive. Recurrence was not associated with self-reported at-risk behaviours. The incidence of urethral discharge among males in Fiji is very high and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  15. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  16. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation.RESULTS: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p= .53.CONCLUSIONS: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data.

  17. Health services utilization, work absenteeism and costs of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Spain: a multicenter-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Mariana; Garin, Olatz; Sicuri, Elisa; Cots, Francesc; García-Altés, Anna; Ferrer, Montserrat; Dominguez, Àngela; Alonso, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate healthcare resource utilization, work absenteeism and cost per patient with pandemic influenza (H1N1)2009, from its beginning to March 2010, in Spain. We also estimated the economic impact on healthcare services. Longitudinal, descriptive, multicenter study of in- and outpatients with confirmed diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) in Spain. Temporal distribution of cases was comparable to that in Spain. Information of healthcare and social resources used from one week before admission (inpatient) or index-medical visit (outpatient) until recovery was gathered. Unit cost was imputed to utilization frequency for the monetary valuation of use. Mean cost per patient was calculated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, and variables correlated with cost per patient were identified. Economic impact on the healthcare system was estimated using healthcare costs per patient and both, the reported number of confirmed and clinical cases in Spain. 172 inpatients and 224 outpatients were included. Less than 10% were over 65 years old and more than 50% had previous comorbidities. 12.8% of inpatients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Mean length of hospital stay of patients not requiring critical care was 5 days (SD = 4.4). All working-inpatients and 91.7% working-outpatients went on sick leave. On average, work absenteeism was 30.5 days (SD = 20.7) for the first ones and 9 days (SD = 6.3) for the latest. Caregivers of 21.7% of inpatients and 8.5% of outpatients also had work absenteeism during 10.7 and 4.1 days on average respectively. Mean cost was €6,236/inpatient (CI95% = 1,384-14,623) and €940/outpatient (CI95% = 66-3,064). The healthcare economic burden of patients with confirmed influenza was €144,773,577 (IC95% 13,753,043-383,467,535). More than 86% of expenditures were a result of outpatients' utilization. Cost per H1N1-patient did not defer much from seasonal influenza estimates. Hospitalizations and work absenteeism

  18. Economic crisis, immigrant women and changing availability of intimate partner violence services: a qualitative study of professionals' perceptions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A; Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-09-10

    Since 2008, Spain has been in the throes of an economic crisis. This recession particularly affects the living conditions of vulnerable populations, and has also led to a reversal in social policies and a reduction in resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers' perceptions of the impact of the current economic crisis on these resources in Spain and on their capacity to respond to immigrant women's needs experiencing IPV. A qualitative study was performed based on 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews to social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, police officers and health professionals from different services dealing with IPV (both, public and NGO's) and cities in Spain (Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante) in 2011. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (Atlas.ti), and analysed using qualitative content analysis. We identified four categories related to the perceived impact of the current economic crisis: a) "Immigrant women have it harder now", b) "IPV and immigration resources are the first in line for cuts", c) " Fewer staff means a less effective service" and d) "Equality and IPV policies are no longer a government priority". A cross-cutting theme emerged from these categories: immigrant women are triply affected; by IPV, by the crisis, and by structural violence. The professionals interviewed felt that present resources in Spain are insufficient to meet the needs of immigrant women, and that the situation might worsen in the future.

  19. Use and satisfaction with the Healthcare System of the chronic pain patients in Spain: results from a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Fernández-Palacín, Fernando; Micó, Juan Antonio; Torres, Luis Miguel; Failde, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the use of healthcare resources by chronic pain (CP) patients in Spain and their satisfaction with them. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative sample of 1957 Spanish adults. A telephone survey was conducted with the aim of analyzing the prevalence of CP, the characteristics and consequences of pain, the use of healthcare resources and patients' satisfaction with them. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Of the 1957 subjects interviewed, 325 suffered CP. The mean duration of CP was 10 years (SD: 11.3) and 48.9% of the CP sufferers reported severe/unbearable pain. Moreover, about 30% felt sad/very sad or anxious/very anxious, 24.4% had been on sick leave, 12% had left/lost their jobs and 47.2% considered their pain affected their families. Likewise, 92.9% had consulted a healthcare professional due to their CP, on average 3.49 times (SD: 3.9), and 69.2% took medication. In addition, 67.3% and 63.8% were satisfied/very satisfied with the care and the healthcare information they received, respectively. Individuals who reported headache (OR = 0.34) and feeling sad (OR =0.38) were least satisfied with the care they received. In addition, CP sufferers who made greater use of consultations were those who had left/lost their jobs (β = 1.44), those who took medication (β = 1.67), those who considered their pain affected their families (β = 0.97) and those with a shorter duration of pain (β = -0.003). CP produces relevant demands on healthcare resources, conditioned by the consequences within the family and the effects on their employment. To achieve greater patient satisfaction, professionals need to pay particular attention to certain sites of pain and to patients' mental health.

  20. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  2. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  3. Members of the Gammarus pulex-group (Crustacea – Amphipoda) from North Africa and Spain, with description of a new species from Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, Sjouk

    1971-01-01

    Gammarus gauthieri (Karaman) was known from North Africa only. During systematic sampling, carried out in 1969 to 1970, it became clear, that the species is also widely distributed in the Iberian peninsula. Comparative descriptions of this species and of two other members of the Gammarus

  4. Descriptive study of 192 adults with speech and language disturbances

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    Letícia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Aphasia is a very disabling condition caused by neurological diseases. In Brazil, we have little data on the profile of aphasics treated in rehabilitation centers. OBJECTIVE: To present a descriptive study of 192 patients, providing a reference sample of speech and language disturbances among Brazilians. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Speech Pathology Unit linked to the Neurology Division of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. SAMPLE: All patients (192 referred to our Speech Pathology service from 1995 to 2000. PROCEDURES: We collected data relating to demographic variables, etiology, language evaluation (functional evaluation, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming and Token Test, and neuroimaging studies. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The results obtained in language tests and the clinical and neuroimaging data were organized and classified. Seventy aphasics were chosen for constructing a profile. Fourteen subjects with left single-lobe dysfunction were analyzed in detail. Seventeen aphasics were compared with 17 normal subjects, all performing the Token Test. RESULTS: One hundred subjects (52% were men and 92 (48% women. Their education varied from 0 to 16 years (average: 6.5; standard deviation: 4.53. We identified the lesion sites in 104 patients: 89% in the left hemisphere and 58% due to stroke. The incidence of aphasia was 70%; dysarthria and apraxia, 6%; functional alterations in communication, 17%; and 7% were normal. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the subgroup to controls in the Token Test. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this sample contributes to a better understanding of neurological patients with speech and language disturbances and may be useful as a reference for health professionals involved in the rehabilitation of such disorders.

  5. Respiratory support in oncology ward setting: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Deepak; Goyal, Gaurav Nirvani; Agrawal, Ravi; Jain, Roopesh; Chauhan, Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation in cancer patients is a critical issue The present prospective descriptive study was designed (1) to assess the patient population needing respirator support in ward setting at a premier state-run oncology institute in India, (2) to observe and analyze the course of their disease while on respirator, and (3) to coordinate better quality of life measures in cancer patients at the institute based on the present study's outcomes. Beginning from March 2005 to March 2006, all cancer patients who were connected to respirator in the wards were enrolled in the current study. Our anesthesiology department at the cancer institute also has primary responsibility for airway management and mechanical ventilation in high dependency units of oncology wards. Preventilation variables in cancer patients were assessed to judge the futility of mechanical ventilation in ward setting. Subsequently, patients were observed for disease course while on respirator. Final outcome with its etio-pathogenesis was correlated with predicted futility of mechanical ventilation. Over a period of 1 year, 132 (46 men and 86 women) cancer patients with median age 40 years (range 1-75 years) were connected to respirator in oncology wards. Based on the preventilation variables and indications for respirator support, right prediction of medical futility and hospital discharge was made in 77% of patients. Underestimation and overestimation of survival to hospital discharge was made in 10% cases and 13% cases, respectively. Based on preventilation variables, prediction of outcome in cancer patients needing respirator support can be made in 77% cases. This high probability of prediction can be used to educate patients, and their families and primary physicians, for well-informed and documented advance directives, formulated and regularly revised DNAR policies, and judicious use of respirator support for better quality-of-life outcomes.

  6. Descriptive study of healthcare professionals’ management of tick bites

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    Eva Buller Viqueira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rural primary health centers frequently treat patients with tick bites. This study compares everyday clinical practice at our primary healthcare center to practices recommended by current scientific evidence. Purpose To describe the everyday management of tick bites by different healthcare professionals and to compare this management to evidence-based therapy guidelines. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Methods Data was collected through an anonymous self-completed questionnaire. The form was filled out by a consecutive sample of nurses, physicians and pediatricians of the clinical management unit of Medina-Sidonia (Cádiz. Results Most nurses in the sample group use some type of product to facilitate the extraction of the tick (10 of the 11 surveyed nurses, 90.9%. The most frequently used products were chloroethyl and local anesthetic. In addition, nine nurses use gentle traction with tweezers (81.82% to remove the tick. In the physician sample group, 3 out of 12 respondents (25% prescribe antibiotics in all cases and nine stated that they knew which antibiotic should be used as first choice. In both cases, a high number of healthcare providers confirm giving post-extraction advice to patients: 11 in the medical community (91.66% and nine nurses (81.82%. Conclusions We conclude that the performance of the healthcare providers that integrate this study does not closely follow general recommendations for extraction, treatment and follow-up care in patients with tick bites. Therefore, there is a need to improve the level of knowledge to ensure quality care in these instances.

  7. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  8. No effect of unemployment on intimate partner-related femicide during the financial crisis: a longitudinal ecological study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, J; Vives-Cases, C; San-Sebastián, M; Sanz-Barbero, B; Goicolea, I; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2015-09-30

    Spain's financial crisis has been characterized by an increase in unemployment. This increase could have produced an increase in deaths of women due to intimate partner-related femicides (IPF). This study aims to determine whether the increase in unemployment among both sexes in different regions in Spain is related to an increase in the rates of IPF during the current financial crisis period. An ecological longitudinal study was carried out in Spain's 17 regions. Two study periods were defined: pre-crisis period (2005-2007) and crisis period (2008-2013). IPF rates adjusted by age and unemployment rates for men and women were calculated. We fitted multilevel linear regression models in which observations at level 1 were nested within regions according to a repeated measurements design. Rates of unemployment have progressively increased in Spain, rising above 20 % from 2008 to 2013 in some regions. IPF rates decreased in some regions during crisis period with respect to pre-crisis period. The multilevel analysis does not support the existence of a significant relationship between the increase in unemployment in men and women and the decrease in IPF since 2008. The increase in unemployment in men and women in Spain does not appear to have an effect on IPF. The results of the multilevel analysis discard the hypothesis that the increase in the rates of unemployment in women and men are related to an increase in IPF rates. The decline in IPF since 2008 might be interpreted as the result of exposure to other factors such as the lower frequency of divorces in recent years or the medium term effects of the integral protection measures of the law on gender violence that began in 2005.

  9. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

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    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8 for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study, the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  10. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

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    Thanh T Hoang

    Full Text Available The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727 and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40% or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%. Across CHD types, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in the distribution of all four case characteristics (e.g., sex, four parental characteristics (e.g., maternal pregestational diabetes, and five neurodevelopmental outcomes (e.g., learning disabilities. Several characteristics (e.g., sex were also significantly different across CHD subtypes. The PCGC cohort is one of the largest CHD cohorts available for the study of genetic determinants of risk and outcomes. The majority of cases do not have a genetic diagnosis. This description of the PCGC cohort, including differences across CHD types and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  11. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

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    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  12. Estudios culturales y cine en España Cultural Studies and film in Spain

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    Manuel Palacio Arranz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el uso de las metodologías de los estudios culturales por los docentes e investigadores españoles. Estas metodologías de trabajo todavía resultan periféricas en los estudios de cine en España; sin embargo, está creciendo el número de publicaciones genéricamente adscritas a planteamientos culturalistas; en especial,y lo han hecho los estudios sobre el público del cine y los de género, y en menor medida los de recepción fílmica, la representación de los estereotipos y recientemente los estudios transnacionales. This paper presents the use of the different methodologies in cultural studies by Spanish researchers and academics. These working methodologies are still peripheral in film studies in Spain, although the number of publications generically adhering to cultural studies viewpoints are increasing, above all those studies concerning film audience or gender and, to a lesser extent, those dealing with film reception, stereotype representation and more recently transnational studies.

  13. Profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla Guerra, Sonia; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described the profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain. A cross-sectional study design was used to explore the extent and patterns of advanced nursing practice activity within the domains of expert care planning, integrated care, interprofessional collaboration, education, research, evidence-based practice, and professional leadership. Data were collected in 2015/2016. Purposive sampling yielded a sample of 165 specialist and expert nurses employed by a dual tertiary and community hospital in an urban setting. The study included specialist and expert nurses who had a higher practice profile than registered general nurses. The performance of activities according to age, current position, years of experience, nursing grade, and education was compared. Practice domains were more strongly influenced by the predictors of nursing position and professional career ladder. Age and experience predictors were found to be weak predictors of advanced practice domains. This study offers essential information of the nursing workforce, and clarifies both the advanced nursing practice profile and nomenclature in the context of study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kim D; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders' efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to those manikins. Many (78%) respondents felt

  15. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, A.; Castro-Bernardez, M.; Sande-Meijide, M.; Vargas, A.; Barros-Dios, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible

  16. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, A. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Galician Health Service, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain)], E-mail: mralbert@usc.es; Castro-Bernardez, M. [Epidemiology Department, Directorate-General for Public Health, Galician Regional Authority (Spain); Sande-Meijide, M. [Preventive Medicine Unit, Ourense Hospital Complex, Galician Health Service (Spain); Vargas, A. [Energy Techniques Institute, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Barros-Dios, J.M. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain); Preventive Medicine Unit, Santiago de Compostela University Hospital, Galician Health Service (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible.

  17. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

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    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  18. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  19. Clinical audit of COPD in outpatient respiratory clinics in Spain: the EPOCONSUL study

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    Calle Rubio M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myriam Calle Rubio,1–3 Bernardino Alcázar Navarrete,4 Joan B Soriano,5 Juan J Soler-Cataluña,6 José Miguel Rodríguez González-Moro,7 Manuel E Fuentes Ferrer,2,3,8 José Luis López-Campos9 On behalf of the EPOCONSUL Study 1Pulmonary Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Complutense of Madrid, 3Research Institute of Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC, Madrid, 4Pulmonary Department, Hospital de Alta Resolución de Noja, Granada, 5Research Institute of Hospital University La Princesa (IISP, University Autónoma of Madrid, 6Pulmonary Department, Hospital de Arnau de Villanova, Valencia, 7Pulmonary Department, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, 8UGC of Preventive Medicine and Research Institute of Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 9Pulmonary Department, Hospital University Virgen del Rocio, Institute of Biomedicine of Sevilla (IBiS, Sevilla, Spain Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD outpatients account for a large burden of usual care by respirologists. EPOCONSUL is the first national clinical audit conducted in Spain on the medical care for COPD patients delivered in outpatient respiratory clinics. We aimed to evaluate the clinical interventions and the degree of adherence to recommendations in outpatients of current COPD clinical practice guidelines.Methodology: This is an observational study with prospective recruitment (May 2014–May 2015 of patients with a COPD diagnosis as seen in outpatient respiratory clinics. The information collected was historical in nature as for the clinical data of the last and previous consultations, and the information concerning hospital resources was concurrent.Results: A total of 17,893 clinical records of COPD patients in outpatient respiratory clinics from 59 Spanish hospitals were evaluated. Of the 5,726 patients selected, 4,508 (78.7% were eligible. Overall, 12.1% of COPD patients

  20. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor; Del Toro-Riera, Mirella; García-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Sierra-Córcoles, Concepción; Ruiz-Pons, Mónica; Peña-Quintana, Luis J; Vives-Piñera, Inmaculada; Moráis, Ana; Balmaseda-Serrano, Elena; Meavilla, Silvia; Sanjurjo-Crespo, Pablo; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia

    2014-11-30

    Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish population. Heterozygous mothers of patients with OTC deficiency were only included if they were on treatment due to being symptomatic or having biochemistry abnormalities. 104 patients from 98 families were included. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was the most frequent condition (64.4%) (61.2% female) followed by type 1 citrullinemia (21.1%) and argininosuccinic aciduria (9.6%). Only 13 patients (12.5%) were diagnosed in a pre-symptomatic state. 63% of the cases presented with type intoxication encephalopathy. The median ammonia level at onset was 298 μmol/L (169-615). The genotype of 75 patients is known, with 18 new mutations having been described. During the data collection period four patients died, three of them in the early days of life. The median current age is 9.96 years (5.29-18), with 25 patients over 18 years of age. Anthropometric data, expressed as median and z-score for the Spanish population is shown. 52.5% of the cases present neurological sequelae, which have been linked to the type of disease, neonatal onset, hepatic failure at diagnosis and ammonia values at diagnosis. 93 patients are following a protein restrictive diet, 0.84 g/kg/day (0.67-1.10), 50 are receiving essential amino acid supplements, 0.25 g/kg/day (0.20-0.45), 58 arginine, 156 mg/kg/day (109-305) and 45 citrulline, 150 mg/kg/day (105-199). 65 patients are being treated with drugs: 4 with sodium benzoate, 50 with sodium phenylbutyrate, 10 with both drugs and 1 with carglumic acid. Studies like this make it

  1. A descriptive study of the morbidity pattern of older persons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using Stata version 13 (Texas, USA). Frequency distributions were used for descriptive analysis, and chi-square test was used to test associations. Results: More than a half, 2919 (59.7%), of the respondents were females and almost three quarters 3501 (71.7%) were aged between 60 and 74 years.

  2. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ladrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  3. 20 Questions of Gamblers Anonymous: A Psychometric Study with Population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursua, María Prieto; Uribelarrea, Luis Llavona

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a psychometric study of the questionnaire proposed by the Gamblers Anonymous organization for the self-assessment of problem gambling. The study was carried out in Spain with two samples: one of 127 problem gamblers (mean age: 41.67; sex: 78.7% men; mean duration of the problem: 5 years) and the other of 142 social gamblers (mean age: 38.46; sex: 60% men). The questionnaire was self-applied, in the presence of one of the investigators in case any doubts arose. The results indicate that it is a good screening instrument, with high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94), good covergent validity (the correlation with the SOGS questionnaire is high (r = 0.94; p < 0.001)), good factorial validity (the questionnaire's structure is unidimensional and coherent (just one factor explains more than 50% of the variance)), and its discriminative power is high (diagnostic efficacy = 98.88%). The study offers a comparative analysis of this instrument with other measures of problem gambling, emphasizing its extraordinary performance.

  4. Orientalism in Spain: Arab studies and colonialism in Morocco (1894-1943

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    Manuela Marín

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and analyzes the relationship between Arab studies and colonialism in Spain. Arabists like Julián Ribera promoted this relationship and were actively involved in the training of ‘colonial agents’ in the service of the Spanish administration. They supported several initiatives to this end, becoming members of various official institutions such as the ‘Junta de Enseñanza de Marruecos’. However, the Arabists’ departure from the ‘Centro de Estudios Históricos’ in 1916 signalled the abandonment of this line of action, as Arab studies became restricted to the academic arena, and focussed on the study of the Arab-Islamic period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula. The creation of the ‘Escuelas de Estudios Árabes’ in 1932, especially that of Granada, marked a new initiative in Spanish arabists’ attempts at colonial involvement. However, this new project was brought to an abrupt halt by the Spanish Civil War.

  5. Physical activity and gender: comparative study between adolescents from Monterrey, Mexico and Zaragoza, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ceballos Gurrola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare medium energy expenditure and levels of physical activity between adolescents from Monterrey, Mexico and Zaragoza, Spain taking into consideration variables such as gender, type of school, and time of the week.  Methods: adolescent students of 12 to 17 years of age from public and private schools in Monterrey (N= 396 and Zaragoza (N= 394.  The Four-by-One-Day Physical Activity Questionnaire was used and a .89 reliability with a test-retest because the test was adapted to this study.  Results: In Zaragoza as well as in Monterrey there is a significant number of students with low levels of physical activity.  Almost half of the students have been classified as inactive and very inactive.  The energy expenditure was very similar for both cities: Monterrey 37.52 ± 2.12 kcal/kg/day and Zaragoza 37.66 ± 2.95 kcal/kg/day.  Conclusions: Regarding gender, men show greater levels of physical activity than women.  This data coincides with the majority of the studies.  Students perform a higher level of physical activity during school days than during weekends.

  6. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF CLOSED GLOBE INJURIES WITH HYPHAEMA

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    Susan Philip

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eye injuries still remain one of the most common causes of unilateral blindness worldwide. In addition to the physical and psychological trauma to the patient, the direct and indirect costs to the society are enormous. Blunt eye injuries commonly result in traumatic hyphaema and are not an infrequent cause of presentation to the emergency units of many eye clinics. Aims of this study were- 1. To study the cause, clinical presentation, complications and visual outcome of closed globe injury with hyphaema. 2. To know the association between mode of injuries and associated lesions and visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design and Statistical Analysis- A descriptive case series study was conducted at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram for a period of one year, from October 2010 to September 2011, in all patients coming to the institute with hyphaema due to closed globe injury and willing to participate in the study. Patients with pre-existing ocular diseases were excluded. Data were analysed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Data are expressed in its frequency and percentage. To elucidate the associations and comparisons between different parameters, Chi square ( 2 test was used as a nonparametric test. For all statistical evaluations, a two-tailed probability of value, 6/60 either maintained that vision or improved. Only 10% of the study population had corneal blood staining. Majority of those who had initial hyphaema <1/3 rd , had normal initial intraocular pressure. Of the total 36 patients who had initial hyphaema less than 1/3 rd , 29 (80.6% had normal intraocular pressure on presentation. Of the 36 patients with initial hyphaema <1/3 rd , 28 (77.8% had normal intraocular pressure at 3 rd day. Those who had lenticular and posterior segment injury had poor visual outcome. In our study, initially only 15% had vision better than 6/12, but at the end of 180

  7. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain

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    Usama Bilal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood’s social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. Methods We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain. We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Results Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %. The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44 and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively, dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53 that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. Conclusion This experience allowed testing and refining

  8. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  9. A follow-up study to assess the determinants and consequences of physical activity in pregnant women of Cuenca, Spain

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    Raquel Poyatos-León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the influence of physical exercise on pregnancy outcomes has been widely debated. Despite the numerous studies addressing the relationship between maternal physical activity and pregnancy outcomes, the evidence for consistent and significant impact of regular exercise during pregnancy on fetal growth remains lacking. The aims of this study were, first, to assess the level of physical activity performed throughout the pregnancy by objective (accelerometer and self-reported (questionnaire measurements, and, second, to ascertain pre-pregnancy physical activity levels, to estimate the relationship between levels of physical activity and some pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Methods/design This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were pregnant women (n = 194 aged 18 to 40 years who attended for three quarterly appointments for pregnancy ultrasound scans at the Virgen de la Luz Hospital in Cuenca, Spain. All participants provided written informed consents to participate in the study. Physical activity during the pregnancy follow-up was assessed by a self-reported Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and sleep log; also objectively by a GT3X accelerometer (ActiGraph. Furthermore, pregnancy symptoms inventory, nutritional behavioural assessment, socio-demographic characteristics, and anthropometry and body composition were measured. At the end of the follow up, the following main outcomes were determined: pregnancy outcomes (incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, weight gain during pregnancy, type of delivery, and neonatal outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, gender, Apgar score 1 min/5 min, type of resuscitation (I/II/III/IV, and pH of umbilical cord blood. Descriptive statistics for cross-sectional data, linear mixed regression models for absolute differences in changes baseline-final measurements were used as statistical analyses

  10. Descriptive Study: Anesthesia for Awake Craniotomy in Siriraj Hospital

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    Saipin Muangman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of awake craniotomy is to test neurological functions to ensure accurate lesion surgery and lessen postoperative neurological complications. There are several methods to provide anesthesia during awake craniotomy including local anesthesia infiltration, local anesthesia plus conscious sedation, general anesthesia and wake-up during surgery and sleep again (asleep-awake-asleep or AAA. Each method has its pro and con with different complications. In Siriraj Hospital, there was no prior study of anesthetic techniques and complications of awake craniotomy. Methods: The retrospective descriptive study of awake craniotomy was carried out with 60 patients in Siriraj Hospital 2007-2011. Results: There were 35 males (58.3% with average age 40.7±12.6 years and weight 64.2±12 kilograms undergoing awake craniotomy. Twenty patients (33.3% presented with seizure before surgery. Most diagnosis was oligodendroglioma in 25 patients (41.7%, mostly at the frontal lobe (44 patients or 73.3%. The most common position was supine(46patientsor76.7%. ICU lengthof stay was1.4±0.9(0,6days. Hospital stay was11.1±9 (4,55days. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA was mostlyused(52patientsor90% while18patients (30% received scalp block. Most patients (85% did not require nasal airways while 8 patients (13.3% did, and only 1 patient (1.7% required laryngeal mask airway (LMA to help open up air passage. The drugs used during asleep1 and asleep2 were propofol together with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in 34 patients (56.7% and 23 patients (38.3%, respectively. Whilebeingawake (15patientsor20%,dexmedetomidine and/or fentanyl were administered. Complications during anesthesia were hypertension (33.3%, hypotension (26.7%, upper airway obstruction(23.3%, bradycardia (15%, tachycardia (10%, seizure (1.7% andnausea (1.7%. Conclusion: The most common anesthesia method inSiriraj Hospital for awake craniotomy was TIVA (90%, using propofol together with

  11. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

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    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  12. Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhat, Mohcine; Rossello, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Tourism has started to be acknowledged as a significant contributor to the increase in environmental externalities, especially to climate change. Various studies have started to estimate and compute the role of the different tourism sectors' contributions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These estimations have been made from a sectoral perspective, assessing the contribution of air transport, the accommodation sector, or other tourism-related economic sectors. However, in order to evaluate the impact of this sector on energy use the approaches used in the literature consider tourism in its disaggregated way. This paper assesses the electricity demand pattern and investigates the aggregated contribution of tourism to electricity consumption using the case study of the Balearic Islands (Spain). Using a conventional daily electricity demand model, including data for daily stocks of tourists the impact of the different population growth rate scenarios on electricity loads is also investigated. The results show that, in terms of electricity consumption, tourism cannot be considered a very energy-intensive sector.

  13. Defining and Estimating Healthy Aging in Spain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; McLaughlin, Sara J; Urdaneta, Elena; Yanguas, Javier

    2018-03-19

    Using an operational continuum of healthy aging developed by U.S. researchers, we sought to estimate the prevalence of healthy aging among older Spaniards, inform the development of a definition of healthy aging in Spain, and foster cross-national research on healthy aging. The ELES pilot study is a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling Spaniards 50 years and older. The prevalence of healthy aging was calculated for the 65 and over population using varying definitions. To evaluate their validity, we examined the association of healthy aging with the 8 foot up & go test, quality of life scores and self-perceived health using multiple linear and logistic regression. The estimated prevalence of healthy aging varied across the operational continuum, from 4.5% to 49.2%. Prevalence figures were greater for men and those aged 65 to 79 years and were higher than in the United States. Predicted mean physical performance scores were similar for 3 of the 4 definitions, suggesting that stringent definitions of healthy aging offer little advantage over a more moderate one. Similar to U.S. researchers, we recommend a definition of healthy aging that incorporates measures of functional health and limiting disease as opposed to definitions requiring the absence of all disease in studies designed to assess the effect of policy initiatives on healthy aging.

  14. Study on the contamination by transuranides of Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) has been performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the nuclear accident occurred in 1966. The existence of plutonium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana) along with their great gastronomic interest in the area reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements into a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in the Palomares most contaminated area. Plutonium analyses have been carried out following normalized procedures for the determination of this radionuclide. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could contribute up to 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  15. Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhat, Mohcine, E-mail: mohcine_bakhat@yahoo.com; Rossello, Jaume

    2011-05-15

    Tourism has started to be acknowledged as a significant contributor to the increase in environmental externalities, especially to climate change. Various studies have started to estimate and compute the role of the different tourism sectors' contributions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These estimations have been made from a sectoral perspective, assessing the contribution of air transport, the accommodation sector, or other tourism-related economic sectors. However, in order to evaluate the impact of this sector on energy use the approaches used in the literature consider tourism in its disaggregated way. This paper assesses the electricity demand pattern and investigates the aggregated contribution of tourism to electricity consumption using the case study of the Balearic Islands (Spain). Using a conventional daily electricity demand model, including data for daily stocks of tourists the impact of the different population growth rate scenarios on electricity loads is also investigated. The results show that, in terms of electricity consumption, tourism cannot be considered a very energy-intensive sector.

  16. Graphical Diagnosis of Performances in Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study in Southern Spain

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    Isabel Santiago

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the operation and maintenance tasks in photovoltaic plants is the continuous monitoring and supervision of its components. The great amount of registered data requires a major improvement in the ways this information is processed and analyzed to rapidly detect any potential fault, without incurring additional costs. In this paper, a procedure to perform a detailed graphical supported analysis of the operation of photovoltaic installations, based on inverter data, and using a self-developed application, is presented. The program carries out the automated processing of the registered data, providing their access and visualization by means of color maps. These graphs allow a large volume of data set to be simultaneously represented in a readable way, enabling operation and maintenance operators to quickly detect patterns that would require any type of intervention. As a case study, the operation of a grid-connected photovoltaic plant located in southern Spain was studied during a period of three years. The average daily efficiency values of the PV modules and inverters were in the range of 7.6–14.6%, and 73.5–94% respectively. Moreover, the presence of shadings, as well as the hours and days mainly affected by this issue, was easily detected.

  17. Eco-services for solar thermal systems. Case studies. The Netherlands and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermelj, M.; Djazalov, A.; Esser, P.; Freire, I.; Grafakos, S.; Kovacs, C.; Villalba, M.P.; Rafaj, P.

    1999-04-01

    To satisfy the consumption requirements from society the demand of materials and energy is increasing. Nowadays the use of conventional energy sources in all economical sectors has negative environmental impacts. The household sector contributes significantly to the CO2 emissions through the use of fossil fuels, as domestic energy sources. The majority of the energy consumed by this sector covers demand for space beating and hot water supply. Some systems, which use renewable energy resources, as solar thermal systems (STS), could be used for the same purpose. If they are integrated in dwellings for hot water provision, the quantity of conventional energy can be reduced significantly. The two main objectives of the study are: (1) Assess the most sustainable consumption pattern for STS (individual or collective use); (2) Assess the most sustainable ownership pattern for STS (owning, leasing or renting) for both consumption patterns. To achieve these two objectives the group focuses the research on the comparison of the consumption and ownership patterns of STS in The Netherlands and Spain. The analysis of environmental, economic and comfort aspects is carried out using the data from relevant case studies in both countries. Each combination of the product/service that results in an environmental benefit without decreasing the economic and comfort benefits is considered as eco-service. The results from this analysis and the recommendations for the target group (European Commission and National governments) are summarised bellow. refs

  18. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, O; Pasqualino, J C; Castells, F

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, O.; Pasqualino, J.C.; Castells, F.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts.

  20. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence properties of natural metamorphic quartz belonging to Turkey and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topaksu, M.; Dogan, T.; Yüksel, M.; Kurt, K.; Topak, Y.; Yegingil, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization of the thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes from Adiyaman in Turkey (TMQ) and from Madrid in Spain (SMQ). Quartz samples of two different origins were β-irradiated between ∼6.689 Gy and 4816 Gy at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis has indicated that both TMQ and SMQ have the same crystal structure. Chemical analyses of both TMQ and SMQ were performed using the XRF technique. The preheat processes were carried out at 125 °C for 10 s in the TL measurement. TMQ and SMQ samples have different TL properties in two ways. First TMQ has four first order TL glow peaks while SMQ has five first order TL peaks and secondly, the observed dose sensitivity of TMQ samples is higher than the SMQ samples. - Highlights: • The thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes was investigated. • Comparable differences were seen between low and high dose levels. • AD and CGCD methods were used

  1. Business models in urban farming: A comparative analysis of case studies from Spain, Italy and Germany

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    Pölling Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Urban Agriculture Europe” EU COST-Action (2012–2016 has shown that the complexity of urban agriculture (UA is hardly compressible into classic business management models and has proposed new management models, such as the Business Model Canvas (BMC. Business models of UA have to be different from rural ones. In particular, factors such as differentiation and diversification, but also low cost-oriented specialisation, are characteristic and necessary business models for UA to stay profitable in the long term under challenging city conditions. This paper aims to highlight how farm enterprises have to adjust to urban conditions by stepping into appropriate business models aiming to stay competitive and profitable, and how the BMC is useful to analyse their organisation and performance, both economically and socially. The paper offers an inter-regional analysis of UA enterprises located in Spain, Italy, and Germany, which are further subdivided into: local food, leisure, educational, social, therapeutic, agri-environmental, cultural heritage and experimental farms. The analysis demonstrates that UA is differentially adjusted to specific urban conditions and that the BMC is useful for analysing urban farming. Heterogeneous local food farms and the integration of local and organic food production in social farming business models are most frequent in our case studies.

  2. Economic and Environmental Study of Wineries Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Spain

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    Daniel Gómez-Lorente

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a system that can make factories more independent from the grid. The system enhances efficiency since factory operation is powered by the renewable energy generated during the production process. Winemaking is a key sector that can profit from such a system because wineries can recycle much of the waste from the raw materials employed in wine production. Moreover, the solar energy collected at winemaking facilities can also be used to reduce electricity consumption and thus increase energy efficiency. This study investigated the feasibility of using renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, in wineries in Spain, given the quantity of renewable energy produced in the country. For this purpose, cost-effectiveness, power generation, CO2 emissions and the renewable energy fraction were taken into account. The assumption was that the photovoltaic system was grid-connected. Research results showed a reduction in electrical power costs ranging from 4% to 36%. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in the use of renewable energy of up to 57%. The results obtained are based on self-consumption or net metering policy as well as the production capacity of the winery.

  3. Mutational spectrum of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in Spain: Study of 284 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, I; Gallano, P; González-Quereda, L; Borrego, S; Marcos, I; Millán, J M; Jairo, T; Prior, C; Molano, J; Trujillo-Tiebas, M J; Gallego-Merlo, J; García-Barcina, M; Fenollar, M; Navarro, C

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease that affects one in 3500 live-born males. The total absence of dystrophin observed in DMD patients is generally caused by mutations that disrupt the reading frame of the DMD gene, and about 80% of cases harbour deletions or duplications of one or more exons. We reviewed 284 cases of males with a genetic diagnosis of DMD between 2007 and 2014. These patients were selected from 8 Spanish reference hospitals representing most areas of Spain. Multiplex PCR, MLPA, and sequencing were performed to identify mutations. Most of these DMD patients present large deletions (46.1%) or large duplications (19.7%) in the dystrophin gene. The remaining 34.2% correspond to point mutations, and half of these correspond to nonsense mutations. In this study we identified 23 new mutations in DMD: 7 large deletions and 16 point mutations. The algorithm for genetic diagnosis applied by the participating centres is the most appropriate for genotyping patients with DMD. The genetic specificity of different therapies currently being developed emphasises the importance of identifying the mutation appearing in each patient; 38.7% of the cases in this series are eligible to participate in current clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  5. Multi-Criteria Analyses of Urban Planning for City Expansion: A Case Study of Zamora, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Criado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has established a methodology to determine the most environmentally suitable area for the expansion of Zamora (Spain using geographic information system (GIS technology. The objective was to develop a GIS-based methodology for the identification of urban peripheral areas that are suitable for the accommodation of new buildings and services, that are compliant with environmental criteria, and that guarantee an adequate quality of life for the future population such that extra construction costs are avoided. The methodological core is based on two multi-criteria analyses (MCAs: MCA-1 determines areas suitable for building—the most environmentally sustainable areas that do not present risks or discomforts to the population—by analyzing the restrictive factors; MCA-2 takes the sectors that received a favorable evaluation in MCA-1, determines which of those have a lower economic overhead for construction, and analyzes the different conditioning criteria related to their pre-existing infrastructures. Finally, the location of the sectors is determined by a decision factor that satisfies some strategic need of the municipality.

  6. Transcultural study on quality of life in patients diagnosed of schizophrenia from Mexico and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Peró Cebollero

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the differences between two samples of schizophrenic patients from two different cultural contexts. Matched by age and gender, each 40-subject sample includes patients with differential diagnosis of schizophrenia. One sample was taken from the Barcelona Hospital network (Spain and the other one from the Hospital Civil Universitario of Guadalajara (Mexico. Several demographic and clinical variables were evaluated and the Health Related Quality of Life Scale (HRQLS was conducted on all the subjects. The HRQLS was adapted to Spanish (Rodriguez, et al., 1995. The results confirmed the factor structure studied and they showed no special differences in the total score of the HRQLS. However, an important effect was found when analyzing the results separately for the three factors: Interpersonal Relationship (IR1, Instrumental Resources (IR2 and Intrapsychic Foundation (IF, or in the items of the Intrapsychic Foundations factor. Given these differences, it is considered that these scales can be used to carry out an exhaustive profile analysis in order to organize a personalized treatment, in comparison to the total score of the HRQLS.

  7. A breast cancer case-control study in Girona, Spain. Endocrine, familial and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladiu, P; Izquierdo, A; de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X

    1996-10-01

    This study was designed to explore risk factors for breast cancer with emphasis on the detection of clinical markers of the hormonal imbalance during the perimenarche. Three hundred and thirty women diagnosed with breast cancer and 346 population controls were identified and interviewed in Girona, Spain between 1986 and 89. Cases were more likely than controls to have had long menstrual periods in the first 5 years after menarche [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], to experience menopause at a late age (OR = 1.5) and to report acne during adolescence (OR = 1.6). Family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.3). Cases reported a lower use of drug treatments for anxiety and sleep disorders than controls. Moderate alcohol drinkers and smokers were at lower risk for breast cancer. No statistically significant association with breast cancer was observed for number of children, age at last pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, hormonal treatment after menopause and weight perception during the teenage years. Hormonal changes in the years following menarche may be relevant to breast cancer risk. The roles of menstrual period length and acne during adolescence should be further explored.

  8. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.loro@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arce, Rosa M., E-mail: rosa.arce.ruiz@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortega, Emilio, E-mail: e.ortega@upm.es [Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Construction and Rural Roads, Forestry Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    The assessment of different alternatives in road-corridor planning must be based on a number of well-defined territorial variables that serve as decision making criteria, and this requires a high-quality preliminary environmental assessment study. In Spain the formal specifications for the technical requirements stipulate the constraints that must be considered in the early stages of defining road corridors, but not how they should be analyzed and ranked. As part of the feasibility study of a new road definition, the most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity (TCC) in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and to ease the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. This paper explores the variables used in 22 road-construction projects conducted by the Ministry of Public Works that were subject to the Spanish EIA regulation and published between 2006 and 2008. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the methods applied and the homogeneity and suitability of the variables used for defining the TCC. The variables were clustered into physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints for the purpose of comparing the TCC values assigned in the studies reviewed. We found the average quality of the studies to be generally acceptable in terms of the justification of the methodology, the weighting and classification of the variables, and the creation of a synthesis map. Nevertheless, the methods for assessing the TCC are not sufficiently standardized; there is a lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and methodologies for the TCC valuation. -- Highlights: • We explore 22 road-corridor planning studies subjected to the Spanish EIA regulation. • We analyze the variables selected for defining territorial carrying capacity. • The quality of the studies is acceptable (methodology, variable weighting, mapping). • There is heterogeneity in the

  10. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  11. Does the Attitude Toward Organ Donation Change as a Function of the Country Where People Emigrate? Study Between Uruguayan Emigrants to the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Uruguayan population is sensitized toward transplantation. However, it has not been studied how this awareness can change when emigrating to different countries. To analyze the attitude toward cadaveric organ donation and living organ donation between the Uruguayan population residing in Florida (United States) and the Uruguayan population residing in Spain. Adults born in Uruguay and residing in Florida and Spain were screened. The questionnaire "PCID-DTO Ríos" (donation of cadaveric organs) and "PCID-DVR Ríos" (living renal donation) were used. Subjects were randomly selected according to age and gender stratification. Support from Latin-American immigration associations in Spain and Florida was needed. The survey was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained to collaborate in the study. Because the emigrant population to Spain is far larger than the emigrant population to the United States, a 2:1 proportional sampling was performed (n = 132). Sixty-seven percent of residents in Spain were in favor of organ donation at the time of death compared with 50% among residents in Florida (P = .082), and 100% of residents in Spain were in favor of living renal donation compared with 50% of those living in Florida (P donation is more favorable among Uruguayan emigrants to Spain than emigrants to the United States, especially in related kidney donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions

  13. Transnationality and Social Integration within Lifestyle Migration. A comparative study of two cases in Mexico and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Omar; Mantecón Terán, Alejandro; Huete Nieves, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    International mobility in search of amenity spaces for long-stay tourism is a growing phenomenon. U.S. citizens have practiced this lifestyle migration for decades to Latin American countries, especially to Mexico. British citizens move to Spain for similar reasons. In this paper we make a comparative analysis of these two international contexts in order to gain greater insight into the diversity and breadth of this type of migration. The study uses quantitative surveys administered at each f...

  14. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-01-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  15. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-10-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  16. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population. Materials and methods: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation. Results: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25–6.64, p = .53. Conclusions: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data. Resumo: Objetivos: O paciente queimado representa um desafio para o anestesiologista, pois submete-se a várias intervenções cirúrgicas durante sua hospitalização, necessitando de anestesia geral e relaxamento muscular na maior parte delas. Apresenta sistema respiratório comprometido e uma resposta aos relaxantes musculares que difere do paciente sadio; portanto, um monitoramento correto e reversão tornam-se imprescindíveis. Avaliamos a eficácia e segurança do sugamadex nesta população. Material e métodos: Estudo descritivo com caráter prospectivo que inclui quatro pacientes, todos eles considerados grandes queimados, submetidos a escarectomia com anestesia geral e relaxamento neuromuscular. Como variável principal tomou-se o tempo de recuperação de TOF superior a 0,9 após a administra

  17. A modelling case study to evaluate control strategies for ozone reduction in Southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, N.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Stein, A. F.; Millán, M.

    2009-09-01

    Ozone is a strong oxidant and when certain concentrations are reached it has adverse effects on health, vegetation and materials. With the aim of protecting human health and ecosystems, European Directive 2008/50/EC establishes target values for ozone concentrations, to be achieved from 2010 onwards. In our study area, located in southwestern Spain, ozone levels regularly exceed the human health protection threshold defined in the European Directive. Indeed, this threshold was exceeded on 92 days in 2007, despite the fact that the Directive stipulates that it should not be exceeded on more than 25 days per calendar year averaged over three years. It is urgent, therefore, to reduce the current ozone levels, but because ozone is a secondary pollutant, this reduction must necessarily involve limiting the emission of its precursors, primarily nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). During the central months of the year, southwestern Spain is under strong insolation and weak synoptic forcing, promoting the development of sea breezes and mountain-induced winds and creating re-circulations of pollutants. The complex topography of the area induces the formation of vertical layers, into which the pollutants are injected and subjected to long distance transport and compensatory subsidence. The characteristics of these highly complex flows have important effects on the pollutant dispersion. In this study two ozone pollution episodes have been selected to assess the ozone response to reductions in NOx and VOC emissions from industry and traffic. The first corresponds to a typical summer episode, with the development of breezes in an anticyclonic situation with low gradient pressure and high temperatures, while the second episode presents a configuration characteristic of spring or early summer, with a smooth westerly flow and more moderate temperatures. Air pollution studies in complex terrain require the use of high-resolution models to resolve the complex

  18. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  19. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  20. Night shift work and stomach cancer risk in the MCC-Spain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmati, Georgina; Turner, Michelle C; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Alguacil, Juan; Costas, Laura; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martin Sanchez, Vicente; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno, Victor; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Fernández-Tardon, Guillermo; Villanueva Ballester, Vicent; Capelo, Rocio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-08-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on experimental studies and limited evidence on human breast cancer risk. Evidence at other cancer sites is scarce. We evaluated the association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. A total of 374 incident stomach adenocarcinoma cases and 2481 population controls were included from the MCC-Spain study. Detailed data on lifetime night shift work were collected including permanent and rotating shifts, and their cumulative duration (years). Adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used in analysis. A total of 25.7% of cases and 22.5% of controls reported ever being a night shift worker. There was a weak positive, non-significant association between ever having had worked for at least 1 year in permanent night shifts and stomach cancer risk compared to never having worked night shifts (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.8). However, there was an inverse 'U' shaped relationship with cumulative duration of permanent night shifts, with the highest risk observed in the intermediate duration category (OR 10-20 years=2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) (p for trend=0.19). There was no association with ever having had worked in rotating night shifts (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.2) and no trend according to cumulative duration (p for trend=0.68). We found no clear evidence concerning an association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Evaluating the Social Media Performance of Hospitals in Spain: A Longitudinal and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Basagoiti Bilbao, Ignacio; Traver Salcedo, Manuel; Traver Salcedo, Vicente

    2017-05-23

    Social media is changing the way in which citizens and health professionals communicate. Previous studies have assessed the use of Health 2.0 by hospitals, showing clear evidence of growth in recent years. In order to understand if this happens in Spain, it is necessary to assess the performance of health care institutions on the Internet social media using quantitative indicators. The study aimed to analyze how hospitals in Spain perform on the Internet and social media networks by determining quantitative indicators in 3 different dimensions: presence, use, and impact and assess these indicators on the 3 most commonly used social media - Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. Further, we aimed to find out if there was a difference between private and public hospitals in their use of the aforementioned social networks. The evolution of presence, use, and impact metrics is studied over the period 2011- 2015. The population studied accounts for all the hospitals listed in the National Hospitals Catalog (NHC). The percentage of hospitals having Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube profiles has been used to show the presence and evolution of hospitals on social media during this time. Usage was assessed by analyzing the content published on each social network. Impact evaluation was measured by analyzing the trend of subscribers for each social network. Statistical analysis was performed using a lognormal transformation and also using a nonparametric distribution, with the aim of comparing t student and Wilcoxon independence tests for the observed variables. From the 787 hospitals identified, 69.9% (550/787) had an institutional webpage and 34.2% (269/787) had at least one profile in one of the social networks (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) in December 2015. Hospitals' Internet presence has increased by more than 450.0% (787/172) and social media presence has increased ten times since 2011. Twitter is the preferred social network for public hospitals, whereas private hospitals

  2. The Application of GIS Viewshed Analysis to Roman Urban Studies: the Case-Study of Empúries, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Kaiser

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the potential of applying GIS viewshed analysis to Roman urban studies. It examines the visual dynamics of the Roman city of Empúries, Spain, through an analysis of the visibility of, and view from, a temple and a domus within the city. The analysis proves that the two buildings in question would have had wide views of the Gulf of Roses to the east of the city, and could easily have been seen by people in boats in the Gulf, but they were virtually invisible from within the city and would certainly not have dominated the cityscape. The article concludes that the absence of the villa and temple from the intramural cityscape of Empúries cautions modern investigators of ancient cities against simply assuming that currently prominent ruins on hills or ridges were also highly visible from near as well as far in antiquity.

  3. Numerical modelling comparison of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Central Pyrenees-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    water table rises during rain events. In the last eight years the cumulative surface displacement exceeds two meters. The comparison made in this paper provides that after a careful and difficult calibration, the proposed models reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively, more or less accurately depending on the complexity of the model, the observed deformation patterns. These models can give successful short-term and medium-term predictions during stages of primary and secondary creep, i.e. at nearly constant strain rate. However, long-time predictions remain uncertain, stability depends strongly on the position of the water table depth and new failures during tertiary creep due to soil temporal micro-structural degradation are difficult to calibrate. References [1] G.Herrera, J.A.Fernández-Merodo, J.Mulas, M.Pastor y G.Luzi. "A landslide forecasting model using ground based SAR data: the Portalet case study". Engineering geology 2009, vol. 105, n° 3-4, pp: 220-230 (10 pág.) DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.02.009 [2] J.A.Fernández-Merodo, G.Herrera, P.Mira, J.Mulas, M.Pastor, L.Noferini, D.Mecatti, G.Luzi. "Modelling the Portalet landslide mobility (Formigal, Spain)". International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs 2008). ISBN: 978-84-7653-074-0 [3] J.A.Fernández-Merodo, J.C.García-Davalillo, G.Herrera, P.Mira, M.Pastor. "2D viscoplastic finite element modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain)". Landslides 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-012-0370-4

  4. Developments in radiological assessment and biosphere modelling studies to support radioactive waste disposal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Thorne, M. [Mike Thorne and Associates Limited (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term safety assessments for the disposal of radioactive waste in Spain involve the demonstration that annual radiation doses to humans due to potential releases of radionuclides from the waste disposal facility into the biosphere will satisfy the regulatory criteria. For several years, CIEMAT has been developing, for ENRESA, a conceptual approach and tool to support modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within environmental media once those radionuclides have been released to some component of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The CIEMAT modelling approach calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different components of the biosphere and then the calculated radionuclide concentrations are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths. In this paper, we not only describe the methodology and modelling approach, we also describe recent developments of that approach to better quantify the resultant doses to humans. First, we present recent developments in the mathematical model for the behaviour of {sup 79}Se and {sup 238}U-series radionuclides in soils and their uptake by plants, taking into account seasonal variations in soil hydrology in Spain. Initial studies with the model that are reported here demonstrate that it is a powerful tool for exploring the behaviour of redox-sensitive radionuclides and {sup 238}U decay chain members in soil-plant systems under different hydrological regimes. In particular, it permits studies of the degree to which secular equilibrium assumptions are appropriate when modelling the {sup 238}U decay chain. Further studies are currently being undertaken examining sensitivities of model results to input parameter values and also applying the model to sites contaminated with {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. It is anticipated that results from these studies will also be reported. A particular interest in biosphere safety assessment is how environmental

  5. Environmental study of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and other aspergilli in Austria, Denmark, and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Klaus Leth; Mellado, Emilia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    . fumigatus isolates from four Danish soil samples displayed elevated azole MICs (8%), and all harbored the same TR/L98H mutation of cyp51A. One A. lentulus isolate with voriconazole MIC of 4 mg/liter was detected in Spain. No azole-resistant aspergilli were detected in compost. Finally, A. terreus...

  6. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of Modified Caisson Breakwater at Port of Castellon, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    caisson breakwater at Port of Castellon, Spain, tested earlier (Nørgaard & Lykke Andersen, 2013). Associate Prof. Thomas Lykke Andersen and M.Sc. Jørgen Quvang Harck Nørgaard were in charge of the model tests. Engineer assistant Niels Drustrup assisted in the laboratory with the construction...

  7. Envisioning the future of transhumant pastoralism through participatory scenario planning: a case study in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteros Rozas, E.; González, J.A.; Martín-López, B.; López, C.A.; Palomo, I.; Sotelo Montes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Transhumance is a practice of nomadic pastoralism that was once common in Mediterranean Europe. This livestock-rearing system is associated with the maintenance of cultural landscapes and the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services. Although transhumance is still practised in Spain on a small

  8. The Treatment of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks: A Case Study from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Delgado, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The Holocaust was one of the most significant events of contemporary history and still has great relevance for current times. This paper analyses the portrayal of the Holocaust in secondary education history textbooks in Spain. As this type of research has grown in the international arena, the need to review critically this event in Spanish…

  9. Quality of Life, Behaviour and Attitudes towards Actinic Keratosis in Spain: The PIQA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, I; Serra-Guillén, C

    2018-05-01

    This study was aimed to examine patients' knowledge, behaviours and attitudes regarding actinic keratosis (AK) lesions and the impact of the disease on patients' quality of life (QoL). Observational study of patients with AK lesions in Spain. QoL was evaluated with the validated version of Spanish AKQoL questionnaire. Skin self-examination, sun-exposure, habits and attitudes towards AK's treatment were recorded using different questionnaires. The adherence was assessed by means of the Morisky-Green test. Among other variables, QoL and adherence to treatment were compared by using Pearson's χ 2 test and one-way ANOVA tests. Inferential analysis regarding such factors and length of treatment were also performed. A total of 1240 patients (73.6 [10.5] years old) were recruited. Overall, patients that showed higher levels of concern were also showed a higher impairment on QoL. AK had greater effects on women's QoL and those who performed skin self-examination, think that AK is a disease and/or believe that moisturizers can prevent skin aging (P<.05). Adherence and length of treatment were strongly related, since patients with treatments intended for <1week were more likely to show good adherence and complete remission of AK (Odds Ratio [95%CI]: 6.25 [4.55-8.33] and 2.63 [1.96-3.45]), respectively). Concerns due to AK are mainly related to sex and to the consideration of AK as a disease. More concerned patients tend to have lower QoL and good adherence to treatment. Short length of treatment was associated with better adherence and complete remission of AK lesions. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Airborne grass (Poaceae) pollen in southern Spain. Results of a 10-year study (1987-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Minero, F J; Candau, P; Tomás, C; Morales, J

    1998-03-01

    This work reports an exhaustive study of the aerobiology of the Gramineae in Seville, Spain, which is typical of coastal Mediterranean areas. Sampling was done with a Cour trap installed on the roof terrace of the School of Pharmacy, Seville, from 1987 to 1996, both inclusive. The climatic pattern of that period was characterized by two exceptionally wet years (1989 and 1996), between which were 5 consecutive years of drought (1990-5). This typically Mediterranean climate affects grass aerobiology. The annual amounts of total grass pollen are low, never exceeding 2500 grains/m3. The start, length, and intensity of the pollen season are significantly correlated with preseasonal meteorologic factors (precipitation and temperature), but intraseasonal meteorologic conditions have no effect on the three variables. The relationships are stated by three equations that, while further years of observations are anticipated, can be considered models to forecast the characteristics of the pollen season: the starting date depends on the mean temperatures of January and February, and the length and intensity of the season depend on the rainfall between the beginning of January and the starting date of the season. For the study period, the weekly concentrations (pollen curves) throughout the year showed no typical pattern of variation over the years, so that it was impossible to make mid- and long-term forecasts of the variation in weekly concentration. The most noteworthy aspects of grass pollen curves are a long pollen season, which starts in February or March and lasts until September or October; peaks of higher concentration (> 100 grains/m3) in May and June, associated with increases in temperature and absence of precipitation; and other peaks in the summer months that may be as high as the spring peaks.

  11. Study on the contamination of transuranides in Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, A.; Espinosa, A.; Anton, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium and americium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) was performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the 1966 nuclear accident. The existence of plutonium and americium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana), along with their great gastronomic interest in the area, reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements to a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in various sampling campaigns. Pretreatment of the snail samples for further transuranics analyses was based on culinary customs of the region. First, the gastropods had a biological rest, allowing the removal of the non-adsorbed or non-retained ingested material, and then the excrements were collected by washing the snails. Water with excrements was filtered using different filters and analyzed separately. Once rinsed, the snails were dipped into salty water to eliminate the slime, finally, after boiling, the soft tissue was separated from the shell. Plutonium and americium analyses have been carried out sequentially, following normalized procedures for the determination of these radionuclides. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. Autoradiographies performed to soft tissues made evident that the contamination was incorporated into the gastropods as radioactive particles. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could reach 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for elderly people in Catalonia, Spain: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Angela; Salleras, Lluis; Fedson, David S; Izquierdo, Conchita; Ruiz, Laura; Ciruela, Pilar; Fenoll, Asuncion; Casal, Julio

    2005-05-01

    Observational studies offer an approach to evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination programs. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccination program for elderly people in Catalonia, Spain, in a matched-set case-control study. We identified 149 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease among patients aged > or =65 years who were hospitalized in 12 large hospitals in Catalonia during the period of 1 January 2001 through 31 March 2002. We selected 2 hospital control patients and 1 outpatient control subject for each case patient, matching on the basis of age and underlying medical conditions. We obtained their pneumococcal vaccination histories and used conditional logistic regression to determine effectiveness of vaccination. Among all 149 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease, 131 (87.9%) were caused by vaccine or vaccine-related serotypes. In the adjusted analysis, overall effectiveness of vaccination against infections due to all serotypes was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48%-82%). Among immunocompetent subjects with or without high-risk conditions, effectiveness of vaccination was 76% (95% CI, 51%-88%), but among immunocompromised subjects it was 50% (95% CI, -44% to 82%). Among subjects with infections due to vaccine or vaccine-related serotypes, effectiveness of vaccination was 72% (95% CI, 50%-85%) overall and 78% (95% CI, 50%-90%) in those who were immunocompetent, but it was only 46% (95% CI, -54% to 81%) in those who were immunocompromised. Overall effectiveness of vaccination was 65% (95% CI, 35%-81%) during the noninfluenza period. Pneumococcal vaccination was effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease among all elderly persons in Catalonia. Effectiveness was greater in immunocompetent persons, most of whom had underlying high-risk conditions. The number of subjects was too small to determine whether vaccination was effective in those who were immunocompromised.

  13. Perianesthesia Nurses Are My Second Family: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Julanne; Wood, Stacey; Bolton, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Tara; Stegenga, Kristin; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-12-01

    Identify the perceptions of perianesthesia nurses regarding behaviors that promote or detract from sustaining a safe, efficient, and satisfying work environment. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews (n=14) were conducted exploring the perceptions regarding team behavior of registered nurses in one pediatric perianesthesia unit. Qualitative descriptive data collection, inductive content analysis. Nurses described a responsive, engaged health care team whose leadership is available and directive when needed, as creating an effective, satisfying work environment. Primary themes that emerged were Leadership Sets the Tone, Playing Fair, No One Gets Hurt, and Why We Stay. This nursing team acknowledged that inattentive, distracted team members cause frustration, work inequities, and care delays, potentially undermining patient safety. Results demonstrate the need to create and sustain consistently respectful perianesthesia work cultures. Research focusing on unit specific approaches to work distribution, communication, leadership, and technology use is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inter-regional changes in the performance and interpretation of spirometry in Spain: 3E study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Calle, Myriam

    2014-11-01

    This report shows the results of a nation-wide survey on spirometry to assess regional differences. Observational cross-sectional study conducted by means of a telephone survey in 805 primary care (PC) and specialized centers (SC) in all regions. The survey contacted technicians in charge of spirometry and consisted of 36 questions related to the test. The results showed major differences between regions. Most centers had 1-2 spirometers. The number of spirometry tests per week ranged from 2 to 8.9 in PC and between 34.3 and 98.3 in SC. Some training had been given in most centers (63.6-100% in PC and 60.0-100% in SC) but not on a regular basis. Most centers used several short-acting bronchodilators for the bronchodilation test, but with insufficient inhalations (2.0-3.8 in PC and 2.0-3.3 in SC) and frequently incorrect waiting time (29.4-83.3% PC and 33.3-87.5% in SC). Daily calibration was not performed in all centers (0-100% in PC and 66.7-100% in SC). Significant inter-regional differences in spirometry quality criteria were observed, with 6 or more criteria met in 9.1-84.6% of PC centers and 37.5-100% in SC. Our results show the current situation of spirometry in primary and specialized care in Spain, highlighting considerable variability and areas for improvement. This information should be considered by health officials to improve the quality and accessibility of such tests. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  16. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  17. [A descriptive study of substance abuse and mental health disorders in intimate partner violence abusers in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérrez-Bermejo, C; Alás-Brun, R

    2014-01-01

    To obtain data on substance abuse and mental disorders amongst a population of inmates imprisoned for gender violence. 106 intimate partner violence offenders were recruited in our study, all of whom were prison inmates. The study is descriptive and statistical comparison of percentages was used. the percentage of substance abuse was 61.3%; most of which consisted of alcohol and cocaine. According to DSM-IV R, 25.5% of the inmates had at least one psychiatric diagnosis at the time when entering prison: 11.3% adjustment disorder with depressed mood, 6.6% personality disorders, 2.8% psychosis, 1.9% major depressive disorder, 1.9% bipolar disorder and 1.9% psycho-organic disorder were encountered. The average age of the men of the sample was forty years old. The most common nationality was Spanish. The percentage of immigrants was significant greater than the global percentage of the general population. The percentage of global substance consumption and psychopathologic problems is greater than data obtained in IPV from other populations, like samples of men charged by their partners with gender violence. depressive symptoms, personality disorders, alcohol and cocaine consumption need to be investigated as gender violence risk markers in Spain. Attention should be paid to the role of consumption prevention when entering prison.

  18. Approximation to the constitutional regulation of the participatory democracy in Colombia and Spain. Compared study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramírez Nárdiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the constitutions of 1991 and 1978 as a benchmark, Colombia and Spain have respectively regulated various instruments of participatory democracy. This article aims to answer the research question of how to regulate constitutionally participatory democracy in both countries and defends the hypothesis that although the two countries have different regulations, with the Colombian much more developed than the Spanish, the practice in both countries is quite similar, is, low.

  19. Transcultural study on quality of life in patients diagnosed of schizophrenia from Mexico and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Peró Cebollero; Mónica Arroyo Medrano; Joan Guàrdia Olmos; Adolfo Jarne Esparcia; Teresita Villaseñor Cabrera

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the differences between two samples of schizophrenic patients from two different cultural contexts. Matched by age and gender, each 40-subject sample includes patients with differential diagnosis of schizophrenia. One sample was taken from the Barcelona Hospital network (Spain) and the other one from the Hospital Civil Universitario of Guadalajara (Mexico). Several demographic and clinical variables were evaluated and the Health Related Quality of Life Sc...

  20. Perceptions about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among healthcare professionals in Spain (PERPPRES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of support, knowledge and perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP by Infectious Disease Specialists and Hospital Pharmacists in Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional study through an on-line 31-item survey (sociodemographical data, employment status/experience, knowledge of PrEP, use, identified barriers and economic issues. A univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the variables associated with support for PrEP, and compare the assessments by Specialists and Pharmacists. The questions about support for PrEP and agreement with the indication approval were repeated after showing data from published studies. The significance of the change in the answers was analyzed using the McNemar Test. Results: 211 questionnaires were received (80.1% from Pharmacists. 40.3% had low/no familiarity with PrEP (46.2% Pharmacists vs. 16.7% Physicians; p < 0.01. A 53.6% of them would support the use of PrEP (49.7% Pharmacists vs. 69% Physicians; p = 0.038. The minimum acceptable efficacy in order to support PrEP was 85.0 ± 15.5% (82.6 ± 12.1% by Physicians vs. 85.6 ± 15.0% by Pharmacists; p = 0.02. The variables associated with support were: medical profession (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 1.1-4.6; p = 0.038 and lower demand for efficacy (difference = 10.5%; 95%CI 6.9 to 14.1; p < 0.001. After receiving the information, there was an increase in their support for use and indication approval. Most participants (81.5% did not support its reimbursement. The main barriers identified were: an increase in risk behaviour (24.1%, increase in sexually transmitted diseases (19.0%, resistance (16.6% and cost (16.0%. Conclusions: More than half of participants were familiar with PrEP. The majority of them would support its use and the approval of the indication, but would not reimburse it. The use of PrEP in real practice is currently low.

  1. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes? : a descriptive study of teacher activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson - Hessler, M.G.M.; Jong, de T.

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of

  2. Anticoagulation Control in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Attended at Primary Care Centers in Spain: The PAULA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Prieto, Luis; Osorio, Genoveva; Polo, José; Lobos, José María; Vargas, Diego; García, Nicolás

    2015-09-01

    To determine the current status of anticoagulation control in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonists in the primary care setting in Spain. The PAULA study was a multicenter cross-sectional/retrospective observational study conducted throughout Spain. The study included patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who had been receiving vitamin K antagonist therapy during the past year and were attended at primary care centers. International normalized ratio (INR) values over the past 12 months were recorded. The degree of anticoagulation control was defined as the time the patient had remained within the therapeutic range and was determined by both the direct method (poor control < 60%) and by the Rosendaal method (poor control < 65%). The study assessed 1524 patients (mean age, 77.4 ± 8.7 years; 48.6% women; 64.2% in permanent atrial fibrillation; CHADS2 mean, 2.3 ± 1.2; CHA2DS2-VASc, 3.9 ± 1.5, and HAS-BLED, 1.6 ± 0.9). The mean number of INR readings recorded per patient was 14.4 ± 3.8. A total of 56.9% of patients had adequate INR control according to the direct method and 60.6% according to the Rosendaal method. The multivariate analysis identified the following predictors for poor INR control: female sex, dietary habits potentially affecting anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists, multidrug therapy, and a history of labile INR. Approximately 40% of patients (43.1% by the direct method and 39.4% by the Rosendaal method) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were receiving anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists in primary care in Spain had poor anticoagulation control during the previous 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Study and Evaluation of the Alcublas (Valencia, Spain) forest fire of Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Sanchez, Francisco; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    This work studies and quantifies the forest fire that took place in the province of Valencia, Spain, that particularly affected the municipality of Alcublas. This fire was one of the most intense and catastrophic fires that extended over the Valencian Community. Besides quantifying the area affected by the fire according to a severity index, the analysis was carried out from different viewpoints, namely land use, municipal, and cadastral. The data used were, on the one hand, two images from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite, respectively before and after the fire. On the other hand, we also used CORINE Land Cover 2006 Land Use data, a digital terrain model (DTM), the cadastre or land registration from Alcublas and the Spanish topographic map at scale 1:25000 (MTN25). The method used consisted of different steps: atmospheric correction of the images with the dark-object subtraction technique, topographic correction of the images with a 5 m resolution DTM and the Minnaert method, and the elimination of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC-off) effect by using the Delaunay triangulation method. Once the images were corrected, we computed the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to highlight and characterise the areas that were burnt by means of a standard severity index. The estimation of the affected area was done through the difference of the images respectively before and after the fire that was also trimmed off to actually obtain the affected area. Once the forest fire was classified, the total affected area was estimated for each severity index and overlaid the Spanish topographic map (1:25000) thus being able to calculate the affected area for each municipality, land use and cadastrial property. The total burnt area was 19910 ha, the most affected municipality -in extension- was Andilla with 4966 ha. But the most significant one was precisely Alcublas with 60,64% of its area burnt. The area burnt for each land use was also estimated according to

  4. Study of Chrysopogon Zizanioides ability to decontaminate irrigation water in Southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea Grajera, F. A.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional agriculture is characterized by the increasing use of agrochemicals to maintain and improve soil fertility. One of the main problems arising from this practise is the generation of leachates, which contain a high concentration of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and other contaminating components, causing soil and water pollution. This is a common problem in irrigated areas such as Las Vegas Bajas del Guadiana (Extremadura, Spain). Different techniques are being developed and used to control leachate generation, however, these practises happen to be very expensive. In this situation, the emergence of alternative technologies such as phytoremediation, based on the ability of some plants to absorb and accumulate high concentrations of pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and radiactive components, is being explored to restore the degraded lands and it seems very feasible, economical and environment-friendly. The Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass originally from India, widely known for its ability to retain soil and prevent erosion. Recently, the new use of this grass for phytoremediation has stimulated research in this area. It produces up to two meter high plant with a strong dense and mainly vertical root system with emerging secondary roots which form a dense and strong network that grows horizontally and vertically to depths greater than 5 meters, useful in soil erosion control. It is vegetatively propagated and is non-invasive, resistant to pests and diseases and widely used worldwide for soil and moisture conservation and soil restoration. This study, carried out in Badajoz, in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, focuses in the use of Vetiver in the area. Its adaptation to climatic and soil conditions was tested for three years. Bunches of selected species were first grown in pots and later planted in experimental plots exposed to the weather conditions in the area. When adaptation to edaphic and climatic

  5. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of evidence-based medicine in primary care in Spain: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Ricard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM was introduced in the early 90s as a new approach to the practice of medicine, using the best available evidence to make decisions about health care. Despite ongoing controversy, EBM has developed enormously and physicians' attitude towards it is generally positive. Nevertheless, in Spain little is known about this topic. We will therefore undertake a study to explore perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about EBM among primary care physicians. Methods and design A mixed-method study combining qualitative and quantitative designs will target family practitioners in Spain with the objective of evaluating current attitudes and perceptions about evidence-based medicine. The project will consist of two phases: a first phase running focus groups to identify perceptions and attitudes of participants, and a second phase assessing their attitudes and knowledge about EBM by means of a survey. Both phases will explore these issues in three different subgroups: family practitioners, with or without previous formal education in EBM; members of working groups that formulate healthcare recommendations; and physicians in charge of training family practice residents. Additionally, we will undertake a systematic review to identify and synthesize the available evidence on this topic. Discussion The study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers to the practice of evidence-based medicine among general practitioners in Spain. The project will also evaluate the main knowledge gaps and training needs, and explore how evidence-based medicine is being taught to family medicine residents, the medical practitioners of the future. Our results will aid researchers and health care planners in developing strategies to improve the practice of evidence-based medicine in our country.

  7. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  8. Patterns of pharmaceutical use for immigrants to Spain and Norway: a comparative study of prescription databases in two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andres; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Revilla-López, Concha; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-02-24

    Although equity in health care is theoretically a cornerstone in Western societies, several studies show that services do not always provide equitable care for immigrants. Differences in pharmaceutical consumption between immigrants and natives are explained by variances in predisposing factors, enabling factors and needs across populations, and can be used as a proxy of disparities in health care use. By comparing the relative differences in pharmacological use between natives and immigrants from the same four countries of origin living in Spain and Norway respectively, this article presents a new approach to the study of inequity in health care. All purchased drug prescriptions classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system in Aragon (Spain) and Norway for a total of 5 million natives and nearly 100,000 immigrants for one calendar year were included in this cross-sectional study. Age and gender adjusted relative purchase rates for immigrants from Poland, China, Colombia and Morocco compared to native populations in each of the host countries were calculated. Direct standardisation was performed based on the 2009 population structure of the OECD countries. Overall, a significantly lower proportion of immigrants in Aragon (Spain) and Norway purchased pharmacological drugs compared to natives. Patterns of use across the different immigrant groups were consistent in both host countries, despite potential disparities between the Spanish and Norwegian health care systems. Immigrants from Morocco showed the highest drug use rates in relation to natives, especially for antidepressants, "pain killers" and drugs for peptic ulcer. Immigrants from China and Poland showed the lowest use rates, while Colombians where more similar to host countries. The similarities found between the two European countries in relation to immigrants' pharmaceutical use disregarding their host country emphasises the need to consider specific immigrant-related features

  9. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  10. Exploring causes and consequences of sex workers' psychological health: Implications for health care policy. A study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Andrés Palacios; González, Ruth Pinedo; de la Iglesia Gutiérrez, Myriam

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the researchers is to explore the causes and consequences of the psychological health of sex workers as well as provide an intervention model for the prevention of mental disorders in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) levels. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from Spain. Loneliness and maltreatment have a negative influence on psychological health, while self-esteem has a protector role over psychological health. Psychological health has a positive impact on perceived quality of life and other health domains. On the contrary, psychological health has a negative impact on drug use and symptoms of anxiety. Data are discussed.

  11. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  12. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  13. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Objective Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. Methods To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. Results The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). Conclusions By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. PMID:29490955

  14. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana Maria; Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Aeronautical Engineering Education in Spain: Changing Needs in an Evolving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Val, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the successive stages of the School of Aeronautical Engineering of Madrid, Spain, in terms of entry requirements, curricula guidelines, options or specialties, duration of studies, and number of graduates. Also includes a description of the Spanish aeronautical industry and its evolution. (Author/PVD)

  16. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm f...

  17. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  18. [Study protocol on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Gotsens, Mercè; Palència, Laia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Puig, Vanessa; Bartoll, Xavier; Gandarillas, Ana; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Díez, Elia; Ruiz, Miguel; Esnaola, Santiago; Calvo, Montserrat; Sánchez, Pablo; Luque Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Borrell, Carme

    The aim is to present the protocol of the two sub-studies on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain. Substudy 1: describe the evolution of mortality and reproductive health between 1990 and 2013 through a longitudinal ecological study in the Autonomous Communities. This study will identify changes caused by the economic crisis in trends or reproductive health and mortality indicators using panel data (17 Autonomous Communities per study year) and adjusting Poisson models with random effects variance. Substudy 2: analyse inequalities by socioeconomic deprivation in mortality and reproductive health in several areas of Spain. An ecological study analysing trends in the pre-crisis (1999-2003 and 2004-2008) and crisis (2009-2013) periods will be performed. Random effects models Besag York and Mollié will be adjusted to estimate mortality indicators softened in reproductive health and census tracts. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail: cazorin@ceam.es; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  20. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine A; Clément, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  1. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Collins

    Full Text Available Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly. It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1 perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2 understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman. In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  2. Pathologically confirmed breast cancer in Malawi: a descriptive study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa, yet no published studies have ... receptor (HR) negative. However, HR ... to develop early diagnosis efforts to address high mortality rates. .... High Incidence of Triple-.

  3. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  4. Popular Legislative Initiative for Spain Surrogacy: A Study of the Role of Notary in Contract Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Sales Pallarés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Popular Legislative Initiative to regulate surrogacy in Spain. It is proposed to regulate this contractual figure guaranteeing the rights of all parties involved in the process by bringing this feature in the figure of the notary. Therefore, this article analyzes this notarial tutelage of the surrogacy contract. It will consider whether the functions of the Notary make possible this proposal or if it would be necessary to make changes either in the draft law on notary functions well.

  5. Healthcare professionals' views of the experiences of individuals living with Crohn's Disease in Spain. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanjuán, Sofía; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Richart-Martínez, Miguel; Sanjuán-Quiles, Ángela

    2018-01-01

    Crohn's Disease (CD) in Spain lacks of a unified National Clinical Pathway and not even any early detection program and professional follow-up outpatient attention once it has been diagnosed. Little is known about the Spanish health professionals' views of the experiences of individuals living with Crohn's Disease nationwide and also about how the Spanish Health System faces this situation. A qualitative research method was conducted to explore this topic through in-depth interviews with eleven healthcare professionals, who represented different clinics treating people with CD from the province of Alicante (Spain). Three topics and seven sub-topics were derived from the analysis of the content emerging from the interviews. The three main topics were: the healthcare system as a hindrance for ongoing treatment of CD, the impact of the disease, support networks. The knowledge of CD gained by healthcare professionals, in the contexts studied here within, with regards to the psychosocial aspects and the experience of those living with the disease and their immediate circles, is poor, if not null on an academic level, becoming experiential on their incorporation into the professional field. Additionally, a priori, they lack the tools to address the doubts and concerns of patients from the moment of diagnosis through the ongoing care of the patient. Organizational hindrances, such as the lack of time and consensual guidelines for adequately monitoring CD patients in Alicante (Spain), further restrict the patient-professional relationship. Due to the consensus established by the National Agency regulating the contents of the Health Professions' Education and Training across the country, we are assuming that the phenomenon highlighted may be similar in other parts of Spain. Therefore, it can be said that healthcare professionals have a limited understanding of the impact of CD on the day-to-day life of those affected, not being considered a part of the CD patients' formal

  6. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  7. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  8. A Descriptive Study on EFL Learners' Perceptions of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong need to investigate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of Facebook as a language-learning environment, as their perceptions that directly influence their language development and achievement have not been examined within the EFL learning context. Thus, this study aims to investigate EFL learners'…

  9. A Descriptive Study of Differing School Health Delivery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sherri I.; Maughan, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify and describe emerging models of school health services. Participants (N = 11) provided information regarding their models in semistructured phone interviews. Results identified a variety of funding sources as well as different staffing configurations and supervision. Strengths of…

  10. Dutch transmural nurse clinics for chronic patients: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, D.; Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    2000-01-01

    'Transmural care' can be defined as patient-tailored care provided on the basis of close collaboration and joint responsibility between hospitals and home care organizations. One form of transmural care is transmural nurse clinics for chronically ill. This study describes 62 transmural nurse clinics

  11. Exacerbations of asthma - A descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersfield, AE; Postma, DS; Barnes, PJ; Svensson, K; Bauer, CA; O'Byrne, PM; Lofdahl, CG; Pauwels, RA; Ullman, A

    The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue p-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high

  12. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Waly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman.Methods: This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat.Conclusion: Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  13. Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S

    2013-09-01

    Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  14. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  15. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm...... factors in more detail we designed an elaborate interview-guide. By in-depth interviews of farmers with well-managed 7-30 kg (weaner) productions we sought to describe a set of common key-factors characterizing their management practices. Identification of such common practices could be used in follow......-up projects, investigating whether identified factors really are characteristic for good-practicing famers.Results: Eleven farms were selected for a farm visit and in-depth interview. Participating farms used less antimicrobials than the national median (8.2 animal daily doses/100 weaners/day), had...

  17. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Nailfold video capillaroscopy in Turner syndrome: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Simone C. S.; Ramos,Andressa D.; Pinheiro,Virgínia S.; Solberg,Paulo F. C.; Faria,Janaina P. de; Naliato,Erika C. O.; Fernandes,Therezinha J.; Guimarães,Marília M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis is reported in Turner syndrome. Endothelial changes are described in patients with insulin resistance, which may be present in patients with Turner syndrome. Video capillaroscopy is a noninvasive examination that allows assessment of vascular patency. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nailfold morphology of capillaries in Turner syndrome using video capillaroscopy. METHODS: Subjects were studied in a temperature-controlled room, 20 ...

  19. Workplace bullying in the OR: Results of a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Esther; Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Albert, Nancy M; Bernhard, Linda; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the incidence of workplace bullying among perioperative RNs, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel in two academic medical centers. The study sought to determine whether the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, hospital, years of experience on the unit, years in the profession, and job title predict the experience of workplace bullying; whether a relationship exists between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion; and whether bullying is associated with perceptions of patient safety in the OR. The cross-sectional design included perioperative nurses, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel (N = 167). Fifty-nine percent of the study participants reported witnessing coworker bullying weekly, and 34% reported at least two bullying acts weekly. Having one's opinion ignored is the most common bullying act, with 28% of respondents experiencing being ignored. Differences in the experience of bullying can be found between hospitals and among ethnicities. Emotional exhaustion also was correlated with bullying. The participants did not perceive bullying as affecting patient safety. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions: descriptive clinical study

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    Gökçen Akçiçek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions and denture type, and demographic characteristics. Materials and Method: The age, sex, denture type, systemic condition and medication use, presence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DROML, their locations and patients’ awareness of above mentioned lesions were recorded for 199 patients. Pearson chi-square test was used to analyse the relationship between the DROML and denture type, and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results: Among the patients included to the study, 122 (61.3% were female and 77 (38.7% were male. Ninety-six patients (48.2% exhibited DROML, whereas 103 patients (51.8% had no DROML. No relationship was detected between DROML and age, and sex (p>0.05. The most commonly detected DROML was denture stomatitis (34.7%. Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently seen in partial denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were statistically more frequent in complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Traumatic ulcer was more frequently found in mandibular complete denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were significantly more common in maxillary complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Among the patients with DROML, 57.3% stated that they were unaware of these lesions. Conclusion: In this study sample, the rate of DROML was high in patients wearing removable dentures (48.2%, and more than half of the patients with DROML were not aware of these lesions. Upon these findings, it is considered that removable denture wearers should follow the denture usage instructions and should be informed about the importance of periodic controls.

  1. Dysphonia in adults with developmental stuttering: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Anél; Ras, Elizbé; Abdoola, Shabnam; Van der Linde, Jeannie

    2017-06-26

    Persons with stuttering (PWS) often present with other co-occurring conditions. The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) proposes that it is important to understand the full burden of a health condition. A few studies have explored voice problems among PWS, and the characteristics of voices of PWS are relatively unknown. The importance of conducting future research has been emphasised. This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI) and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Only two participants (10%) obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18) scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia) of voice (35%), while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08) have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41). The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  3. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

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    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  5. Rugae pattern determination in periodontitis patients: A descriptive study

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    Vikas Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic sciences, a well-established branch in the field of medicine and dentistry always aids in revealing person identity by various methods. Commonly used techniques are analysis of teeth, fingerprints, and DNA comparison, which allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, these techniques cannot always be applied, in some cases, it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the uniqueness of palatal rugae pattern in Himachal ethnicity population and whether there is any relation between pattern of rugae in gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. Settings and Design: The present study includes maxillary impressions cast in dental stone of patients attending and were divided into three groups of gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In our study, palatal rugae pattern were then evaluated on maxillary casts for the number and shape using calcorrugoscopy. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of means of number of rugae in three groups was done using independent sample t-test, and comparison of mean of different shapes was done employing analysis of variance. The level of significance was fixed at P< 0.05. Results: The most prevalent palatal rugae shape in aggressive periodontitis was found to be angle followed by Sinuous and in chronic and aggressive periodontitis was sinuous followed by line pattern. Conclusions: The differences in rugae shape between the three groups may be attributed to genetic factors, disease progression, and recent shared ancestry has probably rendered their differences to moderate levels.

  6. Study population, questionnaire, data management and sample description

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    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for

  7. Dysphonia in adults with developmental stuttering: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Botha

    2017-06-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Method: Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Result: Only two participants (10% obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18 scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia of voice (35%, while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08 have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41. Conclusion: The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.

  8. Ethical problems and moral sensitivity in physiotherapy: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulju, Kati; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-08-01

    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists' moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and justice, professionalism, unethical conduct of physiotherapists or other professions and patients' self-determination. The dimension of moral strength was emphasised in physiotherapists' self-evaluations of their moral sensitivity. As a conclusion, ethical problems do occur not only at individual level but also at organisational and society level. Physiotherapists seem to have moral strength for speaking on behalf of the patient. Scarce resources make them feel insufficient but much could still be done to provide quality care in co-operation with other health-care professionals.

  9. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

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    Dantoft TM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Jeanette Frost Ebstrup,1 Allan Linneberg,1–3 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Anja Lykke Madsen,1 Jesper Mehlsen,4 Louise Brinth,4 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Tina Wisbech Carstensen,6,7 Andreas Schroder,6,7 Per Klausen Fink,6,7 Erik Lykke Mortensen,8 Torben Hansen,9 Oluf Pedersen,9 Torben Jørgensen1,10,11 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 4Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Research Unit, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, 9Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, 10Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 11Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Abstract: The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors

  10. Descriptive study of the quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Perdigon C, G.M.; Casian C, G.A.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of mammography is to provide contrast between a lesion that is possible residing within the breast and normal surrounding tissue. Quality control is essential for maintaining the contrast imaging performance of a mammography system and incorporate tests that are relevant in that they are predictive of future degradation of contrast imaging performance. These tests will also be done at frequency that is high enough to intercept most drifts in quality imaging or performance before they become diagnostically significant. The quality control study has as objective to describe the results of the assessment of quality imaging elements (film optical density, contrast (density difference), uniformity, resolution and noise) of 62 mammography departments without quality control program and comparison these results with a mammography reference department with a quality control program. When comparing the results they allow seeing the clinical utility of to have a quality control program to reduce the errors of mammography interpretation. (Author)

  11. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranza, Giovanna; Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of ≥8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level (≤3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level

  12. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.M.; Kassem, H.A.; EL Zawam, H.; EL Nahas, T.; Abd El Azeeim, H.; Abd El Azeeim; El Husseiny, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Purpose: Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Methods: Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5 months (1-84 months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value >0.05). Conclusion: Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data.

  13. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Neemat M; El Zawam, Hamdy; Kassem, Heba A; El Nahas, Tamer; El Husseiny, Noha M; El Azeeim, Hamdy Abd

    2014-06-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5months (1-84months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value>0.05). Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Nurses' Work Environment and Spirituality: A Descriptive Study

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    Zastrow Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of care is a major health concern in the hospital setting. A work environment thatsupports professional nursing as well as the spirituality of nurses, or the meaning/purpose nurses find intheir work may contribute to quality of patient care. Yet, little is known about the nursing workenvironment and even less about the spirituality of nurses. Thus, the aims of this study were to measuremedical-surgical nurses’ perceived professional work environment score and perceived spiritual well-beingscore and determine if the two instruments are related. This cross-sectional survey consisted of aconvenience sample of 68 nurses who completed the Professional Practice Environment Scale (PPE andSpiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB on the hospital website during working hours. Several PPE subscalescores differed significantly among the various clinical units. As the nurse’s age, and years of clinicalexperience increased, specific PPE subscale scores also increased. The nurses’ mean SWB scores were allwithin the moderate range and did not differ significantly among the clinical units. The overall PPE andSWB scores were not significantly correlated. Nursing administrators can use the PPE scores from thisstudy to address the specific needs of individual clinical units. Older and more experienced nurses mayserve as resources for younger, less experienced nurses. Both instruments can be administered repeatedlyover time to monitor trends. Based on the SWB data, nurses in this study reported average levels ofspiritual well-being. However, there is a need to learn more about the specific spiritual needs of nurses.Spirituality of nurses as well as the nurse’s work environment are separate concepts that each merit furtherinvestigation and may add to the knowledge base for increased quality patient care.

  15. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  16. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions.

  17. [Primary focal dystonia: descriptive study of 205 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, F M; Fanjul, S; Cantarero, S; Hernández, J; García Ruiz, P J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of different types of focal dystonia. A total of 205 patients with primary focal dystonia were studied retrospectively and the following variables were analyzed: gender, age of onset, age at examination, evolution time, history of trauma, association with other movement disorders, fluctuations of dystonic symptoms as well as a family history of dystonia, Parkinson's disease, tremor, and lefthandedness or stuttering. We compared these variables among the different clinical categories of focal dystonia. Those patients with cranial and laryngeal dystonia were significantly older at the onset of symptoms compared with patients with writer's cramp. Males were more prevalent than females in all categories of focal dystonia except for cranial dystonia. Prior history of trauma and association with tremor were more frequent in patients with cervical dystonia than in those with others dystonic categories. Most patients with cranial, cervical and laryngeal dystonia had fluctuations in the intensity of dystonic symptoms, unlike the patients with writer's cramp. There is a caudo-cranial gradient in age of onset and the age of onset increases as the cranial presentation becomes greater. Females are more prevalent in cranial dystonia and there is a preponderance of males in the dystonias with a lower location. The dystonias with cranial distribution frequently present fluctuations of symptoms during the day. Association with other movement disorders, such as tremor, and prior history of trauma, is common in patients with cervical dystonia.

  18. Sexting by high school students: an exploratory and descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassberg, Donald S; McKinnon, Ryan K; Sustaíta, Michael A; Rullo, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a phenomenon known as sexting, defined here as the transfer of sexually explicit photos via cell phone, has received substantial attention in the U.S. national media. To determine the current and potential future impact of sexting, more information about the behavior and the attitudes and beliefs surrounding it must be gathered, particularly as it relates to sexting by minors. The present study was designed to provide preliminary information about this phenomenon. Participants were 606 high school students (representing 98 % of the available student body) recruited from a single private high school in the southwestern U.S. Nearly 20 % of all participants reported they had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone while almost twice as many reported that they had ever received a sexually explicit picture via cell phone and, of these, over 25 % indicated that they had forwarded such a picture to others. Of those reporting having sent a sexually explicit cell phone picture, over a third did so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences attached to the behavior. Given the potential legal and psychological risks associated with sexting, it is important for adolescents, parents, school administrators, and even legislators and law enforcement to understand this behavior.

  19. 'Zhonghua' tobacco advertisement in Shanghai: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Ge, Xin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla J; Kegler, Michelle C

    2014-09-01

    To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. Media monitoring and direct observations were conducted to assess tobacco advertisements for Zhonghua cigarettes in Shanghai, China, through the following channels: newspapers, TV, internet, outdoor advertisements and point-of-sale advertisements. Consistent with the national ban, no direct tobacco advertisements were found in newspapers or on TV. However, statements about counterfeit 'Zhonghua' cigarettes indirectly promoted Zhonghua tobacco through newspapers. Although no tobacco advertisements were found in Shanghai mainstream websites or in channels of national mainstream sites, a great amount of information was communicated about Zhonghua cigarettes via websites, using patriotic themes and associations with Chinese culture. Large outdoor tobacco advertisements of 'Loving my China' were found in downtown Shanghai. Zhonghua tobacco advertisements were present in almost all of the points-of-sale observed (95%). Zhonghua cigarettes are promoted directly and indirectly through a variety of channels. This study suggests there is an urgent need to establish comprehensive bans that prohibit all types of tobacco advertisements in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Descriptive study of the Socratic method: evidence for verbal shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Elvira, Ana; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Ruiz-Sancho, Elena María; Alpañés-Freitag, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    In this study we analyzed 65 fragments of session recordings in which a cognitive behavioral therapist employed the Socratic method with her patients. Specialized coding instruments were used to categorize the verbal behavior of the psychologist and the patients. First the fragments were classified as more or less successful depending on the overall degree of concordance between the patient's verbal behavior and the therapeutic objectives. Then the fragments were submitted to sequential analysis so as to discover regularities linking the patient's verbal behavior and the therapist's responses to it. Important differences between the more and the less successful fragments involved the therapist's approval or disapproval of verbalizations that approximated therapeutic goals. These approvals and disapprovals were associated with increases and decreases, respectively, in the patient's behavior. These results are consistent with the existence, in this particular case, of a process of shaping through which the therapist modifies the patient's verbal behavior in the overall direction of his or her chosen therapeutic objectives. © 2013.

  2. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

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    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  3. Terra-cotta figurines from the Roman theatre of Malaga (Spain: An archaeometric study

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    Compaña, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of 22 figured Phoeno-Punic and Roman terra-cottas, of high relevant archaeological and patrimonial values, have been studied. The samples were recovered in the Roman Theatre of Malaga (Spain. A thorough analysis including stereomicroscopy, elemental analysis by WDXRF, mineralogical analysis by XRPD coupled with the Rietveld method, and SEM, has been carried out. Highly diluted fused glass beads probed to be enough for the X-ray fluorescence analyses, minimizing the damage to the samples. For selected samples, in addition to the classical use of the Rietveld method, the G-factor external-standard approach has been employed to get full quantitative crystalline and amorphous phase analysis. The analytical results allow proposing a local regional provenance for the main part of the samples, being a relevant data for several artifacts, not contextualized due to stratigraphic alterations in the site. In addition, some relevant samples, for instance a theatrical mask fragment (TRC005, are likely foreign. The overall amorphous is not negligible in phase quantification, accounting for up to 50 wt %. Technologically, all terra-cotta samples are similar, made of calcareous clays, fired at ~700-950 ºC.Se han estudiado 22 terracotas figuradas feno-púnicas y romanas, de alto valor arqueológico y patrimonial. Las muestras proceden de las excavaciones del Teatro romano de Málaga (España. El análisis realizado incluye estereomicroscopía, análisis elemental mediante WDXRF, análisis mineralógico cuantitativo mediante el método de Rietveld de los datos de XRPD y SEM. Para minimizar el daño realizado a las muestras, se prepararon perlas muy diluidas, que han demostrado ser suficientes para los análisis de fluorescencia de rayos-X. Para muestras selectas, además del análisis usual mediante el método de Rietveld, se ha utilizado el método del estándar externo mediante el factor-G para obtener análisis cuantitativos de fases cristalinas y

  4. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  5. [Medical empathy of physicians-in-training who are enrolled in professional training programs. A comparative intercultural study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; San-Martín, Montserrat; Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-11-01

    To characterise some of the environmental factors that are sensitive to cultural influence, and are involved in the development of medical empathy in Spanish and Latin American physicians-in-training. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires. Primary care and specialized medicine centres of the Healthcare System of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain. Physicians-in-training MAIN MEASUREMENTS: : Empathy was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, version for healthcare professionals (JSE-HP). Socio-demographic, academic, and professional background information was collected. A total of 104 residents (67 from Spain and 32 from Latin America) answered and returned the questionnairess. The JSE-HP showed adequate psychometric properties. The empathy mean score of Spanish group was higher than that of the Latin American group (P=.01). Differences in the development of empathy were associated with: the development of professional models (P<.001), the positive encounter with other professionals (P=.001), and with a continuing medical education (P=.008). Some factors involved in the development of empathy that are sensitive to cultural influence have been characterised. The development of future research areas is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Proximity Online Media in Catalonia (Spain. The Case Study of Nació Digital Group

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    Mònica Puntí Brun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a conceptualization of proximity digital media. It will define what is local and proximity communication as well as the history and evolution of online journalism and digital media features which are briefly reviewed. Business models that exist nowadays and the state of art in Catalonia (Spain will also be briefly analysed. From this theoretical framework it will be explained the case of Nació Digital and its territorial media. Initially the history of this media group will be developed, as well as its journalistic and business models. The paper seeks to underscore the importance of the journalistic model based on the tradition of the profession, the proximity information and the technology developed for this online media. The Nació Digital is an example of a successful media outlet judging from its audience figures (the second online media in Catalonia and its sustainable model business.

  8. Determinants of regional labour productivity growth: A study for the hospitality sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Ortega Aguaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determinants of labour productivity growth in the hospitality industry in Spain using regional data over the period 1996-2004. The results obtained suggest that the increase in the number of 3-star hotels and the reduction process in the stock of physical capital per worker are factors which may have contributed to the fall in productivity growth. However, increased regional tourism intensity has a positive impact on the growth of labour productivity. Nonetheless, changes in demand-related factors, such as average length of stay and the seasonality of demand, have not had a significant aggregate impact on labour productivity growth during this period.

  9. The visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno (Jaen, Spain): A study with IBA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.; Enguita, O.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Calusi, S.; Migliori, A.; Montero, I.

    2006-01-01

    The visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno (Jaen, Spain) was found by chance in the year 1926 buried in an olive grove. The finding consisted of some hundreds fragments of gold objects and gems coming from several votive crowns and crosses, some of them belonging to an unidentified visigothic king. The treasure may belong chronologically to the same period as the Guarrazar treasure or, possibly, to a somewhat later time, but the pieces are fragmented and of less technological workmanship than the latter. This is the reason why the Torredonjimeno treasure has not attracted as much attention from archeologists and art historians as that from Guarrazar. On the occasion of an exhibition showing together all the objects of the treasure, it is normally kept in three different museums in Barcelona, Cordoba and Madrid, a number of pieces were analyzed, using PIXE, PIGE and RBS, at the external microbeam facility installed at the Center for Micro-Analysis of Materials

  10. Transforming Verbal Counts in Reports of Qualitative Descriptive Studies Into Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Voils, Corrine I.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Hasselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of qualitative studies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitative studies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative. PMID:19448052

  11. Study of brachydactyly in gipsy population: Description of a familial case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Lázaro, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brachydactyly is an inheritable autosomal genetic malformation, either dominant or recessive. This article describes a gypsy family presenting with congenital brachydactyly. The study was conducted at the Sanitary District of Guadix, in Granada, Spain. The study subjects were four siblings (two women and two men, members of the same family and belonging to the Roma community. Demographic and genetic data were collected. With some variability, they had the phenotypic manifestation of brachydactyly. Radiographic data revealed that it was type A4 brachydactyly, but one of them featured a blend of A4 with E, or perhaps it is a new unclassified variety. All cases showed similar abnormalities in the feet. Besides, they are obese, and have dyslipidemia and different degrees of consanguinity.

  12. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-Kα radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water

  13. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  14. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes: I. Description of methods and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.

  15. First-year success in a nursing baccalaureate plan of study: A descriptive research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Vivian; Thomas, Jessica A; Fernando, Harshini

    2018-08-01

    Predicting students' aptitude for post-secondary success remains a widely studied topic. This descriptive study explored demographic variables contributing to success in quantitative courses required by the nursing degree plan. Identification of an "at risk" student profile may inform interventions with which to support attainment of an academic degree. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between demographic characteristics and successful completion of baccalaureate nursing courses thought to enhance quantitative reasoning skills: first-year math, first-year chemistry, and second-year pathopharmacology nursing. This retrospective analysis accessed 4521 academic records of students who took these three courses at a United States university sometime between Fall 2008 and Fall 2015. De-identified student data included course grades, gender, full-time study, income, marital status, first generation, secondary school (also known as high school) location, dual credit, and high school and university grade point averages. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to describe the important features of the data. Of the 4521 records, 2556 undergraduates (57%) passed the courses in which they were enrolled. Among successful students, females outnumbered males (66%), ages ranged from 20 to 24 years, 86% were classified as low income, 54% fit the designation of first generation, and 12% earned dual credit (university credit during secondary school). Our data demonstrate a positive relationship between dual credit and success, with the strongest correlation (0.62) noted for students in pathopharmacology. In the baccalaureate-nursing plan of study, courses thought to enhance students' quantitative reasoning skills remain difficult for some to successfully complete. We conclude that the more successful students tend to be older, have a higher income, and a higher high school grade point average, while those less successful are directly out of high

  16. Baccalaureate Student Nurses' Study Habits Prior to Admission to Nursing Program: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Rhea Faye D; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Bigley, Louise; Adams, Kathryn

    2017-06-01

    Faculty continue to observe students struggling as they adapt their study strategies to learn nursing core content. This study described the study habits of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students prior to admission to the program. This study used a descriptive qualitative research design. A purposive sample of 19 BSN students (juniors [n=10] and seniors [n=9]) from a 4-year public Midwestern university were included in this study. Two focus group sessions, using a semi-structured interview guide, were conducted in the spring semester of 2013. The four themes which emerged from the analysis of data were: "I just got it," "I had a lot of time then," "I studied alone" mostly, and "…a little struggle with the sciences." The findings suggest the BSN students did not study much or employed poor study strategies during their years completing general education courses. Academic support is needed by students prior to admission to the nursing program so they can learn effective study skills and modify their study habits for easier adaptation to the rigors of nursing education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. Objectives This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checkl...

  18. [Preparation of sedation-analgesia procedures in spanish paediatric emergency departments: A descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Navarro, Concepción; Oikonomopoulou, Niki; Lorente Romero, Jorge; Vázquez López, Paula

    2017-07-24

    The objective of this study was to describe the current practice regarding the preparation of the sedation-analgesia (SA) procedures performed in the paediatric emergency centres in Spain. A multicentre, observational and prospective analytical study was carried out on the SA procedures that were performed on children under 18 years-old in 18 paediatric emergency departments between February 2015 and January 2016. A total of 658 SA procedures were registered in 18 hospitals of Spain, most of them to children older than 24 months. The type of the procedure was: simple analgesia in 57 (8.6%), sedation in 44 (6.7%), SA for a not very painful procedure in 275 (41.8%), and SA for a very painful procedure in 282 (42.9%). Informed consent was requested in 98.6% of the cases. The written form was more frequently preferred in the group of patients that received SA for a very painful procedure (76.6%) in comparison to a painful procedure or to simple analgesia (62.9% and 54.4%, respectively, P<.001). The staff that most frequently performed the SA procedures were the paediatricians of the emergency departments (64.3%), followed by Paediatrics Residents (30.7%). The most frequent reasons for the SA were traumatological (35.9%) and surgical (28.4%). Fasting was observed in 81% of the cases. More than two-thirds (67.3%, n=480) children were monitored, the majority (95.8%) of them using pulse oximetry. The pharmacological strategy used was the administration of one drug in 443 (67.3%) of the cases, mostly nitrous oxide, and a combination of drugs in 215 (32.7%), especially midazolam/ketamine (46.9%). The majority of the SA procedures analysed in this study have been carried out correctly and prepared in accordance with the current guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. [Books on anesthesiology and resuscitation published in Spain. An approach to their study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Baños, J E

    1998-03-01

    Few authors have examined the publication of medical books. Our aim was to analyze the nature of books published in Spain on anesthesiology and recovery. Books listed by the Spanish ISBN agency were selected if they included anestesi* or reanima* in any field. Duplicates were removed. Multiple editions or references were considered single books, with data for the oldest edition entered into analysis. Multiple volume collections were grouped as complete works. Data analyzed for each book were year of publication, language (of publication and the original), subject (according to ISBN classification) and place of publication. Nine subject classifications were applied: general, recovery, anesthetic techniques, pharmacology, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, veterinary anesthesia, dental anesthesia and miscellaneous. We analyzed 216 books. Years that saw publication of the greatest number of books were 1988 (17), 1993 (16) and 1979 (15), and the five-year period in which the most books were published was 1985 to 1989 (48 books, 22.2%). Most books (114, 52.8%) were originally written in English, Spanish being the second most common original language (58, 26.8%). All books were published in Spanish. The Spanish ISBN classification system identified 11 categories: general diseases/clinical medicine/therapy (161, 74.5%); drugs/pharmacology/physical therapy/toxicology (20, 9.3%); gynecology/obstetrics (9, 4.2%), veterinary medicine (9, 4.2%) and medicine (8, 3.7%). Classification by specific subjects showed a predominance of monographs or treatises on general aspects (42, 19.4%) followed by books on recovery (37, 17.1%), anesthetic techniques (25, 11.6%) and pharmacology (17, 7.9%). Most books were published in Barcelona (142, 65.7%), Madrid (36, 16.7%) or Saragossa (10, 4.6%). Spanish publication of books on anesthesiology and recovery has increased in recent years. Most books are translations usually from English. Spanish ISBN agency data, although it has limitations, can

  20. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  1. Comparative study of the main characteristics and composition of the mainstream smoke of ten cigarette brands sold in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilla, A; Martínez, I; Berenguer, D; Gómez-Siurana, A; Beltrán, M I

    2012-05-01

    In this study 10 commercial top selling cigarette brands in Spain have been machine smoked and the mainstream smoke has been analyzed. Multifunctional analysis has been satisfactorily employed to correlate the effect of the main design features of the cigarettes including amount of tobacco, filter size or paper weight with the amount of smoked tobacco and with the ratio CO(2)/CO. The composition of the vapor phase and that of the particulate matter have been analyzed. The particulate matter retained in the filter of the cigarettes has also been analyzed showing a distinct behavior of the compounds condensed in the cigarette filters and in the traps, related to their retention time. A general trend for the relative yield of some compounds in the different brands have been identified and confirmed by multifunctional analysis. Nevertheless, there are some noticeable compounds that behave differently in the different brands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

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    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  4. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

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    Jimenez-Puente Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6. The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51, with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo. All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them.

  5. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

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    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  6. The role of GIS in urban seismic risk studies: application to the city of Almería (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.; Bernabé, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    This work describes the structure and characteristics of the geographic information system (GIS) developed for the urban seismic risk study of the city of Almería (southern Spain), identifying the stages in which the use of this tool proved to be very beneficial for adopting informed decisions throughout the execution of the work. After the completion of the regional emergency plans for seismic risk in Spain and its subsequent approval by the National Civil Defence Commission, the municipalities that need to develop specific local seismic risk plans have been identified. Hence, the next action is to develop urban seismic risk analyses at a proper scale (Urban Seismic Risk Evaluation - Risk-UR). For this evaluation, different factors influencing seismic risk such as seismic hazard, geotechnical soil characteristics, vulnerability of structures of the region, reparation costs of damaged buildings and exposed population are combined. All these variables are gathered and analysed within a GIS and subsequently used for seismic risk estimation. The GIS constitutes a highly useful working tool because it facilitates data interoperability, making the great volume of information required and the numerous processes that take part in the calculations easier to handle, speeding up the analysis and the interpretation and presentation of the results of the different working phases. The result of this study is based on a great set of variables that provide a comprehensive view of the urban seismic risk, such as the damage distribution of buildings and dwellings of different typologies, the mean damage and the number of uninhabitable buildings for the expected seismic motion, the number of dead and injured at different times of the day, the cost of reconstruction and repair of buildings, among others. These results are intended for interpretation and decision making in emergency management by unspecialised users (Civil Defence technicians and managers).

  7. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  8. New solar components studied in an experimental solar house in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimboli, A [IBESA (ES); Cusido, J A; Puigdomenech, J [Escola Tecnica Superior d' Arquitectura del Valles, Barcelona (ES)

    1990-09-01

    A prototype experimental solar building has been built in the School of Architecture of Valles, Spain. Its final design takes advantage of beneficial climatic effects in order to maintain indoor thermal comfort and to lower auxiliary energy usage. The building has 100 sq m of usable surface, 55 sq m of which are habitable. The remaining area is a greenhouse which is intended for experimental hydroponic cultivation. One of the main features is a thermal regulation system named the ''thermal shield''. This device, placed on the South facade of the building, is composed of a series of plastic translucent layers. Fan-forced air passes through the outer layer and circulates through the special recticular structure of the building to provide daytime heating. A heat absorbing fluid circulating through the innermost layer transfers heat via an exchanger to a storage tank of eutectic salts. The diurnal stored energy can be retrieved to heat the house at night. The thermal shield, which is computer controlled, can also be used to reduce solar gains in summer. (author).

  9. Technology mix alternatives with high shares of wind power and photovoltaics—case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubi, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    The shift to a low carbon society is an issue of highest priority in the EU. For electricity generation, such a target counts with three main alternatives: renewable energies, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage. This paper focuses on the renewables’ alternative. Due to resource availability, a technology mix with a high share of PV and wind power is gaining increasing interest as a major solution for several EU member states and in part for the EU collectively to achieve decarbonization and energy security with acceptable costs. Due to their intermittency, the integration of high shares of PV and wind power in the electricity supply is challenging. This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power in Spain, as an example. Thereby, the focus is on the option of increasing wind curtailment versus substituting rigid baseload generation in favor of the more flexible gas turbines and combined cycle gas turbines. - Highlights: ► The potential of power generation from renewable energy resources in the EU is illustrated. ► The LEC of the different technologies considered is calculated for today and future scenarios. ► An excel-based model for the technology mix assessment is applied using Spanish data. ► Technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power are assessed. ► The focus is on increasing wind curtailment vs. relying on more flexible power generation units.

  10. Energy Analysis at a Near Zero Energy Building. A Case-Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Rey-Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an energy analysis for an existing near Zero Energy (nZEB and Zero Carbon Emissions building called LUCIA, located at the university campus in Valladolid (Spain. It is designed to supply electricity, cooling and heating needs through solar energy (Photovoltaic Systems, PV, biomass and an Earth–Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE, besides a Combined Heat Power (CHP. It is currently among the top three buildings with the highest LEED certification in the World. The building model is simulated with DesignBuilder version 5. The results of the energy analysis illustrate the heating, cooling and lighting consumptions expected, besides other demands and energy uses. From this data, we carried out an energy balance of the nZEB, which will help to plan preventive actions when compared to the actual energy consumptions, improving the management and control of both the building and its systems. The primary energy indicator obtained is 67 kWh/m2 a year, and 121 kWh/m2 a year for renewable energy generation, with respect to 55 kWh/m2 and 45 kWh/m2 set as reference in Europe. The Renewable Energy Ratio (RER is 0.66. These indicators become a useful tool for the energy analysis of the nZEB according to the requirements in the European regulations and for its comparison with further nZEB.

  11. Transport and low-carbon fuel: A study of public preferences in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Maria L.; Labandeira, Xavier; Hanemann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transport is essential for the control of future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus a target for active policy intervention in the future. Yet, social preferences for policies are likely to play an important role. In this paper we first review the existing literature on preferences regarding low-GHG car fuels, but also covering policy instruments and strategies in this area. We then present the results of a survey of Spanish households aimed at measuring preferences for climate change policies. We find a positive willingness to pay (WTP) (in the form of higher car fuel prices) for a policy to reduce GHG emissions through biofuels. There is, however, significant heterogeneity in public preferences due to personal motivations (accounted for via factor analysis of responses to attitudinal questions) and to socio-demographic variables. - Highlights: • Road transport is the cause of important energy-related problems, particularly the emission of greenhouse gases and local pollution. • This paper explores public attitudes and preferences towards low-carbon fuel policies in Spain via contingent valuation. • A factor analysis is performed, showing the existence of pro-social and economic factors related to preferences for policies. • Drivers were willing to pay an extra of 115.5 Euros per year for low-carbon fuels, roughly an extra 0.07 (0.08) Euros/liter for gasoline (diesel). • The results encourage the use of these low-GHG policies as feasible alternatives for climate policies in the transport area

  12. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  13. Quality of Austrian and Dutch Falls-Prevention Information: A Comparative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoberer, Daniela; Mijnarends, Donja M.; Fliedner, Monica; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of written patient information material available in Austrian and Dutch hospitals and nursing homes pertaining to falls prevention. Design: Comparative descriptive study design Setting: Hospitals and nursing homes in Austria and the Netherlands. Method: Written patient…

  14. Exploring the Causes of Underachievement of African American Boys: A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rosetta

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative descriptive case study explores the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American boys in New York City public elementary schools. Numerous studies have been conducted at the middle school through college levels. However, very little is known about the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American…

  15. Study on the methodology for hydrogeological site descriptive modelling by discrete fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ando, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Shuuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for site descriptive modelling considering the hydraulic heterogeneity due to the Water Conducting Features in fractured rocks. The WCFs was defined by the interpretation and integration of geological and hydrogeological data obtained from the deep borehole investigation campaign in the Mizunami URL project and Regional Hydrogeological Study. As a result of surface based investigation phase, the block-scale hydrogeological descriptive model was generated using hydraulic discrete fracture networks. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modelling were addressed in a systematic way. (author)

  16. Preliminary Study of Favourable Formations for CO2 Subsurface Storage in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, M. A.; Reyes, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.; Perucha, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the possibilities of CO 2 storage in the Spanish subsurface. Compilation and analysis of geological information has been carried out, looking at surface and subsurface, in order to make a pre-selection of potential favourable units for CO 2 storage, taking in account that each of this storages needs a confining formation to seal the storage. Before the storage selection, a general description of the great geological units of the Iberian Peninsula is done. Afterwards, borehole logging from petroleum exploration is analysed in these units, formations and areas of interest. The aim is to finally obtain a description of selected units and their possibilities of CO 2 storage. (Author) 17 refs

  17. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roura

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities.We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain. We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants' insights.The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations' health.Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers' emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater

  18. Study of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light-scattering in southern Spain

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    Gloria Titos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation focuses on the characterisation of the aerosol particle hygroscopicity. Aerosol particle optical properties were measured at Granada, Spain, during winter and spring seasons in 2013. Measured optical properties included particle light-absorption coefficient (σap and particle light-scattering coefficient (σsp at dry conditions and at relative humidity (RH of 85±10%. The scattering enhancement factor, f(RH=85%, had a mean value of 1.5±0.2 and 1.6±0.3 for winter and spring campaigns, respectively. Cases of high scattering enhancement were more frequent during the spring campaign with 27% of the f(RH=85% values above 1.8, while during the winter campaign only 8% of the data were above 1.8. A Saharan dust event (SDE, which occurred during the spring campaign, was characterised by a predominance of large particles with low hygroscopicity. For the day when the SDE was more intense, a mean daily value of f(RH=85%=1.3±0.2 was calculated. f(RH=85% diurnal cycle showed two minima during the morning and afternoon traffic rush hours due to the increase in non-hygroscopic particles such as black carbon and road dust. This was confirmed by small values of the single-scattering albedo and the scattering Ångstrom exponent. A significant correlation between f(RH=85% and the fraction of particulate organic matter and sulphate was obtained. Finally, the impact of ambient RH in the aerosol radiative forcing was found to be very small due to the low ambient RH. For high RH values, the hygroscopic effect should be taken into account since the aerosol forcing efficiency changed from −13 W/m2 at dry conditions to −17 W/m2 at RH=85%.

  19. RECORDING AND MODELING OF FORTRESSES AND CASTLES WITH UAS. SOME STUDY CASES IN JAEN (SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cardenal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Jaen (Southern Spain has one of the largest concentrations of medieval fortresses of all Europe. Moreover ancient Iberian settlements located in oppida (fortified villages and dated at VI-IV BC also are outstanding examples of historical heritage landmarks in the region. Most of these places are being restored or under documentation analysis to prevent their progressive deterioration. These places have several geometric characteristics in common, such as isolated locations, elongated shapes, largemedium size objects (in the order of tens to few hundred of meters, architectural features with vertical development (such as masonry or rammed earth walls, towers, gates, battlements, etc or without it (walls, buildings or paths layouts at ground level. The object size, the required level of details and accuracy (of the order of some few cm and both vertical and horizontal features imply that present UAS techniques can be advantageously used with respect to conventional aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques. Vertical stereoscopic and oblique convergent UAS photogrammetric networks combined with processing techniques based on Structure from Motion (SfM algorithms allow detailed low cost 2D/3D products. The proper selection of the UAS, camera, image acquisition mode (stop and/or cruising, the network and the processing software will determine the quality of final products and their usefulness in metric documentation, 3D modelization or museology. The efficiency of the use of UAS has been analyzed in several selected examples in Jaen (Burgalimar and Berrueco castles, Xth and XIIIth centuries, respectively, and the Iberian Puente Tablas oppidum, Vth-IVth centuries BC.

  20. Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change: A Case Study on the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Bellin, A.; Majone, B.; Bovolo, C. I.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in projections from climate models limits the understanding of future hydrological impacts and complicates the assessment of mitigation policies. This work presents hydrological simulations of the Ebro River Basin (Spain), using both control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climate scenarios, in order to investigate the effect of climate change on the water availability of the basin. Using the SWAT model, hydrological simulations were carried out for four catchments with different climatological regimes. Sets of model parameters were identified using sensitivity analysis, long-term calibration and uncertainty analysis procedures, which enabled the historical behaviour of the catchments to be reproduced. Following validation, the parameters were used to simulate the effects of climate change on future streamflow. Bias-corrected daily time series of precipitation and mean temperature from an ensemble of 6 Regional Climate Models (RCMs), using the SRES A2 emissions scenario, were used as drivers of the hydrological simulations during the future scenarios. Important annual and seasonal differences in the projected future precipitation and temperature fields were observed among the RCMs. However, a general decrease in annual mean precipitation and an increase in annual mean temperature relative to the control period were observed, with the strongest differences during the summer season. When these changes were used to project future streamflows, a general decrease was observed at the outlet of the catchments. Changes in streamflows were in general agreement with the projections of daily precipitation and temperature fields, with a larger drop in predicted monthly streamflows for catchments with more semi-arid climatological regimes, and seasonal differences that are related to the elevation range of the catchments.

  1. Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cowpertwait

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatiotemporal Neyman–Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates.

    Daily temperature data from 23 sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures.

    A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007 is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal

  2. Night shift work and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Laura; Benavente, Yolanda; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Casabonne, Delphine; Robles, Claudia; Gonzalez-Barca, Eva-Maria; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Alonso, Esther; Aymerich, Marta; Tardón, Adonina; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Gimeno-Vázquez, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has few known modifiable risk factors. Recently, circadian disruption has been proposed as a potential contributor to lymphoid neoplasms' etiology. Serum melatonin levels have been found to be significantly lower in CLL subjects compared with healthy controls, and also, CLL prognosis has been related to alterations in the circadian molecular signaling. We performed the first investigation of an association between night shift work and CLL in 321 incident CLL cases and 1728 population-based controls in five areas of Spain. Participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic factors, familial, medical and occupational history, including work shifts and other lifestyle factors. We used logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-nine cases (25%) and 339 controls (20%) had performed night work. Overall, working in night shifts was not associated with CLL (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.78-1.45, compared with day work). However, long-term night shift (>20 years) was positively associated with CLL (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 1.77; 95% = 1.14-2.74), although no linear trend was observed (P trend = 0.18). This association was observed among those with rotating (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.33-3.92; P trend = 0.07), but not permanent night shifts (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.60-2.25; P trend = 0.86). The association between CLL and long-term rotating night shift warrants further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Case series and descriptive cohort studies in neurosurgery: the confusion and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esene, Ignatius N; Ngu, Julius; El Zoghby, Mohamed; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Sikod, Anna M; Kotb, Ali; Dechambenoit, Gilbert; El Husseiny, Hossam

    2014-08-01

    Case series (CS) are well-known designs in contemporary use in neurosurgery but are sometimes used in contexts that are incompatible with their true meaning as defined by epidemiologists. This inconsistent, inappropriate and incorrect use, and mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence. Using PubMed, we systematically identified published articles that had "case series" in the "title" in 15 top-ranked neurosurgical journals from January 2008 to December 2012. The abstracts and/or full articles were scanned to identify those with descriptions of the principal method as being "case series" and then classified as "true case series" or "non-case series" by two independent investigators with 100 % inter-rater agreement. Sixty-four articles had the label "case series" in their "titles." Based on the definition of "case series" and our appraisal of the articles using Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, 18 articles (28.13 %) were true case series, while 46 (71.87 %) were mislabeled. Thirty-five articles (54.69 %) mistook retrospective (descriptive) cohorts for CS. CS are descriptive with an outcome-based sampling, while "descriptive cohorts" have an exposure-based sampling of patients, followed over time to assess outcome(s). A comparison group is not a defining feature of a cohort study and distinguishes descriptive from analytic cohorts. A distinction between a case report, case series, and descriptive cohorts is absolutely necessary to enable the appropriate indexing, sorting, and application of evidence. Researchers need better training in methods and terminology, and editors and reviewers should scrutinize more carefully manuscripts claiming to be "case series" studies.

  4. Prevalence and impact of fibromyalgia on function and quality of life in individuals from the general population: results from a nationwide study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, A J; Carmona, L; Valverde, M; Ribas, B

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) and to compare some descriptive epidemiological and quality of life data between persons with and without FM criteria in a representative sample of the general Spanish population. Cross sectional study of 2,192 Spaniards aged 20 or above, selected by cluster sampling. Subjects were invited to a structured interview carried out by trained rheumatologists to ascertain various musculoskeletal disorders. The visit included screening and examination, validated instruments for measuring function (HAQ) and quality of life (SF-12) and questions about socio-demographic characteristics and musculoskeletal, mental, and other general symptoms. FM was suspected in subjects with widespread pain for more than three months. FM was defined by theAmerican College of Rheumatology classification criteria. All estimates are adjusted to sampling scheme. The prevalence of FM in Spain is 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-3.2). FM is significantly more frequent in women (4.2%) than in men (0.2%), with an OR for women of 22.5 (95%CI: 7.2- 69.9), mainly in the 40-49 years age interval. It is more frequent in rural (4.1%) than in urban settings (1.7%), with an OR for rural settings of 2.5 (95%CI: 1.03-5.9). FM is associated with a low educational level, to a low social class, and to self-reported depression. The scores in the HAQ and in the SF-12 were significantly lower in FM subjects, despite adjustment by covariates. FM has a high prevalence in the general population. FM is associated to female gender, comorbidities, age between 40 and 59 years, and a rural setting. Persons fulfilling FM criteria show impaired functioning and quality of life.

  5. Depression and Anxiety in a Cardiovascular Outpatient Clinic: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baktash Bayani MD; Shakila Yousefi Msc; Mahtab Bayani MD; Maryam Shirmohammadi Msc; Abdollatif Alimoradi Msc; Homa Falsoleiman MD; Narges Yazdi Msc; Mohammad Arbabi MD

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac diseases are psycho-somatic disorders, and psychological aspects play an essential role in their initiation and exacerbation. The aim of this study was to gain appropriate knowledge in the epidemiology of co-morbid depression and anxiety disorder in cardiovascular outpatients.Method: This study is descriptive with a sample of patients attending a cardio-vascular clinic. 238 individuals were included in this study using a consecutive sampling method. The study instrument was...

  6. Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 2: descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the rationale for common statistical tests used for the analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate descriptive and inferential statistics. The uses and limitations of linear and logistic regression analyses are discussed in detail.

  7. A Set of Descriptive Case Studies of Four Dance Faculty Members' Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Meredith; Erwin, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Dance faculty members come from a variety of backgrounds, which lead to varied knowledge bases and varied teaching practices. More information is needed about the current pedagogical practices of higher education dance faculty. This study sought to provide a description of four faculty members' pedagogical approaches to a dance technique class in…

  8. The Subsystem of Numerals in Catalan Sign Language: Description and Examples from a Psycholinguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariana; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic descriptions of sign languages are important to the recognition of their linguistic status. These languages are an essential part of the cultural heritage of the communities that create and use them and vital in the education of deaf children. They are also the reference point in language acquisition studies. Ours is exploratory…

  9. Work-related experiences of head and neck cancer survivors: an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study contributes to the growing knowledge about the return-to-work (RTW) experience of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Viewing RTW as a process, participants were asked to consider the work-related experience with HNC at different phases: (1) at

  10. Improving the Success of Light Armored Vehicle Drivers: A Qualitative Descriptive Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive narrative research was the first known study to collect participants' perceptions on the effectiveness of the Marine Corps' Light Armored Vehicle driver training. The general problem was the Marine Corps' vague guidance on curriculum development, instruction, and assessment for driver training of the Light armored…

  11. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  12. Patients with persistent medically unexplained physical symptoms: A descriptive study from Norwegian general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Aamland, Aase; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Further research on effective interventions for patients with peristent Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) in general practice is needed. Prevalence estimates of such patients are conflicting, and other descriptive knowledge is needed for development and evaluation of effective future interventions. In this study, we aimed to estimate the consultation prevalence of patients with persistent MUPS in general practice, including patients’ characteristics and...

  13. A descriptive analysis of studies on behavioural treatment of drooling (1970-2005).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J.W. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18

  14. A descriptive analysis of studies on behavioural treatment of drooling (1970-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J.W. van der; Didden, H.C.M.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18

  15. Media-politics interaction in times of economic crisis: a comparative study of Spain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Mena, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the multi-directional causal relationships between stock market ratings, negative economic coverage in two national newspapers and parliamentary questions addressing negative aspects of the economy in Spain and the Netherlands. Weekly-level Vector Autoregression (VAR)

  16. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A radiological study of some ornamental stones: the bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain we have found a variety of striking bluish and secondary yellow granites outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals in which a bluish phosphate is dispersed throughout the rock. Their physical and mechanical properties make these granites a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. Within the pluton the radiological background is fairly homogeneous, with no significant differences between the gamma ray fluxes of the different facies. U (6.4 ± 0.51 ppm, Th (2.9 ± 0.47 ppm and K2O (4.32 ± 0.26% contents determined in the laboratory by gamma-ray spectrometry from representative samples are in good accordance with fast in situ measurements carried out with the same technique and also with conventional chemical analysis. Estimated activities for K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 were, on average, 1022 ± 36 Bq kg−1, 84 ± 9 Bq kg−1 and 6.8 ± 1.6 Bq kg−1. On the basis of these results, the I index of EU technical document 112 was determined, with an average result of 0.66 ± 0.03. This suggests that the rock can be used with no restrictions for all types of construction purposes. Striking differences were observed between the blue facies and the yellow facies in radon exhalation tests from crushed material (0.03 Bq kg−1 vs. 0.20 Bq kg−1. Since both granites have similar uranium contents (6.3 ppm and 6.5 ppm, respectively, these results can probably be explained in terms of important differences in the mineralogical distribution of this chemical element, radon emanation being enhanced in the yellow facies. However, due to the ordinary use as ornamental stone, the yellow facies does not present a radiological risk in terms of excess effective dose due to internal exposure to radon.

  18. Pain perception description after advanced surface ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobas EM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eva M Sobas,1,2 Sebastián Videla,3,4 Amanda Vázquez,1 Itziar Fernández,1,5 Miguel J Maldonado,1 José-Carlos Pastor1,6,7 1Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid Spain; 3Laboratorios Dr. Esteve S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; 5Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, Valladolid, Spain; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain; 7Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Physiotherapy, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of ocular pain after advanced surface ablation (ASA to improve strategies in postoperative pain management.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive, cohort study. The inclusion criteria were healthy individuals ≥18 years old receiving bilateral alcohol-assisted surface ablation with epithelial removal. Pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS and the numeric pain rating scale before and after surgery. Comorbidities (photophobia, burning, tearing, and foreign body sensation and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD questionnaire were evaluated before and at 6 hours after surgery. Postoperative treatments included cold patch, topical cold antibiotics, topical steroids, and benzodiazepines.Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients having similar profiles of postoperative pain evolution were included. At 0.5 hour after ASA, the pain score by VAS was 37±20 mm, and the maximum pain, 61±31 mm, occurred at 24 hours. Afterward, it decreased progressively until 72 hours after surgery (19±20 mm. Most patients (81% scored >60 mm, and

  19. System description of the Repository-Only System for the FY 1990 systems integration program studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1991-07-01

    This document provides both functional and physical descriptions of a conceptual high-level waste management system defined as a Repository-Only System. Its purpose is to provide a basis for required system computer modeling and system studies initiated in FY 1990 under the Systems Integration Program of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The Repository-Only System is designed to accept 3000 MTU per year of spent fuel and 400 equivalent MTU per year of high-level wastes disposal in the geologic repository. This document contains both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system and physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those processes. These descriptions contain the level of detail needed for the projected systems analysis studies. The Repository-Only System contains all system components, from the waste storage facilities of the waste generators to the underground facilities for final disposal of the wastes. The major facilities in the system are the waste generator waste storage facilities, a repository facility that packages the wastes and than emplaces them in the geologic repository, and the transportation equipment and facilities for transporting the wastes between these major facilities. 18 refs., 39 figs

  20. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Vibration Characteristics of Buildings and Civil Structures: Recent Case Studies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Fernández, Enric

    2017-03-24

    The potential of a coherent microwave sensor to monitor the vibration characteristics of civil structures has been investigated in the past decade, and successful case studies have been published by different research teams. This remote sensing technique is based on the interferometric processing of real aperture radar acquisitions. Its capability to estimate, simultaneously and remotely, the displacement of different parts of the investigated structures, with high accuracy and repeatability, is its main advantage with respect to conventional sensors. A considerable amount of literature on this technique is available, including various case studies aimed at testing the ambient vibration of bridges, buildings, and towers. In the last years, this technique has been used in Spain for civil structures monitoring. In this paper, three examples of such case studies are described: the monitoring of the suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, the communications tower of Collserola in Barcelona, and an urban building located in Vilafranca del Penedès, a small town close to Barcelona. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of these case studies, underlining the advantages and limitations of the sensors currently available, and concluding with the possible improvements expected from the next generation of sensors.

  1. Scenario analysis of climate change and tourism in Spain and other European regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.M.

    2005-06-15

    The aim of the study is to determine the possible impact of climate change on the tourist industry in Spain, with an especial focus on coastal regions. This includes the identification of potential areas suffering a decrease in the tourist flows, as well as different regions that could see a benefit on increasing temperatures and more reliable weather predictions. To do so, a Tourism Climate Index will be used, studying the potentiality of an area for tourism considering different elements of the climate which are relevant for the tourism activities. Current and future climatological scenarios over the main tourist sites in Spain will be built. In addition, the study will include an evaluation of the context around Spain, including case studies in other 5 different countries and a global description for the rest of the continent. Chapter 2 focuses mainly on the tourist sector. The global importance of this activity, together with the international tourism flows, serves as introduction to a more detailed assessment of the significant role that Spain plays as a tourist destination. The complex interrelations between climate (change) and tourism are reviewed in chapter 3. First, a brief introduction about climate change and descriptions of major projections about future climate world wide. This description is further detailed for Spain. Additionally, the interactions between tourism and climate are described thoroughly. Chapter 4 discusses the concept of 'Tourist Comfort Index', addressing key issues such as factors included and weighting. This section gives also a brief overview of the analysis and the data that was needed in the elaboration of the thesis. The implementation of the index and the results for current climate and future climate is presented. After the data analysis, chapter 5 provides an in-depth discussion of the results and compares them with other studies. This chapter is followed by the conclusions and recommendations in chapter 6.

  2. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  3. [MESGI50 study: description of a cohort on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas Barnadas, Josep María; López-Pousa, Secundino; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Juvinyà Canal, Dolors; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    To describe the demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics of the participants in the Study on Maturity and Satisfactory Ageing in Girona (MESGI50 study). Population-based Study linked to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The reference population was the inhabitants of the province of Girona (Spain) aged 50 and over. A probabilistic two-stage stratified cluster sampling according to the number of inhabitants and the degree of ageing of the population was used. Twenty-eight municipalities were randomly selected according to their type (demographically aged or young), and then stratified by the population size. The response rate was 65% with a mean of 1.7 eligible individuals per household and a final sample of 2,065 households and 3,331 participants. The design effect was 1.27. 52.9% were women and the mean age was 66.9 years (SD=11.5). The self-rated health status, hand grip strength, restriction in daily life activities and depressive symptomatology increased with age and more markedly in women. There were differences in alcohol consumption and eating patterns depending on the area of residence. The demographic, health and socio-economic characteristics during the ageing process differ depending on age group, gender, and area of residence. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Mortality decrease according to socioeconomic groups during the economic crisis in Spain: a cohort study of 36 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Granados, José A Tapia; Viciana-Fernández, Francisco J; de la Fuente, Luis; Barrio, Gregorio

    2016-11-26

    Studies of the effect of macroeconomic fluctuations on mortality in different socioeconomic groups are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. We analyse mortality trends in Spain before and during the Great Recession in different socioeconomic groups, quantifying the change within each group. We did a nationwide prospective study, in which we took data from the 2001 Census. All people living in Spain on Nov 1, 2001, were followed up until Dec 31, 2011. We included 35 951 354 people alive in 2001 who were aged between 10 and 74 years in each one of the four calendar years before the economic crisis (from 2004 to 2007) and in each one of the first four calendar years of the crisis (from 2008 to 2011), and analysed all-cause and cause-specific mortality in those people. We classified individuals by socioeconomic status (low, medium, or high) using two indicators of household wealth: household floor space (104 m 2 ) and number of cars owned by the residents of the household (none, one, and two or more). We used Poisson regression to calculate the annual percentage reduction (APR) in mortality rates during 2004-07 (pre-crisis) and 2008-11 (crisis) in each socioeconomic group, as well as the effect size, measured by the APR difference between the pre-crisis and crisis period. The annual decline in all-cause mortality in the three socioeconomic groups was 1·7% (95% CI 1·2 to 2·1) for the low group, 1·7% (1·3 to 2·1) for the medium group, and 2·0% (1·4 to 2·5) for the high group in 2004-07, and 3·0% (2·5 to 3·5) for the low group, 2·8% (2·5 to 3·2) for the medium group, and 2·1% (1·6 to 2·7) for the high group in 2008-11 when individuals were classified by household floor space. The annual decline in all-cause mortality when people were classified by number of cars owned by the household was 0·3% (-0·1 to 0·8) for the low group, 1·6% (1·2 to 2·0) for the medium group, and 2·2% (1·6 to 2·8) for the high group in 2004-07, and 2·3% (1·8 to 2

  5. Discourses and values underpin public debate on fracking in Spain: A case study at the crossroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelinda Lopera Pareja, Emilia; García Laso, Ana; Martín Sánchez, Domingo Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    In the EU context extraction of shale and oil gas by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) differs from country to country in terms of legislation and implementation. While fossil fuel extraction using this technology is currently taking place in the UK, Germany and France have adopted respective moratoria. In between is the Spanish case, where hydrocarbon extraction projects through fracking have to undergo mandatory and routine environmental assessment in accordance with the last changes to environmental regulations. Nowadays Spain is at the crossroad with respect to the future of this technology. We presume a social conflictt in our country since the position and strategy of the involved and confronted social actors -national, regional and local authorities, energy companies, scientists, NGO and other social organization- are going to play key and likely divergent roles in its industrial implementation and public acceptance. In order to improve knowledge on how to address these controverted situations from the own engineering context, the affiliated units from the Higher Technical School of Mines and Energy Engineering at UPM have been working on a transversal program to teach values and ethics. Over the past seven years, this pioneering experience has shown the usefulness of applying a consequentialist ethics, based on a case-by-case approach and costs-benefits analysis both for action and inaction. As a result of this initiative a theoretical concept has arisen and crystallized in this field: it is named Inter-ethics. This theoretical perspective can be very helpful in complex situations, with multi-stakeholders and plurality of interests, when ethical management requires the interaction between the respective ethics of each group; professional ethics of a single group is not enough. Under this inter-ethics theoretical framework and applying content analysis techniques, this paper explores the articulation of the discourse in favour and against fracking technology

  6. Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part II: Experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Cazals , Frédéric; Proust , Flavien

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed experimental study of an interface model developed in the companion article F. Cazals and F. Proust, Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part I: algorithms. Our experimental study is concerned with the usual database of protein-protein complexes, split into five families (Proteases, Immune system, Enzyme Complexes, Signal transduction, Misc.) Our findings, which bear some contradictions with usual statements are the following: (i)Connectivi...

  7. Perceptions and Acceptance of Desalinated Seawater for Irrigation: A Case Study in the Níjar District (Southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Aznar-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing demand for irrigation water—but, at the same time, with the constraints in the supply from traditional resources—desalinated seawater has been recognized as one of the alternative sources of water to increase the supply for agricultural irrigation. However, its use among farmers has not yet started to expand. Policy makers need to understand what is causing the low acceptance levels of farmers, and how their attitudes could be improved. This is the first study that has conducted an analysis of farmers’ perceptions and acceptance of the use of desalinated seawater for irrigation. The study is based on collected data from a survey completed by farmers in southeastern Spain who do not use desalinated seawater. The main results indicate that desalinated seawater as a water supply source has the lowest acceptance level for farmers. Barriers for its use are price, the need for additional fertilization, and the perception that it would negatively affect the yield and crop quality. The farmers’ general level of knowledge about the impact of using desalinated seawater in agriculture is extremely low. Furthermore, farmers consider it a priority that their startup investment should be subsidized and that water prices should be reduced. Based on the study findings, this paper makes recommendations for the decision-making process in order to improve farmers’ acceptance levels.

  8. Dealing with uncertainties in impact studies of climate change on hydrometeorological series over Segura River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Garcia Cardenas, R.; Tetay Botia, C.; Giraldo Osorio, J.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Baille, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Segura River Basin (SRB) located in the South East of Spain, is affected by recurrent drought and water scarcity episodes. This basin presents the lowest percentage of renewable water resources of all the Spanish basins. Intensive reforestation has been carried out in the region, to halt desertification and erosion, which added to climate change and variability, do not allow the default assumption of stationarity in the water resources systems. Therefore, the study of effects in hydrometeorological series should be addressed by nonstationary probabilistic models that allow describing the time evolution of their probability distribution functions (PDFs). In the present work, the GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shaper) approach is applied to identify of spatio-temporal trends in observed precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), at basin scale. Several previous studies have addressed the potential impacts of climate change in water supply systems, focusing on the sensitivity analysis of runoff to climate. Considering the use of a conceptual hydrological model with few parameters, the impacts on runoff and its trend from historical data, are assessed. The conclusions of this study represent a breakthrough in the development of methodologies to understand and anticipate the impacts on water resources systems, in the light of current and future climate conditions, considering hydroclimatic non-stationarity. These findings are expected to contribute to the management of conditions of water resources scarcity and droughts, such as the observed in the SRB, as support to decision-making process by stakeholders.

  9. Prevalence of adherence to treatment in homebound elderly people in primary health care: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; Carrillo de-Santa Pau, Enrique; Abánades-Herranz, Juan C; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Adherence to the therapeutic plan is one of the most important health issues in terms of treatment efficacy, healthcare costs and patient safety. Unfortunately, homebound elderly patients are especially vulnerable to nonadherence because they have higher morbidity rates combined with cognitive and social problems that hinder their correct use of drugs. The level of therapeutic adherence in homebound elderly people has not been adequately studied. To estimate the prevalence of therapeutic adherence, using the Morisky-Green test, in homebound elderly patients taking polypharmacy (defined as use of four or more drugs), and to study the factors associated with adherence. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study. A total of 327 patients were selected by random start systematic sampling from the total number of homebound patients taking four or more drugs in Healthcare Area 4 of the Madrid Autonomous Region, Spain. Through an in-home survey of patients and their caregivers, information was gathered on sociodemographic data, co-morbidities, number of hospital admissions, responsibility for purchasing and preparation of the medication, level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer questionnaire), functional dependence in activities of daily living (Katz Index), knowledge of the disease (Batalla test), adherence to treatment (Morisky-Green test), visual and auditory perception, and caregiver burden (Zarit interview). Of the homebound patients, 65.7% (95% CI 60.6, 70.9) had good adherence to treatment. The variables most negatively associated with therapeutic adherence, after adjustment for age, sex, number of drugs, knowledge of the disease, and cognitive function, were a large caregiver burden (odds ratio [OR] 3.09; 95% CI 1.75, 5.48) and impaired hearing (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.17, 3.40). There was also a trend toward a positive association between nonadherence and patients aged <85 years (OR 1.57; 95% CI 0.93, 2.65) and patients who had nine or more drug

  10. The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Carmen; Agis, David; Ambrós, Albert; Arévalo, Gustavo; Baldasano, Jose M; Bande, Stefano; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Benach, Joan; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Ghigo, Stefania; Martinez-Solanas, Èrica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cadum, Ennio; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain. Mortality data from 2148 small areas (average population of 20,750 inhabitants, and median population of 7672 inhabitants) covering Spain for years 2009-2013 were obtained. Average annual levels of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and O 3 were derived from an air quality forecasting system at 4×4km resolution. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to assess greenness in each small area. Air pollution and greenness were linked to standardized mortality rates (SMRs) using Poisson regression and to life expectancy using linear regression. The models were adjusted for socioeconomic status and lung cancer mortality rates (as a proxy for smoking), and accounted for spatial autocorrelation. The increase of 5μg/m 3 in PM 10 , NO 2 and O 3 or of 2μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 concentration resulted in a loss of life in years of 0.90 (95% credibility interval CI: 0.83, 0.98), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17), 0.20years (95% CI: 0.16, 0.24) and 0.64 (0.59, 0.70), respectively. Similar associations were found in the SMR analysis, with stronger associations for PM 2.5 and PM 10 , which were associated with an increased mortality risk of 3.7% (95% CI: 3.5%, 4.0%) and 5.7% (95% CI: 5.4%, 6.1%). For greenness, a protective effect on mortality and longer life expectancy was only found in areas with lower socioeconomic status. Air pollution concentrations were associated to important reductions in life expectancy. The reduction of air pollution should be a priority for public health

  11. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  12. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  13. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  14. Perception of quality of care among residents of public nursing-homes in Spain: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Martínez-Andrés, María; Cervera-Monteagudo, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2013-06-28

    The quality of care in nursing homes is weakly defined, and has traditionally focused on quantify nursing homes outputs and on comparison of nursing homes' resources. Rarely the point of view of clients has been taken into account. The aim of this study was to ascertain what means "quality of care" for residents of nursing homes. Grounded theory was used to design and analyze a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with a theoretical sampling including 20 persons aged over 65 years with no cognitive impairment and eight proxy informants of residents with cognitive impairment, institutionalized at a public nursing home in Spain. Our analysis revealed that participants perceived the quality of care in two ways, as aspects related to the persons providing care and as institutional aspects of the care's process. All participants agreed that aspects related to the persons providing care was a pillar of quality, something that, in turn, embodied a series of emotional and technical professional competences. Regarding the institutional aspects of the care's process, participants laid emphasis on round-the-clock access to health care services and on professional's job stability. This paper includes perspectives of the nursing homes residents, which are largely absent. Incorporating residents' standpoints as a complement to traditional institutional criteria would furnish health providers and funding agencies with key information when it came to designing action plans and interventions aimed at achieving excellence in health care.

  15. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Alicia Fontana; Waldina Raimondi; María Laura Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adven...

  16. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: A pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzun, R.; Higueras, P.; Esbri, J.M.; Pizarro, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl 2 at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 μg g -1 , whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 μg g -1 . The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m -3 (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m -3 (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m -3 ). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m -3 . The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m -3 . While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl 2 treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria

  17. Energy Modelling and Automated Calibrations of Ancient Building Simulations: A Case Study of a School in the Northwest of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the energy performance of buildings forming a school centre in the northwest of Spain was analyzed using a transient simulation of the energy model of the school, which was developed with TRNSYS, a software of proven reliability in the field of thermal simulations. A deterministic calibration approach was applied to the initial building model to adjust the predictions to the actual performance of the school, data acquired during the temperature measurement campaign. The buildings under study were in deteriorated conditions due to poor maintenance over the years, presenting a big challenge for modelling and simulating it in a reliable way. The results showed that the proposed methodology is successful for obtaining calibrated thermal models of these types of damaged buildings, as the metrics employed to verify the final error showed a reduced normalized mean bias error (NMBE of 2.73%. It was verified that a decrease of approximately 60% in NMBE and 17% in the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CV(RMSE was achieved due to the calibration process. Subsequent steps were performed with the aid of new software, which was developed under a European project that enabled the automated calibration of the simulations.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat seafood in Spain: study of prevalence and temperatures at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, David; Vitas, Ana Isabel; Díez-Leturia, María; García-Jalón, Isabel

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data from refrigerated ready-to-eat seafood products at retail in Spain (young eels, crabstick and smoked salmon), regarding prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes, storage temperatures and the impact of transport conditions (type of bag) on the temperature of the product. The one-year surveillance period was carried out according to the EC Regulation No. 2073/2005, taking 5 units/batch and analyzing 250 samples following ISO 11290-1/A1 and ISO 11290-2/A methodologies. Low prevalence of L. monocytogenes was observed in surimi products, while 4.8% of smoked salmon samples were positive for Listeria with low levels (<10 cfu/g) and uneven pathogen distribution. A single company was responsible for 80% of the positive lots. All purchased products showed values higher than 4 °C at retail and an average increase of 2.5 °C or up to 6.2 °C was recorded when isothermal or plastic shopping bags were used for transport, respectively. To avoid noncompliance of the Food Safety Objective for L. monocytogenes in seafood RTE products more efforts from all stakeholders are needed, with special attention so as to improve control and maintenance of refrigerators at retail and to enhance consumer education regarding food safety practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: A large-scale phytomanagement case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; Maranon, Teodoro; Murillo, Jose M.; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.

    2008-01-01

    Phytomanagement employs vegetation and soil amendments to reduce the environmental risk posed by contaminated sites. We investigated the distribution of trace elements in soils and woody plants from a large phytomanaged site, the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain), 7 years after a mine spill, which contaminated the area in 1998. At spill-affected sites, topsoils (0-25 cm) had elevated concentrations of As (129 mg kg -1 ), Bi (1.64 mg kg -1 ), Cd (1.44 mg kg -1 ), Cu (115 mg kg -1 ), Pb (210 mg kg -1 ), Sb (13.8 mg kg -1 ), Tl (1.17 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (457 mg kg -1 ). Trace element concentrations in the studied species were, on average, within the normal ranges for higher plants. An exception was white poplar (Populus alba), which accumulated Cd and Zn in leaves up to 3 and 410 mg kg -1 respectively. We discuss the results with regard to the phytomanagement of trace element contaminated sites. - There is a low trace element transfer from contaminated soils to the aboveground parts of afforested woody plants under a semi-arid climate

  20. The "El Alamo" project (1990-1997): two consecutive hospital-based studies of breast cancer outcomes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M; Mahillo, E; Llombart-Cussac, A; Lluch, A; Munarriz, B; Pastor, M; Alba, E; Ruiz, A; Antón, A; Bermejo, B

    2006-07-01

    The "Alamo" project is a retrospective analysis of 14,854 patients diagnosed of breast cancer between 1990 and 1997 in 50 Spanish hospitals. Alamo I (AI) consisted of 4,532 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1990 and 1993. Data were collected in 2000. Alamo II (AII) consisted of 10,322 patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected in 2003. At presentation, there were (AI vs. AII) 17.6% vs. 24.3% at stage I; 55.5% vs. 53.1% at stage II; 18.7% vs. 15% at stage III; 7.2% vs. 5.9 at stage IV. Median age was 57 (AI) vs. 58 years (AII) and 65.9% vs. 67.2% (AI vs. AII) were post-menopausal. Firstline treatment for disease stages I, II and III was surgery in 91% of patients in both studies. Breast conserving surgery rate increased from 20.2% (AI) to 32.7% (AII). Adjuvant systemic treatments were administered to 87.6% (AI) and 92.8% (AII) of patients. Recurrence rate diminished from 36.6% (AI) to 22.5% (AII) and the 9-year survival rate increased from 63.2% (95% CI: 61.5-64.9) to 70.1% (95% CI: 68.5-71.8). Breast cancer outcomes in Spain have improved from 1990-1993 to 1994-1997, likely because of breast cancer screening program implementation and new therapies.

  1. Object-Based Greenhouse Horticultural Crop Identification from Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Almeria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Aguilar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse detection and mapping via remote sensing is a complex task, which has already been addressed in numerous studies. In this research, the innovative goal relies on the identification of greenhouse horticultural crops that were growing under plastic coverings on 30 September 2013. To this end, object-based image analysis (OBIA and a decision tree classifier (DT were applied to a set consisting of eight Landsat 8 OLI images collected from May to November 2013. Moreover, a single WorldView-2 satellite image acquired on 30 September 2013, was also used as a data source. In this approach, basic spectral information, textural features and several vegetation indices (VIs derived from Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 multi-temporal satellite data were computed on previously segmented image objects in order to identify four of the most popular autumn crops cultivated under greenhouse in Almería, Spain (i.e., tomato, pepper, cucumber and aubergine. The best classification accuracy (81.3% overall accuracy was achieved by using the full set of Landsat 8 time series. These results were considered good in the case of tomato and pepper crops, being significantly worse for cucumber and aubergine. These results were hardly improved by adding the information of the WorldView-2 image. The most important information for correct classification of different crops under greenhouses was related to the greenhouse management practices and not the spectral properties of the crops themselves.

  2. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural incomes in Spanish rural areas. Present research has focused on the effects of these extreme climatological events through response functions, considering effects on crop productivity and average incomes. Among the impacts of droughts, we focused on potential effects on income distribution. The study of the effects on abnormally dry periods is therefore needed in order to perform an analysis of diverse social aspects in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a measure of the decomposition of inequality to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. Certain adaptation measures may require a better understanding of risks by the public to achieve general acceptance. We provide empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two impacts considered: farms' average income and income distribution. Our estimates consider crop production response to both biophysical and socio-economic aspects to analyse long-term implications on competitiveness and disparities. As for the results, we find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analysed.

  3. The Evolving Nature of Infective Endocarditis in Spain: A Population-Based Study (2003 to 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Bernal, José L; Ferrera, Carlos; García-Arribas, Daniel; Pérez-García, Carlos N; San Román, J Alberto; Maroto, Luis; Macaya, Carlos; Elola, Francisco J

    2017-12-05

    Little information exists regarding population-based epidemiological changes in infective endocarditis (IE) in Europe. This study sought to analyze temporal trends in IE in Spain from 2003 to 2014. This retrospective, population-based, temporal trend study analyzed the incidence, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and outcome of all patients discharged from hospitals included in the Spanish National Health System with a diagnosis of IE, from January 2003 to December 2014. Overall, 16,867 episodes of IE were identified during the study period, 66.3% in men. The rate of IE significantly increased, from 2.72 in 2003 to 3.49 per 100,000 person-years in 2014, and this rise was higher among older adults. The most frequent microorganisms were staphylococci (28.7%), followed by streptococci (20.4%) and enterococci (13.1%). Twenty-three percent of patients underwent cardiac surgery. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.4%. Throughout the study period, the proportion of patients with previously known heart valve disease and diabetes mellitus significantly increased, whereas the prevalence of intravenous drug use decreased. Regarding microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci slightly declined, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci consistently increased over the years. In-hospital complications and cardiac surgery rates significantly increased across the years. The risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate diminished (0.2% per year) during the study period. The incidence of IE episodes significantly increased over the decade of the study period, particularly among older adults. Relevant changes in clinical and microbiological profile included older patients with more comorbidity and a rise in enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections. Adjusted mortality rates slightly declined over the study period. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Seeing beyond monitors-Critical care nurses' multiple skills in patient observation: Descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastalo, Mika; Salminen, Leena; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of multiple skills in patient observation in critical care nursing. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Experienced critical care nurses (n=20) from three intensive care units in two university hospitals in Finland. Patient observation skills consist of: information gaining skills, information processing skills, decision-making skills and co-operation skills. The first three skills are integrated in the patient observation process, in which gaining information is a prerequisite for processing information that precedes making decisions. Co-operation has a special role as it occurs throughout the process. This study provided a comprehensive description of patient observation skills related to the three-phased patient observation process. The findings contribute to clarifying this part of the competence. The description of patient observation skills may be applied in both clinical practice and education as it may serve as a framework for orientation, ensuring clinical skills and designing learning environments. Based on this study, patient observation skills can be recommended to be included in critical care nursing education, orientation and as a part of critical care nurses' competence evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of reporting of descriptive studies in implant dentistry. Critical aspects in design, outcome assessment and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a review on quality of reporting on descriptive studies in implant dentistry using the STROBE Statement and to analyse possible changes in quality of reporting on descriptive studies in implant dentistry over time. Material and Methods: A hand search

  6. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  7. Ergonomics and musculoskeletal pain among postgraduate students and faculty members of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Harutunian, Karmen; Gargallo Albiol, Jordi; Barbosa de Figueiredo, Rui Pedro; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intensity and location of musculoskeletal pain suffered by students and professors from different postgraduate programs of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain), to identify the variables related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and signs, and to establish possible preventive measures for such disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was made among students and faculty members from different postgraduate course...

  8. INCIDENCE OF VARIABLES NON DIRECTLY CONTROLLABLE BY THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN STUDENTS’ READING LITERACY IN PISA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY SPAIN-FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Vázquez Cano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This comparative research between Spain and Finland examines the incidence of eight variables of PISA (2012 typologically grouped in three areas: family, internet use for reading activities, and availability of books at home in students’ results in reading literacy. Through a descriptive and quantitative methodology, we analyze the incidence of these eight variables in Finnish and Spanish students’ reading literacy. The results show that parents’ academic and professional level along with the type of book that is available at home are non-significant variables in the development of a high reading literacy; by contrast, the variable that measures Internet use at home for reading news has been highly significant. Finnish students duplicate the Spanish in this variable which increases in 30 points reading literacy results.

  9. Epidemiology and clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities in Spain (e-Management study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch Nadal, Josep; Mata Cases, Manel; Mauricio Puente, Dídac

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is currently the most frequent chronic metabolic disease. In spain, according to the di@bet.es study, its prevalence is 13.8% in the adult population (although it is undiagnosed in 6%). The main risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus is obesity. The severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus is determined not only by the presence of hyperglycaemia, but also by the coexistence of other risk factors such as hypertension or dyslipidaemia, which are often associated with the disease. Its impact on the presence of chronic diabetic complications varies. While hyperglycaemia mainly influences the presence of microvascular complications, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking play a greater role in macrovascular atherosclerotic disease. One of the most powerful ways to study the epidemiology of the disease is through the use of large databases that analyse the situation in the routine clinical management of huge numbers of patients. Recently, the data provided by the e-Management Project, based on the SIDIAP database, have allowed updating of many data on the health care of diabetic persons in Catalonia. This not only allows determination of the epidemiology of the disease but is also a magnificent starting point for the design of future studies that will provide answers to more questions. However, the use of large databases is not free of certain problems, especially those concerning the reliability of registries. This article analyses some of the data obtained by the e-Management study and other spanish epidemiological studies of equal importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease history assessment in Spain: a multidimensional chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluation. Study methods and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Peces-Barba, Germán; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Soriano, Joan B; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; Casanova, Ciro

    2012-12-01

    This present paper describes the method and the organization of the study known as the COPD History Assessment In SpaiN (CHAIN), whose main objective is to evaluate the long-term natural history of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient cohort from a multidimensional standpoint and to identify clinical phenotypes, in comparison with another non-COPD control cohort. CHAIN is a multicenter, observational study of prospective cohorts carried out at 36 Spanish hospitals. Both cohorts will be followed-up during a 5-year study period with complete office visits every 12 months and telephone interviews every 6 months in order to evaluate exacerbations and the vital state of the subjects. The recruitment period for cases was between 15 January 2010 and 31 March 2012. At each annual visit, information will be collected on: (i) clinical aspects (socio-economic situation, anthropometric data, comorbidities, smoking, respiratory symptoms, exacerbations, quality of life, anxiety-depression scale, daily life activities, treatments); (ii) respiratory function (spirometry, blood gases, hyperinflation, diffusion, respiratory pressures); (iii) BODE index (main study variable); (iv) peripheral muscle function, and (v) blood work-up (including IgE and cardiovascular risk factors). In addition, a serum bank will be created for the future determination of biomarkers. The data of the patients are anonymized in a database with a hierarchical access control in order to guarantee secure information access. The CHAIN study will provide information about the progression of COPD and it will establish a network of researchers for future projects related with COPD. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The content of nurse unit managers' work: a descriptive study using daily activity diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís; Blöndal, Katrín; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund; Bragadóttir, Helga

    2017-09-07

    NUMs' job description in Icelandic hospitals has been revised and now also includes managerial and financial responsibilities. To describe the actual work activities of nurse unit managers (NUMs) in surgical and internal medicine services as self-documented and reflected in their job description. Prospective exploratory study. The study's setting was the largest hospital in Iceland. Data were collected over 7 days from NUMs working on surgical and medical units with an activity diary listing five domains and 41 activities: 'management and planning' (seven activities), 'staff responsibility (seven activities), 'direct clinical work' (five activities), 'service' (12 activities) and 'other' (nine activities). The managers' spent most of their time within the 'other' domain (32% of their time), then the next significant amount of time on 'management and planning' and 'clinical nursing' (19%), and the least amount of time on 'service' (14%). All reported working on two or more activities simultaneously. NUMs made erroneous estimations approximately half of the time about the domain they spent most of their time in and their satisfaction with their work each day varied greatly. The work of NUMs is highly diverse, including undefined miscellaneous tasks and clinical work beyond their job description. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. The Persistence of Gender Stereotypes in Teaching History. A Study Through Textbooks and Perceptions of Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Jesús Gómez-Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the persistence of gender stereotypes in History Education. This study is conducted through an iconographic analysis of textbooks and the perception of students in Secondary Education in Spain. The educational reforms carried out in Spain over the last twenty five years have improved some aspects of gender equality, especially the introduction of some cross-cutting themes related to this subject. However, investigations related to sexism in school materials have revealed the persistence of some gender clichés. To do this research, we have analysed 128 pictures on three History textbooks for fourth grade students of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain. In the analysis, various categories were combined and they allowed a multifactorial study. Furthermore, these data have been contrasted with the answers given to a questionnaire on gender stereotypes by 152 students of two grades. The results show that, despite the improvement of textbooks, an imbalance still survives in the representation of male and female genders and in the images associated with them. In the answers to the questionnaire, disparate findings are also perceived. Although some sexist prejudices seem to be overcome, especially those related to the role of men and women at home, images and negative stereotypes about gender relations and women’s role still persist.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment in Building: A Case Study on the Energy and Emissions Impact Related to the Choice of Housing Typologies and Construction Process in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ángel Rodríguez Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While there exists an international trend to develop zero or near zero emissions building solutions by 2020, and European governments continuously update their building regulations to optimize the building envelope and energy systems to achieve this during the building use stage, at least in Spain the building regulations do not take into account the impact of emissions resulting from urbanization and construction activities prior to building use. This research studies in detail the entire emissions balance (and how it may be related to energy efficiency in a newly built residential cluster project in Mancha Real (Jaén, Spain, and influences due to the choice of different urban typologies. For comparison, terraced housing and low-density, four-floor, multi-family housing alternatives have been studied. The present work assessed the life cycle of the building with the help of commercial software (CYPE, and the energy efficiency and emissions according to the legal regulations in Spain with the official software LIDER and CALENER VYP. After a careful choice of building and systems alternatives and their comparison, the study concludes that the major emissions impact and energy costs of urbanization and building activity occurs during construction, while later savings due to reductions in building use emissions are very modest in comparison. Therefore, deeper analysis is suggested to improve the efficiency of the construction process for a significantly reduced emission footprint on the urban environment.

  14. Nurse prescribing in Spain: The law and the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Collado, Angel; Raurell-Torreda, Marta; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Rascon-Hernan, Carolina; Homs-Romero, Erica

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explored course content related to pharmacology and/or healthcare products and supplies in all nursing degree programs in Spain. Changes in nurse-prescribing legislation in Spain require that nurses take a certification course before prescribing over-the-counter products and medications. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, between July and September 2014, the degree programs of all centers that offer a degree in nursing in Spain were examined, selecting those with course information available online. All centers offered at least one pharmacology course. One-third of the required courses had content related to pharmacology and healthcare products/supplies. The analysis showed that the course content and training received during the current nursing degree program provides the knowledge and skills needed to prescribe healthcare products/supplies and medications that do not now require a doctor's prescription, without the need for additional training and certification. It is essential that government regulation of nursing education be aligned with nursing competencies, curriculum standards, clinical practice, and evidence-based research to provide the maximum level of confidence for nursing professionals and their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. A procedure to derive intra-and inter-annual changes on vegetation from NDVI time series. A case study in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilabert, M. A; Martinez, B.; Melia, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the spatial patterns of vegetation activity over spain and its temporal variability throughout the period 1989-2002. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) bases on the wavelet transform has been implemented on NDVI time series from the MEDOKADS database. The MRA decomposes the original signal as a sum of series associated with temporal scales. Specifically, the intra-annual series is processed to define several key features in relation with the vegetation penology. In contras, the inter-annual components of the signal is used to detect trends by means of a Mann-Kendall test and map the magnitude of the land-cover change. Finally, a comprehensive identification of the areas presenting a negative value of the magnitude of change is carried out to select those linked to land degradation processes. Results show a major presence of these areas the Southeast of Spain. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. [Medication adherence and use of health services in patients with psychosis in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarola-Ginesta, Joan; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Bleda-García, Francesc; Villa-Ribas, Ester; Arrufat-Nebot, Francesc Xavier

    2014-04-01

    To describe and analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence and use of health resources by country of birth of psychosis diagnosed patients treated with long-term antipsychotic injectable drugs in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain). Descriptive observational study in psychosis diagnosed patients over 18 years old, receiving long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment and treated at a Mental Health Center for adults in Vic (Catalonia, Spain). 185 patients were included, of them: 163 (88.1%) were born in Spain and 22 (17.9%) abroad. The sample was gender homogeneous with differences in age, employment status, family situation and diagnosis (p Spain-born patients and 9.1% of abroad-born patients received the injectable treatment at Primary Care Center (p Spain and 6 (27.3%) abroad (p = 0.012). All patients diagnosed with psychosis, either born or not in Spain, describe good adherence to long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment, with similar use of health resources from a quantitative point of view and some differences in the type of visits.

  18. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  19. Sediment transfer and connectivity analysis in an olive orchard microcatchment in Spain: a study case to evaluate the impact of rainfall variability and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Rebolledo, Juan; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Guzmán, Gema; Burguet, María; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    Quantification and description of sediment delivery processes at the catchment scale are essential to evaluate the main sources of sediments that contribute to soil degradation, and to design effective management strategies. Erosion derived from concentrated flow might imply a serious degradation risk which is not always apparent as is the case of rills and ephemeral gullies. The objectives of this work were: 1) to characterize the rills and ephemeral gullies measured for periods with different hydrological features in terms of precipitation and erosivity and management; and 2) to evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow to the sediment discharge measured at the catchment outlet. In this study, rills and ephemeral gullies generated during inter-tillage periods were measured 4 times in a period between April 2009 and March 2014. The measures were carried out in a 6.7 ha olive orchard of with conventional tillage until September 2014, when cover crops were seeded in some lanes following the most approximate direction to contours. Although rainfall, runoff and sediment discharge were monitored at the outlet for the complete study period, there were some very erosive events in which sediment concentration could not be measured. Hence, the SEDD model, previously calibrated (Burguet, 2015), was used to fill these gaps as well as to calculate the sediment delivery ratios in the catchment. The mean volume of rills and ephemeral gullies for the 4 surveys was equivalent to 8.1 t.ha-1 and 3.3 t.ha-1, respectively whereas the mean total sediment discharge for the same period was of 7.8 t.ha-1. The accumulated erosivity explained the differences of soil losses associated to rills better than accumulated precipitation. The impact of cover crops during 2014 was particularly notable on the reduction of the sediment loads in the events, as well as on the rill discontinuities and sediment trapping as observed in the field. An active sediment dynamics is expected in the

  20. Night shift work, chronotype and prostate cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Burgos, Javier; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Arredondo, Francisco; Tardón, Adonina; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-09-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on experimental studies and limited human evidence on breast cancer. Evidence on other common cancers, such as prostate cancer, is scarce. Chronotype is an individual characteristic that may relate to night work adaptation. We evaluated night shift work with relation to prostate cancer, taking into account chronotype and disease severity in a population based case-control study in Spain. We included 1,095 prostate cancer cases and 1,388 randomly selected population controls. We collected detailed information on shift schedules (permanent vs. rotating, time schedules, duration, frequency), using lifetime occupational history. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and chronotype through a validated questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Subjects who had worked at least for one year in night shift work had a slightly higher prostate cancer risk [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.14; 95%CI 0.94, 1.37] compared with never night workers; this risk increased with longer duration of exposure (≥ 28 years: OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.05, 1.81; p-trend = 0.047). Risks were more pronounced for high risk tumors [D'Amico classification, Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 1.40; 95%CI 1.05, 1.86], particularly among subjects with longer duration of exposure (≥28 years: RRR 1.63; 95%CI 1.08, 2.45; p-trend = 0.027). Overall risk was higher among subjects with an evening chronotype, but also increased in morning chronotypes after long-term night work. In this large population based study, we found an association between night shift work and prostate cancer particularly for tumors with worse prognosis. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Yield in NW Spain: A Case Study on the Corbeira Catchment

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    M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil losses and the subsequent sediment delivery constitute significant environmental threats. Climate change is likely to have an impact on the availability of water and therefore on sediment yield in catchments. In this context, quantifying the sediment response to an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change is of utmost importance to the proper management of rural catchments. However, quantitative assessment of climate change impact remains a complex task. In this study, the potential medium (2031–2060 and long-term (2069–2098 impacts of projected changes of temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on sediment yield in a small rural catchment located in NW Spain were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Climate change scenarios were created using future climate data projected by regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that climate change would have a noticeable impact on suspended sediment if the forecast temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration changes included in this study were met. Overall, suspended sediment is expected to decrease (2031–2060: −11%, 2069–2098: −8% compared to the baseline period (1981–2010, mainly due to decreased streamflow. However, an increase in sediment transport in winter is predicted, possibly associated with increased erosion in cultivated areas (11%–17%, suggesting that, at this time of the year, the effect of soil detachment prevails over sediment transport capacity. Consequently, management practices aimed at reducing soil erosion in cultivated areas should be carried out, because these are the main source of sediment in the study area.

  2. Expectations and perceptions of primary healthcare professionals regarding their own continuous education in Catalonia (Spain): a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundet-Tuduri, Xavier; Crespo, Ramon; Fernandez-Coll, Ma Luisa; Saumell, Montserrat; Millan-Mata, Flor; Cardona, Àngels; Codern-Bové, Núria

    2017-11-15

    The planning and execution of continuous education in an organization that provides health services is a complex process. The objectives, learning sequences, and implementation strategies should all be oriented to improving the health of the population. The aim of this study was to analyse the expectations and perceptions of continuous educations by primary healthcare professionals (physicians and nurses) and identify aspects that hinder or encourage the process. A qualitative study with 5 focus groups made up of 25 primary healthcare professionals from the Catalan Health Institute, Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The focus groups were audio-recorded and the results transcribed. The analysis involved: a) Reading of the data looking for meanings b) Coding of the data by themes and extracting categories c) Reviewing and refining codes and categories d) Reconstruction of the data providing an explanatory framework for the meanings e) Discussion about the interpretations of the findings and f) Discussed with relevant professionals from PHC (physicians and nurses)"Data regarding thematic content were analyzed with the support of Atlasti 5.1 software. The health needs of the population were often at the core of the learning processes but the participants' views did not always spontaneously refer to improvements in these issues. Common themes that could hinder learning and where identified, including contextual aspects such as work constraints (timetables, places being covered during training) and funding policies. New learning strategies to improve the effectiveness of continuous education were proposed such as the exchange of knowledge, the activation of personal commitment to change, and the improvement of organizational aspects. The primary healthcare professionals in our study viewed continuous education as a professional necessity and would like to translate the knowledge acquired to improving the health of the population. Nevertheless, professional, structural, and

  3. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013.

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    Natalia Montesdeoca

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process.We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout, fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr, the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive.Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%, followed by Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis (20.09%. The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout (25.81%, poisoning/intoxication (24.69%, and other traumas (18.14%. The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the 'other traumas' category (58.08%. Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%. The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout category (99.20%.This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34% achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds.

  4. The Effectiveness of Teaching Critical Thinking Skills through Literature in EFL Context: A Case Study in Spain

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    Svetlana Stefanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effectiveness of teaching critical thinking skills through literary texts in the EFL classroom, based on the combination of reader-centered critical reading and critical literacy pedagogy. Our proposal seeks to address both language teaching and literacy education from a transnational perspective by dealing with critical thinking skills as a set of processes whose main aspects include the interpretation of the world, self-reflection, intercultural awareness, critical awareness, problem-solving, and language use. For the purpose of this study, a series of activities based on Caryl Phillips’s novel The Lost Child (2015 have been designed, following the four curricular components of Multiliteracies pedagogy (Kalantzis & Cope, 2000. Conducted in an EFL classroom in Spain, the study aims to validate the model of teaching critical skills built on working with current social issues, such as immigration, discrimination, and bullying. To evaluate the effectiveness of the model, teacher assessment and self-assessment questionnaires have been completed by the teacher and the students, respectively. A close analysis of the results reveals that both students and their teacher perceive the model as highly effective, in particular, in terms of self-reflection. Additionally, intrinsically motivating activities and frequent opportunities to discuss literary texts and relate them to current issues have proved to be highly beneficial for the students, providing them with a broader perspective that helps them interpret real-world problems properly. The assessment grid has proved effective, although for a wider application of the grid, the descriptors might have to be adapted to the students’ age.

  5. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. Objective: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase–control study. Methods: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008–2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940–2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  6. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Collaborative Action Research between Schools, a Continuing Professional Development Centre for Teachers and the University: A Case Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Alfaya, Maria Elena; Olivares García, Maria Ángeles; Mérida Serrano, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative action research project developed over the course of the 2011/12 academic year in the Faculty of Education at Cordoba University (Spain). The RIECU school-continuing professional development centre for teachers-university learning network is part of this research process. The aim is to create and consolidate…

  8. Quantifying the effects of land conditions on rice growth : a case study in the Ebro Delta (Spain) using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis represents detailed research on the "rice-soils-weather" system of the Ebro Delta (Spain) providing knowledge on how temperature, radiation, soil properties and farm management determine rice growth. After an introductory chapter, the findings are developed step-by-step. (i)

  9. A Comparative Study of the Professional and Curricular Conceptions of the Secondary Education Science Teacher in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Martin R.; Martinez-Aznar, M.; Rodrigo, M.; Varela, P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a comparison between the professional and curricular conceptions of two samples of secondary education science teachers in Spain, who differed in their years of teaching experience and in whether or not they had participated in a long-duration scientific-pedagogical refresher course. Using the data from their responses to a…

  10. Do heavy metals existing in abandoned mining sites represent a real health risk? A study case in the SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Martínez-López, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Hernández-Cordoba, Manuel; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    Mining activities have been carried out for centuries in Sierra Minera (SE Spain) giving rise to a large number of sites distributed throughout the zone in which residues are accumulated. This communication reports studies as regards metal mobilization and analysis of the health risk that could be posed by inhalation, dermic contact or occasional ingestion of this type of sediments. Lead was used as the metal for the studies due to its particular abundance in the zone. A large number of samples were taken and general analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out in order its characterization. An in vitro method for obtaining formation on Pb bioaccessibility in these mine waste materials was also carried out. Our results prove that mineral associations, different alteration states and sorption/desorption processes play an important role in the bioavailability of lead. In addition, it is noteworthy that the metal fraction dissolved by the proposed in vitro methodology is lower than 100%, both in the stomach and intestinal phases. Finally an assessment of the risk posed by lead is achieved. To this respect it should be noted that the IRIS database provide cancer slope factor and reference dose, as a way to assess the risk caused by arsenic, cadmium and copper but no for lead, probably due to the wide variety of real situations, and the discrepancy of the sources. The way here suggested is a novelty in this sense, and the results could be extrapolated to other similar zones and be incorporated to the general protocol of risk assessment applied to contaminated sites.

  11. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  12. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

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    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  14. First contribution of mites (Acari) to the forensic analysis of hanged corpses: a case study from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2014-11-01

    This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been

  15. How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Luque-Ribelles, Violeta; Quílez-Cutillas, Alicia; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Rivera-Bautista, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50–69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. Design Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury. Setting Breast cancer screening programme in Andalusia (Spain). Participants Thirteen women aged 50–69 with secondary school or higher education accepted to participate as a jury. Two epidemiologists were the expert witnesses. The main researcher was the neutral moderator. Interventions Jury met on Monday, 15 February 2016. The moderator indicated to the jury that it had to assess the screening programme’s key benefits and main harm. On Tuesday, 16 February, the expert witnesses positioned for and against the programme. On Thursday, 18 February, the jury deliberated, reached final conclusions, submitted its vote and stated its recommendations to politicians. The deliberation session was transcribed and analysed with the support of ATLAS.ti.5.2 software. Primary and secondary outcome measures Feasibility in the Andalusian population, women’s vote and opinion, reasons for votes and recommendations to political authorities. Results Eleven participants voted yes and two voted no. There are three reasons to vote ‘yes’: health, the test nature, and individual freedom. Some women invoke the lack of efficacy and the cost to justify their negative vote, at least in universal terms. On completion, they made suggestions to be submitted to the pertinent authorities for the improvement of information, psychology services and research. Conclusions The deliberative strategy is feasible and causes a favourable positioning regarding screening mammography, although information changes the opinion of some women

  16. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  17. [Study of prognostic factors and prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with deep vein thrombosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordi, Josep; Salmerón, Luis; Acosta, Fernando; Camacho, Isabel; Marín, Núria

    2016-01-15

    The prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in Spain is not known accurately at present. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTS and the possible prognostic factors related to its development and impact on quality of life. This was an observational, multicenter, cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients who had suffered a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) between March 2010 and March 2011. The Villalta scale was applied as a standardized assessment of PTS at the enrollment visit. According to the score, distribution was: patients with PTS (score>4) and patients without PTS (score ≤4). Subsequently, DVT data and risk factors were collected retrospectively. The quality of life of patients was evaluated. In total 511 patients with DVT were enrolled, of which 7 patients were excluded as they did not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The prevalence of PTS was 53%, with 56.2% having a mild character, 20.6% moderate, and 23.2% severe. The presence of risk factors for DVT including immobilization, hormonal therapy and obesity was significantly higher in patients with PTS than in patients without PTS. There were not significant differences in the location of the DVT. The perception of patients about their health was significantly worse in patients with DVT. The prevalence of PTS in patients with DVT is very high. The presence of risk factors for DVT clearly contributes to a greater predisposition to suffering PTS in an average time of 2 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Study in Spain from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rivas, Nuria; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Esteban-Hernández, Jesus; Lopez-de-Andrés, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare trends in outcomes for intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in people with or without type 2 diabetes in Spain between 2003 and 2012. We selected all patients hospitalized for hemorrhagic stroke using national hospital discharge data. We evaluated annual incident rates stratified by diabetes status. We analyzed trends in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, patient comorbidities, in-hospital mortality (IHM), length of hospital stay, and readmission rate in 1 month. We identified a total of 173,979 discharges of patients admitted with hemorrhagic stroke (19.1% with diabetes). Incidences were higher among those with than those without diabetes in all the years studied. Diabetes was positively associated with stroke (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.40 for men; IRR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.29-1.34 for women). Length of stay decreased significantly and readmission rate remained stable for both groups (around 5%). We observed a significant increase in the use of decompressive craniectomy from 2002 to 2013. Mortality was positively associated with older age, with higher comorbidity and atrial fibrillation as risk factors. We found a negative association with the use of decompressive craniectomy. Mortality did not change over time among diabetic men and women. In those without diabetes, mortality decreased significantly over time. Suffering diabetes was not associated with higher mortality. Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke but not with IHM. Incidence among diabetic people remained stable over time. In both groups, the use of decompressive craniectomy has increased and is associated with a decreased mortality. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retrospective study of pestivirus infection in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and other ungulates in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Allepuz, Alberto; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-04-21

    In 2001 a new Pestivirus (Family Flaviviridae) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the Border Disease Virus (BDV) cluster, BDV-4 genotype. A retrospective study was performed in archived sera and spleen of 74 Pyrenean chamois and in archived sera of 28 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 56 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 43 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Pyrenees between the years 1990 and 2000. Thirty six of 74 (48.6%) sera of Pyrenean chamois, one of mouflon and one of red deer were positive by an ELISA antibody test. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on 26 seropositive chamois, one mouflon and one red deer, using five pestivirus strains. An ELISA antigen test was performed on 37 seronegative chamois and yielded positive results in one chamois and inconclusive result in two. RT-PCR and virus isolation performed on spleen samples from these three animals gave positive results in the positive and one inconclusive animal. Sequence analysis in the 5' unstranslated region revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. Virological and serological data of the present study indicate that BDV infection has been present in the chamois population since at least 1990, 11 years before the first outbreak of disease. Therefore, the emergence of the disease in 2001 is apparently due to other factors rather than the introduction of a new virus in the chamois population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  1. The catazonal poly-metamorphic rocks of Cabo Ortegal (NW Spain), a structural and petrofabric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.P.

    1972-01-01

    The petrological study of the southern part of the Cabo Ortegal area is a complement of Vogel’s (1967) investigation of the northern half. The present investigations include a structural as well as a petrofabric study. The rocks belong to an eugeosynclinal sequence which during the Precambrian

  2. Experiences of University Life for Students with Asperger's Syndrome: A Comparative Study between Spain and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Sue; Carpio de los Pinos, Carmen; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that young people with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are likely to experience increased anxiety during new social situations; yet, studies have been regionally and culturally bound. The aim of this study was to explore how higher education students with AS experienced attending university in two European countries: the…

  3. ONS: an ontology for a standardized description of interventions and observational studies in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Lombardo, Rosario; Rivero, Damariz; Mattivi, Fulvio; Franceschi, Pietro; Bordoni, Alessandra; Trimigno, Alessia; Capozzi, Francesco; Felici, Giovanni; Taglino, Francesco; Miglietta, Franco; De Cock, Nathalie; Lachat, Carl; De Baets, Bernard; De Tré, Guy; Pinart, Mariona; Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias; Bouwman, Jildau; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2018-01-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research is one of its main strengths. At the same time, however, it presents a major obstacle to integrate data analysis, especially for the terminological and semantic interpretations that specific research fields or communities are used to. To date, a proper ontology to structure and formalize the concepts used for the description of nutritional studies is still lacking. We have developed the Ontology for Nutritional Studies (ONS) by harmonizing selected pre-existing de facto ontologies with novel health and nutritional terminology classifications. The ONS is the result of a scholarly consensus of 51 research centers in nine European countries. The ontology classes and relations are commonly encountered while conducting, storing, harmonizing, integrating, describing, and searching nutritional studies. The ONS facilitates the description and specification of complex nutritional studies as demonstrated with two application scenarios. The ONS is the first systematic effort to provide a solid and extensible formal ontology framework for nutritional studies. Integration of new information can be easily achieved by the addition of extra modules (i.e., nutrigenomics, metabolomics, nutrikinetics, and quality appraisal). The ONS provides a unified and standardized terminology for nutritional studies as a resource for nutrition researchers who might not necessarily be familiar with ontologies and standardization concepts.

  4. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO 2 emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO 2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy

  5. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Katherine [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Villalba, Gara, E-mail: gara.villalba@uab.es [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  6. Feasibility study of thermal water illumination in the area of Calnu sugar, Colonia Spain, Artigas department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Pena, S.; Cicalese, H.; Pacheco, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological study carried in Artigas department (Calnu sugar) with the proposal to determine the lighting chance on thermal water. By geophysical methods is possible to estimate the thickness and alluvial characteristics, sedimentary deposits, failures or alteration mantles. The results obtained allowed to determine the geometry, magnitude and relative depth of the body studied. The measured parameter is the apparent resistivity. This resistivity variation is measured by vertical electrical soundings

  7. Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: A pilot study at the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzun, R. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: oyarzun@geo.ucm.es; Higueras, P.; Esbri, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Geologica y Minera, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica de Almaden, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza M. Meca 1, 13400 Almaden (Spain); Pizarro, J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid (Spain). Hg (gas) emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. Plants that underwent insecticide treatment with HgCl{sub 2} at the MAF Herbarium until the mid 1970s have persistent high concentrations of Hg in the range 1093-11,967 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas untreated specimens are in the range of 1.2-4.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The first group induces high concentrations of Hg (gas) in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of 404-727 ng m{sup -3} (late winter) and 748-7797 ng m{sup -3} (early summer) (baseline for Hg: 8 ng m{sup -3}). A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg (gas) above 40,000 ng m{sup -3}. The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg (gas) are estimated at a maximum of 1000 ng m{sup -3}. While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl{sub 2} treated plants (the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned'), they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg (gas) concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.

  8. [Morbidity and mortality in newborns at the limit of viability in Spain: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; García Hernández, J A; Figueras Aloy, J

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal care in extremely immature newborns is a clinical and ethical problem of great importance for professionals and families, and requires that the available information on the chances of child survival is of the highest quality. The aim of this study was to determine the specific rates of survival at hospital discharge, and survival without major morbidity in newborns with a gestation age (GA) ≤ 26 weeks in Spain. We included live newborns ≤ 26 weeks admitted to the collaborating centers of the SEN1500 network (2004-2010). Out born patients, infants who died in delivery room, and those with congenital anomalies incompatible with life were excluded. A total of 3,236 patients were included. GA specific survival was 12.5, 13.1, 36.9, 55.7, and 71.9% at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks of GA, respectively. Survival without severe intracranial hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and/or retinopathy of prematurity was 1.5, 9.5, 19.0, and 29.9% at 23, 24, 25 and 26 weeks GA, respectively. Survival without major morbidity in infants less than 23 weeks GA is exceptional, and scarce in newborns with 23 and 24 weeks GA. Infants ≥ 25 weeks GA have reasonable chances of survival and, in the absence of major malformations or other relevant complications, should be offered active resuscitation and intensive care. The continuous updating of the results of individual centers is of utmost importance, as well as their comparison with the reference population-based results. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Related to Unemployment in Europe. A Cross-Sectional Study from the COURAGE Survey in Finland, Poland and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Leonardi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research addressing the impact of a large number of factors on unemployment is scarce. We aimed to comprehensively identify factors related to unemployment in a sample of persons aged 18–64 from Finland, Poland and Spain. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, factors from different areas were considered: socio-demographic indicators, health habits, chronic conditions, health state markers, vision and hearing indicators, and social networks and built environment scores. Results: Complete data were available for 5003 participants, mean age 48.1 (SD 11.5, 45.4% males. The most important factors connected to unemployment were health status indicators such as physical disability (OR = 2.944, self-rated health (OR = 2.629, inpatient care (OR = 1.980, and difficulties with getting to the toilet (OR = 2.040, while the most relevant factor related to employment were moderate alcohol consumption (OR = 0.732 for non-heavy drinkers; OR = 0.573 for infrequent heavy drinkers, and being married (OR = 0.734, or having been married (OR = 0.584. Other factors that played a significant role included presence of depression (OR = 1.384 and difficulties with near vision (OR = 1.584 and conversation hearing (OR = 1.597. Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of selected factors related to unemployment, and suggest public health indications that could support concrete actions on modifiable factors, such as those aimed to promote physical activity and healthy behaviors, tackling depression or promoting education, in particular for the younger.

  10. An approach for quantifying geomorphological impacts for EIA of transportation infrastructures: a case study in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonachea, Jaime; Bruschi, Viola Maria; Remondo, Juan; González-Díez, Alberto; Salas, Luis; Bertens, Jurjen; Cendrero, Antonio; Otero, César; Giusti, Cecilia; Fabbri, Andrea; González-Lastra, José Ramón; Aramburu, José María

    2005-03-01

    A methodological proposal for the assessment of impacts due to linear infrastructures such as motorways, railways, etc. is presented. The approach proposed includes a series of specific issues to be addressed for each geomorphological feature analysed—both 'static' and 'dynamic'—as well as a series of steps to be followed in the process. Geomorphic characteristics potentially affected were initially identified on the basis of a conceptual activities/impacts model that helps to single out geomorphic impacts related to environmental concerns for the area. The following issues were addressed for each individual impact: nature of potential effects; indicators that can be used to measure impacts; criteria of 'geomorphologic performance'; procedure for measurement/prediction of changes; translation of geomorphologic impacts into significant terms from the viewpoint of human concerns; possible mitigation and/or compensation measures. The procedure has been applied to a case study corresponding to a new motorway in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Geomorphological impacts considered in this analysis included: (1) consumable resources; (2) sites of geomorphological interest; (3) land units with high potential for use, high productivity or value for conservation; (4) visual landscape; (5) slope instability processes. The procedure has been designed for implementation in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Details are given on the application of the method to each individual impact analysed and results are presented in both numerical and map form. Impacts assessed were initially expressed by means of heterogeneous magnitudes, depending on the geomorphological feature considered. Those geomorphological impacts were then translated into significant terms and homogeneous magnitudes. Integration was carried out on the basis of impact values thus obtained. Final integrated results were also expressed in numerical and map form. The method proposed enables

  11. Studies of variability in response to UV in lymphocytes of people exposed to pesticides and reference group from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Panek, A.; Dyga, W.; Marcos, R.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides, which are appertained to a group of the modern agrochemicals, create a potential risk to the environment and human health. As a result of their dangerous action, DNA damage may be produced in the cell and as a consequence, may lead to the cancer. The aim of this study was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. The DNA damages and repair capacities of lymphocytes in four groups of people from various countries were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as the Comet assay. All groups of donors had a similar age, sex and occupation. The results from the analysis performed in the Spanish group are presented in this paper. Among the donors 44 of them belonged to the control and 49 belonged to the exposed to pesticides groups. Average age in the control group was 37.8 and in the exposed group 33,5. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. In the control group there were 66% smokers, 23% non-smokers and 11% were former smokers. In the group exposed to pesticides 51% were smokers, 45% non-smokers and 4% former smokers. Lymphocytes were collected in Spain, whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, then were transported in dry ice to Poland for DNA damage analysis. Part of the defrosted lymphocytes were tested for viability and presence of DNA damage. Results did not show statistically significant differences in the level of DNA damages between the control and the exposed to pesticides groups. Another part of defrosted lymphocytes was irradiated with 6 J/m 2 of UV-C and incubated for 2 hours with or without the presence of phytohemoglutinin (PHA). Comparison of the efficiency of the UV induced dimmers excision process did not indicate differences between these groups. However, lymphocytes from exposed to pesticides donors have shown a statistically lower repair rate than lymphocytes from unexposed group.(author)

  12. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-01-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. System description of the Basic MRS System for the FY 1990 Systems Integration Program studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1991-07-01

    This document provides both functional and physical descriptions of a conceptual high-level waste management system defined as a Basic MRS System. Its purpose is to provide a basis for required system computer modeling and system studies initiated in FY 1990 under the Systems Integration Program of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office (OCRWM). Two specific systems studies initiated in FY 1990, the Reference System Performance Evaluation and the Aggregate Receipt Rate Study, utilize the information in this document. The Basic MRS System is the current OCRWM reference high-level radioactive wastes repository system concept. It is designed to accept 3000 MTU per year of spent fuel and 400 equivalent MTU per year of high-level wastes. The Basic MRS System includes a storage-only MRS that provides for a limited amount of commercial spent fuel storage capacity prior to acceptance by the geologic repository for disposal. This document contains both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system and physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those processes. The basic MRS system contains all system components, from the waste storage facilities of the waste generators to the underground facilities for final disposal of the wastes. The major facilities in the system are the waste generator waste storage facilities, an MRS facility that provides interim storage wastes accepted from the waste generators, a repository facility that packages the wastes and then emplaces them in the geologic repository, and the transportation equipment and facilities for transporting the waste between these major facilities

  14. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  15. Bringing Headteachers' Voices to the Professional Development Debate: A Case Study from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, María J.; Martínez, María A.

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the existing knowledge about education and professional development in educational leadership by analysing the characteristics of "good" training programmes according to international theoretical frameworks and to educational leaders' views. To do so, 100 headteachers of infant, primary and secondary schools…

  16. Book Clubs: An Ethnographic Study of an Innovative Reading Practice in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The most innovative reading practices currently rely on the paradigm of dialogic reading. Book clubs, literary gatherings and study circles are emerging in different social spaces to promote reading and literary discussion amongst adults, and libraries, bookshops, cultural centres, etc. are increasingly developing strategies in this direction.…

  17. Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: A Study of Design Undergraduates in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubierna, Francisco; Arranz, Nieves; Fdez de Arroyabe, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the entrepreneurial intentions of university undergraduate students, with particular regard to those studying design. Attitudinal, social and capabilities variables are analysed in order to determine the profile of an entrepreneur. Using a sample of 521 undergraduate students, the findings show that design…

  18. ACCULTURATION AS A PREDICTOR OF HEALTH PROMOTING AND LIFESTYLE PRACTICES OF ARAB AMERICANS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadalla, Ahlam A; Hattar, Marianne; Schubert, Christiane C

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was done using the Acculturation Rating scale of Arab Americans-II, and the Health Promotion and Lifestyle Profile II to assess the relationship between acculturation and health promotion practices among Arab Americans. Findings showed that attraction to American culture was the most important predictor of physical activity; whereas attraction to Arabic culture was the most important predictor of stress management and nutritional practices. Results suggest that, when demographics are controlled, acculturation predicts various health promotion practices in different patterns among members of this group. These findings contribute to a better understanding of acculturation's influence on immigrants' health promotion practices.

  19. First epidemiological study of contact dermatitis in Spain - 1977. Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarasa, J M

    1979-01-01

    The present work is the first epidemiological study carried out by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group during 1977. During this year 2806 patients were studied with patch test among 30873 dermatological patients. The 60-62% of the totality had reactivity to one or more patches. Four major groups of allergens were able to consider, following the incidence in their power of sensitize. First group with strong incidence include: Nickel, Chromate, Cobalt, T.M.T.D.,P.P.D.A., Mercapto mix., and Wood tars. Second and third groups with medium incidence contain: Caines, Carbonates, Neomycin, Balsam of Peru, Mercury, Lanolin, Naphtyl mix., Formaldehyde, Benzalkonium chloride, P. P. D. A. mix, and Turpentine. Four group show very low incidence substances, as: Epoxi, Sulfonamides, Etilendiamine, Parabens, Chinoform, Colophony and Cinnamon oil. Few comments about age and occupations are included.

  20. A Study to Improve the Quality of Street Lighting in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Street lighting has a big impact on the energy consumption of Spanish municipalities. To decrease this consumption, the Spanish government has developed two different regulations to improve energy savings and efficiency, and consequently, reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. However, after these efforts, they have not obtained the expected results. To improve the effectiveness of these regulations and therefore to optimize energy consumption, a study has been done to analyze the different devices which influence energy consumption with the intention of better understanding their behavior and performance. The devices analyzed were lamps, ballasts, street lamp globes, control systems and dimmable lighting systems. To improve their performance, they have been analyzed from three points of view: changes in technology, use patterns and standards. Thanks to this study, some aspects have been found that could be taken into account if we really wanted to use energy efficiently.

  1. Epidemiology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in Spain: a unicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalihuitl Arroyo-Martínez

    Full Text Available Background: Barrett's esophagus (BE is an acquired disease defined by the presence of intestinal metaplasia with goblet cells in the distal esophagus. The prevalence of BE has increased dramatically over the last years. Aims: The primary aims of the study were to analyze the characteristics of BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC in a Spanish health district during a follow-up period. Methodology: Sociodemographic factors, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were analyzed. We also studied the histological behavior and cause of death in each group. Results: In the present study 430 patients were included, 338 with BE and 92 with EAC. Incidence rates have risen from 2.25 and 1.25 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996 to 6.5 and 4.75 per 100,000 in 2011, respectively. In the EAC group, male gender, age and alcohol consumption were higher in comparison to the BE group, and the overall survival was 23 months. In the BE group, the main causes of death were non-esophageal cancer and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The incidence and prevalence rates of AEC and BE have risen over the past years. Risk factors for these conditions were male gender, age and alcohol consumption. Long BE (> 3 cm is involved in dysplasia progression. AEC diagnosis mainly occurs after neoplasia is detected and, in a few cases, due to a previous BE. Cardiovascular diseases and non-esophageal cancers have been found to be the main cause of death in BE patients.

  2. A retrospective, descriptive study of shoulder outcomes in outpatient physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A Lynn; Lasheway, Philip A; Eaton, Wendy; Christensen, Frances

    2006-06-01

    A retrospective, descriptive study of clients with shoulder dysfunction referred to physical therapy. To (1) describe the clinical and functional outcomes of clients with shoulder dysfunction following outpatient physical therapy, and (2) to compare the outcomes by type of shoulder dysfunction. Although individuals with shoulder dysfunction are commonly referred to physical therapy few large descriptive studies regarding outcomes following physical therapy are available. Data for 878 clients (468 female, 410 male) were retrieved and analyzed. This database was developed between 1997 and 2000 and included 4 outpatient facilities from 1 healthcare system in the southwest corner of Michigan. Clients were classified by type of shoulder dysfunction, and standardized tests were performed upon admittance and discharge to physical therapy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated for all data. Of all clients, 55.1% had shoulder impingement, while 18.3% had postoperative repair, 8.9% had a frozen shoulder, 7.6% had a rotator cuff tear, 3.0% had shoulder instability, 2.1% were post fracture, and the remaining 4.9% had miscellaneous diagnoses. The average (+/-SD) age of the patients was 53.6 +/- 16.4 years, with an average (+/-SD) number of treatment sessions of 13.7 +/- 11.0. All groups showed significant changes following physical therapy intervention. Clients with diverse types of shoulder dysfunction demonstrated improvement in both clinical and functional measures at the conclusion of physical therapy, although it is not possible to determine whether these changes were due to the interventions or due to time. The type of shoulder dysfunction appears to affect the prognosis, thus expected outcomes should be based upon initial diagnosis and specific measures.

  3. Clinical audit of COPD patients requiring hospital admissions in Spain: AUDIPOC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pozo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: AUDIPOC is a nationwide clinical audit that describes the characteristics, interventions and outcomes of patients admitted to Spanish hospitals because of an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD, assessing the compliance of these parameters with current international guidelines. The present study describes hospital resources, hospital factors related to case recruitment variability, patients' characteristics, and adherence to guidelines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An organisational database was completed by all participant hospitals recording resources and organisation. Over an 8-week period 11,564 consecutive ECOPD admissions to 129 Spanish hospitals covering 70% of the Spanish population were prospectively identified. At hospital discharge, 5,178 patients (45% of eligible were finally included, and thus constituted the audited population. Audited patients were reassessed 90 days after admission for survival and readmission rates. A wide variability was observed in relation to most variables, hospital adherence to guidelines, and readmissions and death. Median inpatient mortality was 5% (across-hospital range 0-35%. Among discharged patients, 37% required readmission (0-62% and 6.5% died (0-35%. The overall mortality rate was 11.6% (0-50%. Hospital size and complexity and aspects related to hospital COPD awareness were significantly associated with case recruitment. Clinical management most often complied with diagnosis and treatment recommendations but rarely (<50% addressed guidance on healthy life-styles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The AUDIPOC study highlights the large across-hospital variability in resources and organization of hospitals, patient characteristics, process of care, and outcomes. The study also identifies resources and organizational characteristics associated with the admission of COPD cases, as well as aspects of daily clinical care amenable to improvement.

  4. The costs of stroke in Spain by aetiology: the CONOCES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, J; Álvarez-Sabín, J; Oliva, J; Becerra, V; Casado, M Á; Yébenes, M; González-Rojas, N; Arenillas, J F; Martínez-Zabaleta, M T; Rebollo, M; Lago, A; Segura, T; Castillo, J; Gállego, J; Jiménez-Martínez, C; López-Gastón, J I; Moniche, F; Casado-Naranjo, I; López-Fernández, J C; González-Rodríguez, C; Escribano, B; Masjuan, J

    2013-01-01

    Patients with stroke associated with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are a specific group, and their disease has a considerable social and economic impact. The primary objective of the CONOCES study, the protocol of which is presented here, is to compare the costs of stroke in NVAF patients to those of patients without NVAF in Spanish stroke units from a societal perspective. CONOCES is an epidemiological, observational, naturalistic, prospective, multicentre study of the cost of the illness in a sample of patients who have suffered a stroke and were admitted to a Spanish stroke unit. During a 12-month follow-up period, we record sociodemographic and clinical variables, score on the NIH stroke scale, level of disability, degree of functional dependency according to the modified Rankin scale, and use of healthcare resources (hospitalisation at the time of the first episode, readmissions, outpatient rehabilitation, orthotic and/or prosthetic material, medication for secondary prevention, medical check-ups, nursing care and formal social care services). Estimated monthly income, lost work productivity and health-related quality of life measured with the generic EQ-5D questionnaire are also recorded. We also administer a direct interview to the caregiver to determine loss of productivity, informal care, and caregiver burden. The CONOCES study will provide more in-depth information about the economic and clinical impact of stroke according to whether or not it is associated with NVAF. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Functions and values of hunting and its management in Spain: scientific studies on the hunting community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize information provided by some recent scientific studies in relation to the opinions, views and attitudes of Spanish hunters regarding hunting and its management. In particular, we discuss the different functions (economic, ecological and social that hunters attribute to hunting, as well as their moral judgements associated with the different motives for hunting. In addition, we explore how hunters value different game management tools (including predator control, releases of farm-reared animals and the regulation of hunting pressure, and we discuss how such valuations affect their decision-making. Finally, we assess potential future trends of hunting, as expressed by the hunters themselves.

  6. Modelling hydrological connectivity in burned areas. A case study from South of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; López-Vicente, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Overland flow connectivity depends on the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes as well as on the human footprint on the landscape. This study deals with the modelling of hydrological connectivity in a burned area with different levels of fire severity. Namely, the objectives are to: i) characterize and ii) modelling the pre- (PreF) and post-fire (PostF) scenarios, as well as iii) evaluate the effect of the vegetation changes due to the fire and the initial ...

  7. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  8. AULA-Advanced Virtual Reality Tool for the Assessment of Attention: Normative Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Yahaira; Diaz-Orueta, Unai; Cueto, Eduardo; Irazustabarrena, Paula; Banterla, Flavio; Climent, Gema

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the obtention of normative data for the AULA test, a virtual reality tool designed to evaluate attention problems, especially in children and adolescents. The normative sample comprised 1,272 participants (48.2% female) with an age range from 6 to 16 years (M = 10.25, SD = 2.83). The AULA test administered to them shows both visual and auditory stimuli, while randomized distractors of ecological nature appear progressively. Variables provided by AULA were clustered in different categories for their posterior analysis. Differences by age and gender were analyzed, resulting in 14 groups, 7 per sex group. Differences between visual and auditory attention were also obtained. Obtained normative data are relevant for the use of AULA for evaluating attention in Spanish children and adolescents in a more ecological way. Further studies will be needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of AULA to measure attention in different clinical populations. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 542-568). © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. DIACHRONIC RECONSTRUCTION OF LOST CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES. STUDY CASE OF THE MEDIEVAL WALL OF AVILA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodríguez-Gonzálvez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the fourth dimension into the geospatial data allows to generate a diachronic model of Cultural Heritage (CH assets, namely, a set of 3D models to represent it in various historical phases. This kind of reconstruction pursues a better understanding of the CH site/scenario, enriching the historical hypotheses as well as contributing to the conservation and decisionmaking process. Although the new geotechnologies have reduced the amount of fieldwork, the generation of 4D model implies the interpretation of heterogeneous historical information sources and their integration. However, this situation could reach a critical point when the study elements are no longer present. Their reconstruction will allow the digital preservation and maintenance of our culture. The main challenge is to harmonize the different historical and archaeological data sources available in relation with the current remains, to recover the lost CH assets with a high degree of reliability. This manuscript aims to examine the study case of a diachronic reconstruction by means of the use of the geotechnology Mobile Laser System (MLS and reverse engineering techniques for a lost urban CH element, the citadel or Alcázar Gate of Ávila. Within this aim, the derived product is evaluated in terms of the achieved accuracy to assess its suitability on the basis of constructive interpretations required to integrate the historical sources in relation to current remains and the surrounding.

  10. Association of tic disorders with poor academic performance in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Trejo, José; Ausín, Vanesa; Sáez, Sara; Delgado, Vanesa; Macarrón, Jesus; Cordero, José; Louis, Elan D; Kompoliti, Katie; Benito-León, Julián

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the association between tic disorders and poor academic performance in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in a randomly selected sample of mainstream school-aged children (aged 6-16 years). The sampling frame included different types of schools and educational levels. Children with poor academic performance (eg, repeating a grade, special needs), and tic disorders (defined based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria) were identified. Children with and without tics and children with and without poor academic performance were compared in terms of clinical features (ie, medical history and neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities), school, and environmental characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed using school performance (dependent variable) and tic disorders (independent variable), after adjusting for confounding variables. The study cohort comprised 1867 children (mean age, 10.9 + 2.9 years; 1007 males [53.9%]). Tics were present in 162 children (8.6%), and poor academic performance was noted in 223 (11.9%). Overall poor academic performance was associated with age (OR, 1.71; P family history of school dysfunction (OR, 2.43; P = .02) and was negatively associated with higher IQ score (OR, 0.90; P academic performance in our cohort. Early academic support and modification of environmental characteristics are needed for children at higher risk for school dysfunction, to enhance academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Utilization of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in pediatric patients with partial epilepsy in Spain. An observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo Campos, M; Carreño, M

    2009-01-01

    It is important to conduct studies on the utilization of new antiepileptic drugs in order to improve their use. Our objective is to describe the use patterns of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. Observational, cross-sectional, national study with 58 investigators that included 185 pediatric patients with partial epilepsy. We recorded prescription patterns, quality of life (QoL) using the QoL scale in childhood epilepsy (CAVE) and use of resources. 134 patients were under treatment with oxcarbazepine (72.4 %), with a mean dose of 22.3 mg/kg/day; standard deviation (SD): 8.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 20.9 to 23.7, and 51 (27.6%) with carbamazepine, mean dose of 14 mg/kg/day; SD: 6.2; 95 % CI: 12.3 to 15.8. A total of 19.4% and 21.6 %, respectively, followed multiple drug treatment. The mean scores on functional dimensions of CAVE were (out of 5): school attendance: 4.5; SD: 0.7; social relationships: 4.1; SD: 0.9, and autonomy: 3.9; SD: 1.9. Patients receiving multiple drug therapy had worse results in quality of life (p used in lower doses than recommended and the dosing is not adjusted for weight. Underdosing may lead to regimes of multiple drug therapy that should be reviewed individually.

  13. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Giannoccaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis.

  14. Factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in water allocation trading. A case study in southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoccaro, G.; Castillo, M.; Berbel, J.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to uncover the factors that influence farmers’ attitudes towards water allocation trading. In the study, we simulate two water availability scenarios, an average year and a drought year, in a contingent valuation experiment with 241 farmers. A survey was held in the spring of 2012 in the Guadalquivir and Almanzora River Basins. First, we estimated a multinomial logit model to determine the factors that influence farmers to decide to participate in our hypothetical market. We then analysed the structural and socio-economic factors determining the monetary value of traded water using Heckman’s two-step model. Our results indicate that those farmers who are more innovative and have had agricultural training show a higher willingness to participate in water trading. Additionally, low water-supply guarantee and appropriate information about seasonal water availability increase the probability of participation. Higher willingness to pay (WTP) for water is found in horticulture and among farmers who grow citrus and other permanent crops; lower water selling value (WTA) is found in farms with extensive annual crops and traditional olive groves. However, monetary values (WTP/WTA) are strongly dependent on the current cost of irrigation water services. While findings of this research seem to support the idea of diffusion innovation theory, the existence of ethical concerns that might influence farmers’ acceptance of irrigation water markets needs further analysis. (Author)

  15. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. Objectives: This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checklist was designed and validated for assessing nurses’ compliance with nursing process. A total of 300 nurses from various clinical settings of Tehran university of medical sciences were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including frequencies, Pearson correlation coefficient and independent samples t-tests. Results: The compliance rate of nursing process indicators was 79.71 ± 0.87. Mean compliance scores did not significantly differ by education level and gender. However, overall compliance scores were correlated with nurses’ age (r = 0.26, P = 0.001) and work experience (r = 0.273, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Nursing process indicators can be used to audit nursing care. Such audits can be used as quality assurance tools. PMID:26576448

  17. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-09-01

    Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checklist was designed and validated for assessing nurses' compliance with nursing process. A total of 300 nurses from various clinical settings of Tehran university of medical sciences were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including frequencies, Pearson correlation coefficient and independent samples t-tests. The compliance rate of nursing process indicators was 79.71 ± 0.87. Mean compliance scores did not significantly differ by education level and gender. However, overall compliance scores were correlated with nurses' age (r = 0.26, P = 0.001) and work experience (r = 0.273, P = 0.001). Nursing process indicators can be used to audit nursing care. Such audits can be used as quality assurance tools.

  18. Mentoring future engineers in higher education: a descriptive study using a developed conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlington Agholor

    Full Text Available Abstract Mentoring research is recent and multidisciplinary and is found in mostly English speaking cultural contexts. The purpose of this study is to describe a fifty-year old mentoring practice involving faculty-mentors and engineering student-mentees, at the school of engineering of a Spanish university, a non-English speaking context. Mentoring is part of the process of developing the career of the engineering students. For this description, we first developed a more complete conceptual framework of mentoring from literature, identifying the key elements or components. The description of each element in the mentoring practice at the study setting was obtained from archival documents, records, observations and interviews of faculty-mentors and student-mentees. The usefulness of the framework is thereby tested and areas for improvement of the mentoring practice are identified. In addition, this study extends mentoring research into the Spanish speaking European culture and highlights a mentoring experience that could be replicated in other universities. We provide a definition of mentoring that is based on the mentoring experience and practice at the institution given the lack of a generally accepted definition of mentoring.

  19. Professionals' perception of intimate partner violence in young people: a qualitative study in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquibar, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-07-20

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it. Twelve professionals from education, health and municipal social services were interviewed. All but one of the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the methodology of inductive thematic analysis, with the support of Atlas.ti software. The transcripts were read several times and coded line by line. Afterwards, codes were grouped into themes. The developed themes were refined into two phases with the participation of all the authors. From the analysis, the following three themes were identified: "A false sense of gender equity", "IPV among young people: subtle, daily and normalized", and "Mass media campaigns do not fit young people's needs". According to the participants, psychological abuse in the form of controlling behaviour by their partners is the most common type of IPV young women are exposed to, although exposure to other types of IPV was also acknowledged. This violence was described as something subtle, daily and normalized and, consequently, not something that is easy to recognize for the girls that are exposed to it, nor for adults working with young people. The study participants showed good knowledge of the characteristics IPV has among young people. This knowledge was reflected in locally implemented IPV prevention projects, which they considered successful in addressing young

  20. Bereaved relatives' decision about deceased organ donation: An integrated psycho-social study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge S; Martínez, José M; Soria-Oliver, María; Aramayona, Begoña; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martín, María J; Almendros, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    Family refusal to organ donation of a deceased relative represents one of the most important barriers to organ transplantation. Although a large literature about family decisions has amassed, the existing evidence needs further integration and structuring. This study seeks to analyse relationships between bereaved relatives' decisions and a wide range of factors that converge in the family decision process, including interactions and complex relationship patterns, and taking psychosocial theoretical frameworks as reference to conceptualize empirical findings. This observational study examined 16 Spanish hospitals during a 36-month period. Transplant coordination teams collected data of 421 cases of family decision processes about donation (338 donations/83 refusals) through a previously validated instrument. Indicators of the following factors were collected: deceased's characteristics; circumstances of death; bereaved relatives' characteristics, beliefs, and expressions; behaviour of health and coordination staff; and family's emotional responses. Three global hypotheses related to bivariate and multivariate relations of factors with family decisions and relationships/interactions among factors were tested. Relatives' beliefs about the deceased's wishes concerning donation are the strongest predictor of family decisions. However, family decisions are also related to the deceased's characteristics, relatives' characteristics, satisfaction with medical attention, satisfaction with personal treatment and relatives' emotional responses, and other factors. Relatives' emotional reactions are related to satisfaction with health-staff interventions and condition family decision, even if deceased's will concerning donation is known and positive. Relatives' beliefs about deceased's wishes concerning donation vary as a function of deceased's characteristics and according to relatives' characteristics. Understanding of family decisions underlying organ donation may greatly

  1. Geotechnical zoning of urban foundations: Avilés case study (N Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; López-Fernández, Carlos; Pando, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a geotechnical evaluation of the underground within an urban setting in relation to types of foundations, and particularly at expansion zones. The ultimate aim is to produce a foundation zonation map at the scale 1:10,000. Furthermore, a general methodology that way be extrapolated to other cities is proposed. This work focused on the city of Aviles like a case study; a medium-sized city which has significant industrial and port areas and singular equipment in its surroundings. This city is located in the Spanish north coast and spread out on both flanks of the Avilés stuary. This means that there are an important development of recent deposits that implies different geotechnical units with a highly variable behavior, generally poor. In contrast, the bedrock is more homogenous, formed by Permo-Triassic red clay and marl. Locally there are also outcrops of carbonates and conglomeratic Jurassic levels. Also, on the whole area is important to note the presence of heterogeneous anthropic deposits along the whole area as a consequence, mainly, of an intense industrial activity. Permo-Triassic clayey and marly materials imply special engineering issues in foundations as a consequence of their composition (likely weathering, presence of gypsum, low bearing capacity). Moreover, recent deposits (marine and alluvial origin) show different geotechnical behaviors depending on their geometry and grain size. Hence, many areas of the city are especially problematic when designing and implementing foundations. The methodology followed in this study consisted in elaborating a geological-geotechnical exhaustive survey of the urban underground on a scale of 1/10.000. Based on this, a multi criteria analysis of the identified geotechnical units was carried out taking into consideration all the lithological, geomorphological, hidrogeological and geotechnical aspects. Taken into account all of these criteria, a number of areas are defined based

  2. MiSight Assessment Study Spain (MASS). A 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pomeda, Alicia; Pérez-Sánchez, Belén; Valls, Isabel; Prieto-Garrido, Francisco Luis; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón; Villa-Collar, César

    2018-05-01

    To compare myopia progression in children randomized to MiSight contact lenses (CLs) versus children corrected with single-vision spectacles (SV) over a 2-year period. Subjects aged 8 to 12 with myopia (-0.75 to -4.00 D sphere) and astigmatism (< -1.00 D cylinder) were assigned to the lens study group (MiSight) or the control group (single vision). Measurements of visual acuity and subjective refraction were taken at 6-month intervals, and axial length, anterior chamber, corneal power, and cycloplegic autorefraction were measured at the baseline, 12-month, and 24-month visits. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Forty-fix children were assigned to the MiSight group, and 33 to the single-vision spectacle group. In total, 74 children completed the clinical trial, with the following parameters at the beginning of the study: n =  41 in the MiSight group (age: 11.01 ± 1.23 years, spherical equivalent: -2.16 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 21, female: 20) and n = 33 in the single-vision group (age: 10.12 ± 1.38 years, spherical equivalent: -1.75 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 12, female: 21). After 2 years of follow-up, myopia progressed slowly in the MiSight group compared to the control group (0.45 D vs 0.74 D, p < 0.001) and there was less axial elongation in the MiSight group compared to the single-vision group (0.28 mm vs 0.44 mm, p < 0.001). Therefore, use of MiSight CLs produced lower myopia progression (39.32%) and lower axial growth of the eye (36.04%) at 2 years compared to spectacle use. MiSight contact lens wear reduces axial elongation and myopia progression in comparison to distance single-vision spectacles in children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01917110.

  3. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  4. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  5. Evaluation of coastal management: Study case in the province of Alicante, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, A; Aragonés, L; López, I

    2016-12-01

    The beaches are complex systems that can be studied from different points of view and meet more than a mission to protect the coast. Their management consists of assigning solutions to problems and for this to be correct all factors involved have to be taken into account. In order to understand how management is done on the coast of the province of Alicante, surveys have been conducted among the managers of the 19 coastal municipalities of Alicante coast, covering the 91 beaches. The aim of the surveys is to try to know the problems and situations relating to the management, depending on different factors such as the level of urbanization and type of sediment. In addition, it has been investigated whether this management is aimed to protect the coastline, maintain the flora and fauna or is just a recreational management since the main economic activity is tourism. The beaches are conceived of as products offered to the user, which is what most concerns its economic importance in an area where the sun and beach tourism has a special share of the GDP. The ignorance as to the major problems regarding their physical functioning and the inability to solve them is due to a complex administrative system with which the coastal system is regulated inefficiently. The integral approach is essential for a complete and effective management of the coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  7. Clinical responsibility, accountability, and risk aversion in mental health nursing: a descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jenni; Crowe, Marie

    2014-08-01

    A number of recent, highly-publicized, perceived health-care service failures have raised concerns about health professionals' accountabilities. Relevant to these concerns, the present study sought to examine how mental health nurses understood clinical responsibility and its impact on their practice. A descriptive, qualitative design was used, and a convenience sample of 10 mental health nurses was recruited from specialist inpatient and outpatient mental health settings in Canterbury, New Zealand. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, and the transcriptions were analysed using an inductive, descriptive approach. Three major themes were identified: being accountable, fostering patient responsibility, and shifting responsibility. Being accountable involved weighing up patients' therapeutic needs against the potential for blame in an organizational culture of risk management. Fostering patient responsibility described the process of deciding in what situations patients could take responsibility for their behaviour. Shifting responsibility described the culture of defensive practice fostered by the organizational culture of risk aversion. The present study highlighted the challenges mental health nurses experience in relation to clinical responsibility in practice, including the balancing required between the needs of patients, the needs of the organization, and the perceived need for self-protection. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. A core competency model for Chinese baccalaureate nursing graduates: a descriptive correlational study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang Yu; Zhao, Rong Rong; Liu, Yi Si; Wu, Ying; Jin, Ning Ning; Li, Rui Ying; Shi, Shu Ping; Shao, Yue Ying; Guo, Ming; Arthur, David; Elliott, Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    A review of the literature showed that the core competencies needed by newly graduated Chinese nurses were not as of yet undocumented. To develop a psychometrically sound instrument for identifying and measuring the core competencies needed by Chinese nursing baccalaureate graduates. Descriptive correlational and multicentre study. Seven major tertiary teaching hospitals and three major medical universities in Beijing. 790 subjects, including patients, nursing faculty members, doctors and nurses. A reliable and valid self-report instrument, consisting of 58 items, was developed using multiple methods. It was then distributed to 790 subjects to measure nursing competency in a broader Chinese context. The psychometric characteristics of reliability and validity were supported by descriptive and inferential analyses. The final instrument consists of six dimensions with 47 items. The content validity index was 0.90. The overall scale reliability was 0.97 with dimensions range from 0.87 to 0.94. Six domains of core competencies were identified: professionalism; direct care; support and communication; application of professional knowledge; personal traits; and critical thinking and innovation. The findings of this study provide valuable evidence for a psychometrically sound measurement tool, as well as for competency-based nursing curriculum reform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Baccalaureate nursing students' perspectives on learning about caring in China: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Li, Jiping; Liang, Hongmin; Bai, Yangjuan; Song, Jianhua

    2014-03-04

    The need to provide humanistic care in the contemporary healthcare system is more imperative now and the importance of cultivating caring in nursing education is urgent. Caring as the primary work of nursing has been discussed extensively, such as the meaning of caring, and teaching and learning strategies to improve nursing students' caring ability. Yet attempts to understand students' perspectives on learning about caring and to know their learning needs are seldom presented. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the baccalaureate nursing students' perspectives on learning about caring in China. A qualitative descriptive study using focus group interviews were undertaken in two colleges in Yunnan Province, China from February 2010 to April 2010. Purposeful sampling of 20 baccalaureate nursing students were recruited. Content analysis of the transcribed data was adopted to identify the themes. Four categories with some sub-categories related to students' perspectives on learning about caring were identified from the data: 1) Learning caring by role model; 2) conducive learning environment as the incentive to the learning about caring; 3) lack of directive substantive way of learning as the hindrance to the learning about caring; 4) lack of cultural competency as the barrier to the learning about caring. Both caring and uncaring experiences can promote the learning about caring in a way of reflective practice. The formal, informal and hidden curricula play an important role in the learning about caring. Cultural awareness, sensitivity and humility are important in the process of learning to care in a multicultural area.

  10. Loyalty and Disavowal in Holy Qur’an Descriptive linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kanani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the meaning of loyalty and disavowal from linguistic point of view, between the views of linguists, and the exegetes in the Lexicons and exegeses with analysis and debate. First of all, the researcher Indicates definition of loyalty as stated in the dictionaries, with bringing the examples from the Holy Qur’an and the views of the commentators about this issue, then analysis and discussion. Second, he defines Disavowal in the language, with a point of view from linguists, and interpreters, by analyzing and discussion the examples from the Noble Qur’an. Finally, it illustrates the application of the legal and practical concept of loyalty and disavowal, to enhance the significance of language. The importance of the current study is- according to researcher’s information- due to its doctrinal and sociological matter and nobody precede such a linguistic study of Loyalty. This research approaches the issue, using the method of descriptive and analytical, based on the description and analysis of the phenomenon.

  11. Family presence during resuscitation: A descriptive study with Iranian nurses and patients' family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zali, Mahnaz; Hassankhani, Hadi; Powers, Kelly A; Dadashzadeh, Abbas; Rajaei Ghafouri, Rouzbeh

    2017-09-01

    Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) has advantages for the patients' family member to be present at the bedside. However, FPDR is not regularly practiced by nurses, especially in low to middle income countries. The purpose of this study was to determine Iranian nurses' and family members' attitudes towards FPDR. In a descriptive study, data was collected from the random sample of 178 nurses and 136 family members in four hospitals located in Iran. A 27-item questionnaire was used to collect data on attitudes towards FPDR, and descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Of family members, particularly the women, 57.2% (n=78) felt it is their right to experience FPDR and that it has many advantages for the family; including the ability to see that everything was done and worry less. However, 62.5% (n=111) of the nurses disagreed with an adult implementation of FPDR. Nurses perceived FPDR to have many disadvantages. Family members becoming distressed and interfering with the patient which may prolong the resuscitation effort. Nurses with prior education on FPDR were more willing to implement it. FPDR was desired by the majority of family members. To meet their needs, it is important to improve Iranian nurses' views about the advantages of the implementation of FPDR. Education on FPDR is recommended to improve Iranian nurses' views about the advantages of the implementation of FPDR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health complaints among nurses working near MRI scanners-A descriptive pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, Jonna; Vocht, Frank de

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire-based descriptive pilot study was conducted among all nurses routinely working with MRI in the Northern part of Sweden to provide an indication of the self-reported prevalence of health complaints related to working with MRI systems. Fifty-nine nurses (88% response rate), with on average 8 (±6) years experience with MRI scanning procedures, returned the questionnaire. In total, 9 nurses (15%) reported regularly experiencing at least one of the health complaints (1-5% for specific health complaints) attributed to arise or be aggravated by their presence in the MRI scanning room. Stratification of the results indicated that reporting of adverse symptoms was not related to the level of occupational workload/stress. However, reporting of health complaints was related to the strength of the magnet(s) the nurses worked with, with 57% of symptoms reported by those nurses working with the strongest systems (both 1.5 and 3 T scanners in this population). Although this descriptive study did not include a control population and was based on self-reporting of health complaints, these data indicate that the prevalence of reported health complaints is not related to perceived work load or occupational stress, but does confirm data from other occupational sectors and indicates that the prevalence of adverse health complaints increases with the strength of the MRI system for nurses as well.

  13. Renewable energy research 1995–2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Garcia- Zorita, J. Carlos; Serrano-López, Antonio Eleazar

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995–2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles as well as conference proceeding papers...... terms to map knowledge export areas. Findings show an increase in citation impact for Renewable Energy and Wind Power research albeit hampered by scarcely cited conference papers. Although EU maintains its global top position in producing Renewable Energy and Wind Power research the developments of EU...... Wind Power research are EU-self citations. An expected intensified EU collaboration in the Wind Energy field does not come about. The most productive research institutions in Denmark and Spain are also the most cited ones....

  14. Renewable energy research 1995-2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Casado, Elías; García Zorita, Carlos; Serrano-López, Antonio Eleazar; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995&-2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles as well as conference proceeding papers. Scientometric indicators include publication collaboration ratios, top-player distribution as well as citedness and correspondence analy...

  15. ‘Agrofood local productive systems’ (ALPS): a case study of Castilla y León, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Juste Carrión

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe agrofood industry in Spain has undergone a deep transformation during the last two decades and the acceleration of technological innovation and economic globalization processes are impelling a complex process of productive restructuration within all industrial activities – which has provoked a noticeable increase in the requirements of flexibility and competitiveness for food and drink manufacturers Trends towards a gradual fragmentation of the market, due to the progressive p...

  16. A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacal, M.; Herrero, T.; Rodriguez, V.; Alberruche, E.; Vadillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

  17. The Social Situation of Immigrant Farm Workers : A Comparative Study between Spain and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Izcara Palacios, Simón Pedro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Sawauchi, Daisuke; Sajiki, Takahiro; Demura, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In Spain and in the United States domestic farm laborers are not available in sufficient numbers during peak harvest seasons. Therefore, intensive farm production has a dependence on immigrant workers, mainly laborers who lack proper documentation to legally reside or work. Moreover increases in the labor supply, prompted by continued unauthorized entries and employment has adversely affected the wages and working conditions in the farming sector, speeding the exit of local workers from agric...

  18. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2016-07-01

    nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042-1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334.

  19. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. Methods We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission) rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr), the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive. Results Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%), followed by Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) (20.09%). The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout) (25.81%), poisoning/intoxication (24.69%), and other traumas (18.14%). The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the ‘other traumas’ category (58.08%). Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%). The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout) category (99.20%). Conclusions This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation

  20. To Internationalize or Not to Internationalize? A Descriptive Study of a Brazilian Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the failed internationalization experience of a Brazilian high-tech startup. The research methodology of the study is descriptive and aims to explore whether this startup should re-internationalize, despite an unsuccessful first experience. Based on interviews with the founders, it was found that the initial internationalization took place in an incipient way, in the heat of the moment. The lack of success with the initial internationalization did not shake the directors of the startup, who aim to return to internationalization, now in a consolidated way and counting on the advice of an investor. Despite its bitter first experience, should the startup try again? Through an analysis of the lessons learned from the startup’s initial failure and insights from its consideration of a possible second attempt, this study contributes to the literature on competitiveness, internationalization, and international entrepreneurship.

  1. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  2. A humanbecoming qualitative descriptive study on quality of life with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Quality of life is a universal living experience and is significant for older adults living in long-term residential care facilities. The purposes of this research study were to: explicate the experience of quality of life for older adults, contribute to the understanding of quality of life for older adults and to nursing's extant body of knowledge by enhancing humanbecoming. Humanbecoming was selected as the theoretical perspective for the qualitative descriptive exploratory method study with 10 volunteers living in the same long-term residential care facility in Singapore. Findings showed that: quality of life is fortifying tranquillity amid potential turbulence with the gratifying engagements of diverse affiliations, as envisioning possibilities arise with discordant constraints. The findings of this study have made a significant contribution to the phenomenon - quality of life both in terms of older adults living in nursing homes and from a Singaporean context.

  3. Experiences of Patients Living With Heart Failure: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Alvin Chuen Wei; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Huang Gan, Juvena Chew; Wang, Wenru

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, needs, and coping strategies of patients living with heart failure in Singapore. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of 15 informants was recruited from two cardiology wards of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a semistructured interview guideline that was developed based on a review of the literature and a pilot study. Content analysis was adopted to analyze the data, and four main categories were identified: perceived causes, manifestations, and prognosis; enduring emotions; managing the condition; and needs from health care professionals. The informants were overwhelmed with the experience of living with heart failure due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of the condition. This study offers health care professionals practical and useful suggestions when providing holistic care for patients with heart failure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. South Korean Family Caregiver Involvement in Delirium Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to describe the effect of an educational program on RN-initiated efforts to involve family caregivers in delirium care. A descriptive qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 12 RNs who participated in a one group, pre-post evaluation of a delirium educational program, and a nominated sample of six family caregivers of patients who had been cared for by RNs in the program participated in individual, in-depth interviews. The qualitative findings indicated that the inclusion of a delirium brochure in ward orientation on admission, with reinforcement during shift changes, and RN-initiated engagement with family caregivers promoted family caregiver involvement in delirium prevention. Further studies in South Korea are needed to determine which family-centered nursing care interventions are culturally appropriate and most effective for RNs and family caregivers in delirium care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(12), 44-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPOSED TO THE RISK OF THE SOVEREIGN DEBT CRISIS. CASE STUDY: SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iulica, MIHAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis, intensely debated, started almost six years ago, subjected the EU to new resistance tests because of the macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro Zone, generated by the increase of sovereign debts, especially in the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain. The situation has degenerated because of the lack of legal leverages through which the member countries should be forced to correct the fiscal imbalances and to meet the macroeconomic convergence criteria imposed. The Treaty on Fiscal Governance in the EU, signed on 2 March 2012, appears to be the key to the macroeconomic recovery in the Euro Zone, due to the more severe budgetary discipline it imposes. This paper, by means of deductive analysis and causal explanations, outlines the current economic situation of the Euro Zone, under the impact of the member countries’ sovereign debt crisis, focusing on Spain and Portugal. In addition to reliable statistics, the paper also presents the EU’s economic recovery strategy that anticipates its future. Unfortunately, the perspective of the Euro Zone is still in a fairly high degree of uncertainty, strongly influenced by the economic development of the member countries and by solving the problems they face. Spain and Portugal are the actual example.

  6. Injuries in Portuguese Amateur Youth Football Players: A Six Month Prospective Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Miguel; Laiginhas, Rita; Ramos, José; Costa, Ovídio

    2017-12-29

    This study analyzed the incidence and characteristics of injuries sustained by amateur youth football players in Portugal during season 2015 - 2016. This is an observational descriptive study. We analyzed Portuguese youth football players' injuries over six months of a season. A total of 529 players were divided according to their age in two groups (Under-17 and Under-19). Data on injuries were collected. Throughout all 62 062.0 hours of exposure recorded, 248 injuries were reported in 173 different players. The average incidence of injury was 3.87 (95% CI = 2.81; 4.94) per 1000 hours of football exposure. There was a significantly higher average incidence of injury during matches - 14.22 (95% CI = 10.35; 18.09) per 1000 hours of exposure - when compared to the average incidence of injury during training - 2.06 (95% CI = 1.22; 2.90) per 1000 hours of exposure. This significance was also observed when the comparison was made within each age group. A traumatic mechanism was involved in 76.6% of all the injuries, while overuse was reported in 12.9%. The most common type was the injury that affected muscles and tendons (52.8%). The body location most commonly affected by injuries was the thigh (24.6%). Even though is essential a better characterization of Portuguese athletes of younger age groups such as those discussed in this study, the results of the studied population are in agreement with the existing literature. However, this study provides more information that may be important to better target the Portuguese athletes' training for injury prevention. This study provides descriptive data on injuries developed in a subpopulation of Portuguese amateur youth football players that could represent a focus for future prevention.

  7. FTIR microspectroscopy and SIMS study of water-poor cordierite from El Hoyazo, Spain: Application to mineral and melt devolatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cesare, Bernardo; Harley, Simon; Piccinini, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the microchemical and microspectroscopic FTIR study of cordierite from a partially melted graphite-bearing granulitic enclave within the dacitic lava dome of El Hoyazo (SE Spain). Optically transparent single-crystals, hand picked from the rock, were oriented using X-ray diffraction and studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Single-crystal FTIR spectroscopy shows that the examined cordierite is CO 2-rich and almost H 2O-free. Two weak and sharp peaks are observed at 3708 and 3595 cm - 1 , respectively, which are strongly polarised for E // a. These peaks are assigned to combination modes of CO 2. Very weak bands due to H 2O molecules oriented with the H…H vector // c (type I water) are occasionally observed in certain zones of the grains, associated with absorptions due to hydrated inclusions of alteration products. The very intense bands observed in the 2600-2000 cm - 1 region are assigned to CO 2 molecules oriented // a; the spectra also show the presence of 13C and 18O, and weak amounts of CO in the sample. Microspectrometric mapping shows that the distribution of C is relatively homogeneous, whereas that of H 2O is complicated by a very broad absorption extending from 3700 to 3100 cm - 1 . High-resolution FTIR imaging, done using a focal-plane array of detectors, shows that this broad absorption is associated with microfractures. SIMS analyses give an average concentration of H 2O = 0.033 ± 0.007 wt.% and CO 2 = 0.21 ± 0.07 wt.%. On the basis of these data, molar absorption coefficients can be calibrated for CO 2: ɛiCO2 (integrated) = 11,000 ± 4000 l/(mol cm - 2 ) and ɛlCO2 (linear) = 800 ± 250 l/(mol cm - 1 ). Due to the extremely low amount of H 2O and its inhomogeneous distribution, calibration of absorption ɛH2O coefficients is unreliable. The very low H 2O contents in the El Hoyazo cordierite indicate continued mineral-melt volatile exchange during decompression from ˜ 5 kbar to significantly shallower levels.

  8. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2018-02-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatr

  9. Study on some risk factors and effects of bovine ketosis on dairy cows from the Galicia region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, C; Fouz, R; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to determine the relation between β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in milk from dairy cows after calving and the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized production, and to assess the influence of BHB concentrations on culling and test-day milk productions and somatic cell counts (SCC) throughout the lactation that followed the BHB measurement. The data used in the study were obtained from 59 187 cows in the Galicia region (Spain). BHB determination was performed using Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry from the milk samples collected from each cow on the first post-partum test day. For statistical analysis, the following methods were applied: (i) ordinal regression to assess the effect of the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized milk production on milk BHB, (ii) a Cox model to estimate the influence of the BHB concentration on risk of culling (overall and for a variety of reasons) and (iii) linear regression to assess the link between BHB and the milk yield and SCC obtained from each of the tests day performed throughout lactation. The probability of having higher BHB concentrations increased when the length of the previous lactation (p = 0.006), the dry period (p = 0.003) and the 305-day normalized milk yield (p = 0.005) increased. However, the slight increase observed (especially for the case of the dry period and the 305-day milk yield) would not justify that measures be implemented to reduce these traits. Higher concentrations of BHB led to an increased risk of culling due to 'death' (p ≤ 0.001) and 'urgent slaughter' (p ≤ 0.002) (both causes of involuntary culling). It also led to a reduction in milk production (p < 0.001) and an increase in SCC (p < 0.001) in the post-partum; from that moment onward (including peak lactation), there were no differences in those two parameters depending on the BHB levels. Journal of Animal

  10. Mathematical knowledge for teaching: Adding to the description through a study of probability in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Kazima

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In their description of the mathematical work of teaching, Ball,  Bass & Hill (2004 describe the mathematical problem solving that teachers do as they go about their work. In this paper we add to this description through our study of teaching of probability in a grade 8 multilingual classroom in South Africa. We use instances of teaching to highlight the mathematical problem solving that teachers might face as they work with learners’ ideas, both expected and unexpected. We discuss  the restructuring of tasks as an inevitable feature of teachers’ work, and argue that in addition to scaling up or scaling down of the task as Ball et al. (2004 describe, restructuring can also entail shifting the mathematical outcomes from those intended. We also point out how well known issues in mathematics education, for example working with learners’ everyday knowledge, and the languages they bring to class, are highlighted by the context of probability, enabling additional insights into the mathematical work of teaching.

  11. [DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF DRUGS OF ABUSE IN THE COMPLEJO HOSPITALARIO DE JAEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Carrillo, José; Martínez Cañamero, Antonio; Martín Alcaide, Martín Ángel; Caño Garrido, Rosa; Nieto Martos, Manuela; Díaz Barranco, Ángeles

    2014-12-01

    Drugs is, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), any substance introduced into a living organism by any route is capable of acting on the central nervous system. For decades, drug abuse has increased in the population of our country but not all drugs are an illegal drug. The overall objective is the description of testing for drugs of abuse, and their distribution, as they were made in the Hospital Médico-Quirúrgico (HMQ) and Neurotraumatológico (HNT) of the Hospital of Jaén, in 2012. Secondary objectives analyzed the differences in the tests as variables: sex, months of the year and age of the subject (patient). We carry a description of differences by type of drug and associations of two, three, four or five drugs at once and finally, we study differences detected by drug or therapeutic use is illegal (of abuse). The results indicate a positive per 300 inhabitants, mostly men, adults and Hospital Neurotraumatológico. The most commonly detected drugs are benzodiazepines, alone or in association with cannabis.

  12. Assessment the Relationship Between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present children are the investments of community in the future. Preparing children health which leads to the stability of community health, provided to accurate implementation of educational and health programs in the community and especially in mothers. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between parents' literacy  with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24-month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS 16. Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (p

  13. Assessment the Relationship between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: